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»T. iOllli's MliUllv LO!«nO!«. 






Helicon — Introduction of Mahomedanism — How far ita Teneta and 
Doctrinw are obterved — Priwta^How provided for — How far the 
ancient Iniititutions of the Country are superseded — Antiquities— 
Edifice s The Temples of Brambinan — B6ro B6do— Gdnung Prihu 
— Kediri — Sing*a S4ri, Sdku, &c. — Sculpture — Images in Stone — 
Casts in Metal — Inscriptions on Stone and Copper — Coins— Ruins 
of the ancient Capitals at M^dang Kamdlan, Majap^hit, Fajajiran, 
dec. — Island of B41i — Conclusion 1 


The History of Java from the earliest Traditions till the establish- 
ment of Mahomedanism 69 


History of Java from the establishment of Mahomedanism (A. J. 
UOO) till the arrival of the British Forces in A.D. 1811, (A. J^ 
1738.) — ♦.^ 147 

of Mahoroedan Sovereigns of Java 254 

Chronological Table of Events 255 

Aecoont of the several principal Divisions of Java and Madura. . • • •« 265 


A Unheahhiness of Batavia. i 

B. Account of the Japan Trade xvii 

C. Translation of a modem Version of the Suria Alem xxxviii 

D. Proclamation of the Governor General, and Regulation 

passed by the Hon. the Lieutenant Governor in Council 
for the more effectual Admimstration of Justice in the 
Plrovtndal Courta of Java liv 


E. A comparative Vocabulary of the Milayu, Javan, Madurese. 

Bali, and Lampung Languaget Izxvii 

— Extract from the Dana N4ma Ixxiz 

— Comparative Vocabulary of the Sanskrit, Kawi, and PaU • . Ixxx 

— Vocabulary of Kawi Words, with the Meaning attached to 

them, by the Panambahan of Sumenap Ixxxi 

— Specimen of the mystical Meaning attached to the LetterH 

of the Alpha1)et, &c. according to the Interpretation of 

the Panambahan of Sumenap Ixxxii 

F. Account of the Island of Celebes ^ Ixxxr 

— Comparative Vocabulary of the Bugis, Makisar, Mandhar, 

Buton, Sasak, Bima, Sembiwa, Tembora, and Ende 
Languages cv 

— Comparative Vocabulary of the Gimung Tilu, Menadu, 

Temati, Sang'i, Sirang or Ceram, and Sapama Lan- 
guages ^ crii 

G. Ntmierals according to the Chandra Sangklik. cix 

H. Translation of the Manek Maya cxii 

I. Translations of Inscriptions in the ancient Ja^'an or Kiwi 

Character • cxxvii 

K. Account of the Island of Bili cxxxviii 

L. Proclamation declaring the Principles of the intended Change 

of System czlviii 

<— Revenue Instructions cli 

M. Memorandum res{)ecting Weights, Measures, &c. ........ cxlr 





Religion — Introduction to Mahomedanism — How far its Tenets and Doctrines 
are observed — Priests — How provided for — How far the ancient Institu- 
tions of the Country are superseded — Antiquities — Edifices — The Temples 
at Brambdnan — B6ro Bodo- — Gunung Prdhu — Kediri, Sing*a Sdri, Suku, 
^c. — Sculpture — Images in Stone — Casts in Metal — Inscriptions on Stone 
and Copper — Coins — Ruins of the ancient Capitals at M^dang Kam^Uan, 
Majapdhit, Pajajdran, ^c. — Island of Bdli — Conclusion. 

It has already been stated, that the established religion of 
the country is that of Mahomed. The earliest allusion to 
this faith made in the Javan annals is in the twelfth centiuy 
of the Javan era (A.D. 1250), when an imsuccessful attempt 
appears to have been made to convert some of the SUnda 
princes *. Towards the close of the fourteenth century, 
several missionaries established themselves in the eastern 
provinces ; and according to the Javan annals, and the uni- 
versal tradition of the coimtry, it was in the first year of the 
fifteenth century of the Javan era, or about the year of our 
Lord 1475, that the Hindu empire of Majapdhity then 
supreme on the island, was overthrown, and the Mahomedan 
religion became the established faith of the coimtry. When 
the Portuguese first visited Java in 1511, they found a Hindu 
king in Bantam; and subsequently, they are said to have 

♦ See Chapters on History. 

2 RKLKikJN. 

lost their footing in that province, in consequence of the 
arrival and establishment of a Maliomedaii j)rince tliere ; 
but witli the exception of an inconsiderable number in some 
of tlie interior and mountainous tracts, tlie whole island 
appears to have been converted to Mahomedanism in tlie 
course of tlie sixteenth centur}', or at least at the period of 
the establishment of the Dutch at Batavia in 1620. 

'The natives are still devotedly attached to their ancient 
institutions, and though they have long ceased to respect the 
temples and idols of a fonner worshij), they still retiiin a high 
respect for the laws, usages, and national obser> ances which 
prevailed before the inti'oduction of Mahomedanism. And 
although some few individuals among them may to a 
higher sanctity and closer confonnity to Mahomedanism than 
otliers, it may be fairly stated, that the J avails in gtnieral, 
while they believe in one supreme God, and that Mahomed 
was his IVophet, and obsene some of the outward forms 
of tlie worship and obser\'ances, are little acquainted with tlie 
doctrines of tliat religion, and are tlie least bigoted of its 
followers. Few of the chiefs decline the use of wine, and if 
the common people abstain from inebriating liquors, it is not 
from any religious motive. Mahomedan institutions, however, 
are still gaining ground, and witli a free trade a great acces- 
sion of Arab teachers might be expectt»d to arrive. I^operty 
usually descends according to tlie Maliomedan law ; but in 
otlier cases, tlie Mahomedan code, as adopted by the Javans, 
is strangely blended witli tlie more ancient institutions of tlie 
countr\' ♦. 

• ** The reliiipon of the JaN-ans in in general Mahomedan, but mingled 
with many Hiiperstitious dt>ctrines derived from the ancient Pagan 
worship. The Javans, however, are far from biuots to their religion, 
as other Mahomedans generally are. Tliey are mild and tractable by 
nature, and although they do not eaitily forget or forgive an injur)', 
they would be a quiet well diH{)o«ed |)eople under good laws and a mild 
government. The murders, and other crimes, which are nciw committed 
in Home places, are to be attributed more to the present faulty admi- 
nistration than to any bad diK|M)HitionH in the fieople. llie wune may be 
remarked of the indolence and indifference which now characterize 
•• them. Property in the land, with perRonal and commercial free<lom 
" and security, would soon render them induxtnous."— Hnpenihrp*M 
Memoir on Java, 1800. 


• t 


Pilgrimages to Mecca are common. When the Dutch first 
established themselves on Java, it was not unusual for the 
chiefs of the highest rank to undertake the voyage, as will be 
seen in the course of the native history. As soon, however, 
as the Dutch obtained a supremacy, they did all they could 
to check this practice, as well as the admission of Arab mis- 
sionaries, and by the operation of the system of commercial 
monopoly which they adopted, succeeded pretty effectually. 
It does not, however, appear that this arose from any desire 
to check the progress of Mahomedanism on Java, or that it 
was with any view to introduce the doctrines of Christianity, 
that they wished to cut off the communication with Mecca ; 
their sole objects appear to have been the safety of their ovni 
power and the tianquillity of the country. Every Arab from 
Mecca, as well as every Javan who had returned from a pil- 
grimage thither, assumed on Java the character of a saint, 
and the credulity of the common people was such, that they 
too often attributed to such persons supernatural powers. 
Thus respected, it was not difficult for them to rouse the 
country to rebellion, and they became the most dangerous 
instruments in the hands of the native authorities opposed to 
the Dutch interests. The Mahomedan priests have almost 
invariably been found most active in every case of insurrec- 
tion. Numbers of them, generally a mixed breed between 
the Arabs and the islanders, go about from state to state in 
the Eastern Islands, and it is generally by their intrigues and 
exhortations that the native chiefs are stirred up to attack or 
massacre the Europeans, as infidels and intruders. 

The conunercial monopoly of the Dutch, however injurious 
to the coimtry in other respects, was in this highly advan* 
tageous to the character of the Javans, as it preserved them 
fit)m the reception of many of the more intolerable and 
deteriorating tenets of the K6ran, 

I have already mentioned, that every village has its priest, 

and that in every viUage of importance there is a mosque or 

building set apart adapted to religious worship. The usual 

Mahomedan service is performed ; and the PanghulUy or priest, 

consulted, and decides in all cases of marriage, divorce, and 

inheritance. He is boimd also to remind the villagers of th^ 

B 2 


proper season for the cultivation of the lands. He it remu- 
nerated by a tithe of the produce of the land, certain fees 
which arc paid on circumcisions, marriages, divorces, and 
funerals, and presents which are usual at particular seasons 
and on particular occasions. 

In ever}' chief ton'n there is a high priest, who with the 
assistance of several inferior priests, holds an ecclesiastical 
court, and superintends the priests who are appointed in the 
subordinate districts and villages. His emoluments consist 
of a share, which varies in different districts, of the zakai 
levied by the village priests, of fees of court, presents, Ac. 
Tliese chief priests are usually either Arabs, or descendants 
of Arabs, by women of the islands. Their number in some 
of the large towns is considerable ; at Pakaldngan and Gresik 
tliey have amounted to some hundreds. The village priests 
are mostly Javans. On entering the profession, they adopt a 
dress different from that of the Javans in general, wearing a 
turban and long goi^Ti after the manner of the Arabs, and 
encouraging, as much as possible, tlie growth of a few hairs 
on the cliin, as a beard. It is probable, that the total number 
of priests is not less than fifly thousand, wliich forms a nine- 
tietli part of the whole population of tlie island. 

In common with otlier Mahomedans, the Javans observe 
the ceremony of circumcision {^dnat)^ which is {>erformed at 
about eight years of age, and in a manner somewhat differing 
from that usual in other countries. The ceremony is usually 
attended with a feast and rejoicing. Girls, at the same age, 
suffer a slight operation, intended to be analogous, and called 
by tlie same name. 

In their processions and rejoicings on religious festivals 
and other occasions, the Javans are free from that noisy 
clamour and uproar, which is usual with the Mahomedans of 
continental India. 'Ilie ceremony of husen hdsen^ which on 
the continent excites such a general noise throughout the 
country, here passes by almost without notice, and the pro- 
cessions of the Sepoys on this occasion, during the period of 
the British government on Java, excited the utmost astonish- 
ment among them, on account of tlieir novelty, noise, and 
gaudy effect ; but nobo<ly seemed inclined to join in, or to 


imitate them : indeed the Javans have too chaste an ear to 
bear with pleasure the dissonant sounds and unharmonious 
uproar of the Indians*. 

The Mahomedan religion, as it at present exists on Java, 
seems only to have penetrated the surface, and to have taken 
but little root in the heart of the Javans. Some there are 
who are enthusiastic, and all consider it a point of honour to 
support and respect its doctrines : but as a nation, the Javans 
by no means feel hatred towards Europeans as ii^fidels ; and 
this perhaps may be given as the best proof that they are 
very imperfect Mahomedans. As another example of the very 
slight hold which Mahomedanism has of them, may be ad- 
duced the conduct of the reigning prince (the Susunan) in 
the recent conspiracy among the Sepoys serving on Java. 
The intimacy between this prince and the Sepoys first com- 
menced fi-om his attending the ceremonies of their religious 
worship, which was Hindu, and assisting them with several 
idols of that worship which had been preserved in his family. 
The conspirators availing themselves of this predilection of 
the prince for the religion of his ancestors, flattered him by 
addressing him as a descendant of the great Rdma^ and a 
deliberate plan was formed, the object of which was to place 
the European provinces once more under a Hindu power. 
Had this plan been attended with success, it would probably 
have been followed by the almost immediate and general 
re-conversion of the Javans themselves to the Hindu faith f. 

* The Javans observe of the Mahomedans of continental India, that 
they would rather drink wine than eat pork ; while the Javans, on the 
contrary, would rather eat pork than drink wine. 

f In the account which has been given of the literature of the Javans,, 
the most esteemed compositions connected with their ancient faith have 
been referred to ; but as most of these, such as the Rdma, Brdta Yudha, 
Niti Sdstra, and others, are in many respects similar to corresponding 
works on the continent of India, it may not be uninteresting, while treat- 
ing of the religion of the coimtry, to give some account of the Mdnek 
Mifya, a composition in prose, which in its origin and story appears to be 
perfectly local, and which contains many of the peculiar notions still 
entertained by the people of the beginning of the world, &c. It is a work 
in high estimation among the modem Javans, and continually referred to. 
The copy in the Javan language from which the annexed translation was 
extracted, was procured as an especial favour from the present Susunan, 



Whatever of their more ancient faith may remain in the 
institutions, habits, and affections of the Javans, the island 
abounds in less perishable memorials of it The antiquities 
of Java consist of ruins of edifices, and in particular of 
temples sacred to the former worship ; images of deities found 
within them, and scattered throughout the countij', either 
sculptured in stone or cast in metal ; inscriptions on stone 
and copper in ancient characters, and ancient coins. 

^rho antiquities of Java have not, till lately, excited much 
notice ; nor have they yet been sufficiently explored. The 
narrow policy of the Dutch denied to other nations facilities 
of research ; and their own devotion to the pursuits of com- 
merce was too exclusive to allow of their being much inte- 
rested by the subject. The numerous and interesting remains 
of former art and grandeur, which exist in the ruins of 
temples and other edifices ; the abundant treasures of sculp- 
ture and statuary with which some parts of the island are 
covered ; and the evidences of a former state of religious 
belief and national improvement, which are presented in 
images, devices, and inscriptions, either lay entirely buried 
under rubbish, or were but partially examined. Notliing, 
therefore, of the ancient history of the peoj)le, of their insti- 
tutions prior to the introduction of Mahomedanism, of their 
magnificence and power before the distraction of internal 
war and the division of the country into petty contending sove- 
reignties, or of their relations either to adjacent or distant tribes, 
in their origin, language, and religion, could be accurately 
knoi^Ti or fully relied on. The grandeur of their ancestors 
sounds like a fable in the mouth of the degenerate Javan ; 
and it is only when it can be traced in monuments, which 
cannot be falsified, tliat wc are led to give credit to tlieir 
traditions concerning it Of these monuments, existing in 
great profusion in several places, and forming, if I may so 
express myself, the most inten»sting part of the annals of the 
|>eople, none are so striking as those foimd at Brambdnan in 
Maldrem, near the middle of the island, at Bt^o Bodo in 
Kediij on Gunung Prdhu and its vicinity, in Kediriy and at 

It ha* obvioiitily been compiler! Hince the establishment of Mahoroedanism, 
Imt neither the time at which it ww written, nor its author, is known. 


Sing'a Sari in the district of Mdlangy in the eastern part of 
the island. 

In addition to their claims on the consideration of the 
antiquarian, the ruins at two of these places, Brambdnan 
and B&ro Bddoy are admirable as majestic works of art The 
great extent of the masses of building covered in some parts 
with the luxuriant vegetation of the climate, the beauty and 
delicate execution of the separate portions, the 83rmmetry and 
regularity of the whole, the great number and interesting 
character of the statues and bas-reliefs, with which they are 
ornamented, excite our wonder that they were not earlier 
examined, sketched, and described. 

With respect to the ruins at BrdmbanaUy we find, upon 
the authority of a Dutch engineer, who in 1797 went to con- 
struct a fort at Kldletiy on the highway between the two 
native capitals, and not far from the site of the temples, that 
no description of its antiquities existed at that period. He 
found great difficulty in clearing away the rubbish and plants, 
so as to obtain a view of the ruins and to be enabled to 
sketch them. The indifference of the natives had been as 
great as that of their conquerors, and had led them to neglect 
the works of their ancestors which they could not imitate. 
They had allowed a powerful vegetation, not only to cover 
the surface of the buildings, but to dislocate and almost to 
overthrow them. They still viewed with veneration, however, 
the most conspicuous statue in the ruins, and in spite of 
their Mahomedan principles, addressed it with superstitious 
reverence. The temples themselves they conceived to have 
been the work of a divinity, and to have been constructed in 
one night ; but unfortunately this belief did not restrain the 
neighbouring peasants from carrying off the stones of which 
they were constructed, and applying them to their own pur- 
poses. Enough, however, still remains, to shew the style of 
architecture that was followed in their construction, the state 
of sculpture at the period of their erection, and the nature of 
the religion which then prevailed. 

In the beginning of the year 1812, Colonel Colin Mac- 
kenzie *, so weD acquainted with the antiquities of Western 

♦ Now Surveyor-General of India. 


India, visited Brambdnan^ took an accurate sunev of the 
jruins, and sketched the fragments of the building, the archi- 
tectural ornaments, and the statues found there. His journal, 
accompanied vrxih much ingenious and interesting specula- 
tion on the nature and origin of the worship indicated by 
fthem, he kindly permitted me to publish in the seventh volume 
of the transactions of the Batavian Society, 

Considering it as a matter of importance, that a more ex- 
tensive and detailed sur>ev should be made while we had the 
best opportunity of doing so, I availed myself of the senices 
of Captain .George Bakery of the Bengal estabhshment, em- 
ployed in the provinces of the native princes, to suney, mea- 
sure, and take draughts of all the buildings, images, and in- 
scriptions, which this magnificent mass of niins presented. 
The follo^iing is an abstract of his report on the subject 

" In the province of Matdrem^ and between the native 
capitals of Sura kerta and Yugya k&rtay lies tlie village of 
Brambdnafiy and at a distance of a mile from the high road, 
there are hills which run east and west, for about a mile and 
a half. On one of these, %nthin about one hundred yards to 
the south-east of the Bdndar^s * house, stands 


but so covered with trees and shrubs, tliat it is not visible till 
you are witliin two or three hundred yards of it. I could fmd 

.no remains of the ancient enclosure, but tliq fields for some dis- 
tance round have been enclosed in later days with tlie stones 
which have fallen from the temple. About forty yards west- 

/ ward of the temple, fonnerly stood two colossal images or 
rechas f, both now overtliro\ni, and one broken in two ; these 

\evidently faced each other inwards, as if to guard tlie appn)ach. 
Each of tliese, including the pedestal, is of a single block, seven 
feet high ; the head is two feet high ; the square of the )>edes- 
tal about tluree feet, and its height thirteen inches and a half: 
the stone block coarse grained, and apparently the same as the 
outer coating of tlie tenij>le. The door-way is three feet 

• Bdi^r in the term |?iv«i to the Chinese fanner of the toll porta or 
transit clutien; whence ftamMraii, the place or renidence of the bamdar. 

t R/cka iH the term given by the Javann to all the remainii of antiquity 
generally, but particularly to the images of their former worvhip. 


and a half wide, and now ten feet long, so that allowing two 
feet for dilapidation, the thickness of the walls must have been 
more than twelve feet. This leads directly to an apartment 
twenty feet square, the terrace of which, or original floor, is 
now covered to an imknown depth with masses of stone fallen * 
from the walls and roof. The^jpresent height of the interior 
of the building is about twenty-eight feet.) 

The(foof is a square pyramid about fourteen feet high, 
formed of stones which overhang each other like inverted 
step^ The stone composing the interior of the apartment is 
whitish and close grained, and breaks in flakes something like 
flint The whole is uniformly(cut and neatly morticed toge- 
ther without cement./ The interior is perfectly plain, the ex- 
terior could never have possessed more than the simplest ar- 
chitectural embellishment. 

Excepting the two richdSy or porters,! saw no remains of sta- 
tuary ; but it is probable that images of Hindu deities lie buried 
in the rubbish. These porters or giants seem to have been 
posted as if to guard the approach to the sanctuaries of the 
gods. The hair of each is plaited and woimd round his head, 
after the fashion of the mendicant priests of India. He wears 
large cylindrical ear-rings, like those of the Javan women, 
bracelets and necklace of beads. His waistband, which is 
very bulky and reaches almost to his knees, is confined by a 
chain of square links, and receives on the right side a small 
square-hilted dagger. Between his legs and under the waist- 
band there passes a /wn^o/iz or A:opi>i«, the ends of which hang 
down before and behind. In his right hand Tie holds an octa- 
gonal club ; in his left a snake, coiled and darting its tongue 
along the breast : small twisted snakes also form his armlets, 
and one passes over his left shoulder diagonally across the 
body, the head and tail forming a kind of knot His head is 
broad ; his forehead and chin short but wide ; his eyes quite 
round, large, prominent, and staring ; his lips thick ; his 
mouth open, and shewing two very large dog teeth and four 
others of the upper jaw. Singular as the countenace is, it 
has generally an open good humoured expression. Th^ Sepoy 
who attended me, and who had resided two years among the 
Bramins at Benares, and, of a corps of upwards of eight 
hundred Sepoys, was acknowledged to be the best acquainted 


*ynt}i 8uch subjects, mformed me that similar figures were 
common guardians of the entrance to the temples of India, and 
seemed perfectly well acquainted with their historj', purpose, 
and distinctive accompaniments ; but he was lost in surprise 
at the number, magnitude, and superior execution of those at 
JBrambdnan, to which he said that India could in no respect 
furnish a ])arallel. Every thing here, he said, was manifestly 
the work of tlie gods, as no human jwwcr could have effected 
such things. The temples at Brambdnan are entirely com- 
posed of plain hewn stone ^litliout the least mixtiure of brick, 
mortar, or rubbish of any kindy even in the most extensive 
solid masses, or to fill up the floors and basements of the 
largest structures. Large trees have made their way through 
many of them, and give an air of high antiquity. 

Close by the road side at Brambdnan^ and in front of the 
bdndar^s house, there, are several pieces of sculpture deserving 
of notice. One is a very well executed relievo on two small 
stones, of about eighteen inches by five, inithin tlie bdndar*s 
kdmpung : it represents elephants completely caparisoned in 
the Hindu fashion. Anotlier is a piece of sculptiure represent- 
ing the \i4de-extended mouth and erect curled proboscis of the 
elephant, having a figure (I believe of a Gopie or inferior deity 
or dcmi-god) seated in an erect posture on tlie animal's tongue, 
surrounded with a formidable array of teeth. This is found on 
either side of the top or bottom of flights of steps, grand en- 
trances, or portal of all the Brambdnan buildings. Tliere is 
also a more finished specimen of the same kind as the last, but 
having instead of a GOpia a lion, decorated with a necklace, to 
whose head descends from the lotos flowers which cronTi the 
elevated proboscis of the elephant, a very rich cluster of l)eads. 
Two stones are sculptured in relief with the figures of si»ven 
apes traversing a woo<l : they are each about two feet six in- 
ches high by two feet wide. These pieces are more damaged 
by time and weatlier than any others I met with, and perha])s 
more ancient. They appear to l)c entirely historical, and pro- 
bably formed together the memorial of some legendary' event, 
which the learning of my Brahmin did not reach : he seemed 
however jwsilive that Hanumdn was not of the number. Tlie 
shield occiurs twice, a reptile of the lizard kind letl by a string 

once, and all the figures appear armed with sticks. 



The only other piece of sculpture found here is of a head- 
less naked figure, sitting on a double throne, surrounded with 
foliage, opposite the Banddran at the comer of a field. The 
journal of Colonel Mackenzie, which had previously appeared 
in the Transactions of the Batavian Society, had so fiilly per- 
suaded me that all these rude figures in a sitting cross-legged 
posture were Jain or Budhist^ that I by accident only asked 
my companion if he knew what this was ? To my astonish- 
ment he replied, that this, with all other similar images, were 
iupis wurriy or Hindus in the act of devotion, and that this 
figure was evidently a Brahmin (fi-om the sacrificial or sacred 
string over his left shoulder) employed in tupisya. I asked 
him whether it might be Budh ? to which he replied. No ; 
that Budh held a very low rank in the estimation of the 
Brahmins, who, in consequence of the schism between Brah- 
mins and Budhists, did not choose to make tupisya before 
him, or erect his likeness in their temples ; and that, as all 
the temples at Brambdnan were entirely Braminical, or had 
their origin firom the same sect of which he himself was a 
member, it was not likely that any images of Budh should be 
found thereabouts. When we ailerwards came to examine 
the temples at L6ro Jongran and other places, where the 
6£yme figure complete appears seated in the small temples, 
surrounding the great central one, I pointed out to him the 
long-extended ears, short curled head of hair, and other marks, 
which I had understood served to distinguish the Jain or 
Budh images from all others. He said he was only more con- 
vinced that they were all simple Hindu devotees in the act of 
making tupisya^ in the presence of the principal deity en-> 
throned in the grand temple in the midst of them ; that this 
was firequently the case in India, and wherever practicable 
the Brahmins placed images of devotees, of exactly similar 
form and attitude, aroimd the fanes of Brahma and their in- 
ferior gods ; that what I called curled hair was nothing more 
than a peculiar kind of cap (tapi he called it) worn by de- 
votees when in the most sacred acts of tupUyay which capa 
are common, he said, throughout Bengal or Hindustan, and 
are made for the purpose, by a particular class of people. I 
foimd the lower part of two coimterpart decorated stones, hav- 
ing the part of the body of Gan^aa in the centre of each. 


They were extremely well executed and in good preserva- 


These lie directly in front (north) of the village of Bram- 
bdnauj and about two hundred and fiftv yards from^he road, 
whence they are visible, in the form offiarge hillocks of fallen 
masses of stone, surmounted, and in some instances covered, 
with a profusion of trees and herbage of all descriptions.; In 
the present dilapidated state of these venerable buildings, I 
found it very difficult to obtain a correct plan or description 
of their original disposition, extent, or even of their number 
and figure. Tliose that remain, with any degree of their 
primar}' form or elevation, are ten, disposed in three lines, 
running north and south. Of those on the western line, which 
are far the largest and most lofty, that in the centre towers 
high above the rest, and its jutting fragments lie tumbled 
about over a large area. Nothing can exceed the air of deso- 
lation which this spot presents ; and the feelings of every 
visitor are attuned, by the scene of surrounding devastation, 
to reflect, that while these noble monuments of the ancient 
splendour of religion and the arts are submitting, with sullen 
8lo%\'ness, to the destructive hand of time and nature, the 
art which raised tliem has perished before tliem, and the 
faitli which they were to honour has now no other honour in 
the land. 

After repeated visits to the place, I am perfectly clear, that the 
temples of Jongrangan originally consisted of twenty separate 
buildings, besides the enclosures and gateway ; that of these, 
six large and two small temples were within the second wall, 
and twelve small (mes, exactly similar to each other, foniied 
a kind of square about the exterior of tlie inner wall. The 
first temple that occurs on entering, is the small central one on 
the right hand of the present pathway ; and though its rrwf 
is gtme, a most beautiful terrace ap)>ears, which supported 
the building, and measures twenty-three feet six inches by 
twenty-two feet ten inches. At present the height of it is 
barely three feet and a half Tlie lower part contains five 
small niches on either side, profusely decorated and resting 
on small pilasters, each niche occupied by a lion, seated ex- 



actly similar to those described in the elephant's mouth. The 
internals between the niches are very neatly filled with diminu- 
tive pilasters and other ornaments, displaying real taste and 
skill, which again support a double fillet projecting all round. 
One carved most beautifully, with a running festooned bead- 
ing, with intermediate knots and pendents, each festoon filled 
with a lively representation of a parroquet with expanded 
wings, the other fillet with a fancy pattern more simple. On 
the opposite, or north side, was a building similar to this, but 
now a moimd of stone. 

The largest temple, apparently about ninety feet in height, 
is at present a mass of ruin, as well as the five others con- 
nected with it ; but ascending to its northern face, over a vast 
heap of stones fallen fi'om it and the third temple, at the 
height of about thirty feet, you reach the entrance : the whole 
is of hewn stones, fitted and morticed into each other, without 
rubbish or cement of any kind. Directly in firont of the door- 
way stands the image^ of Ldro Jdngran, I had previously 
found a very similar, and I think a more beautiful represen- 
tation of Devij as the Bramin called it, in the village of 
KuwiraUy about fifteen miles north-east from Brambdnan, 
The image of L6ro Jdngran here has exactly the same attri- 
butes and accompaniments as that found at Kutcirany but it 
is larger, not at all damaged, perfectly smooth, and with a 
polished surface : the buffalo is entirely recumbent ; the cha- 
racter of the countenance, general figure, and attitudes, are 
very different, and the shape, attitude, and visage of the god- 
dess, far less elegant and feminine. The figure at Brambd- 
nan is six feet three inches by three feet one inch in the 
widest part at the pedestal; that at Kuttnran is three feet 
nine inches high by twenty inches. The general description 
of this goddess, as read to me by the Bramin from a Sanscrit 
paper he copied at Benares, will serve to illustrate both these 
images, in the literal precise manner in which I took down 
his words. 

" Bhawdnif D^viy Soca^ Juggudumbay Afahamyay LutalUy 
" PhulmuttiSy and Malay are the designations of this power- 
" ful goddess, who resides a,iS/iasi or Basin i (Benares), at an 
" angle of the sacred Ganges. Her adoration is caUed urchit 
^*' with oblations of flowers, chunduuy kundun, and mugt. 



In her hand she holds a tulwar ^ called khug: round her 
'^ neck she has a mala of sumpurun^ iooisij or chundun. 
" Her weight is very great, and wherever her efBgy is placed 
*' the earth trembles and becomes much heavier. The name 
** of her buffalo is Mahiaa^ and the Dewth who attempts to 
" slay it is Usfioor. She sleeps upon a bed of flowers.*' 

Thus much could I understand, and repeat verbatim of this 
goddess's power and attributes. For the rest, in her eight 
arms she holds, Ist the buffalo's tail ; 2d. tlie sword called 
khurg: 3d. the hhulla or janclin ; 4th. the chukur or whut ; 
5th. the lune or conch shell ; 6lh. the dhat or shield ; 7th. 
ihc jundah or flag; and 8th. the hair of the Dewth Mahiku- 
BOTy or personification of vice, who, while attempting to slay 
her favourite, Mahifta is seized by the goddess in a rage. 
He raises a dhat or shield in his defence, and a sabre, or 
some offensive weapon, should be in his right hand. 

The apartment in which tliis image and some other sculp- 
tured stones are placed, rises perfectly square and plain, to 
the height of ten feet, and there occurs a richly carved cor- 
nice of four fillets, a single stone to each. From this rises 
the roof in a square pyramid, perfectly plain or smooth, for 
ten feet more. 

Proceeding over the ruins round to the west face of this 
builcUng, you pass tlie intermediate angular projection, carved 
alternately in a running flower or foliage, which Colonel 
Mackenzie has called Arabesque j and with small human 
figures of various form and attitude in compartments, above 
representations of sqiuire pyramidal temples, exactly like 
those on so many of the entablatures of B&ro BddOj and 
similar, I understand, to the Budh temples of Ava, &c. &.C., 
the whole extremely rich and minute beyond description. 
The western doorway is equally plain with the former, and 
the entrance is still lower. The apartment is ten feet two 
inches square, apparently more filled up (that is, the floor 
raised higher tlian tlie other), but in all other respects exactly 
the same. In fn)nt is seated a complete Gan^sa^ of smooth 
or polished stone, seated on a throne: the whole a single 
block, five and a half feet high and three >nde. In his hands 
he has a plantain, a circlet of beads, a flower, and a cup to 
which the end of his proboscis is applied : a hooded snake 


encircles his body diagonally over the left shoulder. His cap 
is high, with a death's head and homed moon in front, and 
as well as his necklaces, waistband, amilets, bracelets, anklets, 
and all his habiliments, is profusely decorated. The only 
damage he appears to have sustained, is in losing all but the 
roots of his tusks. 

Thef Javans to this day continue to pay their devoirs to — 
him and \jo\L6ro J6ngrani^2j& they are constantly covered with 
turmerick, flowers, ochre, &c,> They distinguish Ganesa by 
the name of Raja Demdngy Singa Jdya^ or Gana Singa 
Jdya. Going still round over heaps of fallen stone to the 
south face, you with some difficulty enter by the door-way 
(nearly closed up by the ruin) inte the third apartment, where 
there is scarce light enough to see a prostrate Siva with his 
feet broken off and lost What remains is four feet ten inches 
and a half long, and two feet two inches wide. 

The whole of the apartment on the east side has fallen in, 
or is closed up by the dilapidation of that entire front. 

From the elevated situation of the entrances to all the 
apartments first described, it is evident that there must for- 
merly have been flights of steps to them. Thefplan of this 
temple, and as far as I could judge of the two adjoining ones, 
nortfi and south, was a perfect cross^ each of the four apart- 
ments first described occupying a limb or projection of the 
figure, and the small intermediate protruding angles between 
these limbs of the cross could only be to admit of a large 
apartment in the centre of the building, to which, however, 
no opening was practicable or visible. Moreover, as all the 
grand entrances to the interior of Hindu temples, where it is 
practicable, face the rising sun, I could have wished to ascer- 
tain from this (the largest and most important at Jongrdngan) 
whether or not the main apartment was in existence, as I 
had made up my mind, that were I possessed of the means to 
clear away the stone, I should have found Brahma himself in 
possession of the place : the smaller rooms being occupied 
by such exalted deities as Bhawaniy Siva, and Gan^sa^ 
scarce any other, indeed, than Brahma could be foimd pre- 
siding on the seat of honour and majesty. 

The three large temples on the eastern line are in a state of 
utter ruin. They appear to have been very large and lofty. 



and perfectly square. The upper terraces, just under the sup- 
posed entrances, were visible in some places, at the height of 
about sixty feet. 


/in the whole course of my life I have never met with such 
stupendous and finished specimens of human labour, and of 
the science and taste of " ages long since forgot,'* crowded 
together in so small a compass as in this little spot ; which, 
to use a military phrase, I deem to have been the head quar- 
ters of Hinduism in Javay These ruins are situated exactly 
eight hundred and thirty-five yards north-north-east firom the 
northern extremity of those of L^o Jdngran^ and one thou- 
sand three hundred and forty-five yards firom the high road 
opposite the bdndar^s house. Having had in view all the 
way one lofty pvTamidal or conical ruin, covered with foliage, 
and surrounded by a midtitudeof much smaller ones, in every 
stage of humbled majesty and decay, you find yourself, on 
Teaching the soutliem face, very suddenly between two gigan- 
tic figures in a kneeling posture, and of terrific forms, appear- 
ing to threaten you with their uplifted clubs : their bulk is so 
great, that the stranger does not readily comprehend their 
figiu*e. These gigantic janitors are represented kneeling on 
the left knee, with a small cushion under the right ham, the 
left resting on tlie retired foot. The height of the |>edestal is 
fifteen inches, of the figure, seven feet nine inches to the top 
of tlie curls ; total, nine feet. Hie head twenty -six inches 
long: width across the shoidders, tlirec feet ten inches. The 
pedestal just comprises the kneeling figiu^e, and no more. 

ITie character and expression of tlie face I have never met 
with elsewhere : it belongs neither to India nor to any of the 
easteni isles. The countenance is full, round, and expressive 
of good humour. Tlie eyes are large, prominent, and circular; 
the nose is prominent and \iide, and in pnifile seems pointed ; 
tlie upper lip is covered with tremendous mustaches; the 
moutli is large and open, with a risible character, shewing 
two ven* large dog-teetli ; the under lip tliin, and tlie chin 
ver>' strait and short ; f«)rehead Uie same ; no neck visible ; 
the breast broad and full, with a vvry prominent round belly ; 
the lower limbs, as well as the arms, extremely short and 


stout But the most extraordinary appendage of these porters, 
is a very large full-bottomed wig, in full curl all over, which, 
however, the Bramin assured me (and I really believe) is 
intended to represent the usual mode in which the Moonis are 
supposed to dress their natiural hair; these gigantic genii, 
whose duty it is to guard the sanctuaries of the gods, requiring 
as formidable an appearance as possible. In other respects 
the images are in the Hindu costume. The lungota passes 
between the legs, the ends of it decorated, hanging down 
before and behind, over the waistband, and a curious square- 
linked chain, which encircles the waist. A snake entwines 
the body diagonally over the left shoulder, the tail and head 
twisted on the left breast. A small ornamented dagger is 
stuck in the girdle on the right loins. A pointed club of an 
octagonal form is held up in the right hand, and rests on the 
knee ; the left hand, dropped down his side, grasps a circled 
snake, which seems to bite the fore-part of the left arm. The 
necklace is of fiUagree-work (such as is called star) ; and the 
ears, which are large and long, are decorated with the im- 
mense ornamented cylindrical ear-rings worn by the Javan 
women of the present day. Round the two arms are twisted 
snakes, and round the wrist bracelets of beads. The waist- 
band extends nearly to the knees. From the waist upwards 
the figure is naked. 

The same description is applicable to the eight other pair 
of images, which guard the other approaches of Chdndi 
Sewn; at twenty feet distance from the exterior line of temples, 
and facing inwards to each other about twelve feet apart. 
Each of these statues and its pedestal is of one piece of a 
species of pudding-stone, which must have required great 
care in working. 

The whole site or ground-plan of these temples forms a 
quadrangle of five himdred and forty feet by five hundred 
and ten, exactly facing the cardinal points.' The greater 
extent is on the eastern and western sides, as there allowance 
has been made for wider avenues leading up to the grand 
central temples situated within, while on the north and south 
sides the spaces between the small exterior temples are all 
alike. There is no vestige of an exterior boimdary wall of 
any kind. The outer quadrangle, which is the limit of the 

VOL. II. c 


I whole, aud which encloses four others, consists of eighty- 
ifour small temples, twent}-two on each face: the second 
'consists of seventv-six ; the third of sixty -four ; the fourth 
of forty-four ; and the fifth, or inner parallelogram, of twenty- 
height ; in all two hundred and ninety -six small temples, dis- 
posed in five regular parallelograms. The whole of these are 
upon an uniform plan, eleven feet and a half square on the 
outside, with a small vestibule or porch, six feet two inches 
long, by four feet and a half externally. Within is an apart- 
ment exactly six feet square, with a door-way five feet nine 
inches high, by three feet four inches wide, directly opposite 
to which stands tlie seat or throne of the statue which occu 
pied the temple. The walls inside rise square to the height 
of seven feet ten inches, and quite plain ; thence the roof 
rises about five feet more in a plain pyramid, and above that 
a perpendicular square rises two feet more, where the roof is 
closed by a single stone. Tlie interior dimensions of the 
porch or vestibule in front were three feet and a half by two 
and a half, llie tliickness of wall to each temple was about 
two feet nine inches, and of the vestibule one foot four inches. 
The exterior elevation of each must have been about eighteen 
feet, rising square to the cornices about eight or nine feet, 
according to tlie irregularities of ground, and the rest a fan- 
ciful superstructure of various forms, diminishing in size to 
the summit, which was cro\nied wilh a ver>' massive circular 
stone, surmounted with another cylindrical one rounded off 
at the top. llie whole of each superstructure thus formed a 
kind of irregular pyramid, composed of five or six retiring 
steps or j)arts, of which the tliree lowest ap|K"ared to me of 
the figure of a cross, wilh intenuediate projecting angles to 
the two lower, and retired ones to the upj)er step, which 
varied in position also from the lower ones. Above that the 
summit appeared to rise in an octangidar fonii, diminishing 
gradually to the stones above described. The same kind of 
stone appears also to have been placed on tlie four projecting 
angles of at least the lower part of the elevation above the 
b<Kly of the building. I saw none tliat were complete ; but 
from the detached views I had of all, 1 think either nine or 
thirteen similar ones were disposed al tlie various points of 
the roof. Besides these, the roofs had little in tlie way of 


decorations to attract notice, beyond a profusion of plain 
comiccsy bands, fillets, or ribands, forming a kind of capital 
to the crest of each stage of the superstructure, and on one 
of them small square pilasters cutinbas-relievo at intervals. 

I have already stated, that the small temples appeared to 
be all upon one uniform plan, differing however according to 
their situation. The decorations, internal and external, are 
alike in all, except that the interior niches are all variously 
filled with the endless variety of Hindu mythology. 

Proceeding inwards from the southern r^chUy and reckon- 
ing from the centre, the distances are as follow : to the exte- 
rior line of the outer quadrangle twenty feet ; depth of these 
temples, including porch, sixteen feet ; space from thence to 
the next line of temples eleven feet; depth of the second 
quadrangle sixteen feet ; thence to the third quadrangle thirty 
feet ; supposed depth of this line sixteen feet ; thence to the 
fourth quadrangle thirty feet ; depth of the fourth quadrangle 
sixteen feet ; thence to the fifth or inner quadrangle thirty 
feet ; depth of the inner quadrangle sixteen feet ; thence to 
the bottom of the flight of steps leading up to the grand 
temple fourteen feet ; in all two hundred and fifteen feet from 
the centre of the porters to the bottom of the steps. The 
spaces between all the temples on the same line are about 
twelve feet and a quarter, but on the east and west sides the 
central avenue is larger. Between the inner quadrangle and 
the central temple, at a distance of five feet from the bottom 
step of it, runs a line of stone fourteen inches high, and two 
feet four inches wide. 

We now come to the great temple. You ascend from 
each of the cardinal points by a flight of fourteen stone steps, 
all rough hewn, and now mostly disjointed or displaced. The 
length of each flight was about sixteen feet to the edge of 
the upper step, the breadth eight over all, and the height 
about ten feet, that being the elevation of the terrace of the 
temple. The walls of this elevated terrace projected on 
either-side of the steps, so as to form with the walls that 
received the steps three sides of squares, which the Sepoy 
who was with me immediately said must have been intended 
for small tanks, one at each side of every flight of steps, for 
the devotees to purify themselves in before their appearance 

c 2 


at the shrine of the deity. On the third step from the bottom, 
on each side of it, was a figure of HoJttu Singh (or the lion 
seated in the elephant's mouth), lcN)king outwards and having 
a very fine effect The same figures, facing outwards, sup- 
ported each side of the four entrances to the vestibules. The 
terrace has a breadtli of three feet and a half, clear of the 
walls of the temple all round, and as far as I could discern 
in the min, following the angles of the edifice. 

TheTform of the building^ like that at Ij&ro JdngraHy i^ a 
cross, VTiih the same interme<liate angular projection, in order 
to afford room for the grand central apartment Entering 
from tlie east you pass through a portal, five feet eight inches 
in width by five feet nine inches in lengtli (which is the 
thickness of the walls), into an outer vestibule, twelve feet 
wide by ten deep. The walls of this vestibule are orna- 
mented ynih tlu^ee niches, a large and two smaller ones, nith 
pointed arches, and all tlie profuse decoration of Hindu 
architectural sculpture. In most of these niches remained 
tlie tlironc of the inferior deities, who the Sepoy said must 
have originally occujiied tliem : not one was now to be found. 
The throne was generally a single stone, decorated in front 
with a vase and profusion of flowers, filling the whole space 
in a natural easy manner. Leaving this room you pass on 
through a door-way four feet five inches in widtli, and four 
feet in depth (the tliickness of the wall), but of uncertain 
height, to a second vestibule, fourteen feet nine inches ^^nde, 
and four feet four inches deep. At either end of this vestibule 
is a door, twenty-six inches wide in the clear, four feet two 
inches deep in tlie passage or width of the wall, and barely 
five feet and a half high, which communicates with the sur- 
rounding terrace. Tliis vestibule is perfectly })lain, nilh the 
exception of a raised spiral fluting, which surrounds tlie large 
portal or gate leading into tlie central apartment, and tenni- 
nates near tlie bottom Rtej)s in the representation of the 
elephant's mouth and trunk, simply cut in relief on tlie wall, 
VTiXh no other addition but several strings of beads descend- 
ing from the top of his proboscis. Tlie nxjfs of the vestibules 
or limbs of the building, though entirely fallen, were originally 
shaped like the S}Tian, that is pointed and falling Aovra to 
Uie upper cornice of the walls, nith a gentle double swell or 


cun'e. The northern limb is an entire mass of confusion and 
ruin ; but the description just given of the double vestibule 
on the east side of the temple, answers with a very trifling 
variation of dimensions to those on the south and west, but 
that instead of the large and spacious portal to be seen on the 
east, there are five very lofty niches let into the main walls 
about .a foot, with pointed Indian arches, standing on square 
pilasters of the same fashion, the capitals of each of which 
are supported by a small, squat, doubled-up hiunan figure, 
having its arms embowed over its head, which my Cicerone 
informed me was very common in the like situations in India. 
He concluded also, that images of the gods had occupied the 
niches in firont against the main walls of the temple, on the 
north, south, or west sides ; but we saw not one, and only 
the centre niches had even the thrones remaining. The 
niches and pilasters are surmoimted with a very deep elabo- 
rate projecting cornice, crowned again with five representa- 
tions of small temples on each side, and immediately over 
these are seen the two swells or curves of the original Syrian 

So far we have gone on a level with tKe external terrace or 
platform which surrounds tlie whole ; but on the east side 
you ascend by a flight of eight steps, at least six feet high, 
through the spacious portal before mentioned, which is twelve 
feet high from the top of these stairs, and six feet eight inches 
wide in the clear, formed entirely of massive blocks of stones, 
well squared. The depth of the passage or thickness of the 
wall is ten feet. The top of the portal, which is flat or square 
externally, smmounted in the centre with a very large and 
terrible gorgon visage, changes with the ascent of the stairs, 
in a very artful manner, to the pyramidal form, internally, 
formed by the overhanging of the stones to resemble inverted 
square steps closed at the top with a single stone. You thus 
find yourself in the sanctum sanctorum^ the spot which has 
rew^arded the toil and zeal of many a weary pilgrim. My ex- 
pectations were raised, and I imagined I should find the 
great and all-powerful Brahma seated here, in glory and ma- 
jesty proportionate to tlie sunounding splendour and magni- 
ficence of his abode. Not a single vestige, however, remains 
of Brahma, or of any other deity. The apartment is a plain, 


unadorned square, of twenty-one by eighteen feet. Four feet 
from the eastern wall or door is a raised platform<» three feet 
and a half high, extending all across the room (north and 
south), snrmounted with a deep projecting capital or crest, to 
ascend which are two small flights of six steps each, situated 
at the extremilies on either hand. The y alls of this sanctu- 
an% to the height of about forty feet, rise square and plain, 
and are composed of uniform blocks of greyish stone, well 
squared, and fitting closely without cement, grooved into each 
other, according to the general manner of all the buildings at 
Brambdnan. Above this is a projected cornice of three or 
four stones, from which the roof a^^sumes the pyramidal form 
of overhanging stones, or inverted steps, to the height of ten 
feet nearly ; thence it rises perpendicular, plain and square, 
for about ten feet more, and hence to the top in an octangu- 
lar pyramid of overhanging stones, approaching each other 
gradually by tiers or layers, for nearly fifteen feet more, where 
it closes finally vriih a stone, about two and a half or three 
feet across. 

The exterior of this great temple contains a great variety of 
ornamental scul])ture ; but no human or emblematical figures, 
or even niches in the walls, as in all the small temples sur- 
rounding it. The capitals of the pilasters (as in the niches 
against the body of the temple) are indeed supported by the 
very diminutive figures before mentione<l ; but notliing ftuther 
appears in that way throughout the whole structure. The 
style, taste, and manner of execution, are ever> where light, 
chaste, and beautifid, evincing a fertile invention, most de- 
licate workmanship, and experience in the art. All the figures 
occupying the niches of the smaller temples (and there were 
thirteen to each of the two hundred ancl ninety-six) are a 
wonderful variety of mythological characters, which tlie Brah- 
min said figured in the Hindu legends. 

Of the small temples, at least two-thirds are strewed along 
the ground, or are mere mined heaps of stone, earth, and 
jungle. On the third quadrangle no more than six large heaps 
of dilapidation remain : fields of palma christi, sugar-cane, 
and tobacco, occuj)V the place, an<l many detached spots on 
the site of tlie temj)les. Not one, in fact, is at all perfect : 
large trees and many kinds of herbage have shot up and split 



them asuuder. They are covered with the foliage which has 
hastened or produced their destruction, certainly prematurely ; 
for the stone itself, even externally, and where it would be 
most perceptible, on the sculpture, exhibits not the least token 
of decay. The wh9le devastation is caused by a most luxu- 
riant vegetation. /Towering directly over the temples the 
tcaringin^ or i^tately banyan, is conspicuous^ both for its ap- 
pearance and the extraordinary damage it has caused. In 
short, hardly twenty of the temples give a satisfactory notion 
of their original form and structure. 

Under such circumstances it can hardly be supposed that I 
examined the interior of many of them. Few could boast of 
the original four walls alone ; but within such as I did exa- 
mine I found only five of the original images occupying their 
places. As these five, however, were foimd in points very 
remote firom, and bearing no relation to each other, and were 
all exactly coimterparts in size, shape, character, and general 
appearance, I may safely conclude, that each of the two hun- 
dred and ninety-six smaller temples contained a similar image. 
Of these five, which are exactly the same with those Colonel 
Mackenzie calls Jam, only one was perfect : the others had 
lost their heads and received other damage in the fall of their 
habitations ; but all were manifestly intended to represent the 
same figure. The Bramin maintained that these were all 
tup^s-umrri^ or devotees, represented by the Braminical 
foimder of these temples in the act of tupisya, around the sanc- 
tuary of the divinity himself, situated in the centre of them. 

Returning fi-om Chdndi Sewu towards Ldro Jdngran^ about 
half-way on the left of the road, two himdred yards distant, 
are the remains of a small assemblage of temples, which, on 
examination, proved to consist originally of a small square of 
fourteen temples, with a larger one in the centre. Five tem- 
ples were on the east and west faces, and four on the north 
and south, including throughout those at the angles. The 
only difference, however, between these temples and the small 
ones of Chdndi Settm was, that they were rather smaller, and 
the elevated terraces raised much higher, those of Chdndi 
Sewu not being a foot above the ground, while these A^ere 
raised nearly four feet, and had a small flight of steps and a 
door-way inwards towards the middle temple. The exterior 



of all these buildings was perfectly plain, excepting a very 
simple square pilaster and cornice surmounting it The cen- 
tral building alone possessed the verj'same kind of decorative 
sculpture which is seen on those of Chdndi Setru^ was about 
twice the size of its neighbours, and about four feet larger 
either way than those of Chdndi SHrUy from which it only 
further dilFered from having no porch. I shall only add to 
this brief notice, that the whole site of this cluster seems com- 
prised in an jvrea of eighty feet by sixty ; that the spaces be- 
tween the temples of this (quadrangle are equal to tlie extent 
of each building ; that only nine of the exterior temples, of 
which one is a mere heap of stones, exist in any form indicat- 
ing their primitive order or position ; and lastly, that no »ta- 
tuar}' of any kind remains, to indicate tlie deity in whose ho- 
nour they were erected, except tlie relievos in tlie eleven 
niches round tlic central building, which certainly seemed, as 
the Braniin asserted, to be of the tribe of GopiaSy or demi- 
gods and goddesses, which occupy the walls of the two hun- 
dred and ninety-six temples oi Chdndi Setru, 

The only name the Javans could give tliis assemblage waa 
the generic term chdndi, m teinj>les. llie inclosures of the 
surrounding fields attest the extent to which the farmers have 
turned to account tlie devastations made by tlie tcaringen 


Taking the road from Bramhdnan to Yfigya kertOy a little 
beyond the seventh fiurlong, you arrive at an angle bearing 
nearly south-west. At this angle, about sixty yards off the 
road to the left, a very large statue is conspicuous, standing 
close to tlie comer of the village of l)indny\tny which is be- 
hind it Searching about I found the brc»ken scattered re- 
mains of five other images exactly similar to it. Twenty 
yards in tlie rear of the ert^ct image, antl just to tlie westward 
of the village, a very extensive heap of blocks of hewn stone 
(particularly large hollow cylinders intended to hold the water 
used in ablution in India) intermingled \\\\\\ earth, points out 
the site of what must once have l>een a spacious temple, long 
since prostrate. The principal image is called by theJavanfi 
Begn Minda. 



Returning to the angle of the road which I had left to in- 
spect B^ga Minda and his maimed and headless brethren, 
and proceeding along the high-road, at a distance of little 
more than two furlongs further, I crossed the small stream 
now called Kali Bening, formerly Kali Buhits, A hundred 
and twenty yards beyond this, having the village of Kali 
Sdriy which gives its name to the temple, close to the right 
hand, you tiun up a path between two hedges in that direc- 
tion, and at the south-western side of the village, about two 
hundred yards off the road, you come upon the south-east 
angle of a large and lofty quadrangular building, having much 
the appearance of a two-story house, or place of residence of 
a Hindu Raja. It resembles a temple in no point of view 
even externally. It is an ^ oblong square, regularly divided 
into three floors, the ground-floor having in front a large door 
between two windows, and on the sides two windows corres- 
ponding to the others. The first floor appears to have three 
windows in front, and two in the depth, answering to the 
apertures below, and through the foliage which decorates and 
destroys this monument of grandeur, may be seen several 
small attic windows at intervals, seemingly on the slope of 
the roof: these, however, are false, as the structure has but 
the two floors and no other. 

The external appearance of this edifice is really very strik- 
ing and beautifiil. The composition and execution of its outer 
surface evinces infinite taste and judgment, indefatigable pa- 
tience and skill. Nothing can exceed the correctness and 
minute beauties of the sculpture throughout, which is not 
merely profuse, but laboured and worked up to a pitch of 
peculiar excellence, scarcely suitable to the exterior of any 
building, and hardly to be expected in much smaller subjects 
in tlie interior of the cabinet. It originally stood upon an 
elevated terrace of from four to six feet in height, of solid 
stone. The exterior dimensions of this building are fifty- 
seven feet and a half by thirty-three and a half, measured 
along the walls just above the terrace or line of the original 
basement, which is divided obviously enough into three parts, 


by the centre projecting nearly a foot, and the general cor- 
respondent composition or arrangement observable in each. 
The door in the centr^ is four feet eight inches and a half 
wide, surmounted ^^'ith the wide-gaping, monstrous visage, 
before described at Chandi Sewu, from which runs round each 
side of the portal a spiral-fluted chord, ending near the bottom 
in a large sweep or flourish, inclosing each a caparisoned 
elephant in a rising ]K)sture ; the space left over its hinder 
quarters being filled with the face of a munnooky or human 
being, all in the usual style of relief At either side of the 
door the original coat of stone has fallen, as far as the ex- 
tremities of the vestibule, which covered the whole central 
compartment of the east or front of the building. In the 
middle of each of the other di>dsions is an apertiure or window, 
nearly a square of eighteen inches, having a very deep and 
projected double resemblance of a cornice beneath, resting on 
the upper fillet of the terrace, while the same single proj<?ction 
crowns the top of the window, surmounted with a more lofty 
and elegant device of two elephants* heads and trunks, embel- 
lished and joined in a most tasteful way, with a profusion of 
other devices. On either side of the windows is a small double 
pila.ster, having a space between for tlie figure of a small 
garuday an effigy well known by the Hindus, which is human 
doii-n to the waist, and has the body, wings, and talons of an 
eagle. Beyond the second pilaster, on each side of the win- 
dows, is a large niche rising from the terrace to the cornice or 
division between the upper and lower story. The niche is 
sunk in the wall about four inches, and is formed by the ad- 
joining pilasters rising straight to their capitals, whence the 
top of the niche is formed by a very beautiful series of curved 
lines, leaving the point clear in the centre, which I can hardly 
compare to any thing but rounded branches of laurel, or some 
such foliage. This is crowned with a square projecting fillet, 
which reaches the central cornice dividing the two floors. 
Beyond the last pilaster of the niches, a single stone brings 
you to the angle of the building, which is covered from top to 
bottom with the running arabesque border, most delicately 
executed. On entering the building, the mind of every one 
must be fully satisfied that it was never constructed for, or 
dedicated to, mere religious purposes. The arrangement is 



entirely adapted to tlie domestic residence of a great Hindu 
chieftain or raja. 

The whole building, within and ^thout, was originally 
covered with a coat of very fine chunam, or lime, about one- 
sixth of an inch thick, of surprising tensttity. 


Pursuing the high-road from the spot at which you leave 
it to visit the palace of Bali Sdri^ at the distance of about 
three furlongs and a half, a lofty, massy pile is seen, about 
one hundred yards off the road to the left. Thii ruin is of 
the same general form and appearance )as the larger temples 
at Chdndi Setcu and L&ro J6ngran^ but on a closer examina- 
tion is found to be superior to the wh^e, in the delicate and 
minute correctness of execution of all its decorative parts. It 
ia(a cross, with Uie intermediate angles projected to give space 
to a large central apartment, which is entered from the east 
side only. The building is about seventy-two feet three inches 
in length and the same in breadth. The walls are about 
thirty-five feet high; and the roof, which appears to have^ 
fallen in to the extent of five feet, about thirty more.* Only 
one firont or vestibule is perfect. 

On the south face is seen a small door, five feet seven inches 
high, and three feet five inches and a half wide, situated in a 
deep niche, which also receives in the recess above the door a 
small figure of Sita (as the Sepoy called it) in k sitting posture. 
Beyond the door a small projection contains probably more 
various elaborate specimens of the best sculpture, than were 
to be found any where within a small compass, and on similar 
materials. A very large and well defined monster's head pro- 
jects over the door, surrounded with innumerable devices of 
excellent workmanship. I know not how to describe them, 
nor the niche beneath, containing Sita^ which, amongst other 
accompaniments is supported by two small pilasters, the 
capitals of which are upheld by the small naked figiures before 
described, under the generic term of munnook. The central 
compartment of this southern limb (which is formed by the 
niche and door below, and the gorgon head above) terminates 
at the top in a point, by a gradual elliptical slope upwards 
on both sides. These sides of the slope are filled, on either 



handy with a succession of small naked munnook figures, all 
seated on various postures on tlic steps formed for their recep- 
tion, along the edges of this ellipse, and closed by a tnini^r 
one above. 

On either side of the door-way is a small niche, three feet 
high and six inches wide, supported by small pilasters, and 
filled \%Hth relievo figures of the fraternity of Gdpias and their 
wives. That occupying the niche to the right, my Cicerone 
recogfnised to be Kresna, He was peculiarly happy to find 
Sita seated over the door, which he declared to be a decisive 
proof of the sense and devotional excellence of the founders of 
this superb temple, which he very justly extolled, as far ex- 
celling in sculptural beauty and decorations, any thing he had 
ever seen or heard of in India, or could possibly imagine had 
existence any where. This surprise and admiration at the 
superiority of the Javan architecture, sculpture, and statuary, 
over those of India, was manifest in ever}' Sepoy who saw 
them. Nothing could equal the astonishment of the man who 
attended me tliroughout this sun-ey at every thing he saw ; 
nor did he fail to draw a \GTy degrading and natural contrast 
between tlie ancient Javans, as Hindus and artists, and their 
degenerate sons, with scarce a remnant of arts, science, or of 
any religion at all. 

The arch of all the niches is surmounted with a very lofty 
and magnificent representation, in bas-relievo, of a grand 
pyramidal temple, on a small scale, though superior in size, 
and far more so in execution, to those at L6ro Jdngran or at 
B&ro BOdo, Beyond tliese niches to tlie angles of the build- 
ing, are a series of pilasters, rising to tlie cornice, which sur- 
mounts the whole face of each projecting vestibule. In the 
centre, just at tlic point of each niche, is a gorgon head of the 
usual aspect, which is siurounded by the lofty temples just 

The exterior sides of the vestibules occupy an extent of 
eleven feet and a half, in the centre of which is a niche, much 
larger and deeper than those in the front, being about six feet 
high and two wide, and one deep in the clear, supported on 
either side by a real Hindu pilaster, already described, and 
the top of the niche surmounted with the gorgon head and 
pyramidal temple, equally well known by description. Each 


of these niches was formerly occupied with solid statues, I 
imagine of Gopia, On either side of these single niches are 
the same series of terminating pilasters (three in number), 
which occur also on the fronts of the vestibules, of which the 
centre one is a very magnificent running arabesque, firom top 
to bottom ; the two others are plain without any variation. 

A very fine coat of stucco, of excellent quality, covers the 
whole exterior surface of the temple, and is made so to follow 
the most minute and laboured strokes of skill on the stone un- 
derneath it, as even considerably to add to their effect, par- 
ticularly in concealing the junction of the stones. The walls 
are surmounted with a deep projecting double cornice. No 
principal image was found in the temple or vestibules. 



The temple which I have just described stands close to the 
north side of the village of Kali Beningy east of which is 
the river of that name ; and as I had never before heard of 
any thing fiirther in this quarter, I fancied my work was over, 
I was, however, most agreeably surprised, on being told by 
my Javan guides that there was something more to be seen 
directly south of the village behind us. We accordingly 
passed through it, and barely one hundred and fifty yards 
firom the temple, in a high sugar-cane and palma christi 
plantation, we came suddenly on two pair of very magnificent 
gigantic porters, all facing eastwards, each having stood 
about twelve feet from the others. The pedestals of all these 
statues are nearly covered, or rather entirely sunk into the 
ground. The height of each figure, firom the top of the 
pedestal, is five feet one inch and a half, and breadth at the 
shoulders three feet six inches. They are generally much 
better executed, defined, and consequently more marked and 
striking in their appearance, than those I had seen. The 
countenance is much more marked and expressive, the nose 
more prominent and pointed, the eyebrows meeting in a for- 
midable fi'own. The hair flows all romid and down the back 
in large ringlets and ciurls, and on the ankles, instead of. 


beads, are the small circular bells common in India, under 
the name of googoor. These figures are called Gopoio. 
Behind the second pair of porters, or west of them, is a heap 
of ruins of brick and mortar, which proved on examination 
to be the remains of an ancient hall of audience or state, 
originally standing on fourteen pillars, with a verandah all 
round it standing on twenty-two pillars. The porters guarded 
this building exactly in the centre of its eastern front : the 
nearest pair scarcely thirty feet distant from it The greatest 
length of the building was east and west The inner apart- 
ment over all gave forty-seven feet in length, including the 
pillars : the width of the hall was twenty -eight feet and 
a half in the same way. A verandah, of twelve feet and a 
half wide all round over the pillars, surrounded the hall. 

It struck me forcibly, that the house at Kali Sari was for- 
merly the residence of some great Hindu liaja of Java ; the 
superb temple at Kali Bdningy the place of his devotions and 
prayers ; this hall, a little south of it, that of state or audience, 
perhaps also of recreation after his devotions. Other ruins 
of brick-work, without any mixture of stone, were close by, 
and perhaps ser>*ed as out-houses. 

BORO b6D0. 

In the district of B6ro^ in the province of Kedu^ and near 
to the confluence of the rivers Elo and Pfdga, crowning 
a small hill, stands the temple of B6ro Bddo t, supposed by 
some to ba%'e been built in the sixth, and bv others in the 
tenth century of the Javan era. It is a square stone building 
consisting of seven ranges of walls, each range decreasing as 
you ascend, till the building terminates in a kind of dome. 
It occupies the whole of the upper part of a conical hill, 
which appears to have been cut away so as to receive the 
walls, and to accommodate itself to the figure of the whole 
structure. At the centre, resting on the very apex of the 
hill, is the dome before mentioned, of about fifty feet dia- 
meter ; and in its present ruinous state, the up]>er part having 

* So termed by the people of the neighbouring villagefl. B6ro it the 
name of the dittrict, bddo meant ancient. 


fallen in, only about twenty feet high. This is surrounded 
by a triple circle of towers, in number seventy-two, each 
occupied by an image looking outwards, and all connected by 
a stone casing of the hill, which externally has the appear- 
ance of a roof. 

Descending from thence, you pass on each side of the 
building by steps through five handsome gateways, con- 
ducting tc(&ve successive terraces^ which surround the hill on / 
every side. The walls which support these terraces arcr 
covered with the richest sculpture on both sides^ but more 
particularly on the side which forms an interior wall to the 
terrace below, and are raised so as to form a parapet on the 
other side. (Iri the exterior of these parapets, at equal dis-i 
tances, are niches, each containing a naked figure sitting 
cross-legged, and considerably larger than life*^ the total 
number of which is not far short of four hundred. Above 
each niche is a little spire, another above each of the sides of 
the niche, and another upon the parapet between the sides of 
the neighbouring niches. The design is regular ; the archi- 
tectural and sculptural ornaments are profuse. The bas-reliefs 
represent a variety of scenes, apparently mythological, and 
executed with considerable taste and skill. The whole area 
occupied by this noble building is about six hundred and 
twenty feet either way. 

The exterior line of the ground-plan, though apparently a 
perfect square when viewed at a distance, is not exactly of 
that form, as the centre of each face, to a considerable extent, 
projects many feet, and so as to cover as much ground as the 
conical shape of the hill will admit: the same form is 
observe^ in each of the terraces. 

The whole has the appearance of one solid building, and ^ 
is about a hundred feet high, independently of the central 
spire of about twenty feet, which has fallen in. The interior ' 
consists almost entirely of the hill itself/^. 

* These figures measure above three feet in height in a sitting posture, 
and with the images found in the towers exactly resemble those in the 
small temples at Chdndi S4um 

f Drawings of the present and former state of this edifice, and illus- 
trative of the sculptural ornaments by which it is distinguished, have been 
made^ and have been long in the hands of the engraver. 


Near the site of this majestic edifice was found a mutilated 
stone image of Brahma^ and at no great distance, situated 
within a few yards of the confluence of the rivers Elo and 
Prdga, are the remains of several very beautifully executed 
and interesting temples, in form and design corresponding 
with those in the neighbourhood of Brambdnan, In niches 
and on the walls of these are designed in relief numerous 
figures \«ith many arms, evidently of the Braminical order, 
most of them having their several attributes perfect. It 
is remarkable that at B&ro Bddo no figures of this description 

The image of the harpy (No. 1. of the annexed plate) was 
taken from the temple at Bdro Bddo and brought to England : 
it is of stone, in length about twenty inches, and exceedingly 
well executed. The other subjects in this plate were not 
found in this neighbourhood. No. 2 is a stone box about a 
foot square, containing a smaU golden lingam : it was recently 
dug up near Mdlang by a peasant, who was levelling the 
ground for a cooking place. No. 3 and 4 are representations 
of ornamental stone water-spouU, collected in the vicinity of 
Pakalung*an. No. 5 is an ornamental comer stone, now 
lying among the ruins of Mnjapdhitj the fig^e carved upon 
which is nearly as large as life. 

Next to Bdro Bddo in importance, and perhaps still more 
interesting, are the extensive ruins which are found on 
Gunung Dieng^ the supposed residence of tlie gods and demi- 
gods of antiquity ♦. ITiis mountain, from its resemblance 
to the hull of a vessel, is also called Gunung Prdhm. It is 
situated northward and westward of the mountain Sindoro^ 
which fonns the boundary* between Kedu and BdngumoM^ and 
terminates a range of hills running cast from the mountain of 
Tegdl. There are no less than twenty -nine difiert*nt peaks of 
this mountain, or rather cluster of moiuitains, each of which 
has its peculiar name, and is remarkable for some peculiar 
production or natiuid phenomenon. 

On a table-land about six hundred feet higher than the sur- 

* Here, according to the tradition of the Javans, are to be found the 
ruins of Arjtima, Gatut K*icka, Bima, Drrma Kasmma, Sa D^a, and other 
characters who figured in the Brdia YmdMa, or war of the PHdmg. 


rounding country, which is some thousand feet above the level 
of the sea, are found the remains of various temples, idols, 
and other sculpture, too numerous to be described in this 
place. A subject in stone, haying three faces, and another' 
with four arms, having a ball or globe in one hand and a\ 
thunderbolt in another, were the most conspicuous^ - .. y' i 

The ascent from the country below to the table-land on 
which these temples stood is by four flights of stone steps, on 
four different sides of the hill, consisting of not less than one 
thousand steps each^- The ascent from the southern side is 
now in many parts steep and rocky, and in some places 
almost inaccessible, but the traveller is much assisted by the 
dilapidated remains of the stone steps, which appear to be of 
the greatest antiquity. Time alone, indeed, cannot have so 
completely demolished a work, of which the materials were so 
durable and the construction so solid. The greatest part of 
this wonderful memorial of human industry lies buried under 
huge masses of rock and lava ; and innumerable proofs are 
afforded of the mountain having, at some period since the 
formation of the steps, been in a state of violent eruption. 
Near the summit of one of the hills there is a crater of about 
half a mile diameter. 

At no great distance from this crater, in' a north-west 
direction, is situated a plain or table-land, surrounded on all 
sides but one by a ridge of mountains about a thousand feet 
above it. At some very remote period it was perhaps itself 
the crater of a vast volcano. On its border are the remains 
of four temples of stone, greatly dilapidated, but manifestly 
by the effect of some violent shock or concussion of the 
earth. The largest of them is about forty feet square : the 
walls are ten feet thick, and the height about thirty-five feet. 
The only apartment which it contains is not more than twenty 
feet square, and has only one entrance. The roof is arched 
to a point in the centre, about twenty feet high above the 
walls, so that the whole building was almost one solid mass 
of masonry, composed of the most durable cut stone, in 
blocks of from one to two feet long and about nine inches 
square. Yet these walls, so constructed, are rent to the 
bottom. It was particularly observable, that little or no 
injury had been done by vegetation, the climate being unfa- 

VOLr. II. D 


Tourable to the ttaringeny whose rootB are so destmctiTe 

to the buildings of the lower regions. The entablatures 

of these buildings still exhibit specimens of delicate and very 

elegant sculpture. Several deep excavations are observed in 

the neighbourhood. These, it is said, were made by the 

natives, in search of gold utensils, images, and coins, many 

of which have, from time to time, been dug up here. 

/ The whole of the plain is covered ydxXx scattered ruins and 

large fragments of hewn stone to a considerable distance. In 

Ithe centre are four more temples, nearly similar to those 

before mentioned, but in a much better state of preser^-ation, 

the sculpture being in many places quite perfect Numerous 

^images of deities are scattered about. 

/ On a more minute examination of this plain, traces of the 

fiite of nearly four hundred temples were discovered, having 

)l)road and extensive streets or roads rmining between them at 

/right anglesy The ground -plan of these, as far as it could be 

ascertained, with sketches of the different images, ornaments, 

and temples, which distinguish this classic ground, have been 

made by Captain Baker, who devoted three weeks to the 

accomplishment of this interesting object At present I hare 

it only in my power to exhibit a drawing of one of the temples, 

in the state in which it was found in 1815, with the same 

temple restored to what it originally was. 

The whole of the country lying between Gunung Dieng 
and BrambdnaHy in a line nearly crossing the central part of 
the island, abounds with ruins of temples, dila{)idated ifrvngyfty 
and traces of Hinduism. Many of the Wllagers^tween BU- 
dran and Jetit^ in the road from Bdnyumas tlirough Ked£^ 
have availed themselves of the extensive remains to form the 
walls of their buildings. In the enclosures to several of the 
villages (which are here frequently walled in) are discovered 
large stones, some representing gorgon heads, others beauti- 
fully executed in relief, which had formed the friezes and cor- 
nices of temples, all regularly cut so as to be morticed together, 
but now heaped one upon another in the utmost confiision and 

Along the fields, and by the road-side, between JHU and 
MdgeUiHj are seen in ditches or elsewhere many beautiful 
remains of sculpture, and among them many yonU and Mt- 



gam»j where they seem not only to be entirely disregarded by 
the natives, but thrown on one side as if in the way. 

The(u)Uawing is the account given by Dr. U^orsfield of the 
ruins found in the Eastern Provinces of the native princes, in | 
the year 1815^ 

KEDIRI, &c. 

^ In the districts of Jagardga^ Charubany Rdtoa, Kaldng- 
bretf Trengdlij Pranardga^ and Magetduy these antiquities 
are dispersed solitary at occasional points, and consist prin- 
cipally of images or rechas. The remains of buildings, and 
of towns and cities, generally distinguished by the name of 
Kdta-iedahy are also noticed ; but Mddion^ Kertasdnay Ke^ 
diriy and Sreng^dty contain very important and interesting 

In regarding them, the vicinity of the former capital of the 
princes of the house of Majapdhit strikingly offers itself for 
consideration ; and a traveller perceives them to increase in 
number, as he proceeds from the western to the eastern 

Commencing my notices from the westward, I have ta 
point out in Mddion four monuments, or stones covered with 
inscriptions : these, with several pedestals and other remains. 
<rf ancient buildings, have been collected and employed at 
Mauspdtif the capital oiMddiony lately established by Rdden 
Rdng^gay the well known rebel of iheYiiffya-kerta court On 
tlie largest of these monuments the characters of the inscrip- 
tion are still in a great degree distinguishable, and these I 
have carefully taken ofif ; on the others, which are smaller, 
the characters, although completely perceivable, are too much 
obEterated by the decomposition and decay of the substance 
of the stone to afford a copy. Besides these inscriptions ; re- 
mains of buildings, pedestals, and rechas of different sizes, 
have also been collected from various parts of this province, 
and employed to decorate a well and bath near the capital. 
After a considerable interruption, which contains no remains 
at present, I discovered, in a direction almost due east from 
Mauspdtiy in the district of Anjdgy a monument with an in- 
scription in a more perfect state. In form this, as well as the 



others, resembles the common tomb-stones of oar burial 
grounds, exceeding them only in size : its dimensions have 
been carefully taken. Four sides are covered with characters; 
two of these were in a state sufficiently preserved to be copied 
vnih only occasional deficiencies. This stone was placed 
near a chdndiy of which Uie ruins only remain. It was two 
stories high, built of elegant bricks, according to the usual 
plan and distribution. In size, it nearly agrees vnih that of 
Jdbufig, near Probolhigo, It is obvious, that both the dimen- 
sions and tlie general ])lan of the numerous chdndis found in 
these eastern districts, built of these materials, arc similar ; at 
least they do not exhibit that variety, both in size and distri- 
bution, that is obser>'ed among the larger edifices built of 

Anjdg is connected in the east to Kerta^dna. In this pro- 
vince I foimd two monuments covered with inscriptions, a 
kdtah beddhy or destroyed capital, and various rechtu. The 
district of Brebeg has lately been separated from Kert€uana. 
The newly-appointed Tumung*gung^ in clearing and levelling 
the ground for a dwelling and for a new capital, on the site of 
the village Brebeg^ discovered, by following the indication of 
water oozing from the surface, in a slight concavity covered 
by a wild vegetation, the remains of a bat}>, constructed with 
neatness, and not without taste and art The principal exca- 
vation, which appears to have been employed as a bath, is 
oblong, and about ten feet in length. Six small outlets or 
fountains pour the water into it, which was conducted from a 
rivulet flowing at some distance, by small canals cut ofstone, 
but bedded in a foundation of brick, llie fomitains discharg- 
ing the water are covered with sculptiure in reUef, tolerably 
executed : one of these is a female figiu-e poming small 
streams from the breast**. Adjoining to this bath are several 
otlier resenoirs of water, included in the same sc|uare, and 
receiving the supply by the same channels. Everj' thing is 
constructed massy of regular and elegant bricks. The present 
Tumung\juiig has collected, near tliis bath, many rechas and 
other antiquities from various partK of the district: among 
these was found one small inscription. Towards the foot of 
mount If 7//>, in a southern direction from Brebeg^ I visited, 
at the village Ng^efwty a chdndi constructed of brick, and slill 


entire, with only partial dilapidation of the ornamental parts. 
It is on the whole very similar to the appearance exhibited 
by the remains of the chdndi at Anjdg^ and to the others con- 
structed of bricks in the eastern districts above mentioned. 
Near this is a smaller chdndi^ of the same construction, in 
ruins, with various other remains of antiquity. 

The^environs of the capital of Kediri abound with antiqui- 
ties of every kind ; but it is evident that here, more than at 
other places, great expense and laboiu* has been bestowed to 
demolish the buildings and to mutilate the images. In all 
parts of the site of the present capital I noticed fragments 
covered with sculpture in relief/ broken recha^^ and regularly 
chiselled oblong stones, of that kind which was employed in 
the construction of the chdndi Sy besides very extensive foun- 
dations,- in brick, of walls, buildings, &c. I am further led to 
suppose, from the regularity and elegance of the materials em- 
ployed, that a Mahomedan temple and grave have been con- 
structed almost entirely from an ancient building demolished 
for the purpose, at the period of the introduction of the Ma- 
homedan religion. This temple is called Astdna Geddng, but 
none of the present inhabitants can give any information as 
to the period of its construction. As it is of Mahomedan 
origin I took only^ a very slight view of it, to avoid the dis- 
agreeable gesticulations which the natives always exhibited 
on the approach of one of their sanctuaries ; and it is a very 
comfortable circumstance that a traveller is freely permitted 
to examine undisturbed, all those antiquities which are un- 
equivocally derived from a period preceding the introduction 

of Mahomedanism, or from what the natives call " wong kUnaj 
kapiTy or buda,''^ 

I shaU shortly enimierate the principal antiquities o( Kediri 
which I visited, and only mention the names of those villages 
where the greatest number of rechas are dispersed. These 
are PdpaVj Kebo-gddungy GadHngdn and Pdgot, 

The cave of Sela-mdngleng is situated about two miles in 
a western direction from the capital, at the foot of the hill 
Kldtoky an appendage to the large mountain of Wilis : it con- 
sists of foiu" small apartments cut into the solid rock compos- 
ing the hill, on a very gentle eminence. The apartments are 
adjoining to each other, foiming a regular series, which 


stretches firom north to south. The two middle apartments, 
which are the largest, have each an entrance firom without, 
while those at the extremity commonicate bj an interior door, 
each with the apartment next to it They differ but little in 
size. Their form is square or oblong ; the largest is less than 
twenty feet in length. The walls of the two principal apart* 
ments are covered with sculpture, and various platforms and 
projections indicate the places of devotion or penance. Sere- 
ral rechas now arranged in the avenue leading to the care, 
as well as the sculpture covering the walls of the apartments 
within, are handsomely worked ; but the external scnlptmre 
of the rock is coarse, and the steps by which one ascends, 
which are cut out of the same general mass of rock, i^pear to 
have been made intentionally rude. Several niches for r^Aot, 
lamps, &c. are cut in various parts of the walls ; a lin^am^ se- 
veral rcser\'oirs of water, and other figures are arranged on the 
vestibule. Of an inscription on the external rock, one regular 
line, stretching from tlie door of the outer apartments to tha 
northern extremity of the rock, is still discernible, but many 
of the characters are probably too much effaced to afford an 

In an eastern direction from the capital of Kedirij the an- 
tiquities o( Senttil and of Priidung are the most remarkable. 
Sentul is situated near the district of Tiga-wdn^y in a forest, 
the condition of which indicates an undisturbed vegetation for 
many successive ages. Tlie dimensions of the principal edi« 
fice, now remaining nearly entire, are comparatively inconsi* 
derable, but the workmanship is executed in a style of ele- 
gance, equal to tliat of any anticjuity found on the island. By 
the prosrnt inhabitants the building is denominated a chumkwp^ 
which word, in as far as it admits of a precise translation, 
denotes a place of burial or a re|>ository of the dead. It ap- 
pears to n»semble, in its general scheme, several of the other 
principal antiquities of Java, being a solid massy structure, 
without any internal apartment or chamber, as a chdndi\ but af- 
fording, on the summit, an extensive platform or place of de- 
votion, to which one of tlie sides is appn)priated to furnish an 
ascent, while tlie others are peqwudieular. The access to the 
chunkup was from the west. Not only the sides of the stairs, 
but the {perpendicular walls of the building, are omamenled 


by entablatures, the internal divisions of which are covered 
by elegant sculpture, while the projections are carved into a 
great variety of forms, which can only be represented clearly 
by a drawing. A few images, removed from their original 
situation, are dispersed through different parts of the surround- 
ing area, displaying an exquisite workmanship. On the sum- 
mit remains an highly elegant reservoir of water of uncommon 
dimensions. The plan of this building is a nearly regular 
square, the sides of which are about thirty-six feet in length. 

It contains in its foundation a subterraneous cell, to which 
the descent is by very narrow ^eps, leading from the south : 
this consists of three compartments, graduaUy decreasing in 
dimensions as they extend into the body of the building. The 
height of the cell does not permit a person to stand erect, and 
no vestiges indicate its former appropriation, whether as a 
place of devotion or penance, or for the reception of the re- 
mains of the person to whose memory devotion was paid on 
the summit 

Near this chUnkup is a smaller building of the same kind, 
equally ornamented by handsome sculpture. The remaining 
bases of numerous walls shew the division of the surrounding 
court into many compartments, and the whole adjoining terri- 
tory was included within a wall constructed of brick, of 
which I found the vestiges in various points, and numerous 
separate foundations and detached fragments of chiseled stone 
remain within the exterior wall in the confines of the 

In proceeding fix)m Sentul^ in an eastern direction, to the 
extremity of the province of Kediriy solitary remains of an- 
tiquity are occasionally found ; aad it is probable that these 
extend, without considerable interruption, towards the cele- 
brated antiquities of Mdlang. Among these, tUgtAS or land- 
marks are also observed. 

The chdndi oiPrudung is situated about eight miles south- 
west of Sentul. Though constructed entirely of brick, this 
edifice deserves particular notice. It exceeds in its dimen- 
sions and importance all other edifices built of the same ma- 
terials that I have seen. Besides a principal apartment, the 
entrance to which is from the west, it contains in the east, 
the north, and the south, smaller apartments on the same floor, 


whose entrance corresponds to the niches usually ob8er\'ed in 
the walls. The projecting base containing the stairs has been 
destroyed, and one ascends at present to view the interior of 
the chdndi by a ladder, the height of about twenty feet. The 
dimensions of the ornaments and figures on the sides corres- 
pond to the size of the building, and the sculptiure is executed 
in a superior style. Follow ing a southern direction, r^kas^ 
resen'oirs of water, mortars, fragments of buildings and orna- 
ments, are found at almost ever^' village. Near the boundiury, 
but within the province of Sreng*dtj a chdndi of bnck, of the 
usual size, still remains entire near the village Genen^n. 

The rechds which have been accumulated at the capital of 
Sreng'di from the vicinity, indicate the condition of the an- 
cient establishments, as the general review of tlie antiquities 
found in this province, strongly points out tliat its former cid- 
ture was very different from its present rudeness. Places 
j which are now covered witli almost im]>enetrable forests^like 
tliose surrounding the chunktip of Snituly tlie first appearance 
1 of which would indicate an undisturbed growth from the origin 
* of vegetation, are found to conceal the most stu))endous monu- 
ments of human art and labour. During various botanical 
excursions which I made through this province, I discovered 
(or rather was led to them by tlie natives) ihc chdndi oi Geddg^ 
tlie anti([uities at Penatdrany and various monuments covered 
wilh inscriptions^ which I shall separately enumerate below. 

llie chdndi of Gedog is a structure in tlie usual style of 
brick, but executed witli superior excellence, while much of 
tlie oniametal work is sui)plied of stone. Several of the sides 
are still entire, but the base of the entrance or steps has 
gradually separated. Gedog is situated near Biiiar^ formeriy 
a capital, but now reduced to a simple village. Here, also, 
interesting antiquities are found, among which the site of a 
deserted capital, with its walls and many stone ]>edestals, at- 
tract the notice of the traveller. 

Proceeding in a nearly nortli-east direction, I visited the 
anti(|uities at Penaiaran, 'Iliese, if not of the first rank, must 
doubtless be considered as belonging to tliose of second im- 
portiuice and interest, botli on account of extent and execu- 
tion ; but a complete and accurate description would require 
n detail ioo extensive for my present purpose. 'Ilie greatest 



part of these antiquities is now in ruins. (Their general plan» 
indicates an appropriation both to purposes of devotion and! 
habitation. They comprize an extensive area of an oblong - 
form, which was surrounded by an external wall of which the I 
foundations can be traced throughout^ and the whole was 
divided into three compartments. Ine principal edifice is 
situated in the eastern compartment, and was only accessible 
after passingf three separate gates^ which are all discemiblei; 
although mucn decayed. They^^are individually guarded^ as al/ 
Chdndi settm and Sinffa-sdrij^y porters resting on their hams,/ 
while a knee is drawn up to support the hand clasping a club 
of proportionate size. The principal gate, in ancient times 
probably the only entrance, is of huge dimensions, and guarded 
by porters of gigantic size?) This led to the first subdivision 
of the whole area, in which tw<3t elevated plains, of an oblong 
form, confined by walls rising above the surrounding territory, 
and in all probability the floors of former places of dwelling, 
are the most interesting objects that now remain. 

One of these plains extends to the north-east extremity, 
having been in contact with the external wall, as appears firom 
its relative situation to the gate, and to the foundations tliat 
still exist; this is of great dimensions: the other inclines 
more to the middle of this compartment, and is somewhat less 
in extent. Both exhibit the appearance of having supported 
a building, and are elevated at present about three feet above 
the level of the surrounding forest, while tlie same depth is 
concealed by a layer of vegetable mould, accumulated during 
many successive ages. The sides of the smaller plain are 
covered with elegant sculpture in relief, the detail of the de- 
sign of which would alone require a considerable time. Four 
entrances are indicated by as many flights of steps, the sides of 
which are elegantly decorated, and the pedestals still remain- 
ing at regular intervals along the confines, having the form of 
truncated pyramids, appear to shew that it was covered by a 
roof supported by wooden pillars, somewhat in the style of 
the pasebans of the present Javans. Similar pedestals are 
like\iase placed in regular order along the sides of the large 
plain, which has the same number of entrances as the smaller, 
of which those in the north and south are guarded by portera 
of comparatively small stature. 


The second compartment is less extensive than the western : 
a small chandi of excellent woikmanship, huilt of stone, h^ne 
attracts particular notice. The remains of Tarious buildings, 
pedestals, and broken cmiaments, are also observed, and it is 
probable that others are concealed by the forest and motdd 
which covers this compartment, which must be considered as 
the vestibule to the third or eastern division, containing the 
principal edifice : this of the various remains of the whole 
area deserves the most attention. It is indeed a surprising 
and a wonderful work : both the labour required in the can* 
struction, and the art displayed in the decoration are incal* 
^ulable. The general base is a large square, but each of the 
s^des has a particular projection in the middle, the largest 
bHng in the west, where the ascents are placed, by which the 
outline exhibits twelve angles. It belongs to the same class 
of buildings as that at S^tuly containing no chamber or 
vacancy within, but exhibiting a solid mass, highly decorated 
at tlic sides, and affording externally places of devotion. It 
consists of three different compartments, successively of 
smaller dimensions. Two pair of steps, one to the north, the 
other to the south of the most projecting part of the western 
side, lead to the area furnished by the lower compartmentf 
tlie form of which agrees with the general base. From the 
middle of the most projecting part of the western side of this 
area, a single flight of steps conducts to the second, and is 
ininicdiatelv continued to tlic tliird area on the summit of the 
whole building. The second compartment does not agree in 
fonii with the general l)asi>, but by means of tlie diverging of 
th(* sidrs in a direction opposite to tlie most projecting parts 
of the lower area, it furnishes in the west a plain before the 
st('])s, and in the north, the south, and the, extensive 
an»as or sfjuares, which were probably destinetl for particular 
worship. By the form of the second compartment the second 
area in likewist* modified ; but to demonstrate tliis a plan 
would !>e re(|uired; and I shall only ad<l, that the upper area 
was a regular s<|nan», but as ajn>ears from the remains of 
variouM foundations, subdividod into partitions. 

Here the figure of Urdnut)(\hQ r^cha with foiur faces) is 
placed alone, of a workmanship and finish superlatively excel- 
lent. It is to be remarked in this place, that besides thiSf 


only one image is found on this structure, attached to the 
walls of the second compartment, facing the smaller area on 
the base, from which it appears to have been worshipped. I 
shall not enter into a detail of the sculpture which covers all 
the sides of the three compartments : its diversity far exceeds 
the bounds of my examination or description. In the intel- 
ligent visitor it excites astonishment, and displays a degree of 
ait and of taste, equal, as far as my opportunities for obser- 
vation have extended, to that of any of the other remains of 
antiquity found on Java. 

In clearing up part of the rubbish that surrounded the 
southern sides of this edifice, I -was fortunate enough to dis- 
cover a monument covered with an inscription of the usual 
size and form ; but the characters have suffered much from 
time. . 

Of other antiquities which fell under my observation in the 
province of Sreng^dt^ I shall only mention those at Semdn^ 
ding and Sangrdhan, These, from their semblance to the 
edifice at S^niul^ appear to have contained the remains of the 
dead, and to have been employed to celebrate their memory* 
They are considered as chunkups by the natives. Each has 
something particular in its structure and appropriation ; but 
I shall not extend these details. Various spots were men- 
tioned by the inhabitants, which are now covered with a close 
forest, in which less considerable remains, rechasy &c. are 
found, and others are probably concealed or unknown. They 
existed also on the south side of the large river flowing from 
the east, a branch of the river of Kediri and Surabdyay in 
the tract of iMddya, celebrated at present only on accoimt of 
the wildness of the territory. Among these I visited a 
monument covered with inscriptions in a highly preserved 
condition, fin my botanical excursions through this and tha 
neighbouring districts, I also met with various caverns and 
other remains, the retreat oi fakirs, hermits, &c. to which the 
approach is diflicult)Dr painfiil : they are distinguished by the 
denomination of Ser-tdpa. 

Proceeding further east, the ruins in the district of Mdlang 
next attract oux attention. These I visited in 1815. 

44 antiquitie:?. 



We first proceeded fVom Pasuruan to lAwangy mounting 
our horses at the niins of a fort, wliich for some time with* 
stood the Dutch arms on their first taking possession of these 
districts. Further on, bet\\'een Ldwang and Mdlang^ the 
scene of a famous battle fought at that time was pointed oat 
to us. Tlie family of the present Regent were first appointed 
to the office for sendees rendered on that occasion. The 
road from PaJturuan to iMwang lay principally through 
forests, in which we observed the uraringen to predominate. 

On the next morning we visited the ruins of ^nga Sdri^ 
whicli are situated a few paces within the entrance of a teak 
forest, about four miles from Ldtcang^ and on the right of the 
high-road leading to Mdlang, 

Tlie first object which attracted our attention was the 
ruins of a chdndi or temple. It is a square building, having 
the entrance on the western side : its "present height may be 
about thirty feet. Over the entrance is an enormous gorgon 
head^ and a similar ornament appears originally to have been 
))laced on each of the other sides Of the building, over the 
niches, which correspond with the entrance on the western 
side. In one of tliese niches we observed an image Uing flat 
on the ground, with its head off: in anotlier, the pedestal of 
an image, wliich we were informed had been taki*n away by 
Mr. rhigelhard ; and where tlie traces of a third niche 
appeared, the stones had been removed, and a deep hole dug, 
so as to disfigure, and in a great measure demolish, this part 
of the building. This was also attributed to Mr. Engelhard*8 

On entering the chdndi^ to which we ascended by stones 
which had evidently lx»en once placed as steps, we observed 
a wry deep excavation, and a large square stone ups(*t and 
tlirown on one side. We ordered it to l)e fille<l up and the 
large stone rejilaced. 'Iliere was a nnuid hole passing com- 
pletely thnnigh the centre of this stone, which, whether it had 
Ihhmi an altar, the pedestal to some image, or a goniy we could 
not ascertain. 



Without the building, on part of the ruins which appeared 
to have been the lower terrace, we noticed two porters, with 
clubs in their hands, resting on the shoulder. The features 
were entirely defaced, and the images rude; but we easily 
recognized their similarity to the porters at Brambdnan, 
They were, however, not above three feet high. 

The devices, ornaments, and general style of this temple 
are not very different from those of the great temple at 
Brambdnan : the cornices and mouldings are no less rich and 
well executed. The external form of the building may differ, 
but the recess, or chamber within, seems on the same prin- 
ci]|^. There is no inlet for the light from above. 

(Proceeding a short distance further inte the forest, we 
found several images of the Hindu mythology^ in excellent 
preservation, and more highly executed than any we had 
previously seen in the island. In the centre, without pro- 
tection from the weather, was the bull Ndndiy quite perfect, 
with the exception of the horns, one of which was lying by 
the side of it. This image is above five feet and a half long, 
in high preservation, and of excellent proportion and work- 

{Near the bull, and placed against a tree, is a magnificent 
Brahma. The four heads are perfecty except that there is a 
mutilation about the nose. The figure is highly ornamented, 
and more richly dressed than is usual. 

Not far off we notice^ Mahadeway known by his trident 
On the stone from which this is cut in relief are several 
Devandgari characters. 

Another stone, with a figure nearly similar, stood by it. A 
Hindu Sepoy, who accompanied us, asserted that it repre- 
sented a Bramin, but it was too mutilated for us to ascertain 
the point 

A(car or chariot oiSuriay or {the sun, with seven horses, of 
which the heads were wanting^? was the only other object of 
antiquity in this groupe. The horses are at full speed, with 
extended tails, and the square of the chariot seems to have 
once formed the pedestal of an image. 

At the distanoe of about a hundred yards from this spot, 
we were conducted toi a magnificent Gan^sa of a colossal 
size, most beautifully executed, and in high preservatioti. 


The pedestal is surrounded by skulls, and skulls seem used 
not only as ear-rings, but as the decoration of overy part to 
which they can be applied The head and trunk are very 
correct imitations of nature. Tlie figure appears to have 
stood on a platform of stone ; and firom the number of stones 
scattered, it is not improbable it may have been inclosed in a 
niche or temple. 

Still further in the wood, at a short distance, we found 
another colossal statue, of the same stamp as the porters at 
Bramhdnan, This statue was lying on its face at the entrance 
of an elevated stone terrace : but the people having excavated 
and cleared the earth around, we were enabled distinctlv to 
examijie the face and front It measures in length about 
twelve feet, breadth between the shoulders nine feet and a 
hal^ and at the base nine feet by five, and is cut firom one 
solid stone. The figure is represented as sitting on its hams, 
with the hand resting on each knee, but no club, although it 
is not impossible it may have been broken ofL The comi- 
tenance is well expressed and the nose prominent ; but this 
feature, as well as the mouth and chin, have suffered injury 
from partial mutilation. 

The statue seems evidently to have fallen firom the adjacent 
elevated terrace, which is about eighteen feet high in its 
present dilapidated state, and is built of stones, the upper 
ones being immense slabs of five feet by four, and three feet 
thick. A second figure of the same dimensions was after- 
wanls found in the Wcinity ; these were no doubt porters who 
guarded the entrance to these temples. 

Having visited all that could be traced in the vicinity of 
Singa Sdri^ we proceeded on to Mdlang^ distant thirteen 
paUs firom Ldtcangj and in the evening we visited the ruina 
of SHipit'urangy usually called Kdtah B^dah^ or demolished 
fort, the site of the last establishment of the refiigees from 

The wall of this fortification is of brick, and the foundation 
is traced without difficulty. We rode round it within 8ide> 
and as far as we coidd calculate it could not measure leas 
than two miles round. It is of an irregular figure, but in a 
position rendered remarkably strong by two rivers, which run 
their course round three-fourths of the wall, and then unite. 


The depth from the wall to the rivers is from fifty to a hun- 
dred feet, and in some places still more ; in many parts the 
descent is nearly perpendicular. Where the rivers do not . 
encircle the waDs, a deep moat is cut from one river to the 
other, which is easily flooded by stopping the course of either 
river. It is about seventy-five feet wide and not less than 
fifty deep, even in its present state, filled up no doubt con- 
siderably, and in many parts cultivated. tThere appear to be ' ^ 
several dwellings, if not villages, within the walls, and a good / 
deal of cultivation, principally of tobacco. . 

The next morning we proceeded to visit the ruins at K^dal 
and JdffUj the former about seven miles, the latter nearly four 
from Mdlanffy in a south-easterly direction. 

At Kedal are the remains of a very beautifiil temple of stone: 
its present height about thirty-five feet The building is sup- 
ported by a lion at each of the four cornices, and one on each 
side of the steps of the entrance. In the centre of each of the 
lower departments, between the lions, axe figures in relief 
upon the wall. The mouldings and sculpture on this temple 
are in the same style as those of Brambdnan and B&ro BddOf 
but of still greater beauty. The building is surrounded by a 
square wall, and in the front is a raised terrace. The chamber 
appears to be of the same form as most of the temples in Java. 
Over the entrance is an immense gorgon head, and in the 
chamber itself a deep hole. 

There are no Hindu images or other traces of Hindu my- 
thology, except what may be afforded by the lions, and the . 
figures in relief above mentioned. These represent the same 
principal figure, but with different attributes. On one side 
three immense serpents entwine over the head, the tail of one 
of them evidently held in the right hand ; on another a water- 
pot, with a serpent's head attached to it, is on the head of the 
figure ; and on the other there is a female figure with a ser- 
pent, the female reclining over the head. 

This temple is just within the skirts of a forest 

At JdgUy also, we found the ruins a few yards within a 
forest, but these appeared to have been more extensive than 
the preceding. 

llie base of the principal building is much larger than any 


of the temples we visited in the eastern part of the island, and 
there appeared to have been originally two or three terraces 
rising one above the other to the height of thirty feet. The 
form of the entrance still appears, but the roof, sides, and 
back part of the building, have entirely given way. Behind 
the ruin, and apparently in the same spot on which it origi- 
nally fell, lies a dilapidated image of a Hindu deity. The 
pedestal of this image is perfect, and lies near it. The head 
had been carried to Melang some years ago by a Dutchman. 
On the back stone we observed an inscription, evidently in the 
Devandgari character, and which the Sepoy who accompanied 
us declared to be Sanscrit The characters on each side were 
extremely distinct, but those at the back of the head of the 
figure were defaced. 

Tliis building is most richly ornamented with carved work, 
and various devices in relief arc cut in the first, second, and 
third stories. One of these relievos represents a battle be- 
tween an army of apparently polished people and an army of 
RoJtdksa, The figures are very rudely car>*ed and dispropor- 
tioned, but in general richness of effect may be compared to 
the style of the omamcnLs at Bdro BOdo, There are a variety of 
processions and achievements represented in different parts, 
but no where could we obser^'e any image or particular object 
of devotion. Along tlie cornices, which are most splendidly 
rich, we noticed birds and beasts of various descriptions inter- 
woven. In pne part a palm tree between two lambs approach- 
ing each other, in another a perfect boar, apparently led to 
Uie sacrifice. 

At a short distance fit)m this principal building, say fifty 
yards, stands the remains of what would appear to have been 
an elevated terrace of about twelve feet high, llie ascent is 
on one side, by regular stone steps, still perfect 

Previously to leaving Mdlang we took sketches of two 
images brought in from the fort, an<l also of the image of a 
man, peculiar from tlie manner in which the hair was tied. 
At Mdlangy also, 1 received from the Tuinung^gung a small 
square stone-box, containing a golden Ungam ; this had been 
discovered three months before, about a cubit under ground, 
by a peasant, while digging for stones to build his cooking 


place. The lingam had originally two very small red stones 
within ity something like rubies ; one of them was lost before 
it was delivered to me, the other by the party examining it 


The^mains of antiquity still existing at 5fiA:t^y though not to 
be compared with those dXBrambdnan andBdro Bddo in extent 
and magnificence, seem to claim a peculiar interest, on account 
of the indication they afford of a different form of worship. 
These ruins ^ere not known to Europeans until a short time - 
previous to my visit to the central districts, in May 1815> When 
I visited them, the native inhabitants of SHra-kerta were also 
ignorant of their existence, and we are indebted for the disco- 
very to the British Resident at that court. Major Martin Johnson. 

They lie in an eastern direction from Sera-kerta^ and are 
distant from that capital about twenty-six English miles, being 
situated on the summit of one of the smaller hills to be found 
on the base of the mountain Ldttm, Erom Sura-k&rta oiu: road 
was a continued ascent, which increased as we approached 
the hills : the country most highly cultivated, and in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the hills, where the dry cultivation predo- 
minated, beautiftd beyond description. 

Suku is the name of the village to which the lands in the 
neighbourhood of these ruins are annexed ; and we were not 
able to ascertain that they were designated by any other name, 
or that the term Suku had any immediate reference or applica- 
tion to the buildings. 

The^principal structure is a truncated pyramid, situated on 
the most elevated of three successive terraces. The ruins of 
two obehsks, having the form of the section of a pyramid, are 
also observable in the vicinity of the principal building, and 
on each side of the western front appear several piles of 
ruinous buildings and sculpture. The length of the terraces 
is about one hundred and ^fifty-seven feet ; the depth of the 
first, eighty feet ; of the second, thirty ; and of the highest, 
one hundred and thirty feet.. 

The approach is from the west, through three porches or 
gateways^ of which the outermost alone is now standing ; but 
enough remains of the second and third to indicate a simila- 
rity of construction. This porch is a building of about six- 



teen feet high, in tolerable preservation, of a p3rrainidal fomL 
The entrance is seven feet and a half high, and about three 
feet wide ; a gorgon head forms the key-stone of the arch. 
The ascent is first by seven, and shortly after by three steps ; 
and in relief, on the centre of the flooring under the porch, is a 
representation of the male and female pudendal 

On the outer face of the porch several figures are sculptured 
in relief. On the right side, the principal figure is that of a 
man of monstrous appearance devouring a child : to his right 
a dog sitting, the head wanting, and a bird of the stork kind 
near the root of a tree, on one of the branches of which a 
bird not unlike a dove or pigeon is perched ; over the figure 
is a bird on the i^nng, either the hawk or eagle. Above the 
figure of a man with tlie tail of a i^Tithing snake in his mouth, 
is another which appeared to us to be that of a sphvnx ; it is 
however represented as floating in the air, with the legs, arms, 
and tail extended, llie tail is similar to that of the lizard 
species, and the hands appear to be webbed claws, but the 
body, limbs, and face, arc human : the breasts distinguish it 
as female. Over this again is a small curling reptile, like a 
worm or small snake, reminding us of the asp. 

On the nortli and on the south face of tlie gateway there is 
a colossal eagle i^ith extended wings, holding in its talons 
an immense serpent, plaited in three folds, its head turned to- 
wards the eagle and ornamented with a coronet 

It was impossible to reflect on the design of these sculp- 
tures, without being forcibly struck with their reference to 
the ancient worship of Kg}'pt. The form of the gatewav 
itself, and of all the ruins within oiu* view, was pyramidal. 
In the monster devouring the child we were reminded of Ty- 
phon; in the dog, of /l//oi/6i>; in the stork, of the IbiM : the 
tree, too, seeme<l to be the palm, by which the Eg\'])tians de- 
signated the year ; the pigeon, the hawk, the immense ser- 
pents, were all symbols of Egy])tian worship. 

Lying on tlie first terrace we obser^ ed several scattered 
stont'H, having various devices sculptured on them, some of 
human figures, one of a tiger wanting the head, which had 
Wen broken ofi*, and several of elephants and oxen. On one 
we noticed the representation of a man on liorM^liack, followed 
by fne speanuen and a /w/yowi/ bearer. We then a.scende<l 


by five steps to the second terrace, on which were also some 
scattered ruins of buildings and sculpture. Ascending again 
three steps we came to the third terrace, when the principal 
building appeared in front, at the distance of about ninety 
feet. The ruins of several other temples and buildings also 
appeared in irregular heaps on each side of its front. 

This building is on the centre of the terrace. Its base is a 
perfect square, of forty-three feet and a half to the side, de- 
creasing in size at each successive layer of stones, so as to 
form steps to the height of nineteen feet ; above this is a sort 
of cornice, four feet nine inches high. The roof is twenty-one 
feet two inches from north to south, and nineteen feet nine 
inches from east to west. In the centre of it we observed a 
part raised, of about a foot square, pierced by a small round 
hole. It had the appearance of being intended as a pedestal, 
or step, to some object which had been removed. 

The sides of the pyramid face the cardinal points. The 
western side contains a flight of narrow steps. At the top, in 
the front of the building, we noticed two serpents, which ap- 
pear to have been used for water-pipes ; with this exception, 
the whole building was plain and unomamented by sacred 
emblems. The sides of the staircase are faced with flat stones. 
The upper story or cornice is constructed with greater delicacy 
than the building generally. We were not able to ascertain 
whether there was any chamber within, and the point cannot 
be decided without material injury to the edifice. The eastern 
side seems to have suffered most from the eflects of time. 

Upon the ground on each side of the ascent is a large stone, 
in the shape of a tortoise, measuring not less than eight feet 
in length ; the back flat, but the head well executed. A httle 
advanced in front there is a third of the same description. 

Near these, on the south side of the entrance, stand the re- 
mains of two temples, in one of which we discovered the 
ashes of fire recently kindled. The natives who attended in- 
formed us that the peasantry of the neighbouring villages 
were still in the habit of burning incense and kindling fire in 
this temple, and that when they suffered under or dreaded any 
misfortune, they made an offering of this nature in the hope 
of averting it. The building is about seven feet square, and 
on all sides various images are sculptured on it. 

E 2 


The other building, which is still further south, has a ter- 
race in the centre, the steps ascending to which are still per- 
fect The building appears to retain nothing of its original 
pyramidal form, except at the south-east comer. 

On different sides of this pile of building we noticed two in- 
scriptions, each consisting of four characters. As thej both 
agreed with various other inscriptions in this neighbourhood, 
except in the last character, which was different in all, we 
concluded that they were dates. To the north of the principal 
building, and almost contiguous to it, is an oblong stroctore, 
running east and west On this there has evidently been a 
low terrace ii'ith a raised wall at the back. On the upper part 
of this terrace, and near the principal building, is a raised 
platform, from which rises an obelisk, somewhat similar to thai 
noticed in the south, but of a much larger base, and orna- 
mented with various devices on all sides. The spiral top is 
incomplete. Resting inclined upon the west front of the 
obelisk, is a stitue, about four feet high and three feet broad ^. 

On each side of the terrace, which is narrow and long, we 
observed, both above and below, various devices cut in relief; 
also a stone vase for containing water, respecting which a tra- 
dition runs, that it could never be empty. We also raised 
from the ground and took sketches of several slabs and stones 
in the vicinity, which had been thrown down on their faces. 
Of these, one represents a homed boar f. On another is an 
elephant, tolerably well executed. In another the chief figure 
is represented striking off human heads J- On another there is 
a dog standing erect, and dressed like a man, nith some build- 
ings remarkable for the correctness of the perspective. On 
anotlicr is a representation of the monkey flag §, the standard 
of ArJHfuiy and even used at the present day by the Glddak | 
established at Sura-kerta. 

We discovered, nearly buried in the ground, two gigantic 
statues n-ith human bodies and limbs, but winged from the 
arms like bats, and with spurs above the heel like those of a 

• Sec No. 7 of the Plate, from the ruins of Subru. 
t See No 2, same Plate. J See No. 1, same Plate. 

§ Si-e No. 3, same Plate. 

II An entabliahment conti«tinf^ of a certain number of men and horvet 
always kept in readiness for the public service. 


cock. This figure occurs firequently in relief with some varia- 
tion : sometimes with a fan-tail, and its wings extended, so as 
almost to form a circle * ; in another the face appears devoid 
of flesh, and the figure is standing with one foot on an elephant 
and the other on a tortoise f. 

On the lappet of the waistband of one of these colossal 
statues we noticed an inscription of several lines ; but the most 
interesting and perfect was discovered on the back of the 
other, after we had with much difficulty raised it to an erect 
posture. This last inscription is in excellent preservation, 
and consists of lines, in each of which there are characters. 
The perfect state of this part of the stone must be attributed 
to its having been protected from the weather by its position 
along the ground. This inscription, as well as all the others 
which we discovered, are raised from the stone in relief, in the 
same character as that first noticed, which differs from most 
which had previously been discovered on the island J. 

We noticed particularly, as forming an exception to the, 
sculptures in general, another figure with four hands. It has 
a coronet on the head, and ear-rings, and from the back of the 
ear on each side appear to spring wings, which are half ex- 
panded over the back of each shoulder. The arms and hands 
were too mutilated to enable us to distinguish the attributes. 

A little nearer to the north of the tortoises, in front of the 
principal building, stands a large erect statue §, apparently in 
its original position ; at the back of which, on a scroll hanging 
from the waistband, is an inscription of several lines ; a figure 
holding a double-headed trident in each hand and having 
three spikes on each elbow, rudely executed, and elsewhere a 
phalluSy upwards of six feet long and not less than five in cir- 
cumference. It had been broken in halves, but the two parts 
were easily brought together : round the upper paat are four 
large balls of equal dimensions : along the urethra is an in- 
scription in two lines, the letters being one above the other, 
and on the upper part of one of these lines is the representa- 
tion of a kris blade, and two squares crossing each other ju^t 

• See No. 4, same Plate t See No. 6, same Plate. 

\ See No. 8, same Plate. 

§ See No. 10, same Plate : others of the same kind were subsequently 
discovered at Kediri and farther east. 


above the point, with a circle and other ornaments in the 
centre, so as to represent the sun ; to the right of this is a re- 
presentation of the moon in the first quarter; and fiuthef 
again to the right a small circle, representing a star : the whole 
in relief, very correctly executed, and in good presen-ation. 

On one of the temples adjacent there are representations of 
a similar symbol cut in relief 

We obser>'ed several monstrous figures with clubs of dif- 
ferent sizes. One in particular fronting the principal building, 
grinning most horribly, and two near the steps leading to the 
upper terrace from the south. 

Below the upper terrace, on the south side, we noticed the 
foundation of a building of an oblong shape, with three large 
slabs, on which were sculptured several objects which ap- 
peared much to interest the Javans. On one we observed a 
manufacturer of kris blades in the act of striking the steeL 
Above him are placed, as in his workshop, among several 
blades of different forms, a trident, a water-pot, a pair of 
shares, and something not very imlike Mercury's wand. On 
another stone is seen a man with the proboscis of an elephant, 
and in his hand a dog ; on the third is a man blowing a 
Javan bellows. 

The natives informed us, that the country people were in 
the habit of making offerings to these sculptures, which they 
highly esteemed, from a tradition that they represented the 
original Javan tHkang b^nij or workman in iron and steel. 

The workmanship is ruder than tliat in the temples at 
Bramhdnan^ Bdro Bddoy or Mdlafig, and the worship most 
have been different 

Most of the images which are not in relief have been 
decapitated, and the heads are not to be found ; but there 
still remains enough to enable a person well acquainted with 
heathen mythology-, to decide on the classes to which they 
may generally be referred. 

I could find no traditions regarding these temples; but 
subsequent examination has enabled us to decide that the 
character found in the inscriptions is an ancient form of the 
Javan, and that the dates are, on one of the sttmes, 13(J1, and 
on the larger phallus, 1362. 

Besides the ruins of temples in brick noticed by Dr. Hors- 


field in the eastern provinces of the native princes, numerous 
buildings constructed of similar materials, are found extend- 
ing firom the site of Majapdhit eastward as far as Probolingo^ 
near which, ,^a few yards off the high road, are situated two) 
temples in brick. The larger temple may be about sixty* ^ 
feet highy 

All the temples of this class (that is to say, constructed in 
brick, for they all vary in their style) were probably built 
during the latter years of the Hindu religion. Those con- 
structed of stone must be referred to a much earlier period. 

Near Buitenzorg, and also at Richa D&tndSy a few miles 
further inland, both places adjacent to the site of the ancient 
capital of Pajajdran^ are found several rude images in stone, 
and among them a figure with three faces {trimurti). Images 
of the same kind, as well as casts in metal, are also found in 
Cheribon, The latter are particularly prized by the chiefs of 
Teldga, who are descended fi-om the princes of Pajajdran, 
and consider these relics as representations of their fore- 
fathers, fin tjie possession of the present T^mung^gung of 
Teldgidis an ancient manuscript written on Javan paper, and 
folded up in the manner of the manuscripts of Ava. The 
characters appear to be ancient Javan or Kdwiy but ill written. 
This manuscript contains drawings of deities, of the signs of 
the Zodiac, and numerous other astronomical, or perhaps! 
rather astrological devices)'^. Of the history of the manuscript 
nothing is known, fiirther than that the Tumiing*gung and 
his family believe it to have come with the relics before- 
mentioned firom Pajajdran, . A copy of it has been brought , 
to England,) 

Besides the extensive remains of temples and other edifices 
already mentioned in the districts east of Ch^iban^where alone 
the antiquities deserve attention as works of art, there 'are to be 
found on the mount^s of Ung^drang tho, ruins of several very 
beautifully executed temples in stone, with numerous dilapi- 
dated figures, and among them several chariots of S^^y or 
the sum} Most of them are sadly mutilated, but enough was 
left to authorize a sketch of Uieir original design f. 

The Chdndi Banyukuning (yellow water), which are so 

• For the signs of the Zodiac and extracts from this manuscript, see 
Astronomy, vol. i. t See Plate. 


called from their vicinity to the village of that DamCy are 
situated witliin a few yards of a small volcanic crater, which 
at the time I visited them was in many parts too hot to be 
trodden with safety. They appear to have been built oo 
extensive terraces cut out of the mountain, and rising one 
above another at intenals of some hundred yards. The 
natives assert, that the temples were formerly far more exten* 
sive, and that near the summit of several of the adjotning 
peaks other temples are to be found. But here, as in most 
parts of Java, the mountains for a considerable way below 
the summit have been covered for ages, with an almost im* 
penetrable forest : and where this is not the case, the moun- 
tains have eitlicr been rent near their sununit, or are covered 
with lava or ashes from volcanic eruptions, so that whatever 
may have formerly been the extent and grandeur of the 
edifices which once crowned these towering heights, they are 
at present either concealed or more frequently destroyed. 
Notwithstanding the diligent search made by the British 
during the short period of their stay on Java, there are doubt* 
less many very interesting discoveries to be made.) 

In Banyuwdngiy the most eastern province of the island, 
besides figures of Hindu deities, several others are to be 
found of extraordinary and grotesque appearance, which 
appear to represent the local deities of the island, and cor- 
responding with those which arc still worshipped on Bali^ 
But whether they are to be considered as the deities of the 
Javans or Balians is doubtful, as the Bdlians long had pos- 
session of this province ; and it is remarkable, that no such 
figures are to be found in the provinces fiuther westward. 

The traditions of the country concerning the former seats 
of government, enable us to trace at this day the site of 
Aledang Kamulan^ Jany\jdla^ Gegelang or Shiga SdriyJMJkd 
or Kediriy Pajajdran^ and Majapdhity existing in remains of 
immense tanks, heaps of building materials, and other un- 
equivocal vestiges of former cities. 

M^dang Kamulan * was situated in the district of Wira- 
siiiniy where in the centre of an extensive forest is pointed 
out tlie site of the S0Hngely distinguished by heaps of stones 
and bricks ; and at no great distance from it arc the walls 
and excavations of an extensive tank, several hundred feet 

* See chapter on History. 


in length and breadth. These ruins, of which little more can 
be said than that they are clearly discernible, are situated 
between Penwadddos and the most eastern of the volcanic 
wells alluded to in a former part of this work. ^The natives- 
have a superstition, that the site of this ancient capital can- 
not be visited without some misfortune attaching to the party 
who undertake the visit. Those whom I had, with some 
difficulty, induced to accompany me to the spot, did not fail 
to assure me that I should lose my government within the 
year. As the event justified the prediction, it is probable that 
the superstition has rather gained ground than otherwise/ 
Many Javans maintain, that Bramhdnan was the original of 
Medang Kamulan ; it is at least highly probable that it was 
once the seat of empire. 

The site of Jang^gdla is still pointed out in the district of 
that name in the division of Surabaya^ and the country 
around is strewed with antiquities. The same may be said 
of Sing*a Sdri and Kediri, At Pajajdrauy a heap of stones 
is pointed out as the ruin of the Setingely and numerous lines 
crossing the country between rivers, attest the care with 
which this position was entrenched. They may be seen close 
by the road side, at a few hundred yards from the governor- 
general's country residence, and in many places they have 
been cut through to make a passage for the high road. 

At Majapdhity in the district of Wirasdbay the marks of 
former grandeur are more manifest. Here the walls of the 
tank, upwards of a thousand feet in length, and not less than 
six hundred in breadth, are quite perfect. They are of burnt 
brick, and about twelve feet high. The whole area of the 
tank, when I visited it, was one sheet of beautiful rice culti- 
vation, and almost surrounded by a noble forest of teak. 

A village adjacent is called Tra Walatiy or Trdng Wulan 
(the light of the moon) : here we found the tomb of Putri 
Chdmpa. Proceeding through three regular squares, each 
enclosed with a wall, and in each of which were erected 
several penddpcis or sheds, we came to the interior on ascend- 
ing a few steps. On the right side of this enclosure, and 
elevated a few feet, was the tomb of the princess and her 
nurse ; the tomb being in the Mahomedan style, and having 
upon it, in ancient Javan characters, the date 1320, perfectly 

58 ANTlQUlTlEii. 

distinct and in relief. On the other side are the tombs of 
Kidi Tumuny'^ng Jay a Bdya, Den MaSj and nine other 
chiefs whose names are mentioned. The tomb is religiouslj 
guarded by several priests. 

'The ruins of the palace and several gateways of burnt 
brick are to be seen ; but the whole country, for many miles, 
is thickly covered vnUti a stately teak forest, which appears 
to have been the growth of ages, so that it is difficult to trace 
the outline of this former capital. Ruins of temples, mostly 
i executed in brick, are scattered about the country for many 
\ miles, and attest the extent and grandeur of this "pride of Java.^ 

I observed near the former site of Majapdhii two images 
of GanesUy and some otlier mutilated deities of the Hindu 
mythology. Near the tank was the figure represented in one 
of the plates *, partly human and partly of the form of a bird, 
and a distorted figure, which the Javans called Menak Jing*ga\ 
but in general the vicinity of Majapdhii is remarkable for 
the absence of any representations of the Hindu deities. The 
temples are beautifully decorated with representations of 
flowers, and other peculiar ornaments, which it would be 
difficidt to describe. 

The only collection which appears to have been made by 
£uro]>eans of these interesting remains of antiquity, previously 
to the establishment of tlie Britisli government in 1811, was 
by Mr. Engelhard, formerly governor of Semdrang. In the 
garden of tlie residency of that station, several very beautiful 
subjects in stone were arranged, brought in from diflerent 
parts of the country. Of them, and of several others, which 
appear to have been brought into some of the native villages 
firom tlie vicinity of the diflerent temples, drawings have 
been taken, and the representations of Ganesa f and Dmrga 
(called Lora Jongran), botli from subjects as large as life, 
i^Tought in close-grained stone, will sene to convey some no- 
tion of the beauty and delicacy witli which tliey are executed. 

1 shall conclude this very general and imperfect account 
of sculpture on Java, by referring the reader to the plate, 
containing representations of several subjects in stone t* col- 
lected and arranged in the Chinese temple of worship in the 

• See Plate from RubjecU in utone. No. 5. f See Plate. 

I See Plate from a lubject in stone, brought from Bnunbanay. 


neighbourhood of Batavia. The period at which they were 
collected is not known, and the subjects in general are not so 
well executed as those found in the eastern parts of the island; 
but it is remarkable, that the Chinese, whose form of worship 
is at present so different from that of the Hindus (however 
similar it may have been formerly) should in a foreign land 
thus prize and appreciate the idols of the people whom they 
affect to hold in contempt *. 

Another plate exhibits several subjects in stone, collected 
from the vicinity of B&ro Bddo in Kedu, The originals are 
as large as life, and the sculptiure and ornaments are executed 
with great skill. No. 2 is an image with three heads (or tri- 
mUrtiy) similar to one on Gunung Dieng, No. 3 is a mutilated 
image of Brahma^ having four faces ; this was found in a field 
within a few hundred yards of the great temple of Bdro Bddo, 
The image No. 4 also occurs on Gunung Prdhu. 

The casts in metal which have been discovered in the 
central districts of Java are numerous. The subjects repre- 
sented in the plates annexed were selected firom a collection 
of about a hundred brought by me to this country. They 
had most of them been found at different times near the ruins 
of the temples, and preserved in the families of the petty 
chiefs. I am indebted to Mr. Lawrence, the Resident of KedH^ 
for many of them, which were brought in to him by the na- 
tives, on its being generally known that subjects of the Mnd 
were interesting to the British authorities. 

These casts are generally of copper, sometimes of brass, and 
rarely of silver. The majority and best executed were found 
in the vicinity of GrUnung Dieng ; and it is asserted that for- 
merly many gold casts of a similar description were disco- 
vered, which have been melted down. The village of Kdli 
BebeTy situated at the foot of the mountain, is said firom time 
immemorial to have paid its annual rent, amounting to up- 
wards of a thousand dollars, in gold, procured by melting 
down the relics of antiquity discovered in the vicinity ; but 
for some years past, no more golden images being found, the 
rents are paid in the coin of the country. 

Among the casts which are now exhibited will be observed 
two images of Brahma ; one with eight arms, standing upon 

• See Plate. 


a male and female figure ; the other with four, on a pedestal 
surmounted by the lotus, having a firagment of the goose in 
front The former, in particular, is most beautifully executed. 

The casts vary from three to six inches in height, and 
abound in a variety of delicate ornaments, which it has not 
been attempted to represent in the plates. 

Several copper cups,irar}'ing from three to five inches in 
diameter, an^oiaving the signs of the zodiac and other designs 
represented upon them in relief, have likewise been discovered 
in different parts of the island. A fac simile (reduced) of them 
is given in the annexed plate. 

As the Javans of the present day attach no particular de- 
signation to the different deities, except that of Gdma and 
other terms to Ganesa, and that of L6ro Jongran to IHarga^ 
I have not thought it necessary to attach to all the representa- 
tions the names which some of them may bear in the Hindu 
mythology of continental India. Many of them do not occur 
in Moor*s Pantheon : some are decidedly Braminical, others 
Budh, and some it is difficult to class under either head. 

A variety of bells, tripods, and ornaments of various 

\ descriptions, occur in casts of metal, and form part of the 

i collection brought to England. These are of a small size, 

seldom exceeding a few inches in length, although bells some* 

times occur much larger ; several of them are represented in 

one of the plates. 

The inscriptions engraved on stone, and in characters no 
longer understood by the people of the country, are innu- 
merable : similar inscriptions engraved on copper have also 
been found in particular districts. The whole may be classed 
under the following heads : 

1. Inscriptions in the ancient Datandgari character of con- 
tinental India. 

2. Inscriptions in characters which appear to have some 
connection \%nth the modem Javan, and were probably the 
characters used by the people of Sunda. 

3. Inscriptions in various characters, not appearing to have 
any immediate connection with either the Daramagari or the 
Javan characters, and which it has not been practicable to 

4. Inscriptions in the Kdui or ancient Javan character. 


Of these the first seem to lay claim to the highest anti- 
quity. The principal inscription of this kind, and indeed the 
only one of any length, is that found at Brambdnan, and 
noticed by Colonel Mackenzie in his interesting account of 
the ruins of Brambdnan^ as a real Hindu Sassanum, The 
stone, which is now broken into six parts, was originally six 
feet nine inches long and three feet six wide, in the shape of 
a tomb-stone, and the whole of one face is covered with cha- 
racters, which appear to have been very well executed. 

Fac-similes of this inscription having been brought to 
Europe, the characters were immediately recognized by Mr. 
Wilkins as an ancient form of the Devandgarij in use upon 
the continent of India, probably about eight or nine centuries 
since. It is to be regretted, that from the constant exposure 
of the stone, and the fractures which it has received, the cha- 
racters are in many parts effaced, so as to render it almost 
impossible to connect the sentences. No date can be disco- 
vered, nor any name which might afford a clue to the object 
or origin of the inscription. From such detached parts as 
are legible, it appears to be a record of some grant of honour 
or riches to the party whose praises it records. A specimen 
of a sentence from this inscription, of the same size as the 
original, with the corresponding characters in the modem De- 
vandgari^ySLppeQis in the chapter on Language and Literature. 

Similar characters, though apparently somewhat more 
modem, are found on several images at Singa Sarij transcripts 
of some of which will be seen in the plates to this work. 

Of the second class are the inscriptions on the Bdtu tulisy 
or engraved stone, standing near the ruins of the ancient capi- 
tal of Pajajdrdfiy and those found at Kwdli^ in the province 
of Ch&ribon^ to which place it is related that some of the 
princes of Pajajdran fled on the overthrow of that capital by 
the Mahomedans. The characters on these inscriptions 
appear very nearly to resemble each other. The stone at 
PajajdraUy as far as I could decypher it, with the assistance 
of the Panambdhan of Sumenapy appears to be a record in 
praise of a certain Mahardjay whose name is not mentioned. 
One of these at Kwdliy a fac-simile of which is exhibited in 
the plate, we were enabled to translate as follows : 

• See Plate. 


" The Pandita is able to check the evil course of men, bj 
washing away their evil inclinations, and he can shew them 
the right way, and prevent covetousness and slander by his 
good advice. 1363." 

At Kwdli there are several other inscriptions in the same 
character, but in common with the whole of this class very 
rudely executed. Several of the characters and signs were 
found, on strict examination, to be on the same principle as 
the Javan. 

Of the third class the reader yn\\ find a fac-simile on a re- 
duced scale ♦. 

But the inscriptions of the last of these classes are the 
most numerous, the best executed, in the highest state of pre- 
servation, and as they admit of translation, are of perhaps 
higher interest tlian the others. Of these some have been 
already noticed in Dr. Horsfield's account of the remains of 
antiquity in the vicinity of Kediri (formerly called Dahd) ; 
many have been found in the vicinity of the supposed site of 
the ancient capital of Jany*gdla^ in tlie division of the modem 
Surabaya y and some at BdtUy near Shiga Sdri, These are 
invariably engraved on large fiat stones, in the shape of tomb- 
stones, resting upon a kind of tlirone of lotus leaves f. Fac- 
similes of tlie whole of these have been brought to England, 
and several have been translated into English. 

In the collection of inscriptions at Surabdya^ the following 
dates appear : 

On a stone found near Jang*ydla 803 

On another found near the same place 845 

On anotlier from the Kendang hills 865 

Several prior dates, as 116, 363, 647, 773, are mentioned 
in the body of these inscriptions, which seem to refer to his- 
torical events of preceding centuries; but tlie dates above 
mentioned, with some others, ap])ear in the usual place to 
shew the actual date of the inscription itself 

Tlie date of a similar inscription found in Kedu is 505, 
and of another stone found in the central districts, 506 ; but 
it has not yet been ascertained what particular events these 
inscriptions record. The annexed translations from three of 

* Sff PUt« of an inscription in the district of Balongmn. t .Se« Plate. 


the stones collected at Surabdyay were made by Captain 
Davey at my request, with the assistance of the Panambdhan 
of Sumenap *. 

Inscriptions in the same character have likewise been 
found on copper, very beautifully executed, and in a high 
state of preservation. The date on one of these has been as- 
certained to be 735, and on another, 865. I found several 
collected in the Museum of the Society of Arts and Sciences 
at Batavia f. 

The Panambdhan of Sumenap was able to read the latter 
without difficulty ; but finding them to be filled with terms of 
praise and devotion which he could not comprehend, it was 
not attempted to render a literal translation. One of the 
plates (No. 3), to which at my request he devoted particular 
attention, contains an invocation to Sang yang Brdma^ to 
favour and prosper the country of Gegelang (Singa SdriJ^ 
and to give assistance, by means oiJdya Kdtsang^ in repelling 
all evils and attacks, so that the country may become cele- 
brated and flourishing. 

The country of Gegelang (Singa SdriJ flourished in the time 
of Pdnji, 

Another of these plates (No. 9.) contains an invocation of 
a similar nature, in favour of the country of Dahd (Kediri)j 
which flourished at the same time. 

In some of the eastern districts of the Native Provinces 
and at Sukuy near the mountain LdwUy inscriptions on stone 
occur in relief. Some of them occupy stones several feet 
high, and are written in well executed letters, above an inch 
square. The date of one of these is 1363. A fac-simile of 
another of the same kind reduced, is given in the plate J. 

The following is a translation of this inscription, as far as 
it could be rendered into modem Javan by the Panambdhan 
of Sumenap, 

^^ This is an advice to mankind, whose ignorance arises out 
** of a covetous desire to obtain more than they possess. If 
" mankind were not by their disposition inclined to be cove- 
^^ tous of what others possess, and to scandalize each other, 

♦ See Appendix I. 

f See a fac simile of one of them in the Plate. 

I See Plate of an ancient inscription at Suku. 

64 ANTlQUITlfiS. 

^ where would be the use of adrice ; when they are receiving 
** advice, thev have a confidence in doing what is right, bat 
^ afterwards they follow their natural inclinations. There- 
fore, oh ye men of the city, be advised by this, not to foUow 
such dispositions, but to do what is required of you by the 
^ times and the customs of the country, and be not singular.** 

In the presemt burial place at Gr^sik are the tombs of 
several of the early Mahomedan missionaries, most of them of 
stone, bearing inscriptions with dates. That of Sheik Muldna 
Ibrahim is in marble, and in good preservation, having the 
date 1334 (409 years since). Here is also the tomb ofMuIama 
Mach^ribi, who was antecedent to Ibrahim, This has, how* 
ever, fallen to decay, and has no legible inscription. 

The entrance to the cemetery is through several squares en* 
closed by walls and gateways, some of them very ancient, 
and in the same style of architecture as distinguishes those of 
Majapdhit, On the side of the gateway leading to the divi- 
sion in which are the most ancient tombs, is a small stone 
pillar, yn\h the date 1340 upon it in relief. Passing on to 
the division in which the family of the regents is interred, 
are also to be noticed many relics in stone, brought from 
some of the Hindu ruins. Among these is a gigantic toad or 
firog, and an oblong vessel of three feet long, having in relief 
the date 1246. On the side of the tomb of the great grand* 
father of the present regent, is a Y&ni^ said to have been 
brought from Majapdhity and in this Mahomedan sanctuary 
ser\'ing as a kneeling or resting place to the tomb. Similar 
relics are to be found in other burial places in the eastern part 
of the island, most of the chiefs priding themselves upon 
having some remnant o{ Majapdhit, At the residence of the 
regent of Surabdya are also collected several curious remains ; 
and in particular a large bath, excavated from a solid stone 
about six feet long. 

In the central and eastern districts of Java, in the vicinity 
of the dilapidated temples, are found numerous ancient coins 
in brass and copper, exhibiting various subjects in relief, and 
invariably with a hole in tlie middle for the convenience of 
stringing tliem. 'Iliosc which are represented in the plate * 
are taken indiscriminately from a collection of upwards 
* See Plate* Ancient Coins* with their euppoeed date*. 


of a hundred brought to England^ the dates annexed to each 
being determined by the Chandra Sangkdla^ as explained for 
each particular coin by the Kidi Adipati of Demak. Thus 
the last, which has the date 1568, is explained as follows : 













That is to say, " snakes are moving while men are work- 
" ing : " alluding to the two snakes which appear entwining 
together between and above the two men who are mastering 
an animal. The coin with the date 1489, bears a Javan in- 
scription of Pangeran Ratu^ the title by which a prince of 
Bantam, who reigned in that year, is recognized by the 

The mode of determining these dates by the Chandra 
SangkdUiy appears however so uncertain and ill underslood, 
that perhaps but little reliance is to be placed on it. I have, 
nevertheless, given them, in order to show the notion of the 
Javans on the subject, and as it is not improbable they may 
be found useful in illustrating the early history of the country. 
Many of the coins not European or India, found in the Archi- 
pelago, as well as in China and Japan, have a hole in the 
centre. These coins seem to have been of home manufac- 
ture : the execution is rude ; but the figures, such as they are, 
in general well defined and clearly expressed. In the vici- 
nity of the principal temples have been found small silver 
coins, about the size of a Madras pagoda, bearing the impres- 
sion of a small cross, and of some rude and unintelligible cha- 

But perhaps the most striking and interesting vestige of 
antiquity which is to be found in the Eastern Seas, is the 
actual state of society in the island of Bdli^ whither the per- 
secuted Hindus took refuge on the destruction of Majapdhit, 
and where the Hindu religion is still the established worship 
of the country. This interesting island has hitherto been but 
little explored by Eiuropeans, and what we know of it is only 
sufficient to make us anxious to know more. I visited the 
island in 1816, and such particulars concerning it as the 


66 ANTlQUmES. 

limits of the present work admit of wiU be found in Appen- 
dix K. 

In the course of the present work it has been mv object to 
convey to the public, in as compressed a form as my time 
permitted, and Tiilhout bias from previously conceived opi- 
nions or new theories, the information which I possessed. 
The antiquities of Java, however, afibrd such an ample and 
interesting subject for speculation, that I shall presume on 
the reader's desire for some opinion concerning their origin 
and purpose. 

With respect to the remains of architectural grandeur and 
sculptural beauty which have been noticed, I shall simply 
obser>'e, that(it seems to be the general opinion of those most 
\ versed in Indian antiquities, that the large temple of B6ro 
B6do (a corruption perhaps of the Bdra Budha, or the Great 
Budh,) and several others, were sacred to the worship of 
Budh, The style and ornament of this temple are found 
much to resemble those of the great Budh temple at Gai-f^^ 
on the continent of InAxdiJl and it is probable that it may have 
been constnicted by the same people, perhaps even by the 
same artists. Tlie Detandgari characters on the inscription 
found at Brambdnan are recognized by Mr. Wilkins to be 
such as were in use on continental India eight or nine hun- 
dred years ago. Tlie date of several inscriptions in the ancient 
Javan characters, found in the central part of Java, is in the 
sixth century, supposed to be of the present Javan era, and the 
tra<litioiis of the Javans concerning the arrival of enlightened 
strangerH, and an intimate connexion between Java and con- 
tinental India, for Uic most part refer this intercourse to the 
sixth and three following centuries; that is to say, to the 
period of the em])ires oi Medung Kamulan and Jdng*gala. 

Malioniedanisin having become tlie established religion in 
tlie yi'ar 1400 (A.D. 1475,) all the great works of a Pagan 
character nnist, of course, be referred to an earlier period. 

The niiuH at Afajapdhit and its vicinity are distinguished 
by bring principally, if not entirely, of burnt bricks, a circum- 
stAiire which justifies us in assigning an anterior date to most 
of the edifices c(mstructed o( a different material. The date 
found on the ruins at Suku, and some few other places, may 


be an exception to Uiis rule ; but the sculpture of these is 
coarse and rude compared to the magnificent remains in stone 
found elsewhere. On this accoimt it is reasonable to con- 
clude, that the arts at that period had considerably declined. 
The edifices and sculptures at Singa Sari were probably exe- 
cuted in the eighth or ninth century, that being the period of 
the greatest splendour of this state ; and as the style and de- 
corations of the buildings, as well \s the execution of the 
sculpture, appear very nearly to resemble those oiBramhdnany 
Bdro BddOy &c . it is probable that the whole were constructed 
about the same period, or within the same century, or at any 
rate between the sixth and ninth century of the Christian era^' 
From the extensive variety of temples and sculpture, as well 
as firom that of the characters found in the ancient inscrip* 
tions, it is probable that Java has been colonized firom different 
parts of the continent of Asia. 

The Budhist religion is by many deemed of higher anti- 
quity than what is now called the Braminical ; and it seems 
generally admitted, that the followers of Budh were driven ; 
by the Bramins to the extremes of Asia and the islands ad-- 
jacent^ The Jains and Budhists had probably the same 
worship originally, firom which the Bramins or priests may 
have separated, after the manner in which it has been said 
the Jesuits of Europe once aimed at universal empire ; ^and 
when we consider that the religion of Budhj or some modifi- 
cation of it, is still the prevailing worship of Ceylon, Ava, 
Siam, China, and Japan, we are not surprized to find indica- 
tions of its former establishment on Java. 

To trace the coincidences of the arts, sciences, and letters 
of ancient Java, and those of Egypt, Greece, and Persia, 
would require more time and more learning than I can com- 
mand. Such investigations I must leave to the reader, deem- 
ing myself fortunate, if in recording their vestiges in the traces 
of a high state of civilization, to be found in the ruins, Ian* 
guages, poetry, history, and institutions of Java, I have suc- 
ceeded in obtaining any share of his interest and respect for 
a people whom I shall myself ever consider with peculiar 
esteem and afiection. 

In the archives of the princes of Java are deposited his- 
tories of their country, extending firom a remote antiquity to 

F 2 


the latest date. It is principally^firom abstracts of these, made 
at my request, in three different parts of the country, by the 
Panamhdhan of Sumenap, the late Kidi Adipdii of Demak^ 
and the secretary of the Pang^an Adipdti of SHra-k^riay all 
distinguished among their countrymen for literary attain- 
ments, that the two following chapters have been compiled. 
The abstract presented by the Kidi Adipdti of Demdk being 
the most continuous, forms the main stream of the narrative. 

Copies, versions, and detached fragments of history, are 
found in the possession of every family of distinction. Of 
these I have occasionally availed myself. 

So much of the native accounts as relates to the period 
anterior to the establishment of Uie empire of Jang'galaj in 
the nintli centur\*, is confused, obscure, contra/Uctoiy, and in- 
terpolated with the fabulous and heroical histories of conti- 
nental India ; but from that epoch they correspond essentially, 
and from the subversion of Paganism (A.D. 1475) they are 
circumstantial, and claim attention, not only as illustrative of 
the character of the people, but as historical records of the 
transactions of the times. Much abridgment has been requi- 
site: the passages between inverted commas are however 
literal translations from the native writings ; and those so dis- 
tinguished, subsequent to the arrival of the Dutch, are from 
the original histories. In the course of the narrative, a Dutch 
abstract of the native history, by Mr. Middlecoop, has occa- 
sionally been consulted. 

Besides these historical relations, called Bdbatj as Bdbai 
Jang^jdla^ Bdbat Matdreniy &c. the native princes and chiefs 
have been in the habit of keeping a register of the principal 
erents, in the form of a chronological table. These are not 
Tery consistent in what regards events anterior to the Maho- 
medan conversion. From these tables is formed that which 
is annexed to the following history. All that is subsequent 
to the establishment of Matdrem is translated from the records 
of the court of Suru-kirta, 


The History of Java from the earliest Traditions till the Establishment of 


Amongst the various traditions regarding the manner in 
fwhich Java and the Eastern Islands were originally peopled, 
and the source whence its population proceeded, it has been 
related, that the first inhabitants came in vessels from the 
' Red Sea (Ldut Mirajy and that, in their passage, they coasted 
along the shores of Hindustan ; that peninsula then forming 
an unbroken continent with the land in the Indian Archi- 
pelago, firom which it is now so widely separated, and which, 
according to the tradition, has since been divided into so 
many distinct islands, by some convulsions of nature or revo- 
lution of the elements^. 


These people are supposed to have been banished firom 
Egypt, and to have consisted of individuals professing diffe- 
rent religious persuasions, who carried along with them to the 
land of their exile, their different modes of worship and 
articles of belief. Some are said to have adored the sun, 
others the moon; some the elements of fire or water, and 
others the trees of the forest. Like all other uncivilized men," 
they were addicted to the arts of divination, and particularly 
to the practice of astrology. In other respects, they are de- 
scribed as savages, living in hordes, without fixed habitations, 
without the protection of regular government, or the restraint 
of established law. Respect for age was the only substitute 
for civil obedience. The oldest man of the horde was con- 
sidered its chief, and regulated its simple movements, or pre- 
scribed its political duties. When the crop was gathered and 

* Middlekoop's Collection. 


the accustomed devotions performed, it was he who appointed 
. the mode and time of its departure from one place to another. 
On these occasions, the horde, after offering their sacrifices 
and feasting in an open plain, left the remains of their repast 
to attract the bird called ulunggdga * ; and the young men 
shook the dngklungf^ and set up a shout in imitation of its cry. 
If the bird did not eat of the meal offered to it, or if it after- 
wards remained hovering in tlie air, perched quietly on a tree, 
or in its flight took a course opposite to that which the horde 
wished to pursue, their departure was deferred, and their 
prayers and sacrifices renewed J. But when the bird, having 
eaten of its meal, flew in the direction of their intended jour- 
ney, the ceremony was concluded by slaying and burning a 
Iamb, a kid, or the young of some other animal, as an offering 
of gratitude to the deity ; and for the favourable omen a second 
feast was enjoyed, which ended with the most violent demon- 
strations of joy, the whole party dancing und springing to the 
music of the an gk lung. Every thing being arranged for the 
journey, the eldest of the horde, with his wife and children, 
were either placed upon an elephant, or carried in a litter 
shaded by mats ; the rest moved on foot, preceded by young 
men and boys, shaking the dngklung and shouting aloud, for 
the double purpose of doing homage to the chief and of 
frightening away the wild beasts, which at that time abounded 
in the island §. 

• Supposed to have been a crow or raven. 

f A rude instrument of music still in use, particularly in the Smmda and 
mountainous districts. 

{ The Ddyas of Borneo still hold particular kinds of birds in high vene- 
ration, and draw omens from their flight, and the sounds which theyatttr. 
One of the princi[>al of these is a species of white-headed kite, which preji 
on fish, snakes, and vermin. Before the Ddyas enter on a Journey or 
engage in any war, head-hunting, or indeed any matter of importance, 
they endeavour to procure omens from these kites, and, for this purpose, 
invite their approach by screaming song!*, and scattering rice before them. 
If these birds take their flight in the direction they winh to go, it b re- 
garded as a favourable omen ; but if they take another direction, they 
consider it as unfavourable, and delay the business imtil the omens are 
more suitable to their wishes. — Transactiont of the Baiaviam SociHf, 
vol. vii. 

§ The manner in which the mountaineers of the Stimda districts still 
spring and shout to the sound of this rude instrument, as already described. 


But it is only from the supposed axrivalof ildt ox Aji Sdha^ 
that the Javans, even in their traditions, enter with any conJ 
fideuce into details. This event is generally referred to the 
first year of the Javan era, which corresponds with the 
seventy^^fifth of the Christian era, and in some accounts is thu»i 
related. *' 

'^ Prdbu Jdya Bdya was a great and powerful prince of 
Astind)zxidL the fifth in descent from ArjUna^ the son of 
Pdndu Dewa Ndta ; after whom had reigned successively, 
BimdnyUy Parakisity Udayana^ and Gandra Ydna, . His 
Peng*gdway ori^hief minister, being a man of great enter- 
prize and ability, was sent to visit and civilize foreign coun- 
tries. In the course of his travels, he landed on Java^ then 
the abode of a race of Rasdksuy and known by the name of 
Nusa Kendang, This happened in the first year of the ^ 
Javan era^ and is distinguished in the Chdndra Sangkdla 
by the words, niVy dbuy tdnpOy jdlaty meaning literally, 
' nothing dust, not any thing (but) man,' and metaphorically 
the figures 0001. 

" He here«vjdiscovered the grain called jdwa-tvuty at that 
time the principal subsistence of the inhabitants ; and, in 
consequence of this discovery, he changed the name of the 
country; from Nusa Kendang to Nusa Jdwa. In his pro- 
gress through the island he met with the dead bodies of two 
Rasdksay(e2Lc\i holding a leaf with an inscription on it, one 
mpurwa i^ncient), the other in Siamese characters : these j 
he united, and thus formed the Javan alphabet of twenty ' 

" He had several combats with the Rasdksay particularly 
with one Dewdta Chengkar ; and after fixing the date of 
his different discoveries( and leaving mementos of his visit 
wherever he went, he finally returned to Astina, and de- 
livered to his sovereign a written account of all he had seen 
and done." 

corresponds with this account ; and on occasions of public rejoicings or 
ceremony, the native princes of the eastern part of the island frequently 
introduce a party of wild men, with dishevelled hair, and covered with 
leaves, shaking the dngklung, and shouting, springing, and distorting their 
limbs in the rudest manner : the object being to exhibit the original inha- 
bitants, in contrast with what they have been rendered by civilization. 


Tho accounts of the real character of Aji Sdka are Tarioos. 
Some represent him jas a great and powerful prince, who esta- 
blished an extensive colony on Java, which a pestilence after- 
wards obliged him to withdraw ; whilst others consider him 
as a saint and deity, and believe that on his voyage to Java 
Ihe sailed over mountains, islands, and continents. Most, how- 
'ever, agree in attributing to him the first introduction of letters, 
government, and religion ; the only trace of anterior civiliza- 
tion being a tradition, that before his time there existed a ju- 
dicial code, under the title of sun and moon, the punishments 
of which appear not to have been severe : a thief was bound 
to make restitution of the property stolen, and to pay in addi- 
tion a fine in cattle or produce ; and if the theft was consider- 
able, he became the slave of the injiured party or his relations, 
witliout, however, being transferable to another master : mur- 
der was not punished by death, but by a heavy fine, and per- 
petual senitude in the family of the deceased. This code 
Aji Sdka is represented to have reformed ; and an abstract 
collection of ordinances, said to have been made fit>m his in- 
structions, is believed to have been in use as late as the time 
oi JanggcUa (A/D. 900), and even of Majapdhit (A.D. 1800). 

In the Sanscrit language Sdka means an era, and is applied 
to the founder of an era ; and in the chronology of the Hindu 
princes of India, Sdka is a name or title, which has so often 
been assumed, that it is sufficient to sav to whom it is most 
appro]mately due. According to Sir William Jones, Stika is 
a name o{ Budha. In the chronologj' of tlie kings o{ Ma- 
gddha*, by Major Wilford, the Hindus are stated to have 
divided the KaVnjuga into six unequal ]K)rtion8, or subordinate 
periods, called Sdkas, because they derived their origin from 
six SdkdSy or ini*j;hty and glorious nionarchs, of whom three 
have already made their a})j>earance and three are still ex- 
pected, llie third Sdka was Salarahana^ who is believed to 
have lived at the same time witli our Sa\iour, and is repre- 
sented to have corres]>onded with him in some of tlie principal 
features of his life, 'llie era which bears his name commenced 
from his death (namely, seventy-eight years after the Christian 
era), and is doubtless that adopted by the Javans, which cor- 

* .Vitiatic Researches. 


responds with it within about three years: and the slight 
difference between them may be accounted for, by the intro- 
duction of the Mahomedan mode of reckoning during the last 
three centuries. 

The same writer informs us, that the first Bdla Rdjaj a title 
peculiarly given to the ancient sovereigns of Gnfrat^ and 
who is supposed to have lived in the seventh century of the 
Christian era, was called Di Sdka^ or D&va Sdka ; which 
being also one of the titles of Salivahanaj might induce an 
opinion that they were the same person, if, as Major Wilford 
acknowledges, the confusion and imcertainty of the Hindu 
records did not almost deter us firom forming any fixed opinion 
whatever. According to the Japanese historians, Sdka lived 
a thousand years before our Saviour ; and the worship of that 
country is still denominated by them the religion of Sdka or 
Sidka *. 

(^According, however, to a prophetic chronologyof the Javans,. 
which is now in the possession of the Susuhunatij and is 
ascribed to the pen of the Aji Jdya Bdya^ but is doubtless 
of a more modem composition, {the supposed arrival of Aji 
Sdka did not take place till after the year 1000. In this chro- 
nology, the author himself is described as sovereign of Kediri 
in the year 800 of the Javan era. 

" What was first known of Java," says this account, " was 
" a range of hills, called Gunung Kendang, which extends 
^^ along the north and south coasts ; it was then that the 
'^ island first came into notice, and at that period commenced 
" the Javan era. 

" After this the Prince of Rom sent twenty thousand 
" families to people Java ; but all of them perished, except 
" twenty families, who returned to Rom. 

" In this year, twenty thousand families were sent to Java 
" by the Prince of Kling (India). These people prospered 
" and multiplied. They continued, however, in an imcivi- 
" lized state till the year 289, when the Almighty blessed 
" them with a prince, named KdnOj who reigned for one hun- 
" dred years, at the end of which period he was succeeded by 
" BdsuKeti. The name ofthe sovereignty was called fFiVa to. 

* Kempfer's Japan, vol. i. p. 148. 






^' J^a^ti JC^^i dying, he was succeeded by his son, Mdng^a 

Pdti, The father and son together reigned three hundred 


" Another principality, named Asiinay sprung up at this 
" time, and was ruled by a prince, called Pula Sara who was 
^^ succeeded by his son Abidsa, who was again succeeded by 
" his son Pdndu D^wa Ndta ; the reigns of the last three 

princes together amounting to one himdred years. 

" llien succeeded Jdya Bdya himself, who removed the 

seat of government from Astina to Kediri, 

" The kingdom of Kediri being dismembered on the death 
" of its sovereign, there arose out of its ruins two other king- 
" doms, the one called Braatbdnany of which the prince was 
" called Bdka ; the other Peng^gingy of which the prince's 

name was Angling Dria, 

" These two princes having gone to war with each other, 

Bdka was killed in battle by Ddmar Mdya^ the son-in-law 
" of Angling Dria, On the death of Bdkay the kingdom of 
" Brambdnan was without a prince, and continued so, till 
" Angling Dria dying a natural death, Damar Mdya suc- 
" ceeded him and niled the countr}*. 

" Ddmar Mdya dying, and the sovereignty becoming cx- 
" tinct, there arrived from a foreign country a person named 
" Aji Sdkay who estabUshed himself as Prince of Mendaftg 
*' Kamulany in tlie room of Dewdta Chengkary whom he 


In the year 1018 the Chdndi Sewu (thousand temples] at 

Brambdnan were completed. 

" nie empire of Mendang Kdmulan and its race of 
" j>rinces becoming extinct, the kingdoms which rose up and 
" succeeded to it were ; 

" 1. Jang^gdUiy of which the prince was -^mt Z^^iir. 

" 2. Kediriy l/*mbu Ami Jdya. 

" 3. Xg\irdtrany fjembu Ami S^sa. 

" 4. Sing'a Sdri, L^mbu Ami L^eh, 

" These kingdoms were aftenvards united under Pdnji 
'* Suria Ami St^say the son of Ami Luhur, 

** Pdnji Suria dying, he was succeeded by his son, Pdnji 




" Lalean, who removed the seat of govemment from Jang*- 
" gala to Pajajdran, This took place in 1200 *." 

In some accounts it is stated, that the religion and arts of 
India were first introduced into Java by a Bramin named 
Tritrestay who with numerous followers landed on Java about 
this period, and established the era, in consequence of which 
he is considered the same with Aji Sdka. Hie descendants 
of Tritr^sta are accordingly said to have succeeded to the 
govemment of the country ; and a list of eighteen princes 
is adduced, to bring down the history to the ninth century, in 
which the empire of Jang^gdla was established. From these 
accounts, with some minute details regarding the different 
adventurers, who are supposed to have arrived during the 
three first centuries, it has been inferred, that these were pro- 
bably followers of the religion of Budhay and that those who 
crowded to Java, about the close of the fifth century, are to 

* Thifl history, which is written in the Mahomedan style of inspiration 
and prophecy, commences by a declaration on the part oiJdya Bdya, that 
it is clearly ascertained, the island of Java will be annihilated in two 
thousand one hundred years from the date of its first existence ; and 
after detailing every event, down to the Javan year 1/43 (the present 
year, A.D. 1816), has the following extraordinary conclusion. 

The whole of the above chronological relation of events, from the 
first year to the present date, was written by the inspired Aji Jdya 
Bdya, who himself lived about the year 800. What follows is a conti- 
nuation of events which were foretold by him, and which are still tO' 
happen, viz. 

In the year 1801, Swra-kerta being no more, the seat of govemment 
will be removed to Katdng'ga, which being afterwards demolished, the 
seat of govemment will be removed in 1870 to Kdrang Bdya, 
In 1950, the seat of government will be removed to KecUri, where it 
" was of old. The Pringi people (Europeans) will then come, and 
having conquered Java, will establish a govemment in the year 1955. 
The Prince of Kling, however, hearing of the conquest and ruin of 
Java by the PHngis, will send a force which will defeat and drive them 
out of Java ; and having given up the island once more to its Javan 
govemment, will, in the year I960, return to his own country. 
On regaining possession of the country, the new Javan govemment 
" will desert the former capital of Kdrang Bdya^ as being an unlucky 
" site, and remove it to Waringin KUbu, which is near the mountain 
" N*gmdrta Ldya, This will take place in 2020. 

" By the year 2100 there will be an end of Java entirely." 






be considered as the first settlers professing the Braminical 
faith ; but whatever authority this inference may derive from 
the knowledge we possess of the religious revolutions which 
have taken place elsewhere, and however probable it may be, 
that the followers of Budha were at an early period esta- 
blished on Java, we apprehend that the conclusion will 
derive but little support from a chronology which, on the 
slightest investigation, will be found borrowed frem conti- 
nental India. Even the names of the principal characters, 
who are thus represented as having ruled Java for a period of 
80 many centuries, will be readily traced in the accredited 
lists of Indian sovereigns * ; and when it is considered, that 
the princes of Java pretend to derive their descent from 
Parakisity the descendant of Arjuna^ that the scene of the 
celebrated war bf the Panddway ^hich forms the subject of 
the most popular poem in the coimtr^-, as well as that of the 
great Indian poem, called tlie Mahabdrat^ is believed to have 
been laid on Java, and that not only the countries mentioned 
in that war, but the dwelling places and temples of the dif- 
ferent heroes who distinguished themselves in it, are at the 
present day pointed out on Java, it is easy to account for the 
indistinctness and inaccuracy of the line drawn between 
the princes of India and those who may have actually ruled 
on Java. 

Without entering into the mythology of the ancient Javans, 
which has been more particularly treated of in another place, 
it may be sufficient to obsene generally, that in some of the 
coj)ics of the Niti Sdsira Kdtcly a work of the highest anti- 
quity and celebrity, the following is the duration prescribed 
for the several ages of the world. 

" The kvrta ydga was of one hundred thousand years 
" diuration ; the tret a ydtja was of ten thousand years ; the 
" duapdra was of one tliousand years ; the sandinika (which 
" began A.D. 78) is now in its course.'' 

The kerta y6ga is considered to have terminated with the 
expulsion of Vishnu from Suraldya, The treta ydga com- 
mences with his becoming incarnate in the person of Arjmna 

* Vide Atfiatic RMearchet. 


Wijdyay sovereign of Mauspdtif and ends with the death of 
Rdma^ an event supposed to have taken place about the time 
of Sdkriy in the following line of princes. 

Mdnu Mandsa, 








Pdndu Dewa Ndta, 
Many of these princes, with their descendants, are in the 
traditionary accounts of the country, believed to have esta- 
blished themselves on Java; and while we find Tritresta 
founding a colony in the first year of the Javan era, or about 
seventeen hundred and forty years ago, it is the less surprising 
that the war of the Pdndus should have been transferred 
from the duapdra ydga to the present age, and believed to 
have taken place in Java about twelve hundred years ago. 

In the Javan, or modem version of the Niti Sdstray the 
following periods are assigned to the principal events of 
fabulous history. " In the beginning every thing was at rest 
" and quiet. During the first years, kings began to start up, 
** and wars arose about a woman named D&wi Daruki ; at 
" this period writing was introduced. One thousand five 
" hundred years after this, another war began, about a woman 
" named Deiti Sinfa. Two thousand years after this, a third 
" war broke out about a woman named Dewi Drupddi ; and 
" two thousand five hundred years afterwards another war 
" took place, about the daughter of a spiritual man, not 
" named in history." 

The following account of princes, commencing with TVt- 
trestay who is believed to have established his government at 
Giling Wesiy at the foot of the mountain Se MlrUy with the 
dynasties which they severally established, and the dates at 
which they respectively succeeded to the government, while 
it shews the manner in which these islanders have inter- 
woven their fabulous history with that of the continent, will 


prove how little credit is due to those accounts, which fiimish 
local details during a period so remote and obscure. 

This account is extracted from a collection of the legends 
of the country, compiled by Ndta Kasumaj the present 
Panamhdhan of Sumenap ; a man who is not only dis- 
tinguished among the Javans for his eminent erudition and 
information, but who, from the superior endowments of his 
mind, would command a high degree of respect among the 
more civilized people of Europe. 

" Before there were any inhabitants on Java, IVtJfitm 
" (Vishnu) presided therein ; but having offended Sanp ydng 
" Gurtiy Tritresiay tlie son of Jala Prdsiy and gprandson of 
** Brdmay was sent to Java* as sovereign of the country. This 
prince was married, at ten years of age, to Bramdni Kdli\ 
of Kdmbdjuy and with eight hundred families from the 
** country of Kling, established the seat of his government at 
** the foot or Gunung SemlrUy the capital of which he called 
GiUng Wefsi, He had two sons, Mdnu Mandsa^ and Mdmu 
Madeway and his people increased to 20,000. 

In the country of Kling there was a man named IVatu 
** Gunung y son of Gdnay oi Desa Sangdluy who heard of the 
** fame of Sinia and iMndap^ two beautiful women residing 
" at Giling West, Wdtu Gunung went in search of them, 
" and finding them imder the protection of Tritrexiay attacked 
and defeated him. Triirexta was slain, and Wdtu Gummng 
reigned as sovereign of Giling West for one hundred and 
" forty years. Under his government the country became 
" very flourishing. He adopted forty sons and as many 
" daughters of the princes of the country, and gave them the 
" names of the deities of Sdrga (Swerga), for which, and for 
" other acts, he was in the end punished ^ith death by WUmUy 
" in the year 240 * 

*' After this Dafdra Guru sent Gutdka from the mountain 
" Satrela Chdla in Kling y to be sovereign of Giling WM^ 
" where, after a reign of fifty years, he died, and was suc- 
" ceeded by his son, Rdden SaweUiy in the year 290. This 
" last prince reigned twenty years, and was succeeded by 

* See account of Wain Gumtmg in vol. i. Litermture. 




" Gutdma, who removed from Giling Wesi while yet umnar- 
" ried, and went to a country fAstinaJy which was possessed 
by an elephant that desired the princess Endrddi in mar- 
riage. He fought and killed the elephant, and married the 
" princess, and afterwards proceeded to Lagrestina, 

" There was a Pandita of Guniing Jdli^ in the country of 
" Kling, who had a son called Rdden Ddsa Wirid, who, when 
twelve years of age, having obtained leave of his father to go 
to Java, took up his abode at the foot of the mountain Ldwu, 
His son, Ddsa BdhUy when ten years of age, determined to 
make himself independent, and travelled with one hundred 
followers, until they smelt the dead elephant which had 
been killed by Guidma. There he established himself, 
calling his capital Gdja-huia^ or Astind Pura. This was 
" in the year 310. 

" Ddsa Bdhu was succeeded by his son Suantdnay who 
" had wars with the giant Puru Sdda. This prince had a 
" son, named Dewa Brdta, whose mother died immediately 
" after the birth of the child ; and the prince finding no one 
" from whom the child would take milk, was obliged to carry 
" it about in search of some one to whom it might take a 
" liking. 

" Of the descendants of Tritresta were first, Mdnu Mandsa; 
" second, Sutdpa ; third, Saputram ; fourth, Sdkri, The 
" last begot Piila Sara^ who had a son named Abidsa. It 
" happened that Abidsa^ when an infant, was borne in the 
" arms of his mother Ambu Sdn\ at the time when Suantdna 
" was in search of a wet nurse for his son. Upon seeing her 
" the infant D&wa immediately cried out and wanted milk 
** from her, which, however, she would not consent to give, 
" until after much altercation Suantdna agreed to give his 
" country in exchange ; so that Ambu Sdri received the 
" country of Astina for her son Abidsa^ who, when arrived 
" at a proper age, succeeded as sovereign in the year 415. 
" D^a Brdta was made Prince of Kumbina, 

" Abidsa was married to a woman advanced in years, by 
" whom he had three sons : Dresta Rdta^ who was blind ; 
" Pdndu Dewa Ndta^ who was very handsome ; and Rdma 
" Widdroy who was lame. After twelve years he retired, and 
" transferred the government to his second son. 


^^ Pdndu DSwa Ndta, at the age of fourteen, then toe* 
ceeded as sovereign of Astina^ and married D^in Kumii^ 
daughter of Bdsu Ketif Prince of Madira^ by whom ha 
had three sons, KUnta Dewaj Sena^ and Jinaka. DSwa 
Ndta also married Madrin^ daughter of the Prince of Mam* 
dardga^ and died, leaving her pregnant She was delivered 
of two sons, and died also ; but Dewi Kunti gave the chil- 
dren milk, and called the one Sadewa and the other Na» 
kula. At that time the children of Pdndu Ddwa Ndta 
were very young ; Dr^sta Rdta was therefore nominated 
protector during their minority ; but instead of resigning 
the kingdom to them, he gave it to his own son, Suyuddna; 
who, becoming sovereign of Astina^ the five children were 
sent by AbidsOy with a thousand families, to establish a new 
country, to which they gave the name of Am&rta, 
^^ Su^ddna married the daughter of the Prince of Mamda^ 
rdgay by whom he had a son, and the country became great, 
flourishing, and happy. There was none more powerful ; 
and the dependant chiefs were the Princes Kema of 
Awdng'gay BUma or Dewa Krdtay of Kumbina^ Jaffa 
Pdta of Ddla SejanCy Jdkar Sdna of Afaduray and Sdliaj 
of Mandardga. But Punta Dewa and his brothers in the 
coimtrj' of Amerta were not satisfied : they wished for their 
father's inheritance, and sent tlieir cousin, Kreima of Diara- 
trdtiy to confer with SuguddnOy and to demand their right- 
ful possessions. For the sake of peace with their consin, 
they offered to accept of half: but Suyuddna rejected their 
demand and replied, * that without the decision of the 
*' sword they should have none.* Then began the war 
called Brdta Yiidkay because it was a contest for their just 
rights. The war lasted long, and during its continuance 
the sons and followers of both parties were nearly all kiUed : 
at last Suguddna himself fell, after a reign of fifty years ^ . 
'^ Pinta Dewa then became sovereign of Antina in the 
year 491 ; but after two years he transferred the govern- 
ment to Parikisity son of Abimdnyuy and grandson of hit 
brother Jendka. After defending the country succesaftiDy 
against the giant Usi Ajiy of Surabdyay whom he slew, ha 

• Sm vol. i. Poetry— Bralc KttAc. 





" was succeeded by his son Udaydna, who died after a reign 
" of twenty-three years, His son Jaya Derma succeeded. 
" This prince bad two sons, named Jdya Misdna and Ang*- 
" ling Derma, The former succeeded his father after a reign 
" of twenty-seven years, and died at the expiration of five 
" years. During the reign of Jdya Misdna there was a dread- 
" fill pestilence and a violent earthquake, which destroyed 
" the country, and his son removed to Mildway where he be- 
" came a tdpa. 

" To this country AngHing Dermd had already removed 
" with three thousand families, during the lifetime of his 
" brother, and was acknowledged as sovereign of Mildwa 
" Pdtiy where he reigned in prosperity for ten years. At the 
expiration of this period, it is related that his princess 
burnt herself, in consequence of being refused the know- 
" ledge of a certain prayer, by which she might understand 
" the language of all animals. The prince afterwards be- 
" came insane, wandered about, and was transformed into a 
" white bird. 

The son of Jdya Misdna^ Jdya Purusay begat PUspa 
" Jdyay who begat Puspa Wijdya, who begat Kasuma 
" Wichitra, who again begat Rdden Aji Nirmdla^ who reigned 
" for twenty years at Mildwa Paliy but in whose days the 
" country was greatly afflicted with pestilence. In conse- 
" quence of this, his son, BisHra Champdkay departed with 
" his followers, and proceeded to Mendang Kamulany where 
" he abode as a Pandita, He had, however, a son, named 
" AngHing Dermaj firom whom descended Aji Jdya Bdya, 
" who became sovereign of the country, and gave it the name 
" of Purwa Chirita ; imder his government the country greatly 
" increased, he acquired large possessions, and all under his 
" administration was flourishing and happy. It is related of 
" him, that he dictated the poem of the Brdta Yudhay by 
" order of Dewa Batdra GurUy in the year 701. He was 
" succeeded by his son, Saldpar WdtOy in 756, whose son, 
" named KandidwaUy afterwards came to the government, 
" under the title of Jdyu Langkdra, This last named prince 
" had 'a sister, called Chdndra Sudra, four sons, Snbrdtay 
" Para Ydta, Jdta Widay and Su Widay and a daughter, 
" named Pambpyun, His Pdieh was named Jdya Singdray 



^^ and among his dependents were Gaja Irdwan of Luddya^ 
" Lembu Siren Guna of Jang^gdla^ Wira Tikta of Kediri^ 
" and the Arias of Sing*a Sari and NgWdwan. 

" In course of time this prince became very wicked, and 
*' married his sister, Chandra Sudra. When his Paieh^ 
" chiefs, and followers, heard of it, they rose in arms, but 
" feared to attack the prince, as it had been predicted that he 
" could only be killed at the full of the moon. The prince, 
" in the mean time, being informed of the conspiracy, im- 
" mediately attacked the party, and killing the Pat eh ^ com- 
" mitted great slaughter among his followers. 

" When the battle was over, he assembled his sons, and 
*' after telling them they were not ignorant of his deeds, and 
^' that it was his intention to bum himself at the full of the 
" moon> he desired that they would thereujion remove firom 
" the place, and leave the coimtry of Mendang Kamulan to 
" become a wilderness. He then divided his possessions into 
" four parts : to the eldest son, Subrdta, he gave the country 
" of Jang^gdUt ; to his second son. Para Ydra^ he gave 
" Kedlri : to his tliird, Jdta H'^iday he gave Sing^a Sdri ; and 
" to his fourth son, Su H^'ida^ he gave Xg^ardwan : and these 
" princes severally became independent chiefs of those king- 
" doms. 

" When the full of the moon arrived, Sri Jdya Langkdra^ 
" with his wife and sister, Chdndra Sudra^ went to the 
" Sdng^gar of Deica Pabayuslany where they burnt them- 
" selves. The families of tlie Pdteh and the chiefs slain in 
'^ the late battle also accompanied him, and committed them- 
'' selves to tlie (lames. PevibdyuUy his daughter, was not 
" however permitted to sacrifice herself, in consequence of 
*' which she bore great ill will to her father ; and it is related 
" that she is tlie same person who afterwards went to 
" Jdng^gdla^ and abode at liana Kapuchdng'^an^ where she 
^' assumed the name of KHi Suchiy and went about from 
" place to place, being much beloved ; for she was %'ery 
^' leamedy and made inscriptions upon ston(^8, one of which 
" is called Kdla Kerma ♦." 

* To this popular account of the early and fabulous history of Java, it 
may be interettiiig to add the equally popular and generally recg l v cd 


But other accounts, which attempt to draw a line between 
the Indian and Javan princes, date the commencement of the 

ancient history of Madura, formerly called Mandura, and in the basa, or 
court language, Mandur^tna. 

** Batara Rama Yana having completed the wars, and conquered Dasa 
" Muka, of the country of Alinka, thought of making a new settlement 
" from the wilderness. To this he gave the name of Dmjayapura ; and 
" after a long reign, resigned the government of it to his son, Butlawa, 
" ending his days in solitude. Butlawa reigned for some years over the 
*' country of Durjayapura, and was succeeded hy his son, Kunti Buf'a, 
** who married the daughter of his Pdieh^ named Kasa. This prince re- 
" moved the seat of government, or rather changed the name of it, to 
" Mandura Rdja, and was succeeded hy his son, Basu Keti, who ascended 
" the throne at nine years of age. During his reign there arrived a heauti- 
" ful woman, named Dewi Sani Gatra, daughter of Bengawan Adi Rusa, 
** who had fled from the Prince of Nusa Kambangdn, called Jura Mataraja, 
** The prince married her, and was in consequence attacked by Jura 
" Matarcga: but by the assistance of Pvla Sara, the father of Abiasa, who 
*' afterwards became sovereign of AsUna, he defeated him, and remained 
** in quiet possession of his country. By the princess he had four chil- 
*' dren ; three sons, named Basu Dewa, Aria Prabu, and Angrasana, and a 
" daughter named Dewi Kunti. Wlien Basu Dewa was fifteen years of age, 
" his father wished him to marry a princess of the country, but the youth 
" having fixed his affections up:)n the daughter of Raja Sirwonga, named 
" Dewi Angsa Wati, refused compliance, and was in consequence dismissed 
" the royal presence. 

Batu Dewa, learning that the daughter of Sirwonga had been carried 
off by a giant into the woods, succeeded in overpowering the giant, and 
** married Dewi Angsa Wati ; but intelligence being given thereof to the 
" chief, the prince of Ambulutiga, a chief caUed Tiga fVama (tri-coloured; 
" was sent in pursuit of Basu Dewa, whom he overtook on his return to 
" Mandura Raja. Basu Dewa was vanquished and fell into a cave : the 
princess fell into the hands of Tiga Wama, 

It "WA about this time that Pula Sara obtained the kingdom oiAstina 
" for his son Abiasa, and was desirous of betrothing him to Dewa Amba- 
" Uka of Astinaj but the young prince would not consent; and one day, 
** when he was wandering in the forests, he heard a voice issue from a 
** cave, and discovered Basu Dewa, who related his case and intreated his 
aid in the recovery of his wife. The yoxvag princes then proceeded in 
search of Tiga Wama, and having discovered him, Basu Dewa discharged 
** an arrow at him and killed him. Dewi Ansga Wati was in consequence 
" restored to her husband. Basu Dewa and Abiasa then exchanged vows 
of perpetual friendship between themselves and their descendants, in- 
voking a curse upon whomsoever of them should be guilty of breaking 
** it. After this, Basu Dewa returned to Mandura Raja. 

" Basu Dewa at length succeeded his father in the government of Mau^ 

G 2 





latter, five centuries subsequently to the first landing of the 
Aji Sdkay and consider the kingdom of Mendang KamAlam 
as the first regular establishment on Java. As these, if not 
the most consistent ynih the historical data which have been 
admitted on continental India, have the advantage of being 
the least confused, a more particular account of the first esta- 
blishments may be interesting. With regard to the statemenU 
that commence with a more remote antiquity, it may be suf- 
ficient to shew, at one view, the line of princes who are re- 
presented to have nded on Java, according to the two dificrent 
autliorities which have been referred to. 

" dura Raja, and had several children ; of whom one was white, named 
" Kakra Sana, the other black, named Kresna. He was succeeded by a icm 
" whom he had exposed in the woods, but to whom he afterwards became 
** reconciled, named Raden Kangsa, to whom he gave the country. At 
this time Pandu Dewa Nata reined over the kingdom of Astima, One 
ni^ht a voice said to him in a dream, ' When you meet with children of 
Madura, white or black, put them to death.' His father, who was still 
living, apprehensive for the fate of his favourite sons, Kakra Soma and 
** Kresna, sent them to WidaraKandang for concealment, with Angga Gcpm. 
** These two princes afterwards hearing of an exhibition of fighting men, 
" proceeded with their sister Sambddra to the AUm abm, where the com- 
" batants were assembled, and here they met Raden Aria Jenaka and Som, 
" sons of Pandu Dewa Nata, from Astina, wQ^ when their father died heard 
" of the fame of Madura, and came in quest of the country. 

'* Raden Kangsa was seated in the paseban, surrounded by hit chiefs, 
'* when his Pat eh informed him that the proscribed children had at last 
*' appeared, llie prince, delighted that those whom he had so long aoiight 
*' in \'ain had now appeared of their own accord, ordered his Pdtdk imme- 
** diately to seize them ; but Kakra Sana fought with the Pdtek, and drove 
" him back upon the prince, who then seized him himself, and throwing 
*' him on the ground with violence, blood gushed from his mouth. Kakrm 
** Sana then called for assistance from Krisna, who with Raden Senm im- 
mediately came and overpowered Raden Kangsa. I'pon this Kakra 
Sana put him to death with his weapon Lugura. The Pdiek, ignorant 
of the fate of his prince, rushed upon the parties, but was pierced with 
a spear by Kakra Sana, who immediately exclaimed, ' 1 am Reti 
of Rspai Kapanasan ; 1 am Aeft di Jala dona Baladewa, the son of 
•• Dewa of Madura.* 

** Then his uncle. Aria Prabu, spoke ; and having embraced him, carried 
** him to his father, Basm Dewa, who conferred the country upon hiuL At 
** night, howeirer, Kakra Sana heard a voice in his sleep, saying, ' to-mor- 
*• • row will 1 be revenged in the war Brata Y^udka : there will be one of 
** * the country Ckdmpala Raja, 1 am he.* Kakra Sana replied, * well I 
•• • dare vou,' " 






Who ruled on Java, according to the Manuscript ascribed to Aji Jdya Bdya, 

in the Possession qf the present Susuhunan, 










P^ng'giiig , 

M^ndang Kamulan 



Singa Sari 












B^u Keti. 
Mdngsah Pati 
Pula S£ra. 

Pandu D^wa Nkta. 
Aji Jdya Bdva. 
Angling Dna. 

Ddmar Maya. 
Aji Sdka. 
Li^mbu Ami Jdya. 
Lembu Ami Sesa. 
Lembu Ami JiUeh. 
Lembu Ami Luhur. 
Panji Stiria Ami S^sa. 
Banjdran Sdri. 
M^ndang Wdng'i. 
Jdka Sm^, or 
Browijdya 1st. 
Browijdya 2d. 
Browijdya 3d. 
Browijdya 4th. 
Browijdya 5th. 

* The Chandi Sewu, or one thousand temples at Brambanan, according 
to this chronology, are supposed to have beeu completed in the year 

t The temple of Boro Bodo is also supposed to have been completed 
in 1360. 




Who reigned on Java, according to the Manuscripts of the Eastern Ports of 
Java, Sumenap, and Bali, as collected by Ndta Kusuma, the present 
Panambahan of Sumenap. 

Date of Arcewion, 
Javan Year. 












Giling W^ 

•■« • • • • 


• • • • • 

iMalawa Pdti 




M^ndang Kamdlan . . 



















Watu Gunung. 







P4ndu D^wa Nata. 


P6nto Dewa. 



Ang'lin^ Derma. 

J4ya Misina. 

Punpa Java. 

PuHpa Wijava. 

Kasiima n ichitra. 

Aji Nirmala. 

Bisura i.'haiii^iaka. 

Ang'ling l)nB. 

Aji Jaya Bay a. 

Stla Pra^dta. 

Kandiiwan, or Ja}*a Lan}<- 

Subrita, or D4wn KaMima 

Banjaran Sari. 
M lida-nin^-kiing. 
RAden P&nkan. 
Siung Winira. 
Jaka SuAuni, or Bri \Vija}*a. 
Prabu Auoin. 
LMa ninkung. 
Pribu K4nya, a Princrm 

married to Damar WiiUn. 
I^mbu Ami Sani. 
Brama Tunggung. 
Raden Alit, or Browija}TL 




The following is the chronology of the Javan princes, 
according to the legends abstracted by Kiai Adipdti Adi 
Mang^gdla, formerly Regent oiDemdkj and in which the Javan 
princes commence in the sixth century. 

Date of Acceuion, 
J«van Year. 






M^ndang Kamulan .. 












Saw^a CMa. 
Ardi Kasuma. 
Ardi Wijaya. 
Resi Denoang (i^ndis. 
Ddwa Kastima. "j 

L^mbu Ami Luhur. > • 
Pan^i Kerta Pati J 
Pdnji Maisa Tandraman, or 

Mtjnding Sari. 
Munding Wangi. 
Chiong or Siung Wandra- 
Bro Kainara. 
Ardi Wijaya. 
Merta \Vijava. 
Anaka Wijaya, 








" When Prdbu Jdya Bdya of Astina died, he was suc- 
ceeded by his son and descendants, named Avii Jdya^ 
Jaya Ami Sdna, Pdncha Dria, and Kasuma Chitra. 
During the reign of the last of these princes, either the 
seat of government had been removed, or the country had 
changed its name, for it was then called Kufrat or Giifrat\ 
and it having been foretold that it would decay and go to 
ruin altogether, the prince resolved to send his sonf to 

* At this time there were also three other cotemporary kingdoms, Doha, 
Singa Sari, and Ng*ttrawan, 

t By these accounts, Sawela Chala is represented as the thirtieth in 
descent from Nurchaya, and the eleventh from Arjuna, according to the 
following line of Indian princes who ruled at AsHna-pura and Guf-rat. 

— Arjuna y 

1 Bimanyu, 

2 Parakisit, 

3 UdianOf 

4 GanSra Yana, 

5 Jaya Baya, 

6 Ami Jaya, 

7 Ami Sama, 

8 Chitra Sama, 

9 Pancha Dria, 

10 Kasuma Chitra, 

1 1 Sawela Chala. 


" Jdwa^ and possessing the written account of Aji Sdka, 
** which had been preserved in his family, he gave it to his 
" son, and embarked him with about five thousand followers 
" for that island. Among these followers were Jdlma-tdmiy 
" Jdlma-unddf/iy Jdlma-ujam-dudukany Jdlma-pangnidrik^ 
" Jdlma'prajurit ; that is to say, people skilled in agricul- 
" turc, artificers, men learned in medicine, able u-riters, and 
" militar}' men. 

" They sailed in six large ships and upwards of a hundred 
" small vessels, and after a voyage of four months reache<] 
" what they conceived to be tlie island of Jdtca^ and many 
" landed ; but as it did not accord witli tlie account given by 
" Aji Sdka, they re -embarked. In a few months, however, 
" they came in sight of an island vr\lh a long range of moun- 
" tains, and some of them, witli the prince at tlieir head, 
" effected a landing at tlie western extremity, while a part 
" were driven to the southward, lliey soon met with the 
" grain yV/ira-ir///, as described by Aji Sdka^ and ascertained 
" that tliey had at last reach reached their destination : then 
" opening tlie book of Aji Sdkuj tlie days of tlie week and 
" ihc panchau'dra* were named. The prince, however, did 
" not long remain in tliis part of the island ; for on clearing 
" tlie forest, a lingering sickness appeared among his fol- 
" lowers, and many died from drinking the water: so he 
" moved to the south and east, in quest of a more salubrious 
" position, and witli the hope of falling in with tlieir com- 
" panions. Tliese they found at tliat }>art of the island now 
" known by the name of Matdrem^ when the high priest 
** opening the book of Aji Sdkuy and referring to the pro- 
" phecy, that Jdira should become an inheritance to the 
descendants of Prdbu Jdya Bdi/a, he summoned the whole 
party together, and fonnally jiroclaimed tlie prince sovereign 
of tlie comitr>', under the title of Broirijdya Saireia Chdia. 
Tlie name of Mendang Kamulan was tlien given to the 
seat of government. 

'* 'V\\Q j)rince now found lliat men alone were wanting to 
render it a great and flourishing state, and he accordingly 



* For an explanation of the week of five da}ni, so tenoed, see vol. i. 


" applied to Guf-rat for assistance. The ambassadors whom 
he sent proceeded down the river and embarked at Gresik, so 
called from Girisikj in consequence of the hills {Girt) run- 
'' ning in this part of the island close to the sea shore {fdk) ; 
" and when they reached Guj-ratj the father of Sawela ChaUiy 
** delighted to hear of his success, immediately sent him a 
" reinforcement of two thousand people. The kindred and 
" friends of the new colonists were permitted to proceed in 
" great numbers to Jdwa^ where they established themselves 
" principally in the southern and eastern provinces. The 
" prince lost no time in improving his capital, which became 
" an extensive city in the year 525. From this period Jdwa 
^^ was known and celebrated as a kingdom : an extensive 
" commerce was carried on with Gufrat and other countries, 
" and the bay of Matdrenij then a safe place for shipping, 
" was filled with adventurers from all parts." 

In some of the accounts, the father of Sawela Chdla is 
named Bdlia Achar / and previously to the establishment of 
Mendang Kamulan, Sawela Chela himself is usually known 
by the name of Awap, 

" Nothing, however, is represented to have tended more 
" to the prosperity of this establishment, than a supposed 
" imion which is said to have taken place between the family 
" oi Sawela Chdla and that of Am Bdndan^ a prince who had 
" recently arrived from the Moluccas, and established himself 
" on Balambdngan. Hearing of the arrival of Sawela Chdla^ 
*' this prince, with his followers, proceeded to Mendang Ka- 
^^ mulan and submitted to his authority, on condition that the 
" eastern provinces, including Balambdngan^ should be con- 
^^ firmed to him and his descendants. According to the tra- 
" dition of the country, this prince was principally induced 
" to submit, in consequence of the other party being able to 
explain the inscription and signs of j4jt Sdka, which he 
himself could not, and in consequence of the production of 
" the writings, in which it was prophesied that the country 
" should become the inheritance of the family of this prince. 

" Sawela Chdla, after a long and prosperous reign, was 
** succeeded by his son, Ardi Kasuma ; and he again, on his 
" death, by his son, named Ardi Wijdya. 



'^ During the sovereignty of these princes, the country md- 
*^ vanced in fame and prosperity, and the city of M^dang 
^^ Kamulauj since called Brambdnan or Prambdnany in- 
*' creased in size and splendour. Artists, particularly in 
^^ stone and metals, arrived from distant coimtries ; the tem- 
*' pies, of which the ruins are still extant, both at this place 
'^ and at Bdro Bddo in K^du, are stated to have been con- 
" structed diuing this period, by artists invited from India ; 
*' and the remains of the palace, situated on a range of low 
^^ hills near the site of the thousand temples, still attest the 
" existence of this first capital of Java. 

*^ Ardi Wijdya had five sons, besides a numerous illegiti. 
^^ mate offspring. The eldest was appointed chief of the class 
of cultivators, the second of the traders, the third to the 
charge of the woods and forests, the fourth chief of the ma- 
nufacturers of oil, sugar, and spirits, and the ftilh, named 
*^ R^si Detidang Gendis, remained as assistant to his father. 
" Wlien this prince died, his youngest son, Resi Dendang 
** Gendis, found himself in charge of tlie capital, and invested 
w\\h tlie general administration of the country ; but his bnv 
thcrs having formed independent governments in other parts 
of the island, refused to acknowledge his supremacy. One 
of them was established at Bagalen^ another at Japaray 
** and a third at K&ripan. He is said to have died of a 
*' broken heart, in consequence of these secessions, leaving a 
numerous progeny, who established themselves in different 
" parts of the countr>'. 

The next prince who," according to these accounts, ** ap- 
pears to have succeeded to the government of Mendamg 
*' Kamulanj was D^tca Kasuma, who being of an ambitious 
** character, is said to have proceeded eastward, and ^ta- 
** blishcd the kingdom of Jan g^ gala ^ the capital of which, so 
^^ called firom liis attachment to the chace (jang*gdla signify- 
** ing *' a dog" in the Javan language) was built in the forest 
^' of Jeng^dwan^ a few miles to the eastward of the modem 
'* Surabdyay where its site, ^-ith many interesting remains of 
antiquity, is still pointed out This event is supposed to 
have taken place about the year 846." 
Of the earlier histor}' of Java it is probable, that each of 
these three accounts contains some true particulars ; but with- 





out unnecessarily discrediting the claims which that country 
asserts to a higher antiquity, we must confess ourselves 
unable, in the present state of our information, to separate 
truth from fable, till we arrive at a period when its records 
are more consistent. Unconnected with the line of princes 
whose names have been brought forward, many small states, 
petty dynasties, and separate interests, no doubt existed on 
Java in earlier times : of which little mention is made by tra- 
dition, which seldom busies itself, except with extensive and 
sanguinary wars, or great political changes. Among these 
may have flourished the celebrated Jiiya BdyUj in whose reign 
the Brdta Yudha is said to have been composed by the Pan- 
dita Pusida. In the account obtained from Sura-kerta, this 
prince, as we have seen, is related to have reigned in the 
eighth century in the country of Kediri. 

The temples at Brambdnan (the extensive remains of 
which, with the numerous casts in metal found in their vici- 
nity, prove the high state which the arts had attained in a re- 
mote age, and afford incontestible evidence of the establish- 
ment of the Hindu worship in the earliest periods of Javan 
history), are stated in some accounts to have been constructed 
in the year 525, and in others in the year 1018 ; but as far as 
the general tradition may be relied on, it seems most probable 
that they were the work of the sixth or seventh centuries. 
This opinion derives confirmation from the fact, that dming 
this period idol worship increased in Japan. Abundance of 
idols and idol carvers, and priests, arrived in that quarter 
from several countries beyond sea ; and local traditions assert, 
that at that time similar emigrations first took place to Java 
and the eastern islands *. 

* ** King Me succeeded his brother (as Emperor of Japan) in the year 
" of Synmu, of Christ 540. 

** He was a very religious prince, and very favourably inclined to the 
«< foreign pagan Budsdo worship, which during his reign spread with 
** great success in Japan, insomuch that the emperor himself caused 
" several temples to be built to foreign idols, and ordered the idol of 
" Buds, or Fotoge, to be carved in Fakkusai, that is in China. 

" My Japanese author mentions what follows, as something very 
** remarkable, and says, that it happened in the thirty-first year of his 
** reign, and contributed very much to the advancement of the Budsdo 
** religion. About a thousand years ago, says my author^ there was in 


D^wa Kasuma is represented by the Javan writers to have 
been a prince of great talent and enlarged views, and by his 





TftH/eiuiibi (that is the middle TtnsUn^ whereby must be understood 
the country of the Malabarians and the coast of Coromandel in India) 
an eminent /o/oil:« called Afoihtren, a disciple of Siaka. About the same 
time the doctrine of Jambaden G<mno Niorai (that is, Amida the great 
god and patron of departed souls) was brought over into China, or 
Fakkuitti, and spread into the neighbouring countries. This doctrine, 
continues he, did now manifest itself also in Tnmohmi, or Japan, at a 
place called NaniwOy where the idol of Amida appeared at the entry of 
a pond, environed with gulden rays, nobody knowing how it was con- 
veyed thither. The pious emperor, in memory of this miraculous 
event, instituted the first Nen^ in Japan, and called it Komqmo. The 
*' idol itself was by Tondo Josijmitz, a prince of great courage and piety, 
** carried into the country of Sinano, and placed in the temple of Sim- 
** quosi, where it afterwards, by the name of Sinquosi Nond (that is, the 
Norai or Amida of Sinquosi) wrought many great miracles, which made 
that temple famous all over the empire. Thus far my Japanese author. 
He was succeeded by his son, FU Atzu, or Fint AU, in the year of 
Syjumu 1232, of Chnst 572. My author makes no mention of his age, 
but sets down the following remaiiuible events which hi^pened during 
•* his reign. 

In the third year of his reign, on the first day of the first month, was 
bom at the emperor's cotul Soiokiait, the great apostle of the Ja- 
panese. His birth was preceded and attended with several rs- 
" markable circimistances. 

" The idol worship in general increased greatly in Japan daring the 
emperor's reign. Abundance of idols, and idol carvers, and priests, 
came from several countries beyond sea. 

In the eighth year of his reign the first image of Siaka was brought 
over from beyond sea, and carried to Nora into the temple of Kobrnti, 
where it is still kept in great veneration, po«sessed of the chief and 
most eminent place in that temple. 

In the fourteenth year of his reign one Moria, a great antagonist 
and professed enemy of Soioktais, occasioned great troubles and reli- 
" gious dissensions in the empire. He bore a mortal hatred to all the 
Fotoge or idols of the country, which he took out of the temples and 
burnt wherever he could come at them : but within two years time his 
enemies got the better of him, for he was overcome, and paid with hit 
life for his presumptuous enterprise. It is added, that ha^nng thrown 
'* the ashes of the idols, which he had burnt, into a lake, there arose 
" suddenly a most dreadful storm of thunder, lightning, and rain.** — 
History qf Japan by Kempfer, \o\. i. page 167- 

It is remarkable, that a peculiar people seem to ha%'e traversed Mexico 
in the following centur}% and according to Humboldt in like manner to 
have left behind them traces of cultivation and civilisation. ** Tim 






• < 

• t 


mild and beneficent government to have induced many of his 
relations to submit to his authority, which in a short time ex- 
tended over all the provinces eastward of Jawdna. But the 
most interesting fact related of him is, that he sent his chil- 
dren, consisting of four sons and a daughter, to India (Kling)y 
in order that they might there be educated and instructed in 
the religion of Brdma ; from whence the eldest son having 
married the daughter of one of the greatest princes of the 
country, returned to Java with three large ships, laden with 
long cloth and other valuable manufactures, and bringing with 
him able artists of different professions, and a thousand chosen 
troops presented to him by his father-in-law as a body guard. 
How far this relation is correct it may be difficult to deter- 
mine ; and a suspicion may even be entertained, that it was a 
fiction invented by national vanity, for the purpose of con- 
cealing from posterity the successful invasion of foreign adven- 
turers. What we know for certain is, that during the reign of 
the reputed^ sons of this prince, the Hindu religion, institu- 
tions, and hterature, with the ornaments of continental India, 
were very generally introduced and diffused ; and it is from 
this date that we may speak with some degree of confidence 
as to history. 

Dewa Kasumay on the return of his children from India, 
divided his kingdom among them. To the eldest. Ami Luhur, 
he gave the succession to Jang^gdloy with a jurisdiction of 
limited extent ; to Ami Jdya he gave the country of Gegelang 
or Stnga Sari ; to Lenibu Meng^drang he gave the country 
N^gardwan or BrowemOy and to Lembu Ami Luhur he gave 

Toultecs," says that eminent author, " appeared first in 648, the 
Chichimecs in 1170, the NahuaUics in 1178, and the Aztecs m 1196. 
The Toultecs introduced the cultivation of maize and cotton ; they 
built cities, made roads, and constructed those great pyramids which 
are yet admired, and of which the faces are very accurately laid out. 
They knew the use of hieroglyphical paintings; they could foimd 
metals and cut the hardest stones, and they had a solar year more 
perfect than that of the Greeks or Romans. The form of their 
government indicated that they were the descendants of a people, who 
had experienced great vicissitudes in their social state.** " But where,*' 
asks Humholdt, " is the source of that cultivation ; where is the country 
•* from which the Toultecs and Mexicans issued ?" — Humboldt' i Political 
Essay on New Spain, 



the countiy of Dahd or Kediri ; so that, when he died, the 
island of Java became divided into four kingdoms. His 
daughter, who was the eldest of his children, and named 
Detti Kill Suchi, remained unmarried, and performed a 
conspicuous part in the transactions of those days. The 
temples at Sing^a San\ the ruins of which still remain, are 
stated to have been constructed by that princess. 

The reign of Ami Luhur is celebrated for the extensive in- 
tercourse which at this period took place with foreign nations, 
and still more on account of the exploits and adventures of his 
son, Pdnji I no K^rta Pdtiy the issue of his marriage with the 
Indian princess, and who, imder the name of Pdnji^ became 
the most renoi*Tic?d hero of Javan stor}'. The adventures of 
Pdnji are described in numerous romances, which form the 
subject of still more numerous dramatic exhibitions, and con- 
stitute a principal portion of the polite literature, as well as of 
the popular amusement of Java. In these romances the hem 
is represented as devoted to love and war. At an early age he 
marries Angrend or S^kar^tdji ^ihe daughter of his father's P^- 
pad, to whom he is passionately attached. His father, desi- 
rous of uniting him with his cousin, tlie daughter of the chief 
of Kediri, causes the first object of his affections to be put to 
death. Pdnji on this embarks with the dead body, and a 
storm arising, most of the vessels which accompanied him 
being lost, he is supjjosed to have perished. He, how- 
ever, reaches the island Tandhang in safety, and after 
burning the body of his lamented Angrene, proceeds with 
all the followers he can muster to Rdli, where he as- 
sumes tlic name of Kldnn Jdyang Sdri. Having obtained 
assistance from the prince of the island, Anddya Prdtuty 
and received in marriage the princess his daughter, usually 
known under the name of the Putri or princess of Bali^ 
he crosses to llalamhdngan, the most eastern province 
of Java, and also uniting in marriage with the princess of that 
coimtn% he obtains numerous auxiliaries, and moves westward 
to Kediri y in quest of the jirincess Chdndra Kirdna, the fiune 
of whose beauty and accom])lishiiients had been widely cele- 
brated. Here, in consequence of his change of name, and the 
general belief that he had perished in tlie storm, he is consi- 
dered as a powerful Uaja from Sdbrang, or the opposite shofe. 


and joining the chief of Kediri, he secretly makes himself 
known to his daughter, and marries her. 

According to some of the romances, a prince from Nusa 
Kanchdna, or the Golden Isle, with numerous followers, and 
accompanied by two princesses from Nusa Retna arrives at 
Jang*g6la about this period, and giving himself out for the 
long-lost Pdnjiy imposes on the credulity of the father, who 
receives him as his son. This prince is represented as the 
son of a Bramdfia possessing supernatural gifts, which enable 
him to succeed in the deception, and is said to have been lord 
of many rajas, among whom were Edka^ Marddda^ and many 
others who are named. He is reported to have had a sister, 
named Angrena Sudra^ excelling in beauty, and in every re- 
spect resembling the princess Angr^ne, who with her niu*se 
accompanied his four wives and numerous concubines to 

Kldna Jdyang Sdri now resuming his name as the real 
Pdnjiy his father, the prince ofJang^gdla, proceeded to Kediri 
with the auxiliaries brought over by the impostor, when a 
combat takes place between the two princes, and tlie true 
Pdnji becomes manifest. 

According to other accounts, the storm in which Pdnji was 
supposed to have perished, occurred when the princess AngrenS 
was living. She is cast on the Bdli shore, where assuming a 
male habit, and becoming a favourite of the prince, she in 
time obtained the sovereignty of that island under the title of 
Jdya Angeling Ddra . Panji is thrown on the south shore 
of Java, and afterwards sent by his father to reduce the refrac- 
tory chief of Bdliy in 'whom he recognizes Angrene, In ano- 
ther romance his second wife, Chdndra Kirdnay is represented 
as becoming chief of Bdli^ under the title of Kuda Nara- 

It is also related, that, about this period the Prince of 
Singasdri being attacked by the Bdlians under Kldna 
Rdng*ga Pdspita, and defeated in an engagement near 
Ardra Biddliy applied for assistance to Jang*gdla and 
Browerno, The forces sent as auxiliaries from Jang^gdla^ 
were defeated, and it was not until the arrival of a celebrated 
warrior from Browerno^ that the Bdlians were obliged to re- 
treat. The river which flowed by the scene of action still 



bears the name Kdli Getty from its stream having been con- 
verted into blood on this occaion. 

With regard to the Raja of Nusa Kanchdnaj it is related 
that he possessed veiy extensive influence over all the islands 
of Sdbrang. He is sometimes called Kldna Tdnjung Pmra^ 
and said to have obtained his authority by means of a 
Bramdnay named Kdnda or Sak^tdo, and sometimes Satirti^ 
who performed a severe penance on the island Tambima, 
His first establishment was at Goa on Celebes ; aflerwards 
he attained supreme power: every island which he visited 
submitted to his sway. He established himself on Sumatra, 
in the country which has since been called Palembamg^ 
whence he waged war against Java, in order to obtain the 
celebrated princess of Ddha in marriage. In other accounts, 
again, this prince is supposed to have been the son of the 
chief of Brotc^mo on Java, carried off when an infant bv a 
Bramdna^ who left his own son in his place. 

In the dramatic performances of the BdliaM^ Kldna Tnm- 
jung Pura is the same with Si MaldgUy which means a wan- 
derer, and from which it has been supposed probable that the 
Malayan have derived their name. 

The poetical latitude given to the compositions which 
describe the life and adventures of Panji^ leaves it doubtful 
whether he was in fact the real son of a Javan prince, or 
some aspiring adventurer from India, whose attachment the 
chief of Jang^gdla might have found it his interest to secure. 
In the dramatic exhibitions of the same subject, it is difficult 
to decide whether the heroes of the piece are intended to 
represent the real personages whose names appear in history, 
or whether thev are merelv invested with historical titles, for 
the purpose of giving dignity to fictitious characters. 

Some idea may be formed of the reverence in which Pamji 
is held by the Javans, from their representing him as an 
incarnation of Vishntty and his second wife, Chandra KinmOy 
under the name of D^wi Gelu^ as an incarnation of Sri. 

This belief, together with the miraculous transfonnatioiui 
and su])ematural events attributed to the interference of the 
Hindu deities, while heightening the colours of these compo- 
sions may have rendered them more popular subjects for 
dramatic exhibition, but it has deprived them of nearly all 




authenticity and value as historical records. Perhaps the 
only inferences, with respect to the hero of them, which we 
can be justified in drawing, is that the prowess, enterprizes, 
and accomplishments of this chieftain, who has been termed 
the Charlemagne of the East, far excelled those of his cotem- 
poraries, and that he visited Bali, It appears also, that 
during this period some government was established in the 
other islands of the Archipelago, in which a similarity of 
religion, character, and usages prevailed. As descriptive of 
the manners and customs of the country, and as affording 
incontestible evidence, not only of the existence of the Hindu 
religion on Java, but of its universal diffusion as the pre- 
vailing worship of these islands at this period of their history, 
these traditionary remains possess a high value ; and with the 
traces of foreign influence still to be found in their languages, 
and in the numerous monuments of the arts, will materially 
contribute to the developement of their earlier history, while 
they throw light on the character of the people, and the pro- 
gress that had been made in civilization. 

The kris is believed to have been first introduced into the 
Eastern Islands by Pdnjii and some go so far as to assert, 
that all the countries in which it is now worn acknowledged 
his supremacy. The gdmelatij or musical instruments of the 
Javans, togetlier with the various dramatic exhibitions which ( 
still form so essential a part of the popular amusement, and^ 
compose so distinguishing a characteristic of national lite- 
rature, are all supposed to have been introduced by him. 

The (adventures of Pdnji are related in the Malayan 
romances) where that hero is represented under the appel- 
lation of Chekel Wdning Pdti (literally, " when young brave 
to death 'O? ^^^ ^^ the Malayan annals a particular account is 
given of a chief of Sdbrang^ who, according to their story, 
obtained the princess Chdndra Kirdna in marriage *. 

* In these annals, the princess Chandra Kirana of Doha is represented 
as being demanded in marriage hy the son of the Mahomedan Raja of 
Malacca, and the story, in which an accoimt is evidently given of a visit to 
Java at a much later period of its history, blended with the earlier 
romances of Java, after detailing the particulars by which the prince of 
Tanjung-pura became Raja of Majapdhit, is thus told : 

** The Batdra had a daughter, named Raden Galu Chandra Kirana, 



Abont this period the first intercourse with China is be- 
lieved to have taken place : a large Chinese wdngkamg was 
wrecked on the north coast of Java, and the crew landed^ 
some near Ja/para^ others at Semdrang and Tigal. The 
writer of the vessel is represented as bringing with him a 
magical stone, by which he performed many wonderful efiects, 
and by means of which be ingratiated himself with the chief 
of Tegaly who allowed him to collect the remainder of his 
crew into a regular establishment, and conferred upon them 
many privileges. 

The accounts regarding the succession of Pdnji to the 
throne of his father are very discordant In some he is 
represented as having succeeded on his death, and having 
continued to administer the government for several years ; in 
others, he is represented as dying prematurely, during the 





whose beauty waa celebrated far and wide, and many Rajtu wmght ber 
in marriage. Her fame reached Malaeea^ and Sukam Mtmamr beemie 
enamoured of her by deacription. He ordered Padmka Rafm^ the 
Bemdahara, to fit out a fleet of five hundred large prakuM with inmi- 
merable small ones. At SiMgepura were fitted out a hundred with three 
masts, and at Singi JZoya as many more of the same sort 

Then the prince selected forty nobles of the country, and forty 
virgins of noble family. He summoned Maka Rt^a Merkmg of h" 
** dragiri, and the Ruga of Palimbamg, the Rn^a of Jambi^ and the Rafa 
" of Linga, to attend him to MajapMt ; all the young warriors •»*^"*^fry 
** the prince, and all the great men remaining for the government of the 
" country. 

When they reached Me^apakU, they were well received by the fietem. 
'* At this time the RqjoM of Doha and Tbii/ MN^ippiifa. the younger brothers 
of the prince, were preeent at Mt^apakU. 

Amon^i^ the chieftains who accompanied the Ruia of Melseeawae the 
celebrated Hang Tuak or La xam ana, who was highly admired, and 
" exhibited wonderful feats. 

'* The Batara gave his daughter, Chandra Kirana, in marriage to the 
Raja of Malacca ; and the Baiara, delighted with his son-in-law, caneed 
him to be placed on a seat of equal honour with himself, both on 
public occasions and at meals. 

Then being about to depart, the Raja requeeted to^be preeented^with 
the kingdom of Indnt-giri, which was accordingly given to hiia. He 
then bestowed Siamtam on haatamama, from which time the ralere of 
Siantan are descendants of Laramana. 

'* By the princess he had a son, named Raden Oolong, who was IdOed 
one day by a man running amok," — Moiogam AnmaU. 





lifetime of his father : Prdba Jdya Sangdra, chief of Ma- 
dura (then called NiUa Anidra^ or the island lying between), 
jealous of the power oi Jang*gdlay is said to have landed, and 
in a desperate action killed Pdnji with an arrow from his 
own bow, in fulfilment of a prophecy which foretold that he 
would be invulnerable, except to the iron staff of Jdya 
Langkdray of which, it is added, this prince had manu- 
&ctured his arrow. The account of this affair, as related 
in the Madura traditions, is as follows : 

'^ Then the prince of Nusa Antdra^ called Kldna Prdbu 
^ Jaya^ consulted with (rura Bramdna Kdnda^ and others of 
^' his council, on the probability of his being acknowledged as 
'^ chief prince over the adjacent countries. Guru observed, 
^ that while Dewa Kas4ma lived he could not permit the 
** attempt; but the prince informing him that intelligence had 
** been received of the death of that prince, then said, * GurUf 
** * it is well ; you are permitted to effect your object by 
" ^ force, if necessary, but in the first instance try nego- 
** * ciation.* A letter written on the leaf of a tree was then 
^^ dispatched, and when the messenger arrived at Jang*gdlay 
^ he found the prince Angrdma Wijdya seated on his 
^' setingely attended by his paUhs^ Kuda Nawdrsa and Brdja 
^^ Ndta, At that time they were discussing the prince's 
" intention of transferring his title to his son, In^) Keria Paii*. 
^^ The question was not decided when the messenger ap- 
^ peered. The prince declined reading the letter himself, but 
^ desired his minister to do so. As soon as Brdja Ndta read 
^^ the demand of the prince of Niisa Antdra to be acknow- 
^' ledged the superior, and the threat that he would lay waste 
^ the lands of Java in case of refiisal, he became enraged to 
^ the highest degree, and without communicating the con- 
^^ tents tore the letter, and seizing the messenger by the neck, 
^ threw the pieces in his face, and desired him to return 
^ to his master. After his departure Ino Kerta Pdti arrived,' 
^^ and being apprized of the circmnstances, entreated his 
'^ father to permit him to go over in disguise to Nusa Antdra. 

^^ On the return of the messenger to Nusa Antdra^ he 
^ reported the result of his mission, when preparations were 

• Panji. ' 

H 2 



*^ immediately made for the attack upon Jang^gUa^ and the 
'^ chief, on this occasion, received the title of Jd}fa Sankdra. 
^* But before tlie troops had departed, /ito Kirta Pdti contrived 
^^ to carry off from the palace the wife of the prince, named 
^' Dewi Sinawdtiy which raised the enmity of the parties to 
" the highest pitch. 

" The prince of Jang^gdUty when he was informed of these 
** preparations, summoned his brothers from Ng^arduran and 
*' Singa Sdri^ who resolved to unite with him against the 
" expected attack. The three princes were in conversation, 
^^ when information was brought them that the hostile troops 
*^ had landed in great numbers. Then they drew out their 
^^ people, and a baUle ensued with the prince of N6ta 
^* Antdra^ who lost many chiefs and foUowers. This prince 
^^ finding the battle going against him, recollected the advice 
'^ of Guru Bramdna Kdnda^ the loss of his wife, and the 
" many insults he had received from Ino KMa Pdti : then 
*' throwing off his princely attire, he disguised himself as a 
^' common man, and arming himself with an arrow mixed 
'^ with the people of Jang^gdla^ and went in search of Ino 
*' KMa Pdti. He had no sooner found him, than he dis- 
'^ charged his arrow, and Ino Kerta Pdti fell dead, it having 
^^ been foretold that this chief could not be kiUed except by 
^ the iron staff of Jdya Langkdra^ of which the prince of 
^' Nu$a Antdra had made his arrow, krisy and knife. 

*^ Braja Ndta immediately acquainted his prince with the 
*' fall of Ino Kerta Pdtiy who thereupon rose and rushed into 
^' the thickest of the Aght The prince o(Jang'*gdla attacked 
*^ the prince of Nusa Antdra with his ArrM, and slew him. 
^ Guru Bramdna Kdnda seeing his prince slain, wished to 
'^ escape, but his supernatural power was no more ; and being 
^^ seized by the prince of Jang^gdla^ he was put to death, with 
'^ all the people of Nisa Antdra^ who did not save themselves 
^' by flight Thereupon Agrdma Wijdga assembled his 
'* council as before the war, and seated upon his 9etingel de- 
*' dared, that as Ino Kerta Pati was no more, it was his in- 
'* tention to nominate his grandson, Mdisa LaUan^ to sac- 
'* ceed him. Mdi^a LaUan accordingly became chief of 
^' Jang^gdla in the year 1>27, and aAer a time made his uncle, 
" Brdja Ndta, Tumunggung of Jang'gala^ and retired him- 



'' self to the district of Kedu, He had a sod, named BanjcU 
" ran Sarij who succeeded him, after whom were Muda- 
^^ ningkungy and Muda Sdriy who had a son called Rdden 
" PdnkdSy who succeeded to the government of Java in the 
^^ year 1084. This prince established his capital at Paja- 
*'^ jaran. 

The fame of Pdnji naturally throws the other events of 
the day into the back-groimd, and whatever credit may be 
due to the earlier administration of his successor, it is eclipsed 
by the brilliancy of his exploits. But it seems agreed that 
Kuda, or Mdisa Lalean^ who is the next prince in the line of 
succession of whom tradition makes mention, at an early 
period of his reign induced the separate authorities which 
had been established at Browemo, Singa Sari, and Kediri, 
to acknowledge the supremacy of Jang" gala. Having, how- 
ever, come to the throne at a tender age, and being imder the 
influence of a crafty and designing minister, named Baka^ 
w^ho, with one of the brothers of the prince, entered into a 
league to deprive him of his inheritance, he quitted his capi- 
tal, and on the dismemberment of his eastern kingdom, be- 
came the founder of a new one in the west. The causes 
which induced him to leave his capital are related to have 
been a dreadful sickness, which at that period prevailed in 
the eastern districts of Java, and the designs of his minister, 
who hoped to possess the means of aggrandizing himself in 
the attempt to form a new establishment. The first eruption 
of the mountain Klut^ of which tradition makes mention, is 
recorded to have taken place at this time, when the dis- 
charges fi-om it are represented " to have been like thunder, 
" and the ashes to have involved the country in impenetrable 
" darkness." The sickness having continued to prevail after 
the departure of the prince, the inhabitants who had remained 
at an early period, are said to have embarked in vessels and 
proceeded to sea, no one knowing whither they went or hear- 
ing more of them. 

Kuda Laleafij accompanied by his mother Chandra 
Kirdna, proceeded west as far as Bldra, where he laid the 
foimdation of a new capital, under the designation of Mendang 
Kamulany the name of the ancient capital of the island. 
From thence, however, owing to the treachery of his minister 


Bdkay who aspired to the Bovereignty, he was soon obliged 
to fly, and to take refuge with a devotee, until the chief of 
Giling Wesi^ named Prau ChdioTj going to war with Baka^ 
an opportunity was afforded him of regaining his authority. 
Uniting with the forces of that chief, he succeeded in over- 
powering Bdkay and lapng waste his capital, which he mfier- 
wards burnt. 

This Bdka is said to have had a criminal passion for his 
own daughter, and in consequence of her refusing to gratify 
his desires, to have secreted her in an adjoining forest In 
his service was a man named Bdndung Prakusa^ descended 
from Aru Bandung^ of Balambdngan^ and also from Kdran 
Kdlang, the last chief of Brambdnan, This man aspired to 
obtain the daughter in marriage. The father consented to 
the match, on condition that he would remove the temples 
from the old site to the new M^ndang Kamulan. Ha^-ing 
made the usual offerings at the Sdng^gar^ and done penance 
for forty days without sleeping, in the middle of the last night, 
when his fdpa was all but accomplished, it happened that a 
maiden rose in her sleep, and without awaking, began to beat 
the rice block. On this, considering it day -light, he quitted 
his penance, and finding the stars still bright, he called down 
a curse on the women of Brambdnan^ that they should never 
be married till their hair was grey. This man is then said to 
have been transformed into a dog, or in other wonls, to have 
become a wanderer as a dog in the forests, where he met with 
the daughter of Bdka. From their intercourse is bom a son, 
who in time destroys his father and marries his mother. From 
this union the people known at this day by the term Kdlang^ 
trace their descent, although it is more generally believed 
that they are the real descendants of tlie first inhabitants of 
the island. 

The brother of Kicla Lalean^ Chitra Arung Bdga^ also 
called Chamdra Gdding^ being deceived by Bdka^ formed a 
party at Jung^gdla^ and embarked from thence for the island 
of Celebes, where he established himself, and is supposed to 
be the same i;iith Sawira Gddingy the first prince of whom 
the Bugis accounts make mention. 

Kida Lalean having been requested by the chiefs of 
Bdnyu Mas^ Lirung Teng^a^ and Tegal^ to render them assisi- 


ance against the Chinese, who, by their extortions and op- 
pressions, had thus early become troublesome to the people 
of the country, attacked them, and killing their chief, relieved 
the inhabitants of these districts from their oppressions. 
From this period the Chinese have been dispersed over the 
whole island. 

Kilda Lallan with his followers then proceeded westward, 
as far as Giling Wesiy which was situated in the southern 
provinces among the moimtains of Chiddmar^ a district of 
the modem province of SukdpurOy and in the fabulous and 
mythological accounts supposed to have been the ancient 
capital of Watu GUnung. Finding two brass cannon in the 
neighbourhood, he considered them as the signal for the foun- 
dation of his new capital, and built a city and krdton on the 
spot, to which he gave the name of Pajajdran^ where, assum- 
ing the sovereignty of the country, he was acknowledged 
under the title of Brotmjdya Mdisa Tandrdman, 

This prince was a great promoter of agriculture, and en- 
couraged the common people in the labours of cultivation by 
his personal example. He was the first who introduced the 
rice husbandr}' into the western provinces, and trained the 
buflfalo to the yoke, from which circumstance he is called 
Maisay and his descendants M&ndtnff, both signifying a 
buffalo, the former in the Javan and the latter in the Sunda 
language. According to the tradition of the Sundas, the wild 
buffaloes came from the woods of their own accord during the 
reign of this chief. 

This prince had two sons, the elder of whom, not contented 
to remain at home, engaged in foreign commerce and went 
beyond sea; and the younger succeeded hi9 father in the 
year 1 112, under the title of Prdbu Munding Sdri. 

It was seven years before he was enabled permanently to 
establish his authority ; and soon after he had done so, his 
elder brother returned, who having resided in India and hav- 
ing become a convert to the Mahomedan faith, is known by 
the title of Hdji Purwa. He was accompanied by an Arab 
from the country of Koujej who was descended from Sdyed 
Abas J and attempted in vain to convert his brother and family 
to the same faith. The troubles which were occasioned by 
their intrigues, and the endeavours which they used to effect 


their purpose, and which are allegorically described by the 
rapid growth and destructive effects of the lagdndi plant, were 
such as led to tlic removal of the capital further westward. 
In this new site it still retained the name of Pajajaran^ being 
situated in the district of Bogor and in the \'icinity of the 
modem Buitenzorgy the country residence of the European 
governor of the colony. 

Hdji Purira being unsuccessiul in his attempts, and fear- 
ing the rage of the common people, quitted this part of the 
coimtr}', and is believed to have found an asylum in Cheribom^ 
then an uninhabited wilderness. 

This is tlie first menUon of the Mahomedan religion on Java. 

ITic next chief of Pajajdran was Minding IVdngU^ who 
succeeded to the government about the year 1179. lie had 
four legitimate children ; the eldest a daughter, who refusing 
to be married was banished to the southern coast, w^here her 
spirit is still invoked, under the title of Ratn Kidal ; the se- 
cond, also a daughter, was bom white and diseased, and was 
in consequence sent to an island off Jakatra (named from this 
circumstance Pm/i/ PutriJ^from whence she is said to have 
been carried away by the white men, who according to the 
Javan wTitcrs traded to tlie country about this period ; the 
third a son, named Aria Babdng^a^ who was appointed Raja 
of Gdlu ; and the fourth Raden Tandirany who was destined 
to be his successor in the government. He had also a son by 
a concubine; but in consequence of the declaration of a de- 
votee, wlio had been unjustly executed by Minding H'dng^i^ 
tliat liis death would be avenged whenever the prince should 
have a child so bom, he was desirous of destroWng him in his 
infancy, but not being able, on account of the extreme beauty 
of the child, to bring himself to kill it wnth his own hands, he 
enclosed it in a box, and caused it to be thrown bv one of his 
Mdntris into tlie river Knitning, Tlie box l>eing carried down 
the stream was discovered by a fisherman, who brought up the 
chihl as his o^-n, until he arrived at twelve years of age. 
Finding him then to possess extraordinar}* abilities, he carried 
him to Pajajdran for further instruction, and ])laced him 
midcr the charge of his brother, who was skilled in the work- 
ing of iron and steel. To thebov he gave the name of Bamidk 



The youth soon exceUed in the manufacture of all kinds of 
iron-work, and in the wild tradition of the country, he is said 
to have fashioned the red hot iron with his fingers. In a short 
time he was made chief of the Pdndiy or ironsmiths, and ad- 
mitted to the familiar intercourse of his father, Minding 
IVangH. Having constructed an iron chamber or cage, which 
particularly attracted the attention of the prince, he succeeded 
in persuading him to sleep in it, when closing the door, he, 
according to some accounts, burned him alive ; or, according 
to others, caused him to be thrown into the South Sea at Kdn^ 
dung Wesiy thus iulfiUing the prophecy of the devotee. 

Banidk JVedi now assumed the government, declaring who 
he was ; but being opposed by his brother, Tanduran, who 
had been destined to succeed his father, it was some time be* 
fore his authority was acknowledged. At length defeating 
his brother in a general engagement, the latter escaped with 
only three followers, and Banidk Wedi was declared sove- 
reign, under the title of Brotvijdya Chi6ng Wandra. 

Rdden Tanduran arriving at the river Guntung, took refiige 
at the house of a widow, and afterwards meeting with his 
sister, who was performing a penance on the mountain ChSr- 
mat (the mountain of Cheribon)^ he was encouraged by her to 
proceed further east, following the course of a bird which she 
desired that he would let loose for the purpose, till he reached 
the district of Wirasdba. Here he observed a plant, called 
the majaj entwined round a tree. He wished to eat of the 
fruit, but finding it extremely bitter threw it away, and asked 
one of his followers, Kidi Wira, the reason of its bitterness. 
" I have heard," replied Kidi WirUy " that it was here your 
'^ forefathers fought in the war Brdta Yudha,''^ On which the 
prince said, " Then let us stop here and establish our king- 
" dom, and let us call it Majapahit,^'* This was in the Javan 
year 1221. 

In the Javan language mdja andpahit both signify " bitter;** 
but the name of this kingdom, also called Mau^pdhity is more 
probably derived from Maus Pdti^ the ancient capital of 
Arjuna Wijdya^ in whom the Javans believe Vishnu to have 
been incarnate. 

Baden Tanduran was first assisted by the people of Tiiban^ 
who hearing of the arrival of a prince of royal descent, imme- 


diately flocked to his standard. AHerwaids Aria Babdng'a^ 
who had been driven from Gdlu by the forces of Chi&m^ Wo- 
ndra, joined his younger brother, Rdden Tandmran^ and was 
appointed to the charge of the eastern districts along the Solo 
river, under the title oS Aria Panular. In a short time con- 
siderable emigrations took place from Pajajdranj in conse- 
quence of the heavy demands made upon the people. Among 
others, Brdma Deddli at the head of eighty Pamdi^ cur iron- 
smiths, with their families, are said to have deserted their 
country. They were pursued as far as the river Pamdli in 
BrebeSy but effected their escape, and were received with open 
arms at Majapdhit. 

Chiang Wandra^ on demanding that the Pdndi should be 
delivered up, received a positive refusal, and in consequence 
declared war against his half-brother, whose authority by this 
time extended as far as Bdtang. Both princes, with their 
respective armies, moved towards the centre of the island : 
the forces oi Majapdhit encamped at Ung*drang^ and those 
of Pajajdran at Kaliwungu. A general engagement now 
took place ; which proving indecisive, a personal combat be- 
tween the two chiefs was about to occur, when it was mu- 
tually agreed, that from thenceforth the countries to the west 
should be subject to Pajajdran^ and those to the east to Afo- 
japdhity a line being drawn due south from a stone column 
placed near the spot in commemoration of the agreement 
This column is still to be seen at TUgu^ a few miles west of 
Semardng, This treaty, supposed to have been made in the 
Javan year 1247, does not appear to have lasted longer than 
the life time of Chiang Wandra ; for several of the finest pro- 
vinces, and particularly those to the east of Chi Pamdli^ had 
been laid waste, and the succeeding chiefs not being able to 
reduce the country to order and submission, appear to have 
placed themselves under the immediate protection of Alaja- 
pdhit. They accordingly delivered up the gun ng*ai $tdmi^ 
and several of smaller calibre, wliich were considered as the 
pusdka (inheritance or regalia) of Pajajdran^ and are still 
held sacred by the princes of Java. The gun $tdmi is now in 
the possession of the Swtuhunan, 

An ineffectual attempt was made by Rdiu D^wa^ a native 
<rf Kunimg^an in Cheribon^ who, on the departure of Aria Bm- 






bang^tty had been entnisted with the administration of Crdluy 
to maintain an authority independent of Majapdhit ; but he 
lost his life in the struggle, and his widow, Torbita^ who per- 
severed, and was for a time successful, was at length over- 
come, and went over to Majapdhit*. 

* According to the traditions of the Sunda people, these two brothen, 
Chumg Wanara and Raden Tanduran, were descended from a prince of 
Oalu, and their empires were divided by the river of Brebes, thence called 
Chi Pamati, or the River of Prohibition. 
" Raja Galu, otherwise known by the name of Raja Pamakds, and whose 
country was called Bajong GaJu, had two sons, named Raden Aria Bang^a 
and Tanduran. There was a pestilence in those days, which, carrying 
off great numbers of the inhabitants, caused the prince to be much 
afflicted in his mind ; whereupon, sending for his patih (or minister), 
he thus addressed him : ' Go thou to Bukit Padang, and call one there 
' named Si Ajar, failing not to bring him along with thee, as it may 
' perhaps be in his power to administer relief to my distressed and suf- 
' fering subjects.' Th& paUh immediately took leave of his Sovereign, 
and repaired forthwith to Bukit Padang to summon Si Ajar, who soon 
after appeared before the Raja, presenting him with some herbs which 
" he had brought for that purpose. When Si Ajar had seated himself in 
" the usual manner before the monarch, the latter thus addressed him : 
' Ajar, a great pestilence at present rages in the country, and makes 
' great havock amongst my subjects ; it is therefore that I have sent for 
' thee, in hopes that thou mayest be able to put a stop to the mortality 
' which now prevails.' Ajar inmiediately replied, ' O Raja, it is my 
' opinion, that he to whom the country belongs is the proper person to 
' do what is requisite for the good of it and its inhabitants.' When the 
Raja heard these words, he was exceedingly wroth ; so much so, that 
he was on the point of putting Ajar to instant death, when the latter 
thus addressed him ; ' Prince 1 if you are determined to kiU me, 1 
' resign my life, but depend upon it you wiU be made to answer for it, 
' and that by your own son.' Si Ajar then returned to Bukit Padang, 
wherupon Raja Galu thus spoke to his pat^h j ' Repair instantly to 
' Bukit Padang, and put Si Ajar to death ; let him not longer live.' 
The patih accordingly went, and having executed the Raja's orders, 
returned and reported the circumstance to his prince, who felt much 
" joy on the occasion. Shortly after this the Raja's concubine became 
pregnant, and when her time was come she was delivered of a son, 
whose features were exquisitely beautiful. When the prince was in- 
" formed of this, he desired the child might be brought to him. The 
prince no sooner cast his eyes upon it, than he thought of the words of 
Si Ajar J upon which he administered a dose of poison to the chOd, 
which however did not cause its death. He then told Yiis pat^h to take 
the child, and having put it in a basket, to send it floating down the 






A different account of the first establishment of the Maja- 
pdhit empire is given in a manuscript recently obtained firom 





** river. The patih took the child, and having disposed of it at he 
" ordered, returned and made his master very happy hy the report of 
*' what he had done. The basket in which the child was turned adrift on 
the river ChUandm being stopped by some stakes placed there by a 
fisherman, named Ke Balangantrang, it was picked up and carried home 
by him. He was highly, pleased with the child, and adopted it, and 
gave it the name of Ke Jakah, and cherished it till it arrived at the age 
of manhood. Ke Jakah then invited his reputed father to accompany 
him to Bajong Galu. They had nearly got half way, when Ke Jakah 
looked up and saw a bird fly past. He asked Ke Balamgamtramg what 
might be the name of that bird ? and was told that it was called Mtmg 
" (the black minor of India). Ke Jakah then saw a form like that of a 
" human being, and inquiring what it was, he was told that it was a wo- 
** nara (monkey). Ke Jakah then exclaimed^ ' if such is the caae, then 
' must my name be Chiong Wanara* 

** After this the travellers prosecuted their journey, and in doe time 
arrived at Bajong Galu, where they went to the house of a relation of 
** Ke Balangantrang, named Ke Haiiali, the chief of all the blacksmiths. 
*' Chiong Wanara was then delivered over by Ke Balamgamtramg to Ke Ha- 
*' ziali, who treated him as his own son, and instructed him in the art, in 
" which he soon became eminent. 

Chiang IVanara had not been long in this new situation, before Ri^m 
Galu, hearing of the circumstance, sent for and begged him of the head 
blacksmith. The Raja in time owned him for his own son, and was so 
** delighted when he first beheld him, that he sent for his son, Rmdem 
** Aria Bang*a, and desired him to take every care of his newly-foond 
" brother. 

" A short time after this, Chiong Wanara went to his royal father, and 
" asked him to give him some hereditary property. When the Ri(fm 
heard this, he immediately addressed Chiong H'anara thus : — ' My ton, 
' the whole of my pro])erry I have bestowed on thy eldest brother, and 
' nothing is left except the head blacksmith, whom thou hadst better 
' accept of.' Raden Chiong Wanara said he would take him with much 

Soon after the head blacksmith came into his po ssess ion, Rmdem 
Chiong H'anara went again to his father, and solicited penmasioo 
(which was granted to him) to construct an iron cage of very great 
strength, and of the roost exquisite workmanship. Chiomg Hi—ere 
then gave orders to his head blacksmith to have this cage made, and aO 
the blacksmiths in the kingdom having been set about it, it was very 
soon finished, and had all the strength and beauty that was intended 
** and wished for. Carpets and cushions, such as princes are accustomed 
" to recline on, were spread within it. Chiong Wanara then went and 
acquainted Raja Galu that it was completed, l^lien the lie^e ww it. 


• < 


• « 



Bdliy whicb may deserve attention, in as far as it differs from 
he usually received opinion in Java. This account is as 
foUows : 


€ € 
< t 


he was greatly pleased, and being entreated by Chiong Wanara to enter 
" and examine whether or not there might be still something wanting to 
render it more complete ; without suspecting any treachery, he did as 
he was requested. No sooner was he fairly in, than Chiong Wanara 
closed and locked the door, saying, at the same time to Raja Galu, 

* Now is fulfilled the prediction of Ajar of Bvkit Padang, whom you 
' caused to be unjustly put to death.' The Raja answered from within 

** the cage, * I submit to this just judgment.' 
" When Raden Aria Bang* a saw his father shut up in the cage, he 

" could not contain his rage against Chiong Wanara, and a quarrel 

" between the two brothers ensued. 

Baja Galu perceiving this, immediately exclaimed, ' For shame 1 
' that two brothers should thus fight with each other ; such conduct is 
' strictly forbidden by the elders of the people.' 

** Without paying any regard to the words or admonition of Raja Gah, 
the two brothers engaged in single combat, stabbing, pushing, and 
striking each other in turn. Both parties being of equal strength, they 
continued fighting all the way from the place above described until 
they got far to the eastward, when finding themselves fatigued, they 
suspended the conflict under a certain tree. Chiong Wanara forthwith 
asked his brother what the name of the tree was under which they 

" were : Aria Bang'a answered, it is called mdja. They then took one of 
the fruit, and having split it in two, each took a part. That which 
Aria Bang'a ate was sweet, but that which Chiong Wanara ate was on 
the contrary very bitter (pait) ; so Chiong Wanara called the place 
Majapaii, or as more generally pronounced, Majapahit, 
The combat was then renewed with the same vigour as before, and 

" they continued fighting towards the westward, until they came to a 
row of trees (jajar), where they halted. On being asked by his brother 

** the name of those trees, Chiong Wanara answered paku : Raden Aria 
Bang'a then said, ' the name of the place must be Pakuan Pa^ja- 

The two brothers then recommenced fighting, till they came to a 
river of Brebes, where being both much fatigued, they rested by the 

" side of it and drank of its water. 
" Raden Aria Bang* a then said : ' It was declared by our father to be 
' wrong for brothers to fight with each other, it is also contrary to 

* ancient usage, let us therefore put an end to this forbidden contest, 
' and let us call this river Chi Pamali * (that is to say, the river of pro- 
hibition). The river Brebes thus obtained the name of Chi Pamali, 
** Raden Aria Bang'a then said to his brother : ' do thou go to Pakuan 

* Pajajaran while I go to Majapahit.' They accordingly separated, 
Raden Aria Bang'a proceeding to Me^apahit, and Chiong Wanara 











'* The history of the kingdom of Tmrndpel^ being an ac- 
count of the origin and rise of the kingdom of Majapihit^ 




returning to Bt^cmg Qah, for the purpose of TisUing hit £Mher in tbs 


*' When Chumg Wanara urriTed tt Bn^amg Oaim, ind fonnd tbs c^ge 

empty, his astonishment was very great. He then addiiisetd himsflf to 

one of his people, named Ke Jamptmg, and asked what was become of 

*' Raja Galu, Ke Jampang replied, ' he went out of the cage of himadf, 
' without the assistance of any one, and has returned to his usual place 
' of residence at Surga Imka, where he now is, haring assumed the usms 

" ' and title of Qwru Putra Hinga Baya.' 

When Chiong Wamara heard all this he thought he might as weD 

** throw away the empty cage, which he accordingly did, on the besdi of 
the south coast, from whence the place is called Tama Kemdamg Wmi, or 
the land of the Iron Cage. 

Ckiomg Wanara forthwith invited Ke Jampang to accompa n y him to 
51117a Luka, in search of his father, Onru Putra Hinga Baga, 

In a short time they arrived at 51117a Imka, and Ckiomg Wmmm sur- 
rendered himself, entreating his father's forgivenes s for what had passed. 

** Qwru Putra then said, ' to a certainty there must be two kingdoms on 
' the island of Java, of which the (intermediate) boundary win be the 
' river PamaU. The kingdom of Raden 7\iiMlKraii will be to the east- 
* ward, and shall be called McgapaMt j that of Ckumg Wamara will be to 

'* ' the westward, and shall be called Pahum Ptgtgwram: the latter kii^- 

'* * dom will cease first {tunda dakuh.*) Whence the peopteunder Ckitmg 
Wanara were called Orang Sumda, and their language Sumda. 
Quru Putra then gave Ckiomg Wanara a black monkey-skin jadtst, 

** which the latter forthwith put on, and immediately became in appear- 

*' ance like that animaL He at the same time gave him the name of Ouru 

** Mmda-sida tanda Prabu hUung Kasartmg, and furnished him with some 

** rice -seed, and appointed Ke Jampang to be his follower. 

Gum Minda and Ke Jampang then took their depa r t u re : and when 
they came to a place not far from Bqjang Gals they set out about sowing 
their rice-seed, distributing it among ill the poor people of the place for 
that purpose. 

Pandi Ckacka Domas and all the Peng'gawoM, as well as all the people 
of Bojong Oaiu, who were attached to Ckiong Wamarm at the time he 

*' went to see Gem Putra Hinga Baga of Surga Luka, being widioat a 
soverei^, went all of them to the eastward, to reside in the c ouutiy of 

** M(^apakit. 
*' When Prabu Lutung Kasartmg had given orders for the sowing of the 
rice, he and his follower, KeJampamg, proceeded to a place on the south 
sea coast, called Kedu Pomiok, where Ke Jampamg being left to settle* tiie 

** place took its name from him, and was ever after called ChamkJmmpamg. 
" After Prabu Imtung Kagunmg had left Ke Jampang at Ktdu Poudok 

** he went through the woods, till coming near Pwimam Puj ^ jmw mhm iwmd 








" written on the day of Respdii (Thursday,) the 10th of the 

5 6 4 1 

*^ fifth season. Date wisaya rasa iaya wasitan (literally 1465.) 

" a very large tree, called pmuU, situated on the banks of the river duU^ 
wcng. He remained under it to Test himself, and gave the place the 
name of Kampung Fundi. 
** Kvwu Mangkubumbi, of Jambadipa, in the district of Jelebud, had 6&- 
" veral children, all of them females. The youngest was called Purba 
** Sari, and was established in the interior, near the tree called gaduff^ 
" from which the kan^nmg so called took its name. 
" Having placed his yoimgest daughter, Pwba Sari, in the interior of 
the country, he was desirous to send out people to shoot birds with a 
pellet, and accordingly created and appointed one a pellet-shooter, who 
went regularly every day to shoot, agreeably to the order of Kmou 
Mangkubumi. One day the pellet-shooter came to the lai^ge pumU tree, 
and observing on it what he supposed to be a large black monkey, he 
wished to shoot it, whereupon Prabu hutung Kaearong, whom he mis- 
*' took for the monkey, thus addressed him : ' Don't shoot at me ; you 
" ' had better go home and tell your master to come here to me himself.' 
" When the pellet-shooter perceived that the black monkey was gifted 
** with speech he stood aghast and astonished beyond measure, and re- 
*' turned immediately to his master to acquaint him with the circum- 
" stance. 

Kuwu Mangubum, together with the pellet-shooter, then repaired to 
the great pundi tree. On his arrival there he called to Prabu hutung 
" Karasong, who was upon it. No sooner did the latter hear the summons, 
" than he descended and talked with the Kuwu, who then took him home 
with him, highly delighted at being possessed of so extraordinary and 
accomplished a creature. In the course of a short time he wished to 
present him to his eldest daughter, and on her refiising to accept of him 
" he offered him to a younger one, but neither would receive Prabm 
" hutung Kasarong, 
" He then gave him to the youngest of all, named Nidi Purba Sari, who 
accepted of him with great pleasure. 

In the course of time. Mat Purba Sari built a house at Wangun, and 

the place was afterwards called Kampung Wangun, He then planted 

some tagur trees, from which the place received the name of Kampung 

Tagur, After this, Prabu hutung Kasarong caused Niai Purba Sari to 

" remove from the gaduga tree to Kampung Wangun. 

When Nun Purba Sari became Prabu hutung^s wife, he laid aside the 
black monkey's skin with which he was clothed, and immediately re- 
** sumed his former and usual beautiful appearance. 

He afterwards received the name of Niang Oalarang, and established 

himself at Pakuan Pajajaran, where the Batuhdis (inscribed stone) now 

" is, and which was the seat of government of the Maha Raja Prabu Niang 

Galarang. After this his wife became pregnant, and Prabu Niang 











** In the kinp^dom of Tumdpel there reigned a king, nanii'd 
^^ and styled Rdtu Sri Jdya Puru^Oy wlio in his demise was 

" Galarang left Pakuan Pajajaran to the care of his Peng*pawas, or miais- 
" ters of state, and went to Bukit Padamg, where he became a PamtHtm, 

" When the time was come, Niai Purba Sari brought forth a son of the 
" most exquisitely beautiful features, to whom she gave the name 
•• Silawang*i. 

** When Silawang*i grew up, he removed from Pakuam Ptyajaram to 
*' Sumedang Larang, where he was soon afterwards married ; firat to Ami' 
" Raden Raja Mantu, and then to the daughter of the Peng'pawa of that 
" place, so that he had many wives. He at the same time received the 

title of Baginda Maka Raja Prabu Silawang*i. 

" Prabu LtUung Kasanrng had afterwards two other sons, the elder 

named Ke Glap Ngawang, the younger, Ke Kedaug Pamjamg, both of 
" whom were strong and well made ; and when they grew up they went 
'' with their father to Sumedang Lanmg, where they all remained with 

Prabu SUawaitg'L 

** Prabu Silawang*i, when he had got a number of wives and peiif'^cvcf. 

returned to Pakuan Pajajaran, bringing them all with him, at alao his 

two sons, and his man Ke Jampamg, who was then called Pwrwm Kola, 
" In returning to Pakuan Pajajaran, Prabu Silawang'i first went to a place 
" on the south coast, caUed Nusa Kambangan, and there embarking in a 
** vessel with all his family, he sailed westward, till they came to the 
'* anchoring place, to which was given the name of Palabimm Rmim (Wyn 
" Coops Bay), and having disembarked, they all proceeded to Pmkmm 
'* Pajajaran. 

'* On his arrival there, Prabu Silawang'i established himself at Rafm, 
*' and having assembled all the Mantris, Peng'gawas, and other chielii and 

officers, together with all the military forces, he caused great reyoidngs 

to be made on the occasion, and each day and night every kind of play 
*' was performed to amuse him. Pakuan Pajajaran was crowded with the 
" happy and delighted multitude, and so great and powerful did Prmbm 
" Silawang'i become at that time, that all the princes from the river Cki 
** PamaU beyond Java Head (in Bantam) on the west, submitted to him 
'' and were subject to Pakuan Pajajaran. 

" Prabu Silmcang^i then built without the kraton (or palace) a haU of 
*' audience Cp<iaebatOf which was styled Sasaka Domas, or the hall of eight 
" hundred pillars ; and in the interior of the kraion another, called RmwnM 
** Kanckana (or that of golden flowers). This was where the Bahrfirfif 



" now is." 

The tradition goes on to relate, that Prabu Silawang'i had one hundred 
and fifty wives, and that his sons-in-law, of whom there were also one 
hundred and fifty, were made great public officers. 

In the course of alittle time one of his higbness's wives, named Nimi Mamhi 
Manek Mayang Sunda, the sister of Ke Marugal Samg Maniri Aymng, became 
pregnant, and in due time brought forth a beautiful boy, who was called bf 



^ succeeded by his son, known by the name and title of Sri 
^ Ldksi Ktrana^ who on dying left two sons, the elder named 
^^ and styled Sang Sri SiwabiUla, who succeeded to the 
** throne ; the younger Rdden Wijdya^ who was remarkable 
" for the beauty of his person. 

*^ During the reign of Sdng Sri Siwahida the state had 

very much declined. Every district was going to ruin, in 

consequence of which the pdteh^ named MAngku Rdja 
^^ Ndia, addressed himself to the prince, reminding him of 
^' the manner in which his forefathers used to treat the 
" people, and which the welfiaire of his Jdngdom required of 
" him to follow. To this, however, the prince would not 
^^ listen, and as a punishment to the pdteh for his presump- 
'^ tion, he immediately ordered him to quit Tumdpel, 

'^ Sang Sri Siwabuda had a man in his service named 
" Wira Rdja^ whom, in consideration of his useful services, 
^' he had made ruler over the eastern part of Mad&ra called 
^^ Sumenap. On being informed that the king intended to 
** accuse him of a crime of which he was innocent, and consi- 
^^ dering himself in danger, sent a messenger to Sri Jdya 
" Kdtongy sovereign of Kediriy to say, * that as the kingdom 
^' ^ of Tumdpel was almost in a state of confusion, he might 
" * attack and conquer it without difficulty.' 

" Sri Jdya Kdtong^ on hearing the inteUigence, was very 
^^ much delighted, and accordingly he ordered his patehj 
*^ Kibo Munddrang^ to make preparations for the purpose of 
" invading 7\iiiu^/. 

^* When every thing was ready the king gave orders to his 
^^ pateh that he should march with a considerable force to 
^^ Tumdpelj and attack the southern part of the kingdom, 
'^ while himself and his followers began the attack on the 
" west 

*' Sri Siwabuda being informed that his kingdom was in- 
" vaded by the sovereign of Kediriy appointed his yoimger 

his father Baden Qwru Gattmgan^ and who was made Baja Muda of Pahum 
Pajajaran, with the name and title of Prabu Guru Gantangan. 

Both father and son continued as Baja Tuah and Raja Muda to live in 
the kratcm oiPahuan Pajajaran, happy and on good terms with each other ; 
the management and direction of the state being entirely vested in the hands 
of the Riga Muda, 

VOL. I. I 


** brother, Rdden Wijdya^ to command the forces, and meet 
'^ the enemy coming fmm the west Instead of marching out 
'' himself to meet the attack from the south he remained in 
*' his kaddton^ and amused himself with his concubines. 
" Tliis enjoyment, however, was soon interrupted ; for Mun- 
" tldrang having reached the kaddion obliged him to come 
'^ out and meet him, and on his making his appearance, Mmn- 
^* ddrang and his followers lost no time in deciding his fate. 
" Sri Slwabuda was accordingly killed before the palace gate. 
*^ Rdden IVijdyu and Jdya Kdlong had by this time fought 
^' several battles, as well as skirmishes, in which a great 
** niunber of men were killed on both sides. 

^^ They continued to oppose each other when Munddrang 
" came up and attacked IVijaya in the rear. This soon de- 
" termined the victory in favour of KetUri^ and obliged H'i- 
" j^y^ to fly to Sumenap for the safety of his person, where 
" he remained in tlie house of Wira Rdja^ to whom he gave 
" a full account of all the circumstances. 

^' Among the spoils which Munddrang had taken from the 
" palace was the beautiful wife of Wijaya^ who was after- 
" wards delivered to the sovereign of Kediri. He waa very 
^ much struck with her beauty, and proposed to make her 
" his lawful wife. 

•' This pro})osal was however refused, and the king, instead 
'^ i>f being offended by Uic refusal, adopted her as his 
** daughter. 

" Rdden Wijdya had by this time remained a good while 
" with Wira Rdja at Sumenap^ and was then advised by him 
^' to repair to Kediri y that Jdya Kdiong might forgive him, 
'' and employ him in some way or other. He accordingly 
" went over to Jdya Kdiong ^ who received him verj* kindly ; 
" and he had not remained long at Kediri when Jdya Kdtomg 
*^ gnintinl him an extensive forest, with which he might do 
" as he liked. 

" Wijdya^ with a view of making a large to^Ti in the 
" forest, sent a messenger to Jf^ira Rdja to get some assist- 
" ance. H^ra Rdja accordingly sc»nt over a good many 

people to IVijaya^ who, afler prociuring evcr>* thing necea- 

sary for such an undertaking, began to cut down the forest 
*^ While they were at work they found a large tnJIga ti6e 




" loaded with firuit, but when they tasted the fruit they found 
^> it quite bitter ; whence the place was called mofa patty 
" (literally the bitter maja,) 

" Baden Wijaya^ after making Majapahit a very large 
" to^^Ti, assumed the title of Bapati Sang Browijaya^ having 
" for his Pdteh a son of Wtra Rofa, whose name and title 
" was Kiaai Patch R&ng*ga Law6. 

" The population of Majapahit increasing very rapidly, 
" Browijaya thought, that with the aid of Wira Raja he 
^^ should be able to invade KedirL He accordingly sent a 
" messenger to Wira Raja to request some assistance. Wira 
" Raja willingly sent a considerable force to Browijaya^ and 
" after the two armies had joined together Brotdjaya began 
" his march to Kediri, 

Jdya Kdtong, on being informed that a considerable 
force from Majapd/iit was coming to invade his kingdom, 
^' immediately sent out a band of fighting men to meet the 
" enemy. Several battles were fought in which many fell on 
" either side. 

" Jdya Kdtongy previous to the invasion of Browijaya^ had 
" promised his guest, the King of Tdtar^j whose name and 
title was Sri Laksemdnay to give him his adopted daughter 
(wife to Browijaya) in marriage This was however de- 
layed. Several times did Laksemdna press Jdya Kdtong 
" to fulfil his promise, but he never received a positive 

*' Laksemdna therefore being informed that Browijdya of 
Majapahit had attacked Kediriy forthwith sent a letter to 
him, saying that he would co-operate with the people of 
Majapahit y provided Broioijdya would be on good terms 
" with him. 

" Browijdya on receiving this intelligence was very much 
'^ delighted, and accordingly returned a letter of approbation 
" to Laksemdna, 

" Laksemdna and his foDowers then joined Browijdyay 
" and fought several battles with Jdya Kdtongy in which a 
" great number of men, as weD as chiefs, were killed on both 
" sides. 

* The Javan traditions furnish no information respecting the locality of 
tlufl state. 

I 2 




'^ In the heat of the action Jdya Kdiong and 
*^ met, and a fierce encounter took place between these chiefs. 
'^ Jdya Kdiong threw Iiis javelin at Laksemdna^ bat mined 
'^ him ; and Laksemdnaf in return, struck him on the breast 
^^ with his poisoned spear, and killed him on the spot 

" Pdieh Munddrangj and the whole force of Kediri^ per- 
** ceiving that their king was fallen, immediately surrendered. 

** Brotcijdya then eagerly went into the kaddtan^ and was 
^^ received by his faitliful wife. They embraced with tears 
'^ of joy ; and Brawijdya was so enraptured at recorering 
** her, that without taking further notice of the kaddiom^ he 
^ returned with his wife to Afajapdhii. He invited the King 
** of Tdtar to visit him. On his arrival Browijdya xeceiTed 
^^ him with every attention, and made him a present of a 
" beautiful virgin. 

^^ Laksenidna remained for some time at Majapdhiif 
** during which Browijdya gave him two or three grand en* 
'^ tcrtainments. He afterwards embarked on board ot his 
" own vessel and returned to his kingdom of Tdtar^ 

The story concludes with stating that Browijdya^ with his 
Pdieh^ Rang*ga Latciy reigned at Majapdhit^ and goremed 
the whole of the island of Java, and his people were rery 
happy ♦. 

* Having thus detailed the traditions which exist among the Javant 
respecting the establishment of foreign colonies in the Eastern Archipelago* 
and brought down this part of the history to the establishment of the king- 
dom of Majapahii, it may not be amiss to transcribe those which prevail 
among the MalayuM, who, it is well known, endearoiir to trace tbor destcnl 
from the Macedonian hero, Alexander the Great. The following accoont 
is taken from the Sej4ira Maldyu, or Malay annals, a work written in the 
year 1021 of llejirat : 

** It hap{)ened tliatRo/a Sekander, the son of Raja Darub of Raai, of the 
" race of Makadmniah, the name of whoM empire was ZMameim, wished 
" to see the rising of the snn, and for this purpose came to the confines of 
'* the L-md of Hind. There wjm a Raja in Hindustan, named JUrfn Kidek 
" HfWi, who was very powerful, and whose empire extended over the half 
•' of Hindustan. Immediately on the approach of Raja Sekamder, R^ 
** Kidek Hindi sent his prime minister to collect his forces, and marched 
*' out to meet him. The armies engaged, and a battle ensued, as is fully 
*' recorded in the history of Raja Sekander. R/^a Kidek Hindi was defeated 
*' and taken prisoner, after which he was sent back to hia own country* 
" This Raja Kidek had a daughter : after sending his minister. 




Under the second prince of Majapdhit^ called Brokamdra 
or BrovD'ydya the second^ the manufacture of arms of various 

'' MfoUfi^ to consult with the mmister of Baja Sekander, he gave her in 
" marriage to Ra^a Sekander, on condition of receiving three hundred 
thousand dinars of gold. 

<' Raja Sekander, after tanying ten days in honour of the ceremony, 
pursued his journey towards the rising sun, attended hy his bride. On 
their return, however, her father requested her to remain some time with 
him : Raja Sekander consented and took his leave. 

The princess was already pregnant hy Rc^a Sekander, but he was un- 
acquainted with this circumstance ; nor was the princess herself aware of 
it, till a month after her return to her father. At the expiration of her 
** time, the princess was safely delivered of a son, whom Raja Kideh Hindi 
*' named Aristan Shah, 

'* Raja Jristan Shah was in course of time married to the daughter of 
" the Rc^a of Turkistan, by whom he had a son, named Raja Aftus, 

After an absence of forty-five years, Raja Sekander returned to Maka- 

dumah, and Raja Kideh Hindi died, leaving as his successor Raja Aristan 

•* Shah, who (or rather whose dynasty) reigned three hundred and fifty 

years. After him reigned the following princes in succession : 
" Raja Aftus, who reigned one hundred and twenty years. 

** Raja Askayinat, do three years. 

Raja Kasidas, do. . . . .twelve years. 

Raja Amastubusu, do thirteen years. 

Raja Zamzeius, do seven years. 

" Raja Khvras Khainat do thirty years. 

Raja Ahat Scdsayinat, 
Raja Kuda Zuguhan, son of Amagtubusu, 
Raja Ifikubus, who reigned forty years. 

Raja Ardasir Migan, who married the daughter of Raja Nushirwan Adel, 
sovereign of the west, by whom he had a son, named Raja Derm Nus. 
" Raja Tarsia Burdaras, son of Raja Zamarut. 

The last of these princes married the daughter of Rajah Suktn of Amdan 
Nagara. This Raja Sulan was the mightiest prince of the land of 
Hind, and of all the Rajas imder the wind. By the princess, his 
daughter. Raja Narsa had three sons : 
Raja Herian, who reigned in the coimtry of Hindostan : 
Raja Suren, whom Raja Sulan appointed in his own place ; and 
R(^a Panden, who reigned in Turkestan. 

After a short time Raja Sulan died, and his grandson. Raja Suren, 
reigned in his place in Amdan Nagara, with still greater authority than 

• < 





** his predecessors, and all the lands of the East and West, except China, 
" acknowledged him. 


Then Raja Suren formed the design of subjugating China, and for this 
purpose marched towards that coimtry. Two months he marched on 
without any obstruction, and every country submitted, till he aj)- 







descriptions was brought to the highest perfection ; and the 
first damasked krises were now made by the pdmli (smiths) 

" proahcd the country of Gang'ga Nagara, the Raja of which was named 
'* Gang'gi Shah Juana, Here an engagement took place, in which Rafm 
Suren smote off the head of Raja Gang*gi Shah Juana, whose fobfectt 
having lost their chief submitted to Rofa Smremf who married Patri 
Gang'ffa, the sister of the deceased Raja From Gom/^ga Nagara^ Rmjm 
Suren advanced to the coimtry of A'^ii^ Kins, which in former times was 
a great country, possessing a fort of bUck stone (sappoaed to he up 
*' the river JoAor). The name of the Raja of this country was CMra, 
" who was superior to all the Rajas of the country lying under the wind. 
" Here another desperate engagement took pjace, in which Rof^ ChaUm 
also was killed, and the country submitted to Suren. Then /{o/a Smrm 
married the daughter of the deceased monarch, and advanced to Tunamk. 
He returned, however, to the land of Kling without proceeding on to 
China. On the return of Re^a Suren he founded a city of great use, 
" the fame of which became renowned, and the name of which was Bis- 
nagur (a well known and celebrated city of the south of India), which 
even at the present time is a great city in the land oiKUmg, 
Raja Suren had by the daughter of Raja Chulen a daughter, named 
" Chandu fVani Wasiat, and by Puiri Gang'ga he had three aont, one 
" of them named Bichitram Shah, another Pahduiam, and the third 
" Nilumanam, 

PaUdutani succeeded to the government of Amdem Nmparmf and A*ilv- 
manam was appointed to the government of Chanduhmi : hot on the 
eldest son, Bichitram Shah, w^ only conferred a territory of nDiall ex- 
tent, which so displeased the young prince, that he resolved to abandon 
the country. He accordingly embarited with twenty vessels, fitted out 
with all the appurtenances of war, determining to conquer aU the mari- 
time countries i but his fleet was dispersed by a storm, and part of them 
" returned to their country. 

Bichitram Shah is then represented as arriving in the coun tr y now 
called Palembang, where Demang Lebar Boon, great grandson of Rtga 
Chulen, was chief. Here marrying the daughter of the Raja« he aasomed 
*« the government, under the title of Sang Sapurba TVimmrti TVihwmM, and 
had by her four children ; two daughters, named Chandra Demi and 
Puira Sri Dewi, and two sons, named Sang Muiiaga and Saiy Kik 
'• Utamc, 

After some years Sang Safmrba was seised with a desire to view the 
ocean, and went in search of a good situation for a new settlement, 
leaving the younger brother of Demang Lebar Doom in the govenonenC 
of Palembang ; and the fleet being prepared, they set sail from the river 
*' of Palembang, and after steering six days and nights towards the eomh, 
** arrived at Tanfung pura, where Sang Sapurba was very honoorahly re- 
** ceived by the raja, and a thousand chiefs introduced him into the country, 
** seated him on the throne, and honoured him like a prince. As 




• t 



from Pajajdrany who became so distinguished that they were 
appointed to the charge of districts with a thousand chdcha 
each. The kriSy which was afterwards placed on the tomb 
of Susunan Giriy is said to have been manufactured at this 
time from a piece of old iron found by the prince. 

The reign of the third prince of Majapahit was of very 
short duration, and he was succeeded by Ardi Wijayay who 

" the news of his arrival reached Majap&kit, the Bitara, who was very 

" powerful, came to make him a visit. Sang Sapurba received him very 

" graciously, and gave him in marriage his daughter Chandra Dewi, After 
this ceremony the Bitara of Majapdhit returned to his capital ; and it 
is from this marriage (say the Malayan traditions) that the rajas of Ma- 

*'japdhit are descended. 

" After a long residence at Tanfwig pura. Sang Sapwrha set out again 
in search of some other country ; hut he first married his son. Sang Mu- 
tiaga, to the daughter of the Raja Tanfung pura, and established him on 

" the throne of that country, giving him a superb crown. After leaving 
Tanfung pura he traversed the sea until he arrived in the strait of 

" Sambor, in view of the hills of IAng*ga (Lingen.) The news quickly 
reached Benton, at this time under the sway of a queen, named Pramis- 
wari Sehander Shah, Sang Nita Utama, the younger son of Sang Sa- 
purba, was married to her daughter, named JVan Sri Bini, and afterwards 

" became raja of the country. 

Sang Sapurba then left Bentan, and having sailed for a day and a 
night, arrived at Ruko, whence he proceeded to the point of Balang, and 

*' ascended the river Buantan, where it was reported the coimtry was ex- 
tremely populous. When he had ascended far up the river he arrived at 
Menangkabau : all the Menangkabaus were surprized at his appearance, 

" and the splendour of his diadem, and they all came to inquire whence 
he came. As soon as they heard of his adventures, and that he was a 

" descendant of Sultan Sekander Zulkamein^, all the chief men of Me- 
nangkabau consulted about appointing him Raja, since they had none ; 
and after he had, as a condition, succeeded in destroying an immense 
snake which harassed the country, he was unanimously elected Raja by 
the people of Buantan, and of him are descended all the generations of 

" the Rajas of Pagaruyang, 

Sang Nila Utama afterwards quitted Bentan, and founded the city of 

" Singapura, situated on the southern extremity of the Malayan peninsula. 
This event is supposed to have taken place A.D. 1 160. 

The successors of Sang Nila Utama were Paduka Sri Wikrama, Sri 
Rama JVikrama, and Sekander Shah, who, be'mg driven out of Singa pura 

" by the Majapdhit forces, afterwards established the city of Malaca. His 
successor, Mahomed Shoh, first embraced Mahomedanism, in the year 
1276." — Malayan Annals, 











patting to death the prime minister, eyentually fell a sacrifice 
to the jiust revengCKof the minister's son. 

Tliis prince, however, is distinguished by the extent at his 
conquests, and for the victory he obtained over Sri SimDirgmy 
King of Sing^apura on the Malagam peninsula, whose sob- 
jects lived by piracy, but by this event became tributaiy to 

To him succeeded the fifth prince of Majapdkit^ named 
Meria Wijdya^ whose minister, Guja Mada^ became cde- 
brated for his virtues and abilities, and for the code of regula- 
tions which at this day exists under his name. In his leign 
the conquest of Indragiriy or Sumatra, which had begun by 
his predecessor, was succcssfuUy completed. 

Accounts differ regarding the successor of his prince, some 
considering Rdden Alitj his brother, to have succeeded at an 
early age, and others that Rddeth Alii is the same with Angka 
Wijaytty the last sovereign of Majapdhit, According to the 
latter accounts, many of the principal events reported to hare 
taken place in the reign of Alii are brought under that of 
MMa Wijdya, 

One of the sovereigns of Majapdhit^ according to the Bfa* 
layan annals, had two sons by the daughter of the Ri^ of 
the mountain Sa Guntang ; the eldest named Rdden Ino 
M4rta IVdfigsay and the younger Rdden Mas Pamdri. The 
eldest succeeded to the government oi Majapdhit ^ the authority 
of which then extended over the whole of Java, and all the 
Rajas of Nusa Tamdra (probably Edit) likewise paid alle* 
giancc for half their lands. The sovereign of Magapdhit 
heard of the extensive country of Malacca which did not owe 
him allegiance,' and sent a large fleet against it, under the 
command of Demdng Wirdja. The Javans, however, did 
not succeed : they were forced to retreat to their prdhu$ and 
to return to Majapdhit. 

Tlirough the wisdom of the minister, Gdja Mdda, who was 
continued in office, and the prudent direction of Alit IVijdfOj 
the kingdom of Majapdhit rose to the highest pitch of wealth 
and glor}'. Several nations on Sumatra, and among them the 
people of Palcmbangf as well as the inhabitants of the southern 
states of Borneo, who had no regular government at that 



period, obtained from him protection against the people of 
Ldmpungy and in return acknowledged the supremacy of Ma^ 
japdhit. The authority of this enqure now extended east- 
ward over Balambdngan and Bdliy and westward oyer what 
was then termed the kingdom of jSumfa^ which included the 
western districts of Java, part of Sumatra, and all the islands 
situated in the straits. The inhabitants of the islands situated 
in the straits of Sunda consisted for the most part of the dregs 
of all nations, who having fled from the wars, or having been 
otherwise obliged to desert their own country, had elected a 
chief, under whom they committed extensive depredations by 
sea and land. 

During the reign of Alii Wijdya, the pumka krtSy named 
jeUa sSmlang jdndringy was carried off by stealth, by emis- 
saries employed by M^nak Ddli Putty prince of BcUambdngan; 
but was recovered by the dexterity of a pdndi (or smith) named 
Supaj who in reward for his services \i as made chief of Ma-- 
dirdngin (now called iS^ic^yi^^, and was the first distinguished 
by the title otAdipdH. This chief afterwards proceeded with 
a force to Balambdngan^ and an engagement took place near 
the river Kdli Tikus : Menak Ddli Puti was defeated and 
put to death, and his fieunily obliged to seek refrige with the 
chief of Bdli Kldngkong. The enemy was pursued as far as 
his capital ; Mdchang pHtij and the whole coast was divided 
into districts, under the sovereignty oiMajapdhit. 

The chief of Bali Kldngkong sent an empassy to Majapdhit^ 
aud concluded a treaty acknowledging its authority. 

During this reign, a violent volcanic eruption took place 
from one of the mountains in the western districts of Balam^ 

Merta^ or according to others, Alii Wijdya, left two chil* 
dren, a daughter named Kanchdna Wunga, and a son named 
Angka Wijdyay who according to some accounts adminis-^ 
tered the government jointly. The princess, however, is 
better known as an independent sovereign, under the title of 
Prdbu Kdnya Kanchdna Wung^u. It is related, that during 
this reign the chief of Balembdngan^ named M&nak Jeng^ga^ 
made a successfrd attack on Proboling^go^ and reduced under 
his authority all the countries which had been dependent on 
Majapdhity as far west as Tubany so that the capital was 


nearly surrounded by enemies. In this state of aUkirs, M4mak 
Jing^ga offered terms, on condition of obtaining the hand of 
the princess in marriage ; but she, disgusted by the deformity 
of his person, and a stench that exhaled from his body, not 
only rejected his suit, but declared she would give her hand 
to the man who would destroy him. Ddmar Wulam^ the son 
of a tApa or devotee, named Uddra^ and a descendant otArim 
Babdng^a^ obtained a single victory over the rebels at Probo- 
ling^gOf and cut off the head of M^nak Jing'ga : he was re- 
warded by the hand of the princess ; and all the provinces 
again fell under the authority of Majapdhit. According to 
some accounts, Ddmar IViil^tn had also been successful in 
repelling an invasion from Kambdja. 

Angka Wijdya having by this time attained a sufficient 
age, assumed the chief authority ; the princess retiring with 
Ddmar JVulan^ to whom was entrusted the charge ofProbo- 
Un^go with the more eastern districts, and of Simemap and 
Sdmpang on Madura. 

y'the first attempts to introduce the Mahomedan religion in 
the eastern provinces of Java, appear to have been made at 
Grresiky about the close of the thirteenth century)of the Jaran 
era. In the origin and rise of Gr^sikj they are thus related 
by the native writers : 

** Muldna Ibrahim^ a celebrated Pamdita from Arabia, 
^^ descended from Jenal Abidin^ and cousin to the Raja of 
'^ Ch^rmen (a country of Sdbrang)^ had established himself 
^^ with other Mahomedans at Desa Leran in Jam^gdla^ when 
*' the Kaja of Ch&rmen arrived at Java* This prince, who 
^ was a Mahomedan, perceiving with regret that the inhabit* 
*^ ants of the large and populous island of Java were still 
^' heathens, resolved to attempt the conversion of the King of 
^^ Majapdhiif Prdbu Angka Wijdya^ and with this view to 
^' present to him his maiden daughter in marriage. Embark* 
^' ing with his daughter, and all his relatives and followers of 
'* every description, he reached Jang*gdla in safety, and land* 
'^ ing at the D^ia Leran he immediately built a mosque there, 

and in a short time succeeded in obtainuig many converts. 
The Raja of Chermen having consulted with his relatioiis 

whom he found at Liran^ deputed his son, Sidek Afak&tmed^ 
^^ to proceed to Majapdhit j and apprise the king of his in* 




** tended visit He afterwards set out himself, with all hid 
party, among whom were forty holy men, his relations, who 
had come with him from Sdbrang, 
*^ The King of Majapdhit came forth, and met Raja CJUr- 
" men at the confines, where they both remained under a 
^^ peisang^grahan, erected for their accommodation. Angka 
** Wijdya evinced the greatest respect for Rqa ChSTmen^ 
" and treated him with every mark of hospitality. 

" The Raja of Chermen now/presented to the King of Ma- 
"yopaAi^fa promegranate in a oasket, in order that, by his 
" acceptance or rejection of it, he might ascertain whether or 
" not he would become a convert. The king accepted of the. 
present, but not without wondering how a Raj^^from Tdna 
Sdbrant^ could think of presenting him with such a fruit, as 
if it had been unknown on Java^ His thoughts, however^ 
'' he kept to himself; but Raja Chermen knew what was 
^' working in his mind, and soon afler took his leave, and re- 
'^ tiumed with his people to L^ran. His nephew, MuldtuB 
** Mdhfar (son of Muldna Ibrahim) alone remained vrith 
^* Angka Wijdya. ^Some time after this, the king having con-> 
'' tracted a kind of giddiness in the head, opened the pome^ | 
'^ granate ; when, instead of the usual seeds, he found it filled \ 
" with precious stones^^rubies). Surprized at this, he observed 
^^ to his minister, that Raja Ch&rmen must indeed be a very 
" superior kind of person, and sent Muldna Mdhfar to re- 
^' quest the Raja to return; but the Raja refiised to do so, 
" and proceeded on. 

" When Raja Chermen had been four nights at L^an, his 
" people fell sick and many died. Among them there were 
" three out of five cousins, who had accompanied him from 
^^ Sdbrang^ named Sdyed Jdfar^ Sdyed Kdsem^ and Sdyed 
*^ Gharty whose tombs are known by the name of KvJmr 
" Panjang *. The princess also fell sick, when her fa&er 
'^ attended upon her himself, and besought the Almighty to 
" spare her and restore her to health, that his intention of 
^^ giving her to the Raja of Majapdhit might be fulfilled : he 
prayed, however, at the same time, that if it was (ordained 
that Angka Wijdya was not to be converted, her days 

* The long graves which are still pointed out near hinm. 



^ might be shortened. The princess shortly afterwards died, 
^^ and was interred near the graces of her relations ^. 

** The usual tribute having been paid to the memoiy of 
'* the deceased, on the different dajs appointed for the per- 
^ formance of the ceremony, and Mukma Ibrahim haiing 
^^ been appointed to look after and take care of the grsres, 
*^ the Raja of Chirmeny with all his people, set out to retnm 
^ home. On his way Sdyed Jafar died. He was sent on 
'^ shore at Madura^ and his remains were interred to the west 
^ of the Tillage Plakdra, Sayed Rq/idin^ the only remaining 
^ cousin of the Raja^ died near Botian^ and was buried on 
^ that island. 

^ Angka fVijaya, desirous of meeting again with Raja 

** Chirmen^ arrived at LSran three days after his departure, 
** and hearing of the death of the princess, observed, that he 
•* thought the religion of Rajd Chermen would have prc- 
** rented such a calamity as the premature death of the pHri 
** (princess), that it would have enabled her to hold out against 
'^ the sickness of Java, and that he must now think meanly 
^ of it : to which MuUna replied, that such ignorance was 
** only the consequence of worshipping Dewas instead of the 
" true God. Angka JVijdya became highly enraged at this 
** retort; but being pacified by his followers, returned to 
^ Majapdhity without taking any Anther notice of it Tliis 
" hap{)ened in the year 1813. 

^^ Mulana Ibrahim^ who remained in charge of the tombs 
" of the deceased, afterwards removed from lAran to GrSmkf 
** which, however, had not become a separate state. Here he 
** died, twenty-one years after the departure of the Raja of 
** Chermen ; and here his tomb, which is known bv the name 
" otGapurd Wet an y is still to be seen. He died on Monday, 
•* the twelfth o( Rahiulatcaly in the Javan year 1384. 

^ It is related, that about this period there was a woman of 
'^ Kambcjay named Mai G^i Pindtehy the wife of the/Hi/^A, 
" or minister of that country, who on account of her being a 
*^ great sorceress was banished to Java, where, on her arrival, 
^ she went to the king oi Majapdhit and implored protection. 
^ The king taking pity on her, the more so as she was a 

* tier tomb in itill prrserred. 


'^ woman of advanced age without any children, and had been 
^^ removed from a situation where she had once been com* 
^^ fortable and happy, provided for her by making her a kind 
^^ of shdbdndar (chief of the port) at Ghresikj wh^re there was 
'^already a mosque and a considerable population. Nidi 
*^ G^di afterwards became very religious and charitable, and 
** was revered for becoming tiie foster-mother of SusAnan 
'^ Girt. Her death took place forty-five years after that of 
^ Mulana Ibrahim; being a short time previous to the de- 
^^ struction of Majapdhity and her tomb is still to be seen at 
" Gresik:' 

To return, however, to the proceedings of the King of 
Majapdhity it appears that early in his reign, Angka Wijdyay 
hearing from the merchants who resorted to Java of the 
beauty and accomplishments of a princess of Chdrnpa^ s^Qt 
an embassy to that country to demand her in marriage ; and 
on her arrival at Grisiky received her there in person, with 
great attention and state. The princess, nevertheless, ibr a 
long time refused to cohabit with him, on account of the great 
number of his concubines, and particularly on account of the 
powerful hold obtained over his affections by a Chinese of 
great beauty, who had been sent to him as a present from 
one of the chiefs of China, at the request of the merchants 
and with the consent of the emperor, with a view to obtain 
greater privileges for their trade with Java. 

The princess is represented as the second daughter of the 
Raja of Champa. Her name was Dd/ra Wdti, and her eldest- 
sister had been married to an Arab, by whom she bad a son, 
named Rdchmai, 

Previous, however, to this marriage, Angka Wijdya is 
said to have had an intrigue with a woman, of whom there 
are various accounts, some describing her as a witch, re- 
siding on the mountain LdwUy and others as a rasdksa. 
The fixdt of this illicit connection was a son, called Aria 
DdmcPT. tJnknown to his father, this youth distinguished 
himself at an early age, by bringing together all the wild 
animals of the forest, as an amusement for the prince and 
his family. In consequence of an exploit so hazardous, 
he was first appointed chief of a province, and ailenvards 
promoted to the command of an army proceeding against 


Bdliy daring a war in which the forces of Majapdkii suffered 
great loss, but wore ultimately Buccessful*. The ci4>ita], 
called KUhikongy was surprised and carried, and the chief 
himself, with the whole of his family, except one sister, put 
to the sword. She being very beautiful, was sent to Majapd* 
hit. The island of Bdii became tributary to Majapdhii. 

Aria Ddmar^ on liis return, presented the various arms 
which had been taken as tokens of his success ; and his con- 
duct being highly approved of, he was ap{M>inied Adipaii^ or 
chief, of PcU^mbang on Sumatra. 

The discontent of the Princess of Champa still continuing, 
the Prince came to the resolution of parting with his Chiuette 
consort, and gave her to Aria Ddmar^ on condition that he 
would not cohabit with her until she was delivered of the 
child, of which she was then pregnant, and that he would 
afterwards rear up tlic child as his own. Aria Ddmar then 
accompanied by the princess, and about three hundred chosen 
troops, given to liim by tlie prince of Majapdhitj embarked 
for PaUmbang^ where he was well received, and immediately 
acknowledged as chief. He soon, however, became involved 
in a war with the Ldinpung states and the neighbouring isles 

* The occftsion of the war with Bill it thus related :— " At this period 
" the royal family of Bdli conaisted of three brothera i the eldest of whom 
" was named Jfoya Dindwa; the second, J>ewa Maekmcti, who waa the 
" chief; and the youngest, Kabu Hlkaka, Kabu Wihaka is said to hare 
" been of extraordinary size, and to hare had a head like a hog, devoor- 
" ing the flesh of that animal in great quantity. He was, moreorer, very 
" wicked and destructive, regardless of the rights or property of say one. 
** On this account the people became dissatisfied with his away, and his 
** brothers, desirous of getting rid of him, advised him to proceed to 
'* Majapakii, in order to obtain in marriage Loro Jongramg, of the family 
" of Browijajfa, a lady whom they represented as of a stature similar to 
his own. The Raja of Bdli, as a further inducement to him to go, sent 
an embassy to make the request ; but Broipyajfa, considering it as the 
" forerunner of war, maile his preparations accordingly. He aeot for s 
** celebrated painter, named Smmg'inff adi Wama, and putting down the 
** dimensions of a large woman, such as had been requested, desired him 
" to paint the figure of a most beautiful woman of the same siae, and 
** it was done dismissed the ambassadors, accompanied by Aria 
** who had especial instructions to make observations of erery thiag ia 
" Bdii, so that the way might be clear for hostilities, should the asiM 
" become necessary.*' 


of Siihda, the inhabitants of which wero continnally com'* 
mitting depradations in the territories of PaUmbang. He 
proceeded into the Ldmpwng country, but before he could 
reduce it to subjection, internal commotions obliged him 
to return to Pal^mbanyy where the Chinese princess was 
now delivered of a son, to whom he gave the name of Baden 
Pdtah, He had afterwards a son by this princess, whom he 
named Rdden Husen; but observing that the people otPalem- 
hang disliked the princess, on account of her Cldnese extrac- 
tion, he took from one of the first families of the place 
another wife, whose son might become his successor, and 
resolved to send Rdden Pdtah and Rdden HUsen to Maja* 

After Aria Ddmar had resided about three years at Palem-^ 
bang, Rdden Rdchmaty son of the Arab priest, who had mar- 
ried one of the daughters of the Raja of Chdmpay arrived 
there, being the bearer of letters and presents for MajapdhiL 
Rdchmat was then about twenty years of age, carefully edu- 
cated, and well instructed in the Mahomedan reUgion. Ill a 
short time Aria Ddmar felt inclined to embrace the faith, but 
on account of the attachment of the people of Pal&mbang td 
their ancient worship, he dared not openly profess it. 
Rdchmat remained two months at Pal&mbangy and then pro- 
ceeded on his voyage to Mafapdhity touching at Gr^sik on 
the way, where he visited Sheik Muldna Jomadil Kdbray a 
devotee who had established himself on Grdnung Jdliy JBuid 
who declared to him that his arrival at that particular period 
had been predicted by the prophet ; that the fall of paganism 
was at hand, and that he was elected to preach the doctrine 
of Mahomed in the eastern parts of Java, where a rich harvest 
of conversion awaited his apostolic labours. 

Arriving at Gresik he proceeded to Majapdhity where he 
was kindly received by the prince, and by his relative the 
princess of Champa. Angka Wijdyay notwithstanding he 
disapproved of his religious principles, and himself refused 
to become a convert to them, conceived such an attachment 
for his person and such a respect for his character, that he 
assigned to him three thousand families, and formed an estab- 
lishment for him at Ampely situated in the vicinity of Sura- 
baya y where he allowed him the free exercise of his religion. 



with pennisfiion to make conrerts of those who were inettned. 
In a short time Rdchmat gained the affection of all thoee 
placed under him, and most of them were hj degrees con- 
rerted to the faith, whence he acquired the title of Smmam^ 
meaning, according to some, *^ meuengerfiram God^ or he 
of whom requests are made, and which title, indiffeientlj 
termed Sunan or Susuhunany the sovereigpuK of Java hare 
since continued to assume ^. As a further testimony of his 
regard for Rdchmet^ the prince of Majapdhit gave to him in 
marriage the daughter of his first Kliwan^ whose brother, 
Wila Ttkta, he had appointed chief of Tiban. By this wife 
Rdchmat had thre^ children, a daughter and two tons, who 
were afterwards appointed Adipdiu of Bdnang and Drdjai^ 
now called La$em and Seddyu. 

The next Arab missionary who arrived at GrSnk was Afii* 
tdna Ishaky the father of the celebrated Sunan Girt. The 
circumstances attending his arrival, and the establishment of 
his son, are thus related. 

** Muldna Ishaky otherwise called Muldna AM Iriam of 
^ PdH Mdlaca, a celebrated Pandiiay^ho had given himself 
^ up to penance and mortification, having heard that there 
<< was at Ampely on Java, a prince who was busily employed 
^^ in propagating the Mahomedan religion, and thai many 
'^ persons, through his means, had embraced the faith, went 
^ over and assisted Sunan Mdkdum in the work of conver* 
^ sion : and having received his sanction to go to Balum * 
bdngany for the purpose of teaching the Mahomedan reli- 
gion, there embarked in a prdhuy and set out on the sacred 


** mission. 

It happened that at this time the chief of Baiambdmgam 
**' was greatly distressed on account of his daughter, who was 
** very sick, and whose malady would not yield to the power 
^ of medicine. One night a voice firom heaven told him, that 
*^ if he would have his daughter speedily recover he most send 
^ her to GUnung Patukdng'any where there would be found 

* Sthum, in the Javan language, meant the ridge pole of the roof; md 
Uamg the pillan or supports of a house. The fonner is the term adopted 
by the sorereign ! the latter is applied to the common people or mm is 




** BL PantUia &om Sdbrangy who would cure her, and after*^ 
** wards become her hiisbcmd. 

^^ A storm arisingy the prdhu in which Maldna lakak had 
^^ embarked Was driven close U> the foot of Gununff' Patu- 
^^ kdng^attj and he landed there, when the chief, having sent 
^^ his daughter to the mountain, directed that the Pancfi/a 

might be conveyed thither, in order that the prophecy 

might be Mfilled. Maldna Iskak first objected toimder- 
^ ' take the cure, on the plea that he was not skilled in me-^ 
^^ dicine, but at last agreed to comply, on condition that the 
^^ chief woidd unbrace the Mahbmedan religion if he were 
^^ successful. To this the latter consented, on which Ishaky 
*^ addressing the priest, said, ' I am not a person skilled in 
** ^ medicine, neither do I know how to administer it, but if 
" * your daughter would be weU she has now only to wish 

* herself so.' The princess immediately recovered. 

The prince afterwards bestowed upon the Pandiia his 
^' daughter in marriage, and she soon acquired a thorough 
'^ knowledge of the tenets of Mahomedanism. 
. ^ On one occasion, when the prince was sitting in the ball 
^^ of audience before all his people, the Pandita went up to 
^* him and reminded him of his promise to become a Maho- 
** medan, adding, that he was ready to instruct him in the 
^^ doctrijie of that system. On this the prince became angry, 
^* and told him in haughty terms that he never would change 
^^ his religion. No sooner had he spoken than his mouth was 
^^ distorted. At this, however, he only became the more ex- 
** asperated, and approaching the Pandita^ wais going to 

strike him, when his legs gave way under him and he fell 

to the ground. 

" The Pandita^ returning to his virife^ took leave of her^ 
'^ exhorting her to adhere to the religion* he had taught her, 
^^ and telling her that he must now proceed upon the mission 
^' on which he had originally embarked. Though desirous of 
^^ accompanying him he would not permit her. Aft^r he was 
^^ gone the land was afflicted with a pestilence, which carried 

off great numbers of the people. 

The prince, greatly vexed, and enraged at the havock 
^^ thus made among his subjects, told his minister that it 




'' must be in consequence of his daughter being pregnant bj 
*^ the Pandita ; and that, as soon as the child should be bom 
^' he was determined to make away with it 

^* The Almighty, however, took the child under his especial 
'^ protection, and it was safely conveyed to Chr^Hk in a trading 
vessel, where it was brought up by Nidi G^de Pindteh^ 
until it was twelve years of age ; when, turning out a pro- 
mising boy, she resigned him to Rdden Rdchmai^ then 
'* caUed Sunan Ampely for the purpose of his receiving religious 
** instruction. The Sunan soon discovered the boy was of 
'^ Arab descent, and gave him the name of Rdden Pdku^ ob- 
^^ serving, that he would one day become the pepaku (that is, 
^^ the support-nail^ or axle) of Java ; he subsequently gave 
*^ him his daughter in marriage. 

** Rdden Pdku afterwards, accompanied by Mdkdum Ibra» 
'* him, son of the Sunan^ proceeded on a pilgrimage to 
** Mecca ; but touching at Pdsi Maldcca^ they were there pre- 
** sented to the great and holy teacher, Muldna AIM Idam^ 
^^ who persuaded them, instead of prosecuting their voyage, to 
^' return to their own country, in order to make converts and 
^^ become great and glorious ; and giving to each of them 
^ an Arab turban and a long gown, at the same time confenned 
^* upon them the names of Prdbu Suswdia and Prdbu Awfok 
^^ Kraswdti, He moreover told them, on their return to 
^' GrSsiky to erect a mosque at Giri. 

*^ On reaching Ampe\ after their return to Java, the Sdmam 
^^ informed Rdden Pdku that the holy man to whom he had 
^^ been presented at Pdsi Maldcca was his own father, and 
^^ that by obeying his instructions in building a mosque al 
Giri he would fulfil a prophecy, and he and his companion 
become great princes in Java. 
*' Rdden Pdku then went to Giriy and having cleared a 
** spot, a mosque and dwelling were soon erected. Numerooa 
^' proselytes being attracted thither, he was called JPrdbm 
^^ Satmdtaj and sometimes Siumnan Rdiu Ainul Ydkm^ but 
** more commonly Sunan Giri, He was afterwards appointed 
" by the king of Majapdhii to be chief of the province of 
^^ Gresiky in the same manner as Susunan Ampel had been 
" previously appointed. Ho was bom A. J. 1965. PrMm 


^^ Anydk Kraswatiy his companion, afterwards assumed the 
*^ title Susunan Bonangy under which name he was a distin- 
" Euished character in subsequent transactions." 
j.^ixi the western provinces the work of conversion was also - 
/ advancing, under the influence of Sheik pnC Mulanay who in 
A. J. 1334 had established himself in Ch^boUy where he is 
better known as Susunan Gunung Jdtiy a name given him on 
account of his fixing his abode on the hills so named, ^^i 
woman alBicted with the leprosy (a complaint which has been 
declared incurable) (^as recovered by him, and thus procured 
for him the character of being able to perform miracles^ The^ 
number of people who in consequence of the cure resorted to 
Gunung Jdti was so great, that the chiefs, in the first instance, 
thought themselves bound to interfere, and did so with the 
hopes of success ; but finding afterwards that they could not 
resist the tide, many of them, among whom were the chiefs of 
Gdluj Sukapuray and Limbangan, became themselves con- 
verts to the faith. 

When L&mbu P^tang, son of Angka Wijdyay by the 
Princess of Chdmpay was appointed to the charge of the 
island of Maduray under the title of Panambdhany the SUnan 
Giri deputed Sheik Sdrify commonly caUed Kalipha Kuseny 
to accompany him, in order to make converts on that island. 
This missionary was buried at Aroa Bdyay where he had 
built a mosque, and is generally known on Madura by the 
name oi Pangeran Sdrif. 

In the meantime the name ofMajapdhit stood high among 
surrounding nations ; and at no time was the authority of that 
state more extensively acknowledged. Some disturbances, 
however, had taken place on Bdliy promoted by chiefs of dis- 
tricts, who oppressed their subjects, and interfered with the 
authority of each other. These commotions were so exas- 
perated by the dif&culties which arose in collecting the tribute, 
that the prince was obliged to send an army thither, under 
the command of Addya Ningraty the Adipdti of Pdjang 
Peng^gingy who soon restored order and tranquillity. In 
return for this and other eminent services he obtained in mar- 
riage Rdtu TimpOy the legitimate daughter of Angka JVijdya. 
D^wa Agung Kdtuty a natural son of the prince by the 
princess of Bdliy b^ing then appointed chief of that island, 

K 2 


proceeded thither with a select force, and continued tribatary 
to Majapdhit until its downfall. 

[The following account is given of the further success of 
the Majapdhit arms in the Eastern Seas, under Anddffa Nm- 
grat^ commonly known by the title of Rdtu P^n^ging^ and 
of the motives which induced the Prince of Majapdhit first 
to give him his daughter in marriage, and afterwards to admit 
him to a share in the government] 

^^ Every time that the Prince of Majapahit received ae- 
^^ counts of the success of Ratu PHig^ging his alarm and un- 
^^ easiness increased ; for in these accounts it was stated that 
'* he wanted no further assistance, as he met ^ith but little 
^^ opposition, all the rajas of Sabrang submitting to hiro, 
^^ among whom were those of MahUaVy Gda^ Bamday Sem^ 
*^ bawa^ End6, Ternary TerndtSj Suluy Siramy Mamiiay and 
^' B^umiy in short, he and his followers conquered wherever 
^' he went, being themselves invulnerable. 

^' At length the Prince of Majapdhit recollected that P»- 
^ l&mbang had not yet submitted, and in consequence sent a 
'^ handsome present to Ratu P^g*gingy accompanied by a 
^^ request to subdue PaUmbang without delay. 

^^ The Prince oi Majapdhit then calling his minister, CSajm 
^* Mdday inquired of him how it was that Rdtu Pin^ging 
** met with such success, and was becoming so great, that no 
^* country could withstand him, and told him, that his alam 
** was excited even for his own safety, least on his return to 
^ P^ng'ging the island of Java should become subject to two 
'^ chiefs. To which Gaja Mdda replied, ^ he knew not how 
^^ ^ to account for it, or to remove the uneasiness of the princei 
^* * but that he was always ready to obey the orders of his 
^* ' prince : in the present case Ratu P&ng'ging had been 
'^ ^ thro^^ into the greatest danger possible, and yet his life 
'^ ^ was preserved ; what more could be done ?' The prinee 
*^ then said, ^ let us both perform penance, and inquire of the 
^^ ^ Deity how to remove this uneasiness.* Gaja Mdda muo^ 
** ing to this proposal, they both kept themselves apart fioni 
^' the people of the court, and fasted for forty days and for^ 
^' nights, at the expiration of which Batdra Nardda appearod 
'* to Gaja Mdday saying, ' it is impossible for you to destroy 
" * or kill Rdtu Peng^giug^ for ho is a good man, and favouivd 





" * by the gods ; but if the Prince of Majapdhit wishes to 
'' ' get rid of his uneasiness, he had better make him his son- 
" * in-iaWy by giving him his eldest daughter, Rdtu Pam^ 
" * bdyufiy in marriage/ 

^^ The prince on hearing this became much astonished, 
'^ adding, that he had received a similar communication from 
Sang*yang Tung*gal (the great and only one,) and it was 
" agreed to send for Rdtu Peng'ging without delay. 

In a short time Rdtu P^g^gingresLchedMajapdhity with 
numerous princes in his suite, in proof of what he had 
written, that all the rajas of Sdbrang had submitted, and 
" were willing to obey the wiU of Majapdhit. Rdtu P^ng*» 
'^ ^^^9 then informed the prince, that in the conquest of Pa- 
^^ l&mbang the raja of that country had been killed, and that 
^^ he had himself appointed a person to administer the govern- 
^^ ment provisionally, until the Prince of Majapdhit should 
^^ nominate a new raja. 

** The prince received him with great distinction, saying, 
he knew not how to reward such eminent service, and offer- 
ing to him his daughter in marriage. 

After the marriage had taken place the prince assembled 
^^ all his chiefs, and placing Rdtu Peng*gingy now his son-in- 
law, on the setingelj appointed him in their presence, under 
^' the title of Prdbu AnafUj to a joint administration of the 
" country with himself. 

" The prince, however, some time after, became jealous of 
" ihe authority of this chief, and removed him to Peng^ging^ 
" afterwards caUed Pdjang, 

^^ During the administration of L&mbu Petang on MadHraj 
^^ Sumanap with the subordinate islands became a separate 
^^ province under Jdran Panulan^ a native of Pamakdsan^ 
'^ who, by his skill and courage, had raised himself to the 
" rank of commander of the Majapdhit cavalry, and was 
^^ married to an illegitimate daughter of the prince. 

" About the year 1360 ambassadors arrived from Pdnjar 
" Mdsin, when the prince sent one of his sons, KAda Ban- 
" jdran Sdriy also called Chdkra Na^dra^ to be the chief of 
" that counby. He proceeded with many vessels, and nu- 
" merous followers and troops. 

" The prince afterguards gave one of his daughters, the 




" sister of Chdkra Nagdra^ in marriage to a celebrated com- 
*^ mander, named Jdran UnaUy who was appointed Adipdti 
" of LokdnOy and appointed Pdnji Ditririo chief of Promo- 
" rdgaj with the title of Bat/ira Kdtong, 

" The prince falling ill of a complaint, declared by the 
" physicians to be inciu'able, was advised, as the only means 
" of recovery, to cohabit with one of his female idaves, a 
" woolly -haired girl. The fruit of this interconrse was a son, 
" who, on account of his* birth, was called BUndan Kajdwam. 
" This child, shortly after its birth, was delivered over to 
" Kidi G^de Tdntp Sis^la, chief of the prince's /ratrvi, or rice 
** lands, with directions to bring it up as a foundling.^ 

RetiuTiing, however, to the progress of Mahomedan conTer- 
sion, which is now more rapidly advancing, the history goes 
on to state that the sons of Aria Ddmary of PaUmbongy who 
were destined to take a most conspicuous part in succeeding 
events, came to Greffik, the former at the age of twenty, and the 
latter of eighteen. Rdden Pdtahy aware of his extraction, and 
of the treatment which his mother had received, would not pro- 
ceed to Majapdhity but remained \inth the Swt^nan atAmpei 
for some time. Husen^ however, went to Majapdhit^ with 
injunctions not to say any thing of Rdden Pdtah, He was 
well received there, and soon after was appointed to the com- 
mand of the troops, and to administer the district of IVamg, 

Rdden Pdtah afterwards marrying the grand-daughter of 
Sdnan Ampeiy and leaving her during her pregnancy, pro- 
ceeded to the westward, in order to form an establishment, 
which he was directed to fix at a place where he should find 
the sweet-scented grass, called bin tar a. This he discovered 
in a place where there were but few dry spots to be fomid, in 
an extensive swamp, termed in Javan Demaldkany whence the 
contraction Demdky first called Bintdra, 

As soon as the prince of Majapdhit heard of this new esta- 
blishment at BintdrOy he directed HuMen to proceed thither 
and destroy it, unless the chief was willing to acknowledge 
the authority of Majapdhit. Husen in consequence prevail^ 
on Rdden Pdtah to accompany him to Majapdhit^ where be 
was recognised by his likeness to the prince, and permitted to 
return to Bintdra with the tide of Adipati. 

When Rdden Pdtah quitted Majapdhit ^ instead of retoni- 


ing to Bintdra he went to Ampelj and communicated to him 
the shame and rage which he felt on the discovery of his birth 
and a determination which he had made to destroy Maja- 
pdhit. The SunaUy however, moderated his anger, by telling 
him that while the prince was just and beloved, and he him- 
self received such benefits fi'om him, his religion did not admit 
of his making war against him, or in any way injuring him. 

Rdden Pdtah then returned to Bintdra^ taking with him 
his wife, but leaving with the Sunan his son, Rdden Abdala. 
Bintdra now rose in consequence and prosperity, proselytes 
became numerous, and the population daily increased. 

Shortly after the mosque had been commenced, intelligence 
was received of the severe illness of the Sunan Ampely in 
consequence of which Rdden Pdtahy together with all the 
chiefs and people who had embraced Mahomedanism, pro- 
ceeded to Ampely where, after they had attended him for a 
few days, he died, previously delivering into the hands of the 
Sunan Girt a pusdka kris, which had been given to him by 
the prince of Majapdhity and which he required of him never 
to transfer into unhallowed hands. 

The prince of Majapdhit is represented as paying every 
honour to the deceased, and as having provided the usual 
feast on the occasion. After this event, Rdden Pdtah returned 
to Bintdray whither eight missionaries, who had assumed the 
title of Sunany viz. Sunan Bdnang of Tuban (son of SUnan 
Ampeljy Sunan Undang of KuduSy Sunan Giri of Gr^sik, 
Sunan Agum (Mulana Jomadil Kobra of Cheribonjy Sunan 
Kdli Jenary Sunun Kdli Jdgay Sunan Tanggung (of Tegal)y 
and Sunan Drdja of SidayUy now proceeded to assist in the 
completion of the mosque. This mosque is still standing, 
and is of a shape different firom those constructed at a later 
period, having, ^ts it is asserted, eight pillars, to commemo- 
rate the circumstance of the eight religious men engaged in 
its construction. This event occurred in the year 1390. 

It was now that Rdden Pdtahy finding advisers who were 
perhaps less scrupulous than the revered Sunan Ampely gave 
vent to his deep-rooted animosity against his father, and 
formed a league with the assembled missionaries to make war 
upon the pagan empire of Majapdhit. In consequence of 
this confederacy, which was joined by all those who had 


embraced the Mahomedan faith, with the exception of Hisem 
and his followers, who remained true to the prince, a ntuner- 
ous army was soon collected at Demdk^ where Bddem Pdimh 
openly declared war. 

Sunan Undang of Kudus was appointed to the chief com« 
mand, and under him the Mahomedan army marched towards 
Majapdhit ; but owing to the dexterity of HAsen^ who com* 
manded the Majapdhit forces, a general engagement was 
avoided, and for four years the hostile army was kept at bay. 
The troops of Majapdhit at last dissatisfied with this micer- 
tain state of affairs and constant harassing, called loadly for 
action, and in compliance with their wishes a decisive battle 
was fought near the Sidayu river, in which the Mahomedans 
were completely routed, and their chief, SAtum Undamg, 
killed. Husen is accused of not having followed up this 
victory to the utmost of his power, on account of his fraternal 
affection for Raden Pdiah. The remains of S^mam Undam^ 
were interred in the north side of the temple at Demdk. 

The prince of Majapdhit^ after this success, again endea- 
voured to reduce Baden Pdtah to obedience by amieaUe 
means, and for that purpose invited him to Mmjapdkit. Pd- 
iah promised to comply as soon as he should recover horn a 
distemper which then confined him. By this, and other ex- 
cuses, which were only urged to gain time, he contrived to 
deceive the prince ; and Bimtdra^ with the other prorincea, 
continuing to pay the usual tribute, his vengeance was dis- 

Considerable depredations were now made by the Simdm 
people, who landing on the north coast proceeded by the 
river Losdri into the interior of tlie coimtr^*, as far as Bd m^ * 
mas and Ddyu Luhur^ which probably attracted the attention 
of Angka Wijdyay more than the immediate danger which 
threatened his empire from the members of his own family. 

Raden Pdtah ^ in the meantime, was very active in making 
preparations for a firesh attack, and sent to PaUmbang^ for 
the double purpose of asking assistance from that state and 6t 
reconciling Aria Ddmar to the part which he was now taking 
against Hnsen. 

To the latter \\Qxi of the message Aria Ddtnmr replied, ^ that 
*' it was tlie will of (»od to extirpate paganism, and to 


** blish the doctrine of Mahomed; that therefore, i£ Hisenj 
'' who was a Mahomedan, still continued to assist the in- 
** fidels, he must abide by the consequences, and that he, as 

his father, would in such case take no rengeance for the 

death of his son, should it ensue.'^ 

The confederates gaining courage .from this snpport, the 
several chiefs sent numerous troops to Demak, and a second 
army was soon assembled. (The (overthrow of the ancient r 
kingdom, if we are to believe the Javaais, was not to be effected > 
by human means alone, and supernatural expedients were re- : 
sorted to. ^^ DdmarKjs said to have sent to J^den Patah 
tEe box which had been given him by his mother be^^e he 
quitted Java, directing him to carry it to the wars. J^nan 
Crinung JdiiQeikX hinj)a)&a;ie rdntSy or (chain jacket, ividi ai^ 
injunction not to open it until the engagement was at itft^ 
height, when thousands of rats would issue from it, and assisH 
in putting an end to the struggle. I^nan Giri ^ntributed- 
with the same instructions the sacred krisy from which a 
swarm of hornets was to issue ; Bmi^Sunan B&nang (sent aj 
magical wand or cane, which in cases of extremity possessed'; 
thejpiower of producing allies and warriors on all sidesy 

^hus provided, the Mahomedan army took the field^under 
Pangeran Kidus,, son of the deceased Sunan. The j^gress 
of the confederates is thus described. 

" The army of the fisdthfrd, <Hghly elated and determined 
^^ upon the downfall of paganism, were met by the united 
^^ forces of Mo/apdAi^^^imder HusefijCand a severe and despe^ 
^* rate battle took place, which lasted for «even successive 
" days. In this protracted engagement the former were at 
" first worsted ; but the commander) Paw^^an £i^fi?f/«,(avail- 
*^ ing himself of the enchanted box and miraculous weapons, 
** at last succeeded in driving the enemy before him, and the 
'^ city of Majapdhity surrounded on all sides, submitted to 
^^ the hostile forces, the prince and his immediate followers. 
" having previously quitted it in disorder and fled to the east- 
" ward.^) 

{Thus in the year 1400 feU the great capital of Java, the? 
boast and pride of the Eastern Islands : thus did the sacred 
city of Majapdhity so long celebrated for the splendour of its 


court and the glory of its arms, become a wilderness. ^ Lost 
** and gone is the pride of the land.** 

The main force of the allies remained at Majapdhii ; but 
Pangeran Kikdus proceeded to Trong^ whither Hiuen had 
retreated, raising combatants, by means of the magical wand 
of SUnan B&nang^ as he advanced* Here he attacked Hiten^ 
who had entrenched himself in a strong position, and soon 
carried his lines. That chief immediately acknowledging his 
defeat, entered into terms, and accompanied the Pangeran to 
Demdky taking with him his principal followers and daughter, 
whom Rdden Pdtah was allowed to dispose of. He was well 
received, and his daughter given in marriage to Pang&ran Aria 
of mhan. 

On their way Pangiran Kudus and Husen went to Maja^ 
pdhity whence the regalia had already been removed to De* 
mdky and assisted in the further removal of all property, 
public and private, of every description : so that in the course 
of two years the country was entirely laid waste, 1402. 
Kedelang sima wamdni nagdra 

2 4 1 

To be seen nought form city ♦. 

* The following account of this great capital, and of the country in 
general, is given by the Chinese ; it was furnished by Hat^Ckam pii^ a 
Chinese, whose family have for many generations been settled on Jmrm, 
and translated into English by Mr. Crawfurd) when Resident of Surabaya. 

** Extract from a Cktmese book called Bim-kyan-tong-ko»j[»rtii/etf mt Vtkm 
one hundred and Jive yean ago, in the reign of the Ewtperor Bang-he. 
and compiled under the diret^ion qf kit mimistert, Tyn-«ng; Oog- 
Chin, Ong-Tam, Tyn-yong-twan, and oihers. 

f'* There is a country called Ja»-iMi^f ormerly called Cka^ : on the 
** coast of it there is a country called Po^a-lung, by which is the eotnmce 
into the coimtry. 

In the reign of the Emperor Hut-pit-lyat, of the family of Oitum Jmt" 
wa, it was described as being bounded in the following manner : to the 
*' east by Ko-li-gin, to the west by Sam-bm^kep to the north by Ko-im^mi, 
" and to the south by Ckam-Sga. 

Subject to this country of Cha-po are Sokit-ian, Ta-pan, Tk-Jtong^ 
Te-lmt, and other countries. 

In coming from Ckwan^ha {Emwi) by tea one first makee Ckmn-Sgrn. 
The people of that country are of a strange appearance, and exceed- 
ingly ugly. . 






Nothing certain is known of the fate of the prince of Ma- 
japdhit. According to some accounts, he, his family, and 









In genius, habits, and language, they are entirely different from the 
Chinese.) .. 

'' Jaw-wa became first known to the sovereigns of China in the reign of ' 
SaoW'GiUyang, of the dynasty Song •. The intercourse was, however, 
afterwards interrupted. 

"/Sfter this^ the reign of Tyo-hong-in, of the family of Tyo^l the king 
of Jaw-wa, whose name was)£aA:-/b-cAa,<^sent an embassy with gifts to ( 
the Emperor of Chindp 

" The intercourse was again renewed in the reign of J^fo-kifot, of the 
same family, when the Javans sent a mission with gifts to China. 
I** Afterwards, in the reign of the Emperor ^jut-pit-lyat, and in the 
thirteenth year of his reign^ soldiers were sent from China, but the Javan 
subjects were very numerous, and they could not succeed^. 
The water of that country is called pa-chak-an. Here is the mouth 
" of a river. This is the place to invade the country. It was here that 
" Su-pit and Rohin, the generals of H«/-^7-/ya/,\fought the people of the^ 

" The country of Jaw-wa is divided between two kings, one to the 
west, and one to the eastv) In the reign of the Emperor Chee-Te, of the 
dynasty of Beng, when that prince had sat five years on the throne, the 
** western princv^hose name was Fo-wan-panimside war on the prince of \ 
the eastemhalf of the island, and overthrew his kingdom.; 

In the reign of the same Chinese prince, and in the sixteenth year of 
his reif^n, the western king of Jaw-wa, whose name now was Fan^-iot- 
see^a^ent a mission to China, with a present of a white parroty 
y**^B\£ a day's journey to the south-west of the river is the king's^ 
^ palace, close to a tank. Within this are two or three hundred houses^* 
" Seven or eight persons wait on the king, clothed in silk of various v 
** colours^ 

** The "king's palace is built of bricks. In height the wall is thirty feet« 
** Its circumferance is about 30,000 paces. The hair on the king's head 
is in appearance like growing grass; he wears a cap ornamented at top 
with gold fashioned like leaves. A piece of silk is wrapped over his, 
** bosom ; roimd his waist he has a piece of embroidered silk ; he wears a 
short weapon ; his feet are bare. Sometimes he rides on an elephant, 
andjsometimes on a bullock.^ 

With respect to the people, the hair of the men has the appearance , 
of growing grass. The women tie it in a knot at the top of ^e head ;'/ 







♦ ** Thirteen hundred and ninety-four years ago." 
t " Eight himdred and fifty-one years ago." 
X '* Four hundred and fourteen years ago." 


immediate atiherents were put to death on the asKaiill of tlie 
city ; aeeonling to otliers, lie fled to Mdlany^ and uUiniatt^'l y 
to BdU. Ihit the teni])orary establishment Ibnned at Md- 
laii(/y after the fall oi Majapdhity is ascribed by the tradition 
of that district, not to the sovereij^i, but only to the AtlifHsti 
of A/(r{/Vi/)ri/pi7, probably one of tlie sons of Anyka H'ijdytt^ 
who had remained witli his fatlier, and was indiflerentlv 
temied Ih*pdti Gugur or Depiiti Majapdhit, 'ITie date at 
which Aiujka Wijaya ascended tlie throne scarcely allows us 
to believe that he was living at the ))erio<l of its final o\er- 
tlirow. lliis date may be detennined from the inscriptions 
on several tombs still in a state of ])reser\'ation. llie year 
marked on the tomb of the jmncess of Chdwjui (which is 
witliin tlic ruins of MajapiJiU) is 13*20; that on tlie tomb of 

** they wear a coat and a long cloth. The men in\'arial)ly wear a short 
" weapon at the waivt, which is of exquisite workmanship. 

*' Their laws never punish by corporal infliction, lliey take no account 
" of the measure of a man's offenceM ; the criminal, in all cases, is secured 
** with rattans, and then put to death by stabbing bim. 

" In their traffic they use tbe money of (.*hina, but of a coinage older 

* than the ])resent times. These coins bear a value double of what they 
" do in (Jhina. 

" The inhabitants of the country have names, but no surnames. They 
" are of a quarrelsome disposition. In their ])ersons they are ilUfavoum] 

and flhhy. Their colour is a blueish black. Tlieir hcails are like those 

of large monkeys, and they go barc-lcg^eil. Thoy l)eUeve in e\il s|)irits. 

In sitting and sleeping they neithiT use chairs nor ImmIs : in eating they 
** use neitlier R|>oons nor chop-sticks. With res|}ect to food, they do not 
'* reject snakes, catoq)illars, worms, and insects. Tliey do not scruple to 

* eat and sleep with their di»^. 

" In their marriage cen'monien it is the practice for the man to go to 
^ the house of the woman, where he sttiys five days ; at the end of this time 
^* the bride is received with music and noise at the house of the briile- 
" groom. The bride wears no coat, lier hair is U>ose, her feet are liare, 
^' and she i^'ears a piece of silk round her bosom. Sometimes she wean 
'* ornaments of gold, pearls, and ])recious stones. 

" "With respect to the dead, some an* thrown into the water, some 
^ burnt, and some buried ; all this accdrdin^ to the will f>f the |»eniun 
" expressed before his death. Tlie cxi)orts of tlie country are ^nld. silvrr, 
•' pearls, rhinoceros* horns, elephants* twth. tortoiM'^hell. )>oe(le-nut. 
\* black pepper, sapan wood, gam wcnnI. kan.;loni;. cotton. Sundit liinis, 
^* green pigeons, and doves of various citloun*. parrot > of various colour*, 
'* red, green, and white, with white deer ami white m«)nkrys.** 



Muldna Ibrahim^ who died twenty-one years after the airival 
of the Raja Ch&rmen in 1313, is 1334; and as the princess 
of Champa must ha^e heen living at the period of Aria Dd- 
mar* 8 being sent to PalSmbangy when that prince had at least 
attained the age.of puberty, the accession of Angka Wijdya 
to the throne of Majapdhit must have been anterior to th^ 
year 1320, and a reign of eighty years more than exceeds the 
limits of probability. All the accounts which are given of 
the fate of this prince and his family agree in stating that the 
princess of Chdmpa, who must, if living, have been nearly a 
hundred years of age, feU into the hands, of the conquerors, 
and found an asylum with the Sunan Bdnang of Tuban : but 
this statement is disproved by the recent discovery at Maja- 
pahit of the tomb of this princess, who appears to have been 
buried according to the Mahomedan custom, and on > whose 
tomb-stone the date 1320 is found, in the old Javan cha- 
racters, in the highest state of preservation. 

In those accounts which represent the prince as having re- 
treated frora Majapahit the following particulars are related. 

'^ About twelve months after the establishment of < the su- 
" preme authority at Bintdray or DemiJc, the people of the 
" more eastern provinces again reverted to the standard of 
^^ BrounjdyOj who had received assistance from his son esta- 
^^ blished on Bali ; upon which Pang&ran Aria of K&dus and 
^^ Husen were directed to proceed against them with a power- 
^^ ful army. A desperate engagement took place near Md^ 
*^ langj in which the Pepdti Sindu Rdja was killed. The 
" Mahomedan forces were however victorious, and following 
^^ up their success, they pursued the Majapahit people to 
" Grydgan ( Balambdngany) whence Browijdya and those 
'^ of his followers who still adhered to his fortune took reftige 
^ in boats, and fled to Bali. This event happened in the 
" Javan year 1403." 

The following, however, is the traditionary cu^count given 
by the people of Malangy of the party who retreated thither 
from Majapahit, 

" When the people of Majapdhit were defeated, and 
" obliged to fly their capital, the Pdteh of Majapdhit took 
" refuge at a place now called Sing*gdray to the south-west 
" of Mdlang^ where he met with protection from a devotee, 


*^ named Kidi OS(U Seng'gdray who becoming attached to 
^* him gave him his daughter in marriage. 

^^ After the death of the Pdtah of Majapdhiiy and of Kidi 
** Gede Seng'gdray the son of the former disagreeing with his 
'^ wife, quitted Seng^gdra^ and built a smaU viUage at Gedd^ 
*^ dangy where afterwards he constructed a fort, and assumed 
*' the name of Rdng*ga Permdna, 

*^ In a short time this new country was known by the name 
^* otSupit irang : its inhabitants commenced the manufactmre 
^^ of bricks, of which the waUs of the town and ramparts were 
^* completed; they then dug a moat or ditch round the whole, 
^' and rendered it a place of great strength. 

^^ The fame of this new establishment had no sooner reached 
'^ the ears of the Mahomedan chief of Demdky who had now 
'* assumed aU the authority formerly possessed by Mega- 
^^ pahity than he sent his forces against it The people of 
'^ Stipii ikrang remaining however within their fortification, 
^^ the besiegers continued a long time before the place without 
^ being able to make any impression upon it, and were about 
^' to retire, when it occurred to them that a stratagem might 
'^ be successful. This was to catch ten doves or pigeons, 
*' which in the course of the day might come firom without 
'* the fortification in search of food, and, after fA*i<<ning to 
^' their tails lighted brands, to let them loose into the city. 
^' The project succeeded, for the birds, flying towards their 
^^ homes, set fire to the buildings within S^pii urang^ (which 
^* were constructed of light materials,) and all was confiision* 
*^ The conflagration becoming general alarmed the people, 
*^ who fled in every direction ; the prince {NX>ceeded eastward 
^^ as far as Gunung Buretig (a rising ground within sight of 
'^ the town,) where he is supposed to have perished, as no- 
^^ thing was afterwards heard of him. The besiegers then 
*^ took possession of the place, which since that period has 
" been called Kota Bedak (the deserted fort)** 

All the chiefs and priests went to Giri on their return from 
Seng^gdray to oficr up thanks for their victory. The Smmam 
was much indisposed when they arrived, and soon after died, 
at the age of sixty -tliree years. The tomb of the Suruim Giri 
is still kept in a state of preservation, and highly rcvcrecL It 
is remarkable for still containing the pusdka kris^ which he 




desired should be placed near his grave, and to which super* 
stition has attached many virtues *. 

To return, however, to Rdden Patah. No sooner had this 
chief caused the removal of the regalia from Majapahit to 
Demdky than the SunanSy Girij Bdnangj and Kdli Jdga for- 
mally invested him with the government, under the title of 
Panambdhan JimbuUy and declared him the deliverer froin 
paganism and the head of the faithful. The manner in which 
Rdden Pdtah obtained the sovereignty is otherwise related 
in other accounts. 

While these events were passing in the eastern and more 
populous districts of Java, the missionaries were not idle in 
the western districts. Sheik Muldna, of CheriboUy after ef« 
fecting the conversion of the chiefs and people in his neigh- 
bourhood, sent his son, Mulana Hdsen-u-din^ to Bantam, 
where, in the vicinity of the mountain PuUudrij a body of 
eight hundred recluses at once embraced the faith, and his 
disciples soon became numerous. 

Hdsen-u-din went afterwards with his father to Mecca. 
On their return they visited the court of Menangkdbau on 
Sumatra, where they were received with great distinction by 
the Raja, who at their departure presented the father with a 
celebrated kris. From Menangkdbau they proceeded to the 
mountain Pulusdrim Bantam, whence the father returned to 
Ch^bonj leaving the Menangkdbau kris with his son. 
Hdsen-U'din shortly after went to Chiribony to be married to 
a daughter of the SUnan Demdk (Rdden PatahJ^ and from 
thence to Demdky where he found Rdden Pdtah engaged in 
war with the prince of Majapdhit, He there obtained his 
daughter in marriage, and assisted in bringing the war to a 
favourable conclusion, after which he returned with his wife 
to Bantam. Bantam at this period was a province dependent 
on Pajajdran. 

About twelve months after his return to Bantam, where he 
assumed the chief authority, Hdaen^u-din went over to the 
Lampung country in Sumatra, accompanied by Pangeran 
BdlUy a chief of Tulangbdwang^ and proceeded as far as In^ 
drapuray where he married the daughter of the Raja as his 

* Various stories are related of this kris. 


gecond wife. On this occaaion it is said that the Beneoolen 
river was fixed upon as the boundary of hia poaseanona in 
that direction ; but it does not appear whether, bj this new 
boundaiy, his possessions became more extended or mora 
circumscribed than before. 

During the whole of his progress from TlUan^^wam^ to 
Indrap^ray it is said that the sword was never out of the 
scabbard. It is therefore probable, that his title to these 
more distant regions was founded upon some previous claim, 
and either that the Lampung country was tTEuisferred to his 
father, Sheik Muldnaj along with Uie Menangkdbau krU *, 
or that Palembang and the southern part of Sumatra might 
have devolved to Bantam, in consequence of Hcuen-u^in^M 
marriage with the daughter of Rdden Pdiah^ who had then 
assumed the sovereignty of Java and its dependencies. 

On Hdsen'-U'difCs return from Indrapuray he assembled a 
large body of men, principaUy from the southern dbtricta of 
Sumatra, and marched against Pdkuan Pajajdram^ the chief 
of which, with his followers, still adhered to the ancient iaith, 
and attacking that capital at midnight completely annihifaUed 
its authority. On this occasion Krdwang is said to have 
been fixed as the boundary between the possessions of Sheik 
Muldna of Cheribon and those of Bantam, there being at thai 
time no intermediate power. 

The manner in which this ancient capital was annihilated, 
is described with great minuteness in the different traditioos 
of the Sunda people, and the descendants of those who escaped 
and continued to adhere to their ancient faith, are to be traced 
in the districts of Bantam, where they still continue dis- 
tinguished from the rest of the population under the designa* 
tion of Bedui f. 

* Known by the name oi Kemdndamg, 

t Hie Bedui are to be found at three different placet in Bantam. At 
Gununff Perahidng, where the chief is called Giramg Pokom, there are twelve 
families ; at Gunung Pdrangkujang, where the chief's name is Wamkimtg^ 
there are forty men and women; and at Gwmdi^ Bumgbamg, where the chkf 
is called Kiang, there are twelve families. In the Rawttyaiu^ the naiM 
given to the place in which they respectively reside, this exact number it 
constantly presen'ed, by the removal of any inrrea<$c that may occur, and 
by supplying any deficiency from those without who have not embraced 
the Mahomedan faith. 


Among the articles removed from Majapdhitj and still pre- 
served with superstitious veneration, was the pasebanj or hall 

The history of these people, who consider themselves as descendants of 
Prabu Seda, the last chief of Pqjajaran, is intimately connected with the 
period of which we are now treating, and with the establishment of Maho- 
medanism in the western districts. The origin of the BedtU is thus re- 
lated : — 

" During the reign of Prabu Seda, the last prince of Ptyajaran, he was 
' informed that a certain recluse, named Seda Sakti, had an incestuous in- 
' tercourse with his sister, and determined to punish him for thus bring- 
' ing disgrace upon the country ; the man pleaded his innocence to no 
' purpose, and was put to death by being pressed between two large logs 
' of wood, previously making a stipulation, which >vas deemed reasonable 
' enough, and which obtained the concurrence of all present, viz. that if 
' he had actually been guilty of the crime laid to his charge, his descendants 
' might lose their religion and live in the low lands ; if not, that Prabu 

* Seda, with his nobles and court, might lose their religion and place of re- 
' sidence, and become for ever slaves : and as a sign that this stipulation 
' was approved and ratified from on high, inunediately the sun was eclipsed, 
' the rain descended in torrents, the thunder roared, the earth shook, 
' and under the moimtains were heard sounds like the discharge of great 
' guns. 

'' Pachukaman, son of Prabu Seda, who resided with his people at Gunung 

* Pulusari, at the period when the Mahomedan religion was about to be 
' introduced, apprehended the consequences of the stipulation made with 
' Seda Sakti, and determining not to change his ancient faith on any ac- 
' coimt, he quitted the place in secret, leaving his people, of whom eight 
' hundred, who were holy men, went in search of him in vain, and only 
' returned to deplore his loss." 

Hasen-u-^in subsequently fell in with these eight himdred recluses and 
converted them. He afterwards invaded Pajajaran, On his return to 
Pulusari, he was accustomed to come down to Sirang twice in seven days to 
sell fruit, and in the course of time he became acquainted with every thing 
relative to the people of Bantam. He afterwards subdued Girang, the 
ancient capital, situated a few miles inland of Sirang, of which the ruins 
are still visible, more by means of conversion than by arms, and when 
firmly established, Prabu Seda and his children, who refused to become 
converts, were there put to the sword. 

The Bedui are the descendents of those who on the fall of Pajajaran 
escaped into the woods, and who refused to change their religion, remain- 
ing firmly attached to that of Prabu Seda. There is a tomb of one of them 
which they hold sacred, and which they will not allow any one but them- 
selves to approach, even to this day. In after times, when the Bedui sub- 
mitted to the Sultan of Bantam, and shewed no disposition to oppose the 
Mahomedans, they were exempted from the necessity of becoming converts, 



of audience, a large building, supported by a doable row of 
lofty pillars. This was placed in front of the mosque at De- 
mdky where it is still to be seen. At Kudun there is a cancHl 
door belonging to the place of worship which Browijdya used 
to attend ; and in the burial places at Tuban^ and several of tlie 
eastern districts, are still to be found relics of a similar kind, 
which arc reverenced as sacred. 

On the destruction of Majapafiify the numerous pdndiy or 
workers in iron and steel, who were considered the strength 
of the empire, and who in consequence enjoyed many privi- 
leges, were dispersed over the eastern districts of Java, Ma- 
dura, and Bali, fonning separate establishments under their 
respective chiefs. At this period the custom of wearing the 
kris is said to have been introduced among the common 

upon the condition, at the time they yielded, that the numher in emch 
Rawayan allowed to profess the ancient worship should be limited *. 

Wlien the Maliomedan religion became more generally estabhshed, it 
was declared that all those people who should not have embraced the hith 
before a certain day, should, with their descendants, be considered as out- 
casts or slaves. This is the origin of the people termed Abdi, and who 
are quite distinct from the Bedui. 

The name, however, f^vcn in the Sunda traditions to the last chief of 
Pajajaran, is SUa IVangi ; and it is from some of his original adherent*, 
who became converts to Mahomedanism, that the present regents of the 
Sunda districts are descended. One of them. Guru Ganiang'cmf with many 
followers, is said to have retired to the forests on the mountain Gtdf, 
since called Recha Domas (eight hundred images), where many rude idols 
are still to be found. There it is said they afterguards became extinct, and 
according to the notion of the Sundas, the term Per-hiang*an, still retamed 
by the descendants from Nga-hiang, signif)'ing annihilated, is derived from 
the fate of this people. 

• For a further account of these people, see vol. i. page 372. 


History of Jaffa, from the EstablishmetU ofMahomedamsm (A.J. 1400), till 
the Arrival of the British Farces in A.D. 1811. (A. J. 1738). 

About a year after the establishment of the chief authority 
at Demdky the Sultan, accompanied by the different heads of 
the Mahomedan worship, visited Sheik Muldna Ibrahim at 
Ch^ibon. On this occasion, the chiefs were distributed over 
different quarters appropriated for them, in the vicinity of 
Palimdnanj and the places where they resided still bear their 
respective names. 

Kdbu Kanigdray the chief of Pdjangy second son of 
Anddya Ningrat by one of the daughters of Browijdya and 
the princess of Chdmpay was put to death, although he had 
embraced the Mahomedan religion, for refusing to acknow- 
ledge the supremacy of Sultan Demdky by presenting himself 
at court when required. The following is the account of this 
transaction, as given by the native writers. 

" The Pang&ran Kudus then departed alone, and having 
" entered the ddlam was observed by a female attendant of 
" the chief, who demanded his name and errand ; to which 
** he replied, that he should have the honour to make himself 
" known to her master. The female observed that the prince 
" was ill, and in mourning for the death of one of his best 
" friends, Kidi Ged^ Tingkir, Pang&ran Kudus then de- 
" sired her to tell her master that he was a messenger from 
" the Almighty, who brought good tidings. Having thus 
" obtained admittance to the chief, he informed him that he 
" was commissioned to require his immediate attendance 

at Demdky and in case of refusal to put him to death. But 

Kdbu Kanigdra still persisted in his refiisal, and delivered 

L 2 



^^ his kris into the hands of the Pang^anj who immediately 
" wounded him in the arm, of which he shortly expired. He 
" had however previously stipulated, that as his wife was 
" pregnant, the circumstances of his death should be kept 
** secret from her, and that her life should be preserved. The 
^^ widow shortly after quitted the ddlaniy and found an 
" asylum with the widow of Kidi Gede Tlngkiry where she 
" was delivered of a son, destined to perform a conspicuous 
" part in the transactions of those days.'* 

Panambdhan Jimbua reigned according to some twelve, 
and according to others nine years after the fall of Majapdhit, 
He had several children, one of whom, named Pfuig^an 
Sdbrang Lor^ succeeded him as sultan of Demdk : another, 
named Nidi BintdrUy was married to Muldna Ibrahim of 
Ch^ibotiy who was in consequence honoured with the title of 
Panambdhan Makdum Jdti. 

Panambdhan Jimbun is represented as having resided in a 
small unadorned dwelling, while the principal buildings at 
Demdk were constructed by Pangeran Kudus, who had mar- 
ried the daughter of Huseny and being entrusted with the 
highest offices, was considered as the second person in the 

Pangeran Sdbrang Lor, who succeeded his father in 1409, 
after a reign of less tlian two years, died of an inflammation 
of the lungs, and was succeeded, in 1412, by his brother, 
named Pangeran Tranggnna, the third sultan of Demdk. 

On the inauguration of Pang^an Tranggdna^ he received 
the benediction of Panambdhan Mdkdum Jdti, and Pon- 
geran Kudus was appointed high priest Two krutes and a 
bddi bddi were made by the celebrated smith named Smra^ 
from the iron wand which was supposed to have wrought 
miracles in the Majapdhit war. One of them was presented 
to the new sultan, and became a royal pusdka ; the other was 
delivered to the Pangeran of KuduSj with the appointment 
of Susunan PangHfiUy or high priest The bddi bddi was 
sent to Sunan Bdnang, 

Before the year 1421, the whole island of Java had sub- 
mitted to the authority of Pangeran Tranggdna,ihe chiefs of 
the several pronnces, from Bantam to Balambdngany pre- 
senting tliemselves at his court, and imiversal tranquillity 


restored. The Mahomedan religion was now firmly esta- 
blished throughout the island : the mosque was completed, 
and treaties of amity and peace were concluded with the 
princes of Borneo, Pal&mbangy Bdlij Singapura^ Indragiri^ 
and other states of the Archipelago, which had become inde- 
pendent of Javan authority after the fall of Majapdhit. 

This prince is represented to have been an intelligent, 
good, and virtuous man, and to have enforced the strictest 
obedience to the laws. Under his superintendence was com- 
posed a work, entitled Jdya Langka/ra^ in which the principles 
of the Mahomedan law and precepts were blended with the 
ancient instructions of the country, and thus rendered 
agreeable to the people. 

'it is related, that on the occasion of the assemblage of the 
different chiefs at the funeral of the deceased Sultan, and the ^ 
inauguration of Bangeran Tranggdnaa^ a dreadfiil storm ; 
arose, with mucn thimder and lightning, when a youth, 
named Jdka Sisela (the son of Browijdya by Sudan Ka- 
jdwan^ who had been delivered over to the superintendent of 
his sdwah or rice fields) (going out of the mosque to observe 
the weather, saw a meteoric stone fall on the ground besidei 
him, without doing him harm. This stone he carried to; the 
Sunan Kali Jdga^ who declared it to be an omen propnetic 
of much good to the youth. After thanks were returned to 
the Almighty for having averted the danger firom the mosque, 
a sketch*was made of^the stone, which is still exhibited on/ 
the door facing the north.. This youth Sisela failing in an 
endeavour to become chief of the sultan's guards, and after- 
wards in an attempt upon the prince's life, was obliged to fly 
firom the capital. 

It is necessary here to advert to Jdka Tingkir^ the offspring 
of Kdbu Kanigdray a chief who had been put to death by 
order of the first sultan of Demdk. It having been foretold 
that he would one day become sovereign of Java, he was 
taken by his mother to Demdk in his eleventh year, where he 
soon found means to ingratiate himself with the Sultan, who 
gave him the name of Pdnji MaSy and caused him to be 
instructed in the Mahomedan religion and in the precepts of 
Jdya Langkdray appointed him to the command of the body 
guard consisting of eight hundred men, and afterwards, in the 


year 1449, gave him his daughter in marriage, with the admi- 
nistration of the province of Pdjang^ where, with the permis- 
sion of the Sultan, he built a krdton ; but afterwards having 
put to death a person who had arrived from the Kedk, 
applying for an appointment in the body guard, he was 
banished to the forests. During his exile he visited a ^-illage 
named Bdnyu-birUy near the Solo river, where he was in- 
structed by a Pandita how to conduct himself for the future, 
the holy man predicting, at the same time, that he would be- 
come sovereign of Java and hold his coiurt at Pdjang. 

Several exploits against alligators are recorded of him ; 
and the opinion that no descendant of tlie princes of Pdjang 
need fear injur}^ from tliese animals is so prevalent, that it is 
not unusual for a Javan oftlie present day, seeing himself in 
danger from one of them, to exclaim aloud that he belongs to 
that family. 

Not long after the return of Pdnji Mas^ the island of Java 
was again formed into two separate and independent govern- 
ments, corresponding with the former limits of Majapdhit 
and Pajajaran. The eastern provinces remained subject to 
the Sultan of Demdk^ and the western were ceded in perpe- 
tuity to Mulwia Ibrahimy with the title of Sultan. To both 
sultans was reserved the right of dividing their lands on their 
demise among tlieir children, as they might think proi>er. 
The Sunan Kdii Jdga obtained as an hereditary property, 
free from all kinds of requisitions, the small district of 
Adildnguy in the province of Derndk^ where he was after- 
wards buried. 

From this period until the death of the Sultan of Demdk^ 
the eastern provinces enjoyed tlie most undisturbed tranquil- 
lity; but tlie Sultan of Cheriboii fomid some difficulty in 
establishing his authority over the western people, and in 
conveiting them, particularly those of Bantam, to the Maho* 
medan faith. 

The Sultan of Demdky besides several natural children, 
had two sons and four daughters. Of these daughters one 
was married to a Madurese prince, who resided at Lampumg ; 
another, BaligOy to a son of the Sultan of Cfi^botiy who was 
the chief of Bantdm ; a third to Rdden Pdnji y who after the 
return of the Sultan from Cheribom was appointed chief of 


Pdjang peng^ging ; and the fourth to the son of Pdngeran 
Kediriy who was chief of Japdra. 

Pangeran Tranggdnay the third Sultan of Demdky died in 
the year 1461, having previously made a division of his 
dominions among his children. 

His eldest son, Aria Rdng*gay was appointed Sultan of 
Prawdtay to which was annexed all the land to the eastward 
along the Solo river, as far as SurabdyUy together with 
Demdk and Semdrang. His son-in-law, Pangeran Hadiri, 
was made SUnan of the Kali Nidmaty and possessed all the 
districts of Japdriy Pdtiy Rembangy and Jawdna. The 
Adipdti of Pdjang Peng^ging (Rddeti PdnjiJ received the 
title of Brebo Pdti of Pajang and of Matdreniy with the 
lands attached to it. His son, Mas TimoTy was appointed 
Adipdtiy with the lands of Kedu and Bdgalen, His son- 
in-law, the prince of Madura y was made chief of Maduray 
Swnenapy Seddytiy Gresiky Surabdya, and Pasieruan, His 
youngest son, Rdden Pandngsangy was appointed chief of 

The (Sultan oiJCheribofiy better known by the name of 
Sunan Gunung Jdti, died in 1428, at an advanced age, 
leaving three sons by his wife, the princess of Demdky and 
one son and a daughter by a concubine. His eldest son, 
Hdseny succeeded him as Sultan of Cheribon and of the 
provinces lying between the Chi-tdrum river and Tugu, and 
stretching in a southern direction to the Kendang hills, so as 
to include all the Pridng'en districts and lands lying to the 
east of the Chi-tdrum, From this prince are descended the 
present Sultans of Cheribon, To his second son, Baradin, 
he left the kingdom of Bantaniy which extended westwaid 
from tlie river of TdngWany to the south-east part of Sumatra, 
including all the islands in the straits of Sundu, From him 
are descended the present kings of Bantam. His third son, 
named Chendmpuiy died when young, and was buried at 
Mdndii in Cheribon. To his natural son, Kdli Jdtany he 
assigned the lands lying between the Chitdrem and Tang* ran 
rivers, which had formerly formed part of Cheribon and 
Banta;m. This prince assumed the title of Raja of Jokdrta 
or Jdkatray(fi^m^ his capitaj)near the kdmpung of that name, 
where: he and his descendants continued to reign, until they 


'were expelled, in the year 1619 of the Christian era, by the 
Dutch, who established on its ruins the modem Batavia, the 
capital of their possessions in the East Indies^ 

The tomb of the SusHinan Gunung Jdti^ situated on the 
moimt so called, at a short distance from the present town 
of Cheribony is still an object of the highest veneration and 

^ 'l!lius was the ancient empire of Java divided under no less 
than eight separate and independent governments^ Bantamy 
Jakarta f Cheribon, Prawdiay Kalinidmaty Pajang Kediy and 
Madura ; the several chiefs of which, in general, either 
assumed the title of Kidi Ged^ or Sultan, or the more reli- 
gious distinction of Sunan. 

In about a year after the death of the Sultan Tranggdnoy 
the country of Pdjang rose to considerable importance ; its 
chief, on account of his possessing the regalia of statCi being 
considered as the first in rank of the several princes in the 
eastern districts. Hatred, envy, and ambition, however, soon 
inflamed tlie breasts of the diflerent princes of Java. The 
most ambitious among them, and the first who disturbed the 
peace of the country, was ^he Adipdti of Jipang^ Rddem 
Pandngang, The history proceeds thus : 

^^ The Adipdti of Jipangy by the advice of Simm K^idm$, 
^* dispatched one of his body guard, named Rdkuty to Sultan 
^^ Prawdttty with orders to watch an opportunity and assas- 
^^ sinate him. On the arrival of Rdkuty it happened that the 
^' Sultan was labouring under an indisposition ; but when he 
" was sufficiently recovered, he went one evening after 
*^ prayers, and sat down at the second gate of the ddlam^ his 
^^ wife standing behind and holding his head, accompanied 
" only by some female attendants. At that moment, Rdkut 
" went up to him, and declared his commission ; to which 
" the Sultan replied, * I am aware that my time is come ; 
" * execute yoiu" orders, but do not hiurt any one but mc.' 
^^ Upon this, Rdkut drew his kri^ and stabbed him ; after 
*^ which, retreating a few steps, it occurred to him that the 
** chief might not be actually dead ; and returning with an 
^^ intention of completing his purpose, he missed his aim, 
** and stnick the wife. The prince observing this, imme- 
^' diately tlirew his kris at the assassin, which, striking hfm 


'^ in the leg, threw him on the ground, where he was soon 
^^ dispatched by the people, who were assembled by the cries 
" of the women." 

The prince and his wife soon after died of their wounds, and 
left their dominions and property to their brother, the Sunan 
Kali Nidmatj with authority to administer the same until 
their son, Aria Pangirij should come of age. Both the prince 
and his wife were interred in the burial place of their ances- 
tors at Demdk; and the provinces oiPrawdta thus became in- 
corporated with those of Kali Nidmat. 

The Sunan Kdli Nidmat inmiediately went to KuduSy and 
demanded that justice and condign pimishment should be in- 
flicted on the persons concerned in this murder ; and the 
Sunan KuduSj expressing great indignation at the act, pro- 
mised compliance; but the Sunan J while returning to KcUi 
Nidmaty was minrdered on the road by persons in the pay of 
the Adipdti oiJipang. This prince, having thus far succeeded 
in his designs, then plotted the death of the chief of Pdjang^ 
hoping by tliat means to remove the only obstacle to his ob- 
taining the supreme authority in the eastern districts of Java. 
The assasins, however, whom he employed for this latter pur- 
pose were not equally successful. They found the prince at 
midnight in an inner apartment, sleeping among his wives : 
but while approaching him to execute their design, one of them 
happened to tread upon a woman, whose shriek awoke the 
prince. He demanded the reason of their visit, and promised 
them pardon, on their confessing by whom they were em- 
ployed : they disclosed the whole, and obtained pardon with 
their dismissal. Thus disappointed in his scheme, the Sunan 
Kudus invited the chief Pa^cA of Pdjang to visit Kudus y and 
assembled as many religious people as possible, in the hope 
that an opportunity might be afforded of assassinating him 
when off his guard ; but a letter arriving at this period from 
the Sultan of Cheribany upon whose protection the widow of 
the Sunan Kdli Nidmat had thrown herself, in which the Sul- 
tan declared that he should hold the Sunan Kudus responsible 
for the discovery of the murderers, the intended assassination 
was deferred. 

The chief of Pdjang having communicated with his sister, 
the widow of Sunan KdliNidmaty who had made a vow never 


to rest or to leave her home until the death of her husband , 
brother, and sister, should be avenged, informed his Panam- 
bdhariy that if they could find a suitable opportunity to take 
revenge on RddenPendwiangy they had his full consent The 
meeting which took place between the parties is thus de- 

^^ After having laid the troops in ambush, the chiefs of Pa- 
" jf^ng crossed the river, and seizing one of the grass^utters 
** belonging to Rdden Penansang they cut off a piece of 
^^ his right ear, and told him to go to his master with a letter, 
" which they hung about his neck, containing a challenge 
" from the prince of Pdjang ; they then returned to tlieir own 
" camp. In the meanwliilc the grass-cutter running with a 
" great noise to the quarters of Rdden Pendtisang^ who hap- 
" pened to be at dinner, delivered the message. 

"At this summons the Rdden came forth in a great rage, 
** and ordering his horse and spear, gallo|)ed down to the 
" river side, and called upon the prince to come over to him ; 
" but the chief of Pdjang answered, that if he was the man 
" of courage he pretended to be, he would himself cross to the 
" side he occupied. The Rdden^ accompanied by two Pama- 
" kawans only, then crossed the river, and inquiring for his 
" opponent, was informed that he remained in his p6ndoky 
" and had sent his son to fight in his room, and would only ap- 
" pear in the event of his being conquered. Rdden Pem^m- 
" sang then said with a contemptuous smile, * Is the Brebo 
" * Patch afraici, that he sends me a child with whom he knows 
" ' I will not fight? I vriW teach him something. Go, child, 
" ' and call your father.' He then anmsed himself galloping 
" about, until one of the chiefs oi Pdjang let loose a number of 
" mares, on which his horse became immanageable, and he was 
" thrown, and killed on the spot. Tumung^gttng Matdoky his 
" principal chief, now crossed the river with all his followers ; 
" but they were soon overpowered, and tlie Tumung*gHng bc- 
" ing slain, his head was stuck ujwn a pole by the river ride." 

From this period the provinces of Jipang became subject lo 
the chief of Pdjang ; and his sister at Kali Siamaty being in- 
formed of this success by Panambdhan expressed her readi- 
ness to fidfil a promise which she had made, of conferring 
upon him all her lands and property, Panambdhan dediiied 


accepting this offer, alleging that he had onlj obeyed the or- 
ders of his sovereign. He however received from her, on liiis 
occasion, two pusdka rings, in one of which was set a large 
diamond, in the other a ruby, which had fonnerly belonged to 
the house of Majapdhit, 

The spoil taken in the war was then divided according to 
usage, and to Panambdhan was assigned a population of eigh* 
teen himdred working men in the district of Mentduky after* 
wards called Matdrem. The lands of Kali Nidmat were left 
in the possession of his sister, and those of Demdk restored to 
his nephew. Aria Pangiri received the title of Sultan of 

The province of Mentduk or Matdrem y at that period did 
not contain more than three hundred villages, scattered in dit 
ferent parts of the country. On the arrival of Panambdhan 
near Br ambdnariy he was received by the Sunan Adi Jrf^a, who 
would not allow him to perform the usual ceremony of kissing 
his feet, thus by implication predicting the ftiture greatness cf 
his descendants. At Pdser GedCy then a wilderness, Panam- 
bdhan was duly installed, under the title of Kidi G6d6 

When the government oiKidt G^de Matdrem was ftdly es- 
tablished, he was desirous of obtaining his son from the prince 
Pdjangj who had retained him as an adopted child, and feared 
to part with him, in consequence of the prophecy of which he 
was aware, predicting the ftiture greatness of the descendants 
oiJdka Sisila ; but on the entreaties of the Sunan Kdli Ja^a^ 
he consented to part with him, under a stipulation, upon oath, 
from Panambdhanj that he would not undertake any thing 
prejudicial to him during his lifetime. 

In the year 1490, the chief of P4/«w^j from religious mo- 
tives, paid a visit to Sunan Girij accompanied by Kidi Gede 
Matdrem^ and a numerous retinue of chiefs and priests. He 
was moimted on an elephant, and assumed all the pomp which 
had been customary with the sultans of Bintdra. On this oc- 
casion he was formally installed as sultan, in the presence of 
the chiefs of the eastern provinces. The Sunan Giriy at the 
same time, noticing Kidi Gede Matdrem^ and being informed 
of his descent, declared that his family would one day rule all 
Java, and urged the Sultan of Pdjang to protect and befriend 



It wt» during this vi^l that the Sultan of P6j€mg give or- 
deis for diggini; the extcosivi! fish-ponds which arc now prc- 
Mwed at Gr^k for thv Ikan liandang. 

On the return of A'trfi Oidf Matdrem to hi« cnpita). he 
called togethtrr his relations, aiiil recommenttcd (o their kind- 
ness the forty liieuds who had accompanied him on his ftral 
coming to Atnlarem, anil their descendants, cnjoiniiift tlit^in, 
on no account whatever, to shed tlieir hlood, whatever criiue 
they might commit, but if ueceaKar^-, to punish tlicm in Mnnc 
otlier way. To this they mo«l solemnly bound thcmsclvca ; 
and from this |>eTiod, slranglinff is said to have bi-en intro- 
duced nK a capital puniithmcnt amoof* the Javaim. 

His son, now callt^i Ma* Anifhebdi Sita iVijdya, had an 
amour with the gmnd-daughter of Shrik Walt ben Hiuem, 
who was in(cndc<l to become one of llie concubinea uf Snltan 
Pajanff. I'pon her becomiOK prepnanl, he fled fir»t to Ck«- 
rihom, where ho implored protection from the SulUui, bat to 
no purpose, and nncm'Ards IuwuxIh Luanu, where collrrting 
the rabble of tlie ronntry, he commcnce<] hoatilitic* against 
the chief. The Sultan of Piijuiti/, hou<>ver, at length offering 
htm a pardon, on condition of his marr^'ing the girl, be re* 
tumrd, and was again received into favnnr; but notltcfore he 
bod reduced the chief of Lu^hu to snbmission, aiirl rendered 
thai province tributary to Maltirfm. 

Tlie chiefs of Sunthdya, Gre*ik, Sid/iyii, TuAan. tt'iratdlHt, 
Pramirdga, Krtiiri, Mdtfion, til6ra, Jiftang, ami Pantr^am, 
deebrad Ibemaolres independent of the prince of .Mntltim, 
and elected Pdmji It'iria Krdma, the Adipdti of SurabAyt, 
wfao aeled u H'iddma to Kultan Pdjaig, lo be ilieir chief 
About the aaine time, Sdmta Giitd, the chief of east Balttm. 
bdmfom, with the wsiMMice of auxiliaries Ijoni Bdli and Co- 
Idies, again reduced llw wcalem diAtricls of that province 
nader his aulhunty, subduing the princiinlity of PttMoriian 
and exiM-nitig the prince and his followers. 

Ki4i flfde Atnldrrm died in the yviar 1407, aSier havingi 
by his mild and equitable administration, convnU'd the |no- 
vince of Ataidr*vt, from a wildenicH into a fertile and pom- 
loua country, and indtice<( many of the suiTmuMlJng divtricla 
rolunlarily to nuhmit to hi* authority. 

The n-lalion* of ttie dercased a|)|H*aring at the court of tiM- 


Sultan of Pdjang^ he appointed his son, Anghehdi Sata Wi- 
jdyuy to succeed him as chief of Matdremy conferring upon 
him, at the same time, the command of all the troops of the 
empire, under the title of Kidi Ged^ Agung Senapdti Inga- 
IdgUy commonly distinguished by the single title of Senapdtij 
enjoining him annually to present himself at his court on the 

It is noticed, that at this period the island was frequented r 
by Portuguese and other European navigators, who had esta- < 
blished factories at Bantam) 

The ambition of the court of Matdrem being kept alive by ^ 
various predictions, dreams, and enchantments, by which ^- \ 
napdti^dLS promised the assistance of)Kidi G^de Laut Kidul 
^e goddess of the great South Sea), who declared herself\^. 
wedded to him, he was instigated to build an extensive)itra^oi> 
on the spot where his ddlam then stood. 

He now placed guards at the limits of his territories, burnt 
some of the adjacent villages, and assumed an attitude of 
complete independence, subjecting by degrees many of the 
neighbouring districts. Ambassadors were immediately sent 
from Pdjang to demand an explanation. They were in the 
first instance duped by the flattering manner in which they 
were received; but afterwards discovering the real state of 
affairs, and reporting it to the Sultan their master, he is re- 
presented as ha\dng called his son before him, and having 
said, " the will of Providence rules all events. Senapdti will 
^' not, during my life, commence hostilities against me, but 
" after my death he will render you subject to him. Yield to 
" his power, on which depends yom* happiness and that of 
^* yoiur descendants." At length, however, the chiefs of Tu- 
ban and Demdky apprehensive of the growing power of Ma- 
tdremy prevailed upon him first to banish the Tumung*gung 
Pdjang y as the instigator of this feud, and afterwards to send 
a considerable force against Matdrem. The Tumung*gungy 
however, was rescued by forty chosen men dispatched by Se- 
napdtiy and a stratagem induced the forces of Pdjang to re- 
treat. The Pdjang forces consisted of five thousand men, 
commanded by the Sultan's son : those of Senapdti did not 
exceed eight hundred. The latter seeing that it was rash to 
risk an engagement against such a superiority of numbers, 



particularly as the few troops he had raised on the emergency 
were altogether unexperienced and undisciplined, while those 
of Pajdng were in the highest order, halted at a short distance 
from Brambdnanj where the enemy^s forces were encamped. 
During the night he burned all the villages in the vicinity, and 
set fire to the reeds and long grass at some distance from 
BramhanaHy and to the rear of the enemy's camp, by which 
means he persuaded them that the Maidrem forces had taken 
their departure, in order to obtain Pdjang by surprize. 

During the succeeding night there was a heavy thunder 
storm, and on the following morning the mountain Merbdbm 
burst with a dreadful explosion, throwing out ashes and large 
stones ; the rivers overflowed their banks and inundated the 
low country, occasioning great confusion and destruction in 
the Pdjang camp, and inducing the commander to retreat 
with his anny forth\*'ithJ)to Pdjang. Halting at the village 
Tumpdity situated near Kdrbu Siiru, he visited the tomb of 
the Pang&ran of that name, who was descended from Ahdd^ 
lahy the eldest son of Rdden Pat ah. Here the sidtan is said 
to have been informed of a prophecy which foretold the im- 
mediate do\iT)fall of Pdjang, and to have fainted and fallen 
from his elephant in consequence. 

Senapdti immediately bent his course to Pdjang^ where 
the sultan was again willing to receive him as his adopted 
son, and to pardon his past conduct ; but a youth in the re* 
tinue of Senapdti, after first proposing to assassinate the sul- 
tan, a proposition to which Senapdti refused to Usten, at last 
of his own accord succeeded in administering poison to him, 
of which he died. Tliis happened, however, after the return 
of Senapdti to Matdretn, 

Being summoned by Rdden Bendnyty son of the deceased^ 
Senapdti immediately repaired to Pdjang, where he found 
alrea<ly assembled Pangeran KudtM and tlie principal chiefii 
of the country, who afler the funeral proceeded to the election 
of a new sultan. Senapdti was for investing the son of the 
deceased with the authority enjoyed by his father, but the 
Sunan Kudt$s, who though he had been the cause of his son's 
death, still breathed vengeance against the Pdjang family, 
for the ignominious manner in which the punishment was 
carried into effect, opposed this nomination, and favouniig 


the pretensions of Saltan Demak, that chief was duly pro- 
claimed Sultan of Pdjangy Rdden Bendwa being appointed 
chief of Jipang. From this period the different states which 
had acknowledged the supremacy of Pdjang successiyely 
broke off from their allegiance. 

The new Sultan of Pdjang commenced his career by re* 
moving from office most of the Pdjang chiefs, and replacing 
them by his adherents from Demdkj which occasioned a 
general discontent. At last Rdden Bendwa^ who was not in- 
clined quietly to submit to the loss of his kingdom, succeeded 
in inducing Senapdii openly to adopt his cause, and join the 
forces which he could himself send from Jipang and the dis- 
contents of Pajang, 

'^^apdti(wccoT^ing\y marched against Pdjang, and an en- 
gagement taking place, most of the troops deserted the sul- 
tan's cause, and the remainder, who continued faithfrd, were 
soon put to flight, l^den Bendwaj^2Lrmed at a dream, in^ 
which he heard a voice saying, " Every thing in life has a| 
'^ beginning and an end, all worldly greatness is vanity, and 
^' no man can call himself happy until his death ; do you 
" always bear this in mind : " withdrew, and having followed 
the course of the Sdlo river down to GresiJ^ proceeded thence 
to Kenddl, where he (^attracted many followers by his irre- 
proachable conduct) At last he settled on the mountain Pa- 
rdkan, where he was buried. 

Senapdti, after this success, proceeded to carry the krdton 
by assault, and having entered the front gateway, the wife of 
the sultan came forth, entreating that her husband's life might 
be spared ; but Senapdti reminding her that he was the friend 
of her father, and had nothing to fear, desired her instantly 
to produce her husband, which being complied with, he in- 
formed the sultan that the people of Pdjang being displeased 
with him he could no longer remain sovereign, but that he 
and his followers might return to Demdk as soon as they 
pleased, the sovereignty being now conferred on Rdden Be- 

Search was made for Rdden Bendwa without effect, but 
that chief was duly proclaimed as sultan, and the brother of 
Senapdti appointed to administer the country until his ar- 



Thefretreat of ^fdden BenduH»(\)eing at length discovered, 
and that chief declining to accept the government of Pdjamgy 
his hroiheiV Pangeran Gdja B^tnif ^as appointed sultan in 
his room.J The latter shortly after died, and was succeeded 
by the son of BendwGy Rdden Sidattnniy on whom the title of 
Pangeran Pdjang was conferred. 

As soon as order was again restored, Senapdti returned to 
Maidremy carrying with him the saddle called gaidya, the 
head-dress called mdchang guguhy and a set o( gdmelan called 
sekar dalima^ which he had taken at the assault otPdjaftg^ as 
trophies of his victory, together with the cannon called mdi 
st&miy and all the insignia and ornaments of royalty, which 
had descende(} for the most part from the princes of Paja- 
jdran and Majapdhity and which are stiU preserved in the 
regalia of the princes of Java. 

Senapdtiy in consequence of these arrangements and the 
possession of the regalia, transferred the seat of empire to 
Matdreniy and lost no time in raising his family to the highest 
dignities. Assuming himself the title of sultan, he elevated 
his nephews to the rank of Pangerans. 

His ambitious views being now so far realized, he con- 
suited the Sunan Giriy wishing to obtain his opinion, whether 
the time for the complete fulfilment of the prophecy was not 
arrived. The S^nan replied, that if the Sultan of Matdrem 
wished to be sovereign of the whole island of Java, it was 
essential that he should, in the first instance, bring the eastern 
provinces under subjection. In consequence of this reply, the 
sultan immediately collected his troops, trained them to the 
use of arms and regular discipline, and in the month of mo- 
hdrem marched eastward. 

The Adipdti of Surabdyay who had held the supreme an- 
thority over all the eastern districts, as Widdna to the sultan 
oi Pdjang y no sooner heard of tliese preparations, than he 
directed all the subordinate chiefs ^ith tlicir forces to assem- 
ble at Jipangy there to await the arrival of tlie army finom 
Matdrem; but at tlic moment when a general engagement 
wai^ about to take place between the two armies, an open 
letter was delivered to both chiefs from the Sunan Giri^ re- 
questing tliem to desist, and proposing an arrangement, by 
which Uic eastern provinces were to become subject to 


Matdremy but to continue under the immediate administra- 
tion of the Adipdti. This arrangement was agreed to by 
both parties, but the Adipati soon repented of it, who in con- 
sequence was preparing for hostiUties, when an open rupture 
was again averted by the interference of the SUnan Girt; 
but soon after being joined by the forces of Pranardga and 
Madiofiy the Adipdti assembled his troops and marched to 
invade Matdrem. 

Senapdti no sooner heard of these hostile preparations, and 
that the Adipdti was levying the revenue of Pdjang^ than 
accompanied by his uncle, Kidi G^d^ Pdtiy he marched 
towards Madion, and obtained possession of the ddlam^ the 
chief having previously fled with his son to Surabdya^ leaving 
behind him a daughter whom Senapdti married. His uncle, 
displeased at his conduct, returned to Pdti; but Senapdti 
prosecuted his march towards Pasurtmny with an intention to 
render himself master of that province. 

The chief of Pas^ruan was inclined to surrender at discre- 
tion, but was dissuaded from doing so by his Pdtek. One 
day when Senapdti accompanied by only forty men of his 
body-guard, was reconnoitreing the enemy's camp, he met 
the Pdtehy who had come out with a similar intention, when 
a skirmish taking place, the Pdteh was wounded by a lance 
and fell to the ground. The sultan lifting him up and placing 
him on a mare, sent him back to the chief, with a letter tied 
roimd his neck. The chief no sooner saw him in this dis- 
graceful predicament, than he repented of having taken his 
advice, and ordering his head to be immediately severed from 
his body, sent it to Senapdti in token of submission. 

After this Senapdti returned to Matdremy where he married 
one of his daughters to the son of the late chief of Madiony 
and appointed him chief of Jipang. 

Sura Manggdlay a chief of Kediriy was now willing to sub- 
mit to the authority of Matdremy but Senapdti returned no 
other answer to his messenger, than that it was his intention 
to march at the next mohdremy when it would be the duty of 
Sura Manggdla to surrender that province. Accordingly, in 
the month of mohdremy an army proceeded against Kediri: 
the Matdrem forces were successful, and the chief and his 
three brothers submitted. Senapdti was so pleased with the 



conduct of S4ra Man^gdla on this occasion, thai he ap- 
pointed him to the command of the Matdrem troops. 

This chief, better known by the name of Senapdti Bdiek, 
served the sultan of Matdrem with great ability and fidelity. 
He gained numerous victories, brought all the western pro* 
rinces, as far as Cheribotiy to acknowledge the supremacy of 
Matdrem^ limiting the authority of that chief within the 
rivers of Losdri and Indramd^t, He is said to have removed 
the mud wall which surrounded the krdion of Matdrem, and 
built in its stead a strong wall of stone. He was at last 
killed in a desperate engagement with the eastern people, 
which took place in Pdjang, in which however the Matdrem 
troops were successfiU. 

Shortly ailer the death of this chief, Senapdti receired in- 
telligence of hostile preparations against Matdrem being made 
by his uncle, Kidi Gede Pdti, He accordingly proceeded to 
meet him, accompanied by all his sons and a numerous army. 
ARer a long and a desperate action, the Matdrem forces were 
again successful, and the sultan returned to Matdrem, with 
the wives, children, and all the valuables of his uncle. 

His son, Pangeran Seda Krdpiak^ being wounded on this 
occasion, the sultan published a proclamation, declaring thai 
prince to be his successor after his death, by the title of Pa- 
nambahan Semapdti, 

The continued opposition of the eastern people, however, 
and the revolt of KetUri and Pasuruan, obliged him again to 
take the field, when finding the numbers and strength of the 
enemy far superior to his own, he conducted an able but slow 
retreat to his capital, and during the whole course of his reign 
foimd it impracticable to subject these provinces to his antho- 
rity. To the provinces, however, of Matdrem, BdgeUn^ 
PdnyumaSy Pdjang and Jipang^ which descended to hiM 
from his father, he added those of Pdti, KuduM, Semdrdmg, 
Kenddtj and Katiteung'u, 

The days of S^apatiy the founder of the Matdrem em* 
pi re, and of the d}'nasty which still retains a nominal role on 
Java, were now brotigbt to a close, after a reign of continued 
warfare. As the founder of the last native empire on Java, 
liis memor>' is naturally held in high estimation ; but be is 
also respected for the discipline he iutroduced into his amy. 


and the valour, ability, and noble-mindedness which he dis- 
played throughout With the Javans he is considered as 
another Alexander, and he is the first in their modem history 
who is considered to have understood the art of war. 

He was succeeded, in the year 1524, by his son, since 
called Seda Krdpiak^ ftom the place of his interment, but 
who during his reign, bore the title of Panambdhan Senapdti. 
The succession was, however, opposed by his elder brother, 
Pangeran PUgei-y who did not attend to kiss the sovereign's 
feet, as customary, on the day following his installation. 
This chief proceeding to hostilities, was soon taken prisoner 
near Ungdrang. He was banished to Kudus, and his minister 
was put to death, which offended one of his younger brothers, 
Jajardgay so much, that he instantly quitted Matdrem and 
proceeded to Pranardga, of which province he had formerly 
been appointed chief, with an intention of stirring up a rebel- 
lion in the distant provinces ; but the sultan obtaining infor- 
mation of it, secured his pelrson and banished him also. He 
was shortly afterwards pardoned and permitted to return. 

It was during this reign that the Dutch and English first 
visited Java. 

This prince reduced the provinces of Madion and Prana- 
rdguy and built a palace, the walls of which are still standing 
at Krapiaky a place at the foot of a range of hills lying along 
the South Sea, a short distance firom Matdrem, He died 
after a reign of twelve years, esteemed on account of the 
general tranquillity which prevailed after the firm establish- 
ment of his government. 

He was succeeded by his eldest son, named Panambdhan 
Merta Pura, in the year 1540 ; but this prince not being able 
to conduct the government, on account of his infirm state of 
health, or more probably removed by the intrigues of his 
family, who declared him to be insane, made way for his 
younger brother, who was raised to the throne in the following 

This prince, distinguished by the title of Agung, or the 
great, commenced a flourishing reign by a signal victory over 
the Surabdyan and Madurese forces, by which he brought 
the eastern provinces of Mdlang, Untungy Japan, Wirasdha, 
Pasuruan and Surab&yay under subjection ; and following up 

M 2 


his success, subdued all the eastern provinces, as far as Ba- 
lambdngan. Dissensions arising at this period between the 
people of Bantam and those of the Sunda districts, the chief 
of Sumedang applied to Maidrem for assistance ; and being 
invested by the sultan with the chief authority over those dis- 
tricts, soon brought the whole of the western chiefs, alarmed 
at the approach of Maidrem arms, to acknowledge his supre- 
macy. A force was now sent to Madura^ and that island 
being conquered was united to his dominion, which then e!L- 
tended through all Java and Madura. An enemy, more 
powerful than any with whom he had been accustomed to 
contend, and destined to strip his posterity of all but the sem- 
blance of sovereignty, now appeared. The Dutch, availing 
themselves of the (h visions and convulsions by which the em- 
pire had been previously distracted, had established them- 
selves at Jdkatra, 

On their first arrival at Bantam, the prince of that country 
was absent on an expedition against PaUmbang^ which 
countrv', as well as a great part of the north and west coast of 
Sumatra, was tlien subject to his sway. They found the in- 
fluence of the Portuguese, who had previously established a 
factor}' there, on the decline, and with little difficulty entered 
into a treatv with the chief, on whom the administration of 
the country was provisionally confemxl during the absence of 
tlie ])rince. By tliis treaty, the contracting parties agreed to 
trade honestly and fairly with each other, and to aflbrd mu- 
tual assistiuice in case of being attacked by an enemy. 

Complaints, however, were socm made of the hif^ tone 
which llie Dutch assumed, and of the insolence of their me- 
naces. Hostilities ensued, and according to the Dutch ac- 
count, upwards of a himdred of tlie natives were killed or 
wounded, llie consequence was, that they were obliged to 
quit Bantam. Touching at Jdkatra^ Japdra^ Tiban^ and 
SiddgUy tliey had an affair with the Mailurese, but ill calcu- 
lated to make an impression in tlieir favour, llie prince of 
that coiuitrv', anxious to pay his respects to the Europeans, 
re(| nested, tlinmgh his inteqireter, to be permitted to visit the 
principal ]>erson among them, and an arrangement was ac* 
cordingly made tliat he should bt^ receiviHl on l>oard a parti- 
culiu* ship. As the piince leA the shore witli his suite, accoa* 


panicd by their women and children, the Hollanders became 
alarmed at Uie appearance of so numerous an assemblage, and 
observing that they did not appear to be proceeding direct to 
the ship pointed out for their reception, discharged three guns. 
The terror occasioned by the report threw the procession into 
the utmost coniusion, all the people in the boats falling as if 
killed. The crews of the other European vessels taking these 
guns as a signal for action, threw themselves with such im- 
petuosity upon the native boats, that out of this numerous 
assemblage only twenty-one are said to have escaped. Among 
the slain was the prince, and his interpreter or high priest, 
and their bodies, as soon as discovered, were thrown with in- 
dignity into the sea. 

It is remarkable, that the leading traits which distinguish 
the subsequent administration of the Dutch on Java (a haughty 
assumption of superiority, for the purpose of overawing the 
credulous simplicity of the natives, and a most extraordinary 
timidity, which led them to suspect treachery and danger, in 
quarters where they were least to be apprehended) were mani- 
fested in their earliest transactions in this quarter. On their 
first arrival at Bantam, we find the clerks of their trading ves- 
sels styling themselves captains ; and such was the state and 
consequence assumed by Houtman, the chief of the expedi- 
tion, who took the title of Captain Major, that a Portuguese, 
who had known him before, asked him significantly if he had 
been created a duke since he last saw him. The murder of 
the unfortunate prince of Madura and his followers (for it can 
be called by no other term) was as detestable and imjustifiable 
as the subsequent massacre of the unfortimate and unoffend- 
ing Chinese in the streets of Batavia. In neither case was 
there a plea to palliate the crying guilt, but such a degree of 
danger, as the basest cowardice could alone be sensible of. 

This aggression did not pass unpunished, for the Dutch 
Admiral having allowed some of his men to land neaiArosbdi/a^ 
then the capital of the island, they were seized by the Ma- 
durese, and their enlargement was not effected without the 
loss of many lives and the payment of a liberal ransom. 

Bantam was already a place of considerable trade : Chinese, 
Arabs, Persians, Moors, Turks, Malabars, Peguans, and in a 


wordy merchants from all nationB were established there. Tlie 
principal produce for the European market was pepper. With 
this province the Dutch renewed their commerce in the year 
1598 A. D.y and four years afterwards they obtained permis- 
sion to establish a factory there. In the following year, ac- 
cordingly, they erected a permanent building, and formed a 
commercial establishment. At this time they had granted 
passes to the vessels belonging to the chief of Tuban ; and, in 
1609, they left an agent at Gresik. A second treaty waji now 
entered into with the king of Bantam, in which the States 
General stipulated to assist him against foreign invaders, par- 
ticularly Spaniards and Portuguese ; and the king on his side 
agreed to make over to the Dutch a good and strong fort, a 
free trade, and security for their persons and property, with- 
out paying any duties or taacesy and to allow no other Euro- 
pean nation to trade or reside in his territories. 'JUhe Dutch 
observing the serious differences which occurred among the 
chiefs of Bantam during the minority of the sovereign, made 
overtures, in the same year, to the prince of Jdkairay and re- 
moved to that province soon after. 

In 1612, a convention was entered into between them and 
the prince of Jdkairay by which a free trade was allowed to 
them, together with an eligible place to reside at ; both par- 
ties contracting to assist each other in war on the territory of 
Jdkatra, It was moreover stipulated, that all goods should 
pay duty, except such as were imported in Dutch ships, or 
Chinese junks ; and that the prince should prohibit the 
Spaniards and Portuguese from trading with his dominions. 

On the 19th January, 1619, a further treaty was made with 
tlic same prince, confirming the former contracts, and stipu- 
lating that the fort should remain in its present state until the 
arrival of the Governor General, and that the English should 
be obliged to build their factory, and the other nations their 
houses, at a certain distance from the fort; but on the Ist of 
February following, in consequence of the success of the 
English, who had espoused the cause of the native chiefr, we 
find a convention entered into by the prince of Jakaira^ the 
conmiandiiig officer of the English, and the commandant of 
the Dutch fort, by which the latter promised to deliver over 


the fort to the English, and the treasure, merchandize, &c. to 
the prince : the English agreeing to ftimish the Dutch garri- 
son with a ship and a safe conduct for six months. 

On the 11th March, a contract was entered into between 
the king of Bantam and the commissioners of the Dutch Com- 
pany, still in the fort of Jakatra, whereby the former pro- 
mised to protect the Dutch against all hostile attempts, and 
to permit the re-establishment of a free trade on its former 
footing. The Dutch, on their part, agreed to keep the fort in 
good order, and to abandon the same on the arrival of their 
ships, when they would also deliver to the king (in return for 
the protection he afforded them) one-fourth of the Company's 
property, and one-half of the ordnance, &c. 

In consequence, however, of the arrival of reinforcements 
from Europe, imder Koen, and of the political understanding 
which then existed between the English and Dutch nations, 
the Dutch still maintained their ground, and in the month of 
August following laid the foundation of their establishment at 
Jdkatra on an extensive scale. They had previously, in the 
years 1618 and 1619, plundered and laid in ashes the town of 
Japdra^ because the chief of that province had, in the former 
year, taken possession of the factory, made prisoners of the 
Dutch, and sent them into the interior. 

TheJavan historians considering the Dutch in thelight of j 
other foreign nations, who were in the habit of trading to the/ 
sea coasts, do not frimish us with any information concerning} 
the disputes ^which took place at Bantam, or in the first\ 
instance at Jdkatra, Even in their accounts of the occasion - 
of the first hostilities which took place with the sultan of 
Matdrem^ they convey rather a notion of what is the general 
impression regarding the first establishment of the Dutch, 
than any particulars calculated to throw light on the history 
of that period. " The Dutch," say they, " before they 
arrived at Jdkatra^ had formed an alliance with the sultan of 
Bantam. They subsequently treated with the English, and 
with Pangeran Jokdrta; but in a short time they found the 
way to play off a foul stratagem on the latter. In the first 
place, when they wished to ascertain the strength and re- 
sources of Jdkatra^ they landed like mdta-mdtas (peons or 
messengers], the captain of the ship disguising himself with a 


turban, and accompanying several Khdjas ^a term by which 
the natives of the Coromandel coast are distinguished). 
When he had made his observations, he entered upon trade, 
offering however much better terms than were just, and 
making more presents than were necessary. A friendship 
thus took place between him and the prince : when this 
friendship was established, the captain informed the prince 
that his ship wanted repair ; and the prince, at his request, 
allowed the vessel to be brought up the river. There the 
captain knocked out the planks of the bottom and sunk the 
vessel, to obtain a pretence for farther delay, and then re- 
quested a very small piece of ground, on which he might 
build a shed, to store the sails and other property, while 
endeavours should be made to raise the vessel. This request 
was also complied with. The captain then made a widl or 
mound of mud, so that nobody could know what he was 
doing, and in the mean time courted the friendship of the 
prince. lie afterwards waited on the prince, and requested 
as much more land as could be covered by a buffalo's hide, on 
which he might build a small p&ndok. This being complied 
with, he cut the hide into strips, and claimed all the land be 
could enclose with them. To this also the prince, after some 
hesitation, consented. The captain then went on with bis 
buildings, engaging that he would pay all expenses. When 
the fort was finished, the mud wall was removed ; batteries 
were unexpectedly displayed, and under their protection 
the Dutch refused to pay a doit. War then commenced, in 
which the Dutch were reduced to such an extremity, as to be 
obliged to use stones in lieu of balls, which were expended. 
Even this resource failod ; and, as a last expedient, bags of 
the filthiest ordure were fired upon the Javans, whence the 
fort has ever since borne the name of Kdta tdiJ* 

Such is the aversion of the Javans for the Khdfa»j as wdl 
on account of their general character as of their conduct on 
this occasion, that it is a proverb among them, *^ If you meet 
** a snake and a Khoja in the same road, kill the Kiwja first, 
^^ and afterA% ards the snake.*' 

Another account is as follows. ^^ The Dutch having ob- 
tained tlie desired H|)ot built on it a store-house, and formed m 
garden for vegetables. When Pangeran Jakarta inquired 


why they did this, they replied, they must have their conve- 
niences, and that it was not the custom of the Dutch to live 
and eat like the Javans. The Pangeran was satisfied with 
the reason given, and allowed the work to proceed ; but they 
had no sooner completed several buildings, by means of the 
people landed firom their ships, than they began to surround 
them with a battery. The Pangeran again was roused, and 
inquired the reason of this, to which they replied, that there 
were a great many traders about to arrive, and that it was 
necessary to protect their property firom thieves. When the 
batteries were completed they planted cannon in them : the 
Pangeran inquired the reason of this preparation, to which 
they only replied, it was to keep ojflfbad people. 

^^ In a short time, however, when the Dutch had increased 
in niunbers, they fired one of the guns, and the ball dis- 
charged firom it fell in fix)nt of the Pang&ran^a palace. The 
Pangeran inquired why they did so, to which they replied, 
they were only trying how far the gun would carry, in order 
that they might be able to assist the Pangeran^ should he be 
attacked by an enemy. The Pang&ranj however, was not 
satisfied with this reason, and demanded a fine of two 
thousand dollars for the insult, which the Dutch immediately 
paid. But it was not long before they fired another gun, the 
ball of which went over the palace, on which the Pangeran 
became highly incensed, and demanded a fine of four thou- 
sand dollars, threatening if it was not paid forthwith, to write 
to the sultan of Matdrem, who would order them immediately 
to be driven firom the island. To this menace the Dutch said 
nothing, but paid the money, which the Pang&ran received 
with dehght The Dutch, at last, fired a gun, the ball of which 
fell within the palace, on which the Pangeran conceiving 
it to be their intention to attack him, immediately considered 
them as enemies, and collected his people, in order to fall 
upon them and destroy them without delay. As soon as the 
Dutch saw the people thus assembled, they fired firom their 
batteries, dealing slaughter all around, and obliged the Pan- 
geran and his people to retreat out of the reach of the shot" 

While these events were in progress in the western pro- 
vinces, a serious revolt took place in the central and eastern 
districts, in consequence of the intrigues of Aria Mandura, 
the favourite and chief minister of the sultan, who by-means 


of his treacherous conduct to the chief of Pdjang^ had ob- 
tained the administration of that province for himself. The 
chiefs of Madura and Surabaya availing themselves of the 
disturbance thus occasioned at Pdjang^ declared their inde- 
pendence of Matdrem^ and were not reduced to subjectioo 
till two armies had been sent to the eastward against them. 

Not long afterwards, the chief of Surabdya^ Tumun^mng 
SapdnjanQy having refused to give up two beautiful horses 
which the sultan demanded of him, an army was sent to 
compel his obedience ; but the chief being reinforced firom 
Madurttj repulsed the Matdrem forces, obliging them to 
return to their capital. 

The sultan, who had hitherto shown himself anxious to 
maintain a good understanding with the Dutch, and consented 
to their enjoying a firee trade to the different parts of Java, 
with permission to establish a factory at Japdra^ is repre- 
sented as having acted upon their advice in the present 
juncture, in marching to the eastward in person with his 
whole forces; but they no sooner saw him undertake the 
expedition, than availing themselves of the opportunity, they 
took possession of Jdkatra. 

He immediately sent two armies against them, nnder the 
command oiTumunggung Wira Kumma^ and a battle ensued, 
in which the Javan chief, with about ten thousand of his fol- 
lowers, were either slain or drowned in the river Chiliumg, 7W 
minggung Ndta Jawdna coming up afterwards, collected the 
fugitives, and joining them with his forces surrounded the 
town. He posted troops on all the roads towards the south 
and west, at the distance of cannon-shot from the town, at the 
same time cutting channels to lead off the streams by which 
the Dutch were supplied. After an unsuccessful attack made 
by the chiefs MandHra Reja and Wila Tikiaj for which they 
were put to death by their commander, a sally was made on 
the part of the besieged with so much success, that TVr- 
munggung Jawdna determined to break up with his army, 
and no further attempt against the Dutch Was made until the 
year 1629, A. D. 

^* In this year a second army firom Maidrem^ composed of 
Javans and Madurese, appeared before Batavia. The siege 
lasted for a considerable time, and the assaults on the Iowa 
and fort, as well as the sallies of the besieged, were veiy 


bloody. Anxious to know the fate of his army, the sultan 
dispatched his uncle, Pangeran Purbdya^ to Batavia, to 
obtain infonnation. This chief having destroyed the Dutch 
factory at JapdrUy embarked in a swift sailing prdliu of the 
size of the trunk of the largest teak tree, which when seen at 
a distance looked like a serpent on the sea. On reaching the 
bay of Batavia, Purbdya perceived three ships at anchor. 
Two of them, after firing upon him, were sunk, and notwith- 
standing the fire from the third he brought his prdhu safe up 
to Jdkatra, when he was fired upon from the fort. On this 
Purbdya with three followers landed from the prdhuy and 
passing like a shadow to the Dutch fort, which he touched 
with his hands, proceeded on to the Javan lines, where he 
informed them that he had come by order of the sultan, to 
give them a proof how near they might approach the Dutch 
fort. He then hastened back to Matdrem and reported the 
disastrous state of the war, on which the sultan withdrew his 
forces to Kalitcungu,^'* 

The Dutch sent an ambassador with rich presents, and the 
war ended in the Javan year 1551. 

During the latter part of this prince's reign the country 
appears to have enjoyed tranquillity, the only two occasions 
in which it was disturbed being the revolt of the chiefs 
of Balambdngan and Sumedangj which may be considered as 
the extreme points of the Matdrem dominion, Jdkatra and 
Bdntam having been effectually separated from them. 

Sultan Agung is represented, even by the Dutch, as a well 
informed and enlightened prince. He extended his domi- 
nion not only over all Java and Madura^ but carried his 
conquests to Ldndak and other states on Borneo. He died 
in the Javan year 1568, and was succeeded by his son, 
Pangeran Aria Prdbu, or Aria Matdrem, then twenty-six 
years of age^ 

This prince, on account of his mother being a princess of 
Cheribouj succeeded, to the prejudice of his elder brother : he 
held his court at Plerety and is represented as the most severe 
and tyrannical of Javan sovereigns. During a visit made by 
the chief of Cheribon to Matdrem^ he received the distinction 
of Abdul Rdchman Sahiden, in addition to the title of 
Stisunapi Amangkurat Senapdti Ingaldga, which he had 



assumed on his accession. On this occasion it is stated, that 
he again conferred on the sultan of ChSriban all the eastern 
districts of the island to the westward of Tm^y the supposed 
limit of the Majapdhit empire, that is to say the districts of 
Bribes^ Tegdly Pamdlangj Ulujdmiy Wirad^na^ Pakaldng'amy 
Bdiangy Kendal^ and Kaliwungu, The Dutch had already 
firmly established their capital at Batavia, and secured an 
influence in many of the former dependencies of Java, par- 
ticularly at Sukaddna on Borneo and Palembang on Su- 

During the troubled reig^ of this prince, the Dutch appear 
first to have entered into a written agreement with the acknow- 
ledged sovereigns of Java. A treaty was ratified at Batavia 
in the second year after his accession, on the 24th September 
1646, the conditions of which were that the Susuhunam should 
be informed annually, by an ambassador, of the nature of the 
curiosities which had arrived firom Europe ; that all priests, 
or other persons, whom he might be desirous of sending to 
foreign countries, should be conveyed thither in the Com- 
pany's ships; that all persons who should desert to either 
country, for the purpose of evading their debts, should be 
given up; that the Company and the Su^uhiman should 
assist each other against their common enemies; that the 
vessels of the SusuhunafCs subjects should be allowed to 
trade to all places under the Company's authority, except 
AmbonjBanday and TemdU, and that those bound to Maldcea^ 
or places situated to the northward of that settlement, should 
be obliged to touch at Batavia and to apply for passes. 

A treaty was also entered into on the 10th July 1659, 
between the Dutch and the sultan of Bantam, through the 
mediation of the ambassadors of the Pangeran of Jamhiy in 
which it was stipulated, that all prisoners of war and de- 
serters should be mutually restored, with the exception, on 
the part of the sultan, of those who had embraced the Maho- 
medan faith more than three months previous to that date, 
those who had submitted to circumcision since that date to be 
sent back, or if slaves and unwilling to return, the sultan to 
pay the value of them to their masters: that the Dutch 
should, as heretofore, have a |)€nnanent residence at Bantam, 
for which purpose the same building was to be given which 


they had occupied before the war, free of rent, and this build- 
ing to be secured, at the sultanas expense, against any hostile 
attempts : that the river of Untung Jdwa should form the 
boundary of the Bantam territory. 

Certain provisions were made also to prevent illicit 

Shortly ailer his accession, the chief of Balambdngan, 
aided by forces from Bdlij again revolted, and an army was 
sent against him. The troops, however, were no sooner set 
in motion, than a plot was concerted against the prince's life, 
with the knowledge of his younger brother. Alii ; but intelli- 
gence of it being communicated to the prince. Aria Salingsing, 
who had been the instigator of the plot, was with his son be- 
headed, on the spot where a new krdton was erecting. On 
the intercession of Pangerdn Purbdya^ the prince was dis- 
posed to be lenient to his brother, as well on account of his age 
as a strong affection which he bore towards him. Ascending 
the royal eminence, the prince Ordered the heads of the parties 
to be brought, and summoning his brother ^/f7 into his presence, 
placed the heads before him, saying, " behold the reward of 
" those who have attempted to overthrow my authority. 
" Bring before me without delay all your followers." The 
Pangeran immediately retired, and not knowing what was to 
be the result, immediately assembled all his adherents and 
attend^^ts, and informed them of what had passed, when they 
unanimously agreed to amdk the Sumnan's party, urging that, 
as soon as the Matdrem people saw them commence to amokj 
they would join them. The Pang&ran^ who was quite a youth, 
gave into the plan, and they forthwith proceeded to the alun 
aluHy where tliey were not joined by a single man of the iHa- 
tdrem people. They however commenced amdky and the 
people fled in every direction, until Pangeran Chdkra Ningrat 
of Madura approached Alit, kissed his feet, telling him it was 
the order of the prince, who was aware of this proceeding, 
that his person should be seized, but on no account wounded 
or hurt, and implored him to surrender ; but Alitj disregard- 
ing his proposal, drew his kris and stabbed the Pangeran^ 
who died on the spot The Madurese, who witnessed this 
scene, immediately fell upon Alit, who was soon dispatched. 
The Susunan was deeply affected at the loss of his brother, 

Si .. 


and in the violence of his agitation, on receiring the aecoimt 
of what had passed, wounded himself in the left aim ; and 
finom this period, the Javan historians state, '^ that be never 
^^ forgave an offence however trifling. When he was unhappj, 
^* he always put to death those who were the cause of his on- 
** happiness, and on the slightest occasions was subject to the 
" most violent gusts of anger." 

It is related that the prince evinced great sorrow fcr the 
loss of his brother, and that when the time of mooming had 
expired, he wreaked his vengeance on the supposed authors 
of this calamity, by a massacre unparalleled in the annals of 
the country. A rigorous investigation was instituted to ascer- 
tain the abettors and accomplices in this attack against the 
prince's life, and for this purpose a commission was appmnled 
under the direction of his favourites. The chiefs of Uie four 
quarters of the capital were directed to inscribe the names of 
all the priests within their respective divisions, under pre* 
text that the prince intended to confer certain marks of dis- 
tinction upon those who resided at Matdrem^ but in fiurt to 
prevent their escape ; for no sooner were the registers made 
than a cannon was fired from the palace, as a signal to com- 
mence the slaughter, and within less than half an hour all the 
priests, whether guilty or innocent, with their wives and chil- 
dren, amoimting to upwards of six thousand souls, were in- 
humanly and indiscriminately butchered. 

On the following morning when the Sutikman appeared 
in public, he seemed much agitated, and remained without 
saluting his courtiers or uttering a word for the space of an 
hour. He then addressed himself to his uncle Purbdfa, say- 
ing tliat tlie priests, who ought to have set an example to 
others, had conspired against his life ; and to cover the atrocity 
of the massacre, he brought forward three or four priests, who 
liad been purposely saved from the general slaughter, and 
from whom it was easv to obtain whatever evidence best 
suited his purpose. 

In the war against Balambdngan^ although the Afaidrgm 
forces were successful in obtaining possession of the capital, 
the chief and his jmncipal adherents fled to Bdli, Wirm 
Guna was anxious to follow them ; but a serious ilhiess break- 
ing out among the troops, he was obliged to withdraw them. 


and retreat with the few who had survived, in number not 
exceeding a thousand. On reaching Kediriy intelligence was 
sent to Matdrem of the failure of the expedition, when the 
Susunan immediately ordered the chief, Wira GrUna^ with 
all his family, to be put to death, under the pretext of punish- 
ing his want of success, but in reality to satisfy a revenge, 
which he had long been anxious to gratify against this chie^ 
on account of his having, during the life-time of his father, 
preferred a complaint against him for carr3ring off one of his 

It is said that the father of his first rdtu (queen) having a 
pet fowl, which had been produced £rom a jungle hen and a 
domestic cock, brought it as a curiosity into the krdtan and 
gave it to the Susunan. The Susunan conceiving it to be an 
omen, that as soon as the Pang^an Adipdti became of age he 
would quickly obtain the throne, assembled his pengdwa and 
informed them of his apprehensions. The Pangeran on hear- 
ing of it, immediately called all his family together, to the 
number of sixty persons, who, on the first day that the Susunan 
appeared in public, sat themselves down in tears under the 
waringen tree. The Sustinan inquiring their object, they 
called God and the Prophet to witness, that they were inno- 
cent of the bare thought of any thing which should alarm the 
mind of the Susunan^ and intreated that, if he anticipated 
sorrow or misfortune from them, he would put them to death 
immediately, and avert the apprehended calamity. The 
Susunan desired them not to listen to people who told them 
such stories, and retired. Some time afterwards, the Pan- 
geran Adipdti fell desparately in love with a young woman, 
who from her infancy had been brought up under an aged 
mdntri for the royal embrace. Becoming dangerously ill on 
her account, he at length communicated the cause to his 
grandfather, Pang&ran Pdkik, who prevailed on the mdntri 
to part with her for two thousand rings, one thousand dollars, 
and a kdti of gold. The youug pair were immediately mar- 
ried. As soon, however, as the Susunan became apprized of 
the transaction, he caused his son, the Pangeran Adipdti, to 
appear before him with his young bride, and then directed 
him, in his presence, to stab her to death. He afterwards 


banished his son, and sentenced the Pamgiram Pdldky with all 
his family, to capital punishment ; and this aged chief, with 
his wife, Rdtu Pdndany and his relations, to the number of 
forty, were accordingly put to death on the alun alum. 

It is even related, among the atrocities committed by this 
prince, that he violated his own daughter, Rdtu Brdwa^ who 
was affianced to the son of Panambdhan Giri Ldya of Chert- 
bofiy and that on the death of one of his wives, Rdtu Patmd- 
lanffy he confined sixty of her attendants in a dark room, and 
deprived them of food until they all died« 

The injustice and severity of the Susunan became stiU 
greater as he advanced in years. His fits of anger became 
more frequent, and the day and night were employed in bar- 
barous executions. Life enjoyed no security : every one was 
upon his guard, and fears and apprehensions wrought among 
people of the highest and the lowest rank. At length the 
attention of the chiefs having been directed to the PangSram 
Adipdiiy who had evinced a kind disposition in the presents 
he was continually making to the poor, they implored him to 
assume the government ; and the young prince, entering into 
their views, formed an agreement with the celebrated chie^ 
Truna Jdya^ who was the nephew of the Bopdti of Madmra^ 
Cfidkra Ningrat, It was by these means arranged, thai 
while Chdkra Ningrat was at MtUdremj Trina Jdga should 
forthwith proceed to Madura^ and there heading the Madurese 
and the people of the eastern provinces, first rear the standard 
of rebellion, while the young prince himself, to preserve 
appearances, should remain at the court of his father, in seem. 
ing ignorance of what was going on. No sooner had TVmma 
Jdya^ in prosecution of this plan, declared the independance 
of Madura^ than there arrived at Pasuruan a consideraUe 
force from Makdsaty headed by Ddin Gaiengsong and Ddm 
Mandpok. An army sent against them firom Matdrem was 
repulsed, and the provinces of PdsuruaHy ProbolingOy Wtn* 
gdbay and Japan, submitted to their arms. 

The first establishment of the Makasars in Java, appears to 
have taken place A. D. 1675, when a chief fix)m Celebes, 
named Krdin MoHte-mardniy ^ith numerous followers, left 
his country in discontent and settled in Java, to the eastward 


of Surabdyay near Besukiy where he collected all the vaga- 
bonds of the country, and committed great depredations by 
sea and land. 

In this dilemma, and finding himself unequal either to dis- 
lodge the Makasar establishment or to reduce the Madurese 
to submission, the SusHnan dispatched his son, Pangerdn 
PitguTy to the Dutch, A. D. 1676, with various presents, soli- 
citing their aid. 

A second army was immediately assembled, and directed 
to proceed by the route of Japdra^ where, according to the 
Javan accounts, the chiefs had instructions to ask the assist- 
ance of all the white people who had factories there, Dutch, 
French, and Portuguese, and in case of refusal, to drive them 
from the country. On this occasion the Dutch commandant 
at Japdra is represented as having said, '^ that this applica- 
^' tion on the part of the SusunaUy was what the Dutch had 
^* been long anxious for, and that he was ready to obey his 
" orders and sacrifice his life in his service." 

This army was not more successful than the former in re- 
ducing the revolted provinces to submission ; but by the aid 
of the Dutch, who had embarked a considerable force from 
Japdruy the Makasar chief was driven from his post : all the 
wounded were brought to Japdra. They also saved the body 
of their chief, Pra Wira Trunay who was killed on the occa- 
sion, and sent it to Matdrem, 

It appears that the assistance sent by the Dutch on this 
occasion, consisted of foiur ships and several smaller vessels 
with troops, which were reinforced at Japdra by the Susu- 
flanks troops and vessels. ** Having arrived to the northward 
of MadHray they landed the troops, during the night, in the 
forest, and in the morning sent a present to the Makasar 
chief, requesting his permission to take in fresh water, of 
which they stood in need, alleging it to be their intention to 
depart immediately. This request being granted, the guns 
were landed, and batteries thrown up behind the water-casks. 
An attack was then made upon the enemy's works, and in a 
few days the whole were demolished, the chief, Krain Monte- 
mardni killed, and numerous prisoners taken." 

On this intelligence reaching Matdremy the Susunan 
assembled all his family and chiefs, and directed another 



attack to be made upon the hostile forces. A third army 
soon assembled at Japdra^ where the Dutch were readj to 
join them : in the mean time, however, Truna Jdya formed 
an alliance with the Makasars. 

The Pangeran Adipdtiy who was appointed to a command 
in this army, had charge of the rear division, which he had 
so arranged as to be able to act as emergency might require : 
but he was soon released from his doubts, for THma Jaya 
forgetting the agreement which he had entered into with this 
prince, no sooner saw himself thus successful in the eastern 
provinces, than ho assumed the sovereignty himself, and 
caused himself to be installed, under the title of Prdbu M4* 
durifa Senapdti Ingatdgay and confirmed his alliance with 
the Makasars by giving his daughter in marriage to their 
chief, Ddin Calengsong, 

The conditions of this alliance arc said to have been, that 
Triina Jdya should be placed on the throne of Mnidrtm^ 
Dain Gai^ngsoftg appointed chief of Surahdya and Pas^rmam, 
Dain Mandpoky chief of the eastern and western districts of 
Baiambdngatiy and Sheik Kajuran^ a crafly Arab chief of 

Afler a desperate engagement, the forces of IVina Mfm 
were again successful. As a last effort, therefore, the rene- 
rablc Pangeran Purbdyd^ imcle of the Su^unan and Dearly 
eighty years of age, summoned all the chiefs to follow him, 
and going himself into the field of battle, performed extraor- 
dinary feats of valour, till his horse having been shot under 
him, and having himself for some time fought on foot, be was 
overpowered, and his scattered forces compelled to retreal 
towards Matdrem, 

Truna Jdya being now in ftill possession of Surabdya and 
the eastern districts, pursued his success as far as JapArtu 
Here, however, he was effectually resisted by the chie<^ 
Angebdi IVdngsa^ipa and the Dutch, and obliged to retreat. 

As another division of his army, under Rdden Ddmmmy 
Wichdna^ rapidly approached Matdrem y the Sutumam again 
applied to the Dutch, who sent one of the members of gorem* 
ment. Admiral Speelman, to assist him with a considerable 
force by land and sea. The admiral left Batavia in Deceniber, 
1676, A. D., and shortly appeared before Cheribony reducing 


to submission the coast distiicts from thence to Japdra. The 
fruit of this success, on the part of the Dutch, was the con* 
tract of February 1677, of which the chief stipulations were : — 
that the Susunan and Dutch should assist each other against 
their common enemies, on condition that the expenses of the. 
war should be repaid by the party assisted : that the Dutch 
jurisdiction at Batavia should extend to the Krdtoang river, 
and the Javans living to the westward of a line drawn from 
that river to the southern shore, should be considered on the 
Dutch territory : that the Dutch should be allowed to export 
and import all species of goods and merchandize duty free, 
and to establish a factory on any spot which they might deem 
convenient: that Makasars, Malayus, and Moormen, who 
had not Dutch passes, should not be permitted to trade or 
settle in the states of the Susunan: that the Susdnan should 
engage to reimburse the Dutch for the expense incurred in 
assisting him against the Makasars and Madurese, amounting 
to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and three thousand 
lasts of rice, deliverable at Batavia : that in the event of a 
peace being concluded between his highness and his enemies, 
through the mediation of the Dutch, his highness should 
abide by their decision ; but, that if no accommodation was 
effected by the dOth July following, he should pay to the 
Dutch monthly the sum of twenty thousand reals, for the ex- 
penses of the war : that the Dutch should station an adequate 
force on Japdra hill, in order to preserve that place for the 
SusunaUy which force was also to be maintained at the ex- 
pense of his highness. 

Admiral Speelman was invested by the SusHnan with fiiU 
powers to act against the Madurese and Makasars, and to 
conclude such treaties with them as he should deem propar, 
without any restriction whatsoever, and all the Sus^nan^s 
subjects were commanded to join the standard of the admiral 
wherever he might arrive. 

In May following the allied forces of the Dutch and the 
Susunan gained a victory over Truna Jdya^ who was obliged 
to fly to Kedirij leaving behind him upwards of a hundred 
pieces of cannon. 

At length, the enemy being still in possession of all the 
central provinces, and the trifling force which it was in the 

N 2 


power of the Su^inan to raise being defeated in erery 
skirmish, fear and dismay struck the remnant of the Maidrem 
forces ; and the invading army having subdued Pdjang^ were 
entering Maidrem , when the SusunaHy seeing no hope for 
safety except in flight, assembled his family in the dead of 
the night, and collecting the regalia, quitted his capital with 
his four sons, and moimted on an elephant, took a westerly 
direction. This was \nJLhe Javan year 1600. 

On the next day (June 1677^ the hostile troops entered 
Matdrenif when a force was immediately detached in pursuit 
of the fugitive prince, who had pushed on to the Kindamg 
hills, and halted at Kdjinary with an intention of making a 
stand. Hearing of the strength of the piu^uing force, how- 
ever, he lefl his family at that place, and proceeded with only 
his son, the Pangeran Adipdtiy to the village Pasirdmamy 
where being seized with a mortal complaint he soon died. 
On his death-bed, informing his son that he felt his end ap- 
proaching, he tlius addressed him : '^ You must asiiame the 
" sovereignty of Java, which has descended to you from your 
" forefathers. Make friends ii^-ith the Dutch, and by their 
'* assistance you may be enabled to reduce the eastern pro- 
vinces to submission. I deliver over to you part of the 
sacred pusdka and regalia of the countn^ ; and now let my 
'^ body be carried to a spot where the earth is firagrant, and 
" there let it be buried." 

In conformity ^^ith the wish of the deceased his body was 
carried across the countrj- towards TegiUy in search of a spot 
where the earth was sweet-scented, and deposited a few miles 
inland from the town, llie tomb is still held in high venera- 
tion ; and it is from this circumstance that this prince is dis- 
tinguished by the appellation of Sununan Tegdhtcdmg^ij or 
Tegdl-drttm ; drum and trdngU signifying fragrant 

ITie rebel forces had, in the mean time, taken possesion of 
Maidrem, and foimd among the articles of plunder the crown 
of Majapdhiiy with several other parts of tlie regalia, which 
had been lefl lichind in the hasty departure of the prince, 
together with two of his daughters, named Keleiing IVmmg'u 
and Keleiing Kuning. The plunder was iifimediately dis- 
patched ti Kediri, where the rebel chiefs had established 
their bead quarters, and equally divided between TntmgJdgm 


and Dain Galengsong^ with the exception of the regalia and 
of the dipighters of the Suminafiy whom Trima Jdya espoused. 

TheQoss on the side of the Matdrem people is estimated | 
at fifteen thousand killed, and on the side of the eastern people 
at somewhat lessT) 

It is said in some accounts that the late Susunan having 
failed to persuade his son, Pang&ran Adtpdtiy to assume the 
government, gave to another of his sons, Pang&ran Pugary the 
pusdka kriSy mdisa nulary and the spear kidi palerety in con- 
sequence of which Pangeran Pugary with his brothers, re- 
turned to BdgeleUy where, assuming the title of Sumnan Se- 
napdti Ingaldga Abdul Rachmen Sahidin Panatagdmay he 
assembled a considerable force, and proceeding to Matdrem 
regained possession of it. 

After the interment of the deceased SusHnun at Tegdly 
Mdria Ldyay the chief of that province, urged the Pang&ran 
Adipdti to assume the government, and first to establish him- 
self at Tegdly until he had collected a sufficient force to attack 
the eastern people, offering his services to collect for him a^ 
many people as would be required ; but the prince still de- 
clined, not having the courage to attempt the recovery of the 
authority that belonged to his family, and requested Mdria 
Ldya to procure for him a vessel, in which he might proceed 
to Mecctty being resolved to relinquish for ever the cares of 
government, and to b^ome a Hdji, Mdria Layay although 
he had vessels at his disposal, evaded a compliance with the 
princess request, in the hope that he might alter his resolu- 
tion, and still be induced to assume the government. The 
prince retired toJ^nyumasCsjid performed a penance in one, 
of the mosques. He is said on the seventh day to have fallen 
asleep, and to have dreamt, " that the roof of the mosquej 
" opened, as if it were carried up in the air, when a full and] 
" bright moon appeared, which difiused its lustre over alE 
" Java, after which it approached and entered his breast"^ 
Encouraged by this omen, the prince changed his detennina-l 
tion, and recollecting the words of his father, bethought him4 
self of obtaining the assistance of the Dutch. He in conse* 
quence dispatched two messengers to Batavia for aid,) 

The prince then sent orders to Maria Ldya at TegAl to 
collect as many forces as possible i '^he likewise dispatched 


trusty people) to the DHa Dinanj(m search of the flofwer 
called wj^aya mdlai'iheTe being a snperstitioas notion among 
the Javans that if in their distress they are able to obtain this 
flower, whatever they undertake will prosper.^ 

Maria Ldya immediately exerted himself with great zeal 
and effect to assemble his adherents, in the hope that by shew- 
ing a large force he might induce the prince to relinquish his 
idea of receiving succour from the Dutch. On the arrival of 
this succour at Tegdl he addressed him publicly as follows : — 
^' Sire, I have felt excessive shame in hearing that your high- 
*^ ness is desirous of soliciting aid from the Hollanders, as if 
** you were yourself in want of men. I am now ready, with 
" numerous followers, to perform whatever you please, if you 

will only confer upon me the necessary authority. Give 

me but your orders and I will myself extirpate your 
** enemies." The prince replied, " What signifies your 
^ shame, Mdria Ldya ? I have requested assistance fiom 
^ the Dutch, because it is always agreeable to rely on one*s 
** friends ; and it was foretold by my gpreat grandfiUher, Smi- 
** tan Agung^ that the Dutch would assist his descendants.** 
Maria Ldya was silent The messengers now returned with 
the wijaya flowers, on which the prince assumed the title of 
Su^nan AmangkHrat Senapdti Ingaldgay &c. ; and soon 
afterwards the Dutch agreed to give him the assistance re- 

When the Dutch force was landed, the Swtinam reeved 
the visit of the admiral and officers in state. Th<(^^iitch 
officers being introduced, stood in a row with their hats in 
their hands ; but M4rta Lfiya, considering it disrespectful 
that any one should stand in the presence of the sovereign, 
ordered them immediately to sit down in the manner of the 
Javans, and was proceeding to compel the admiral to do so, 
when the Suwnany seeing the confusion in which all were 
thrown, applied to his late ambassador to the Datch finr an 
explanation. When he learnt that they shewed respect faj 
bowing their heads only, he was satisfied , and desired Mdria 
Ldya not to interfere with them. 

" Tlic Susuuan then inquired the name of the commander, 
who after informing him that he had the rank of admirali ap- 
proached him, saying, that he was ordered by the government 


of Batavia to proceed to Tegdlj with a force of £uropeanS| 
Makasars, &c., and to afford him every assistance he might 
require in the establishment of his authority. There were 
landed valuable presents for the prince, among which was 
very splendid apparel as worn by the Hollanders, to which the 
prince took such a liking that he immediately clothed himself 
in it. The Dutch force was then divided, and the admiral em- 
barked with one division for Japdra^ while the other accom- 
panied the prince, who proceded by land to PakaldngaHy and 
afterwards with his followers by sea to Japdra^'* 

'' On the arrival of the admiral at Japdra^ he inquired of 
Wdngsa Dipa^ the chief of that place, who had rendered as- 
sistance in repelling the rebels, at the time they attacked 
Japdra ? To which the latter replied, * The successful re- 
^ sistance was principaUy owing to the conduct of the French, 
^ English, and Dutch factories.*' The admiral then con- 
sulted with his officers, and observing that the English and 
French seemed to be preferred to the Dutch, or at any rate 
considered on the same footing, he called the. chiefs of the 
French and English factories, and presenting them with 
twenty thousand dollars, said it was the gift of the Susunan^ 
who directed that they would quit Japdra, The chiefs of the 
two factories took the money, but did not wish to depart, 
alleging that there were no vessels to convey them away ; to 
which the admiral replied, that in that case he had the further 
orders of the Susunan to provide them with a vessel. The 
people belonging to the two factories were then, with all their 
property, public and private, embarked on board a Dutch 
transport. The vessel sailed, but nothing more was ever heard 
of the English and French who were embarked in her. The 
Dutch then repaired their instruments of war." 

Another account is as follows : " When the admiral arrived 
at Japdra, he found there two foreign vessels, an English 
and a French ship, the officers of which said they had put in 
there in distress, and could not proceed further on account of 
the bad state of their ships. They also represented that they 
had assisted the Dutch when the rebels attacked Japdra. 
The admiral thanked them for the service they had ren- 
dered, and presented them with ten thousand dollars, and 


ordered them to proceed to their own country in one of 

'^ On the arrival of the SuMknan at Japdra^ he was joined 
by a considerable force from Tegdl and Demdk ; and among 
those who were most active in the support of the Su9u$uin*s 
authority was Maria Ldya^ whose aversion to the Dutch still 
continued. The admiral, apprized of his sentiments, applied 
to the Susunan for his destruction, supporting his application 
by a written request to the same effect from the government of 
the capital, and threatening an immediate departure to Ba- 
tavia in case of non-compliance. 

^ To accomplish this end, the Susunan first attempted to 
send him to Kediri against Truna Jdya ; but Mdrta Ldya 
obtaining information of the demand made by the Dutch for 
his life, refused to attend the summons, on the pretence of 
sickness. His disobedience so enraged the SuHman^ that he 
ordered his instant death, which was effected in the following 
manner. Mdrta Pura jiavin^ received the orders of the 
prince to put 3/rir/a jLdyaixy death, went to. his house, 
accompanied by two huiidrcd followers. Mdrta \^(tjpt haring 
been apprized of the SusuMan^s anger, he collected an eqnal 
number of meny 

^* When Apiria Piira. approached him he was seated on a 
yellow carpet with a drawn kris in his hand, and being 
informed that he was to be put to death by order <rf the 
Susunan/ Mdrta Ldyu replied, ^ If it is the wish of the 
^ prince that it should be so, do your duty, I am prepared.* 
M)krta Pura then drew his kris and stabbed Mdrta Ldffm in 
the belly ; but while he did so his neck received in return the 
kris of Mdrta Ldya^ which separating the throat in two, 
killed him on tlie spot. The two chiefs were no sooner 
wounded than tlie followers of both parties rushed on each 
other, and a most bloody and obstinate engagement ensued, 
which lasted till the bodies of nearly the whole lay weltering 
round those of the chiefs." 

Measures had already been taken for the dispersion of the 
rebel forces in Kediri. A Makasar chief, named Krain Kmr 
ddiirangy in the service of the Dutch, discovered his relation- 
ship to the Makasar chief Galengsong^ and offered to bring 


him to terms. He was in consequence dispatched secretly to 
Kediriy where he had an interview with the Makasar chief, 
who was his brother. On the part of the Dutch, he promised 
that they would assist him on Celebes. He hesitated to come 
over immediately, lest he should betray Ti'una Jdya^ but pro- 
mised to join the allied forces when they should arrive and 
attack TrunaJdya, 

Having thus secured an interest with the Makasars, one 
division of the Dutch forces, under the admiral, embarked 
for Surabaya^ and the other, with the Su^HnaUy commenced 
their march by land. A^cisive battle took place at ^diri; 
on the evening previous to which, it is asserted the Dutch 
had a communication with Dain Gal&ngsongy to know his 
intentions, when the latter told them, ^^ Attack me to-morrow, 
^^ and I will make arrangements for the flight of my forces.^* 
Accordingly the next morning, before the daylight, the Dutch 
troops marched to the hostile camp, where they found no pre- 
parations for resistance. Dain Galengsong immediately 
ordered a retreat, and fled himself the first, leaving behind 
him all the plunder that had been taken at Matdrem, and 
among other things the crovni of Majapdhit 

The siege of Kediri^ according to the Dutch account8,\ , 
lasted fifty days, and it was at last taken by assault; Truna ^ 
Jdya making his escape. Great riches were found in the 
interior of the palace, and many chests of Spanish doUarsJ 
besides ingots of gold and the most valuable part of the 
regalia. The Susunan claimed nothing but the crown of 
Majapdhity leaving the remainder to be distributed among the 

When the crovni was delivered to him, it appeared that itsi 
most splendid ornament, the large centre diamond, wasi 
missing. This the Stisunan immediately noticed, and inquiries 
were set on foot ; but to the great aflliction of the Susunan 
and all the Javan chiefs, the jewel was never recovered *. 

Nine Makasar chiefs afterwards surrendered to the Dutch^ 
on the 9 th December, when they received pardon, and a pro- 
mise that they should be sent to Makasar. 

After this Truna Jdya collected all his forces, and mar- 

A Dutch officer is accused of ha^^ing purloined it. 



•hailed them apon the plain, as if to lecmve the enemy ; but 
on the approach of the Dutch troops from the left and the 
Javans from the right, his army was panic struck and fled in 
various directions, he himself with his two wives escaping to 
Antang. The SuHlman allowed the Dutch soldiers to plunder 
and possess themselves of every thing left by the rebels. 

Chdkra Ningrat having quitted his place df banishment 
and joined the Susiknany was sent to urge the submission <m 
his half-brother, Truna Jdya. Chdkra Ningrat acc(nrdingly 
went in search of Truna Jdya^ accompanied by a very few 
followers, and having found him at Antang he addressed him 
as follows. '^ Brother ! what are you doing and whither 
" would you fly ? depend upon it, if you persist in your re- 
^^ sistance to the will of the Susunan^ he will disappoint your 
^* expectations, and if you compel him to send people to 
^' arrest you, you will excite his implacable displeasure. I 
^' have come to you as quickly as possible, for my heart yearns 
towards you, and I dread lest you should come to any mis- 
fortune. If you wish it, I will go and meet the Sumimam. 
Bring your two wives, who are both the sisters of the 
Sufmnan, throw yourselves together at his feet, ask Ibr- 
^^ giveness for any ofience you have committed, and periiaps 
he will be merciful towards you and grant you pardcii. If 
^' you come alone in that way, the SuHinan cannot act against 
^' you, for aro you not married to his sisters ? ^ Tri$ui JAfa 
reflected upon what Chdkra Ningrat said, and was inclined 
to follow his advice, saying, *^ I rotum abundant thanks to yo« 
'* for your kindness towards me. Your advice is good and I 
" ^^-ill follow it : I will follow you, accompanied by my wires.** 
Truna Jdya with his wives afterwards accompanied Chdkrm 
Ningrat to Kediri. 

^' Chdkra Ningrat then led Truna Jdya with his wires to 
the hall of audience, where the Stuinan was seated with the 
admiral and numerous Dutch officers. TVtma Jdya on this 
occasion did not wear his kris^ but roUed a chituii cloth loand 
his body, as if he were a prisoner. 

'' They fell at the feet of the Susiuionf imploring forgire- 
ness for the ofience of Triina Jdya^ on which the Suwtmam 
8aid, Mt is well ! Truna Jdya^ for this time I forgive yon. 
* Go without and clothe yourself in becoming apparel, and 


^ then return to me, when I Moll present 70U with a kris^ 
^ and instal you as my minister^ in the presence of all 
' assembled.' The Susdnan then gave orders that he should 
be served with apparel. The heart of THina Jdya became 
highly elated : he went out and received the apparel from the 
Susunah*s people, and then returned into the presence, but 
without wearing a krisy as the Susunan had intimated his 
intention to present him with one. 

^^ As he approached, the Susunan desired his women to 
bring him the kris named Kidi beldbar^ which was still un- 
sheathed. As soon as it was delivered into the hands of the 
Susdnan^ he said to Trdna Jaya^ ^ Know, Triina Jdya^ that 

* I have given my word that I would never sheathe this kris 

* except in your body : receive now your death from it in 
' punishment of your offence.' Truna Jdya was silent, while 
the Susunan standing up approached and stabbed him with 
his kris in the breast. Returning then to his throne he seated 
himself, and ordered his people who were assembled to finish 
the work which he had begun, whereupon they all fell upon 
Truna Jdya^ the unfortunate wretch, stabbing him in a thou- 
sand places and cutting his body to pieces. They then severed 
the head from the trunk, rolled it in the mud, made a mat of 
it, and at last cast it into a ditch by the express order of the 
Susdnan, The admiral and all the Dutch officers and party 
were present at this execution; but though they appeared 
astonished at the conduct of the Susunan^ they remained 
quiet spectators of it." 

Such is the account given by the Javans, without reference 
to the share which the Dutch had in the transaction ; but 
from the Dutch accounts it appears that Triina Jaya delivered 
himself up imder a stipulation with the Dutch that his life 
should be spared. A young officer of the name oi Jengker^ 
who had been placed by the General (Cooper) in charge of 
the SusHnan^s guard, was sent by the Susinan to treat with 
Tr6na Jaya^ without any communication with or authority 
from his commanding officer. Valentyn says positively, that 
Jengkir promised him pardon, and assured him of his life ; 
but Cooper, annoyed that the credit of taking this chief should 
thus have been wrested from him by a junior officer acting 
without authority, exasperated the SusAnan against Truna 


J6ya^ and threw that unfortimate chief in hia way at a mo- 
ment when his passion was at its height This catastrophe^ 
says Valentyn, is to be ascribed to no one but the jealous 
Cooper, who brought it about, in order that his bad conduct, 
oppressions, and extortions, which were weU kno^-n to Trmma 
Jdyay and which he had intended to complain of^ should 
remain concealed. 

Truna Jdya^ at the time of his surrender, was dressed in a 
Portuguese jacket, and wore on his head a black tuiban edged 
with lace. He gave short and pertinent answers to the ques- 
tions put to him. On his coming before Jengker he fell at 
his feet, saying, that in his youth it had been predicted thai, 
however great his fortune might be, still he should, at one 
time of his life, be taken prisoner, and that since this was his 
destiny, he rejoiced in having fallen into the hands of a person 
so well known for his humanity. He then presented to him 
his krU with a golden bow, requesting Jengker to keep them 
in token of his esteem. Jengker lifted him up, promised that 
his life should be spared, and further, that all his influence 
with the Dutch government and the Susinan should be used 
in his behalf. It is alleged in the Dutch accounts, that the 
immediate cause of the Susunah's conduct on this occastoo, 
was the irreconcilable hatred which Tr^na Jdya still erinced 
towards that prince, who, he said, had in his youth encouraged 
him to the steps he had taken, and afterwards abandoned him. 

Triina Jdya surrendered on the 25th December, 1679, A J>^ 
and general tranquillity ensued, which however was not of 
long duration. The Panambdhan Giri having in his 
sion the kris deposited in the tomb of the first Smnan^ it 
demanded of him by the Su^unan as royal property ; but the 
Panambahan not being inclined to part with it, and disappvov* 
ing of the conduct of the Susinany who was guided by Dutch 
councils, and had even adopted their dress, replied, that be 
did not wish to know any thing of the Stmimamy or to be ae* 
quainted with him ; that he wished to wear the krit^ kmkum 
tnuningy himself, and that he preferred his own digni^ to 
that of such a chief. The Susunan^ enraged at this answer, 
proceeded to Giri with his Dutch allies, where an engagement 
took place and the Giri people were obliged to fly : the Pm* 
nambdhan was taken and put to death* In this afiur, a 


cousin of the Sunan KdliJdga o( AdildngOy who had followed 
the Susunatiy distinguished himself in destroying the brother 
of the Punamhdhan Pangeran Singa Sdrij who was running 
dmdky and doing much mischief; as a reward for which ser- 
vice the SunaUy in the presence of the Dutch commander, 
declared that, for ever after that, the descendants of that chief 
should be permitted to reside at Adildng*Oy and not be called 
upon to perform any duties of the state. 

The whole of the eastern provinces having now submitted, 
the St^unan returned to Semdrangy where when he had made 
acknowledgments to the Dutch for the assistance they had 
rendered him, the commander requested that he would give 
them a small piece of ground at Semdrang to build a fort 
upon, which would not only be convenient for the protection 
of their trade, but would enable them to come to the assistance 
of the Susunan, if necessary, at a shorter notice. 

The admiral having promised that he would station a suit- 
able force at Semdrangy which the Sumnan might at any 
time employ as he thought proper, obtained the permission he 
applied for. 

The Javans have a superstitious belief, that when once 
misfortune has fallen on a place so generally as to extend to 
the common people (which was the case at Matdremjy it 
will never afterwards prosper ; it was therefore determined by 
tlie Susunan to change the seat of empire, and some were for 
fixing it at Semdrangy but at last it was determined to erect 
it in the wood Wdna K&rtay in the district of Pdjangy which 
was good land but uninhabited. 

The new capital was called KMasuray the walls of which 
are still to be seen on the road to Sura-kertay the present 
capital of the Susunan, 

During all these transactions Pangeran Pugar remained at 
Matdrem, The Susunan now, for the first time, sent him 
information of his establishment, and required his attendance 
at court. The Pangerany who having heard that the Susunan 
was in the constant habit of dressing after the Dutch fashion, 
had been strengthening himself as much as possible, under 
an impression, that the Sttsunan supported by the Dutch was 
not his brother, but a foreigner, whom they had raised to 
answer their own purposes, received this intimation with great 


surprise, aud sent two of his family to ascertain the truth. 
The messengers, who were interested in upholding the sepa* 
rate authority of their master, determined to encourage his 
mistake, and they represented the SuMmnan as a foreigner 
from Sdbrang^ elevated by the Dutch. Upon this report the 
Pang^an informed the Suninan that he could not proceed to 
Kiria Sura^ as he preferred remaining at Afa/iirtfjvi, where he 
was established as the legal sovereign. A force, consisting 
of Dutch and Javan troops, was in consequence marched 
against Maidrem ; at first the troops of KMa-tmra were de* 
feated, but in a second attack they were more successiuli and 
the Pangeran was obliged to take to flight 
. By means of the Adipdti^ the Pangeran was afterwards 
assured of the Suninan being his brother^ when he agreed to 
go to KMa-9ura^ provided the SutAnan would throw oflThis 
Dutch dress and appear in his native costume. To this the 
sovereign consented, and publicly received his brother with 
the greatest demonstrations of joy and afiection. 

The authority of the Susmtuin was now firmly established^ 
and general tranquillity prevailed for some years. 

A new character now appears on the stage, under the title 
of Surapati, Tliis man, whose name was Si Umtmmg^ had 
been the slave boy of a Dutchman at Batavia, of the name of 
Mor, who is represented to have been of low origin, bul to 
have been advanced to the highest dignities, even a seat in 
the high regency, by means of the riches and influence he had 
acquired through the ser\'ices of this slave, to whom he be> 
came, in consequence, much attached. Mor, however, dis» 
covering an impro])er intimacy between Uniting and his na- 
tural daugliter, chastised him severely, and afterwards had 
him confined in the public block or stocks. Untmmg con- 
trived to effect his escape firom tliem during the night, and to 
release his fellow prisoners, lliey then fell upon the gmid 
which came to mount at daylight, and taking them unawaies 
massacred the whole. Being thus committed, Uniutff benl 
his course to the high lands, and afterwards to CkMiam. 
While in the high lands he formed a connection with a fiir> 
midable party from Bantam, where a civil war had been ex* 
cited, in consequence of the Dutch having elevated to the 
throne a son of the deceased king, contrary to the expieM 


directions of the father. One of the brothers, Pangiran Pur- 
hdyay was prevailed upon to join a certain Abiditiy a fanatic 
rebel, who had raised about two thousand followers, and with 
him passed through Ja^/ngd and the Jdkatra and Predngan 
highlands, increasing their numbers as they went. 

Abidin having proposed to proceed by that route to Ma- 
tdremy there to stir up the SusAnan against the Dutch, the 
Pangera/n being tired of the journey surrendered to the Dutch 
force sent against them ; but Abidin stood a severe engage- 
ment, and WCU5 only induced to surrender by means of an arti- 
fice practiced upon him. An European officer belonging to 
the Dutch troops disguised himself as an Arab, and being 
well versed in the Arabic and Malayu languages, obtained an 
interview with Abidiriy to whom he represented, that having 
himself been once taken prisoner by the Dutch he had been 
so well treated that he would advise him to go and surrender 
himself. The unfortunate man took his advice, and was con- 
veyed to the commanding officer, then at Chikdlongy who im- 
mediately forwarded him to Batavia, whence he was sent to 
the Cape of Good Hope for the rest of his life. 

The party of runaway slaves under Untungy who had now 
assumed the name of Santdna being surprized by the Dutch 
force, were by special orders from Batavia allowed to remain 
undisturbed for the present. The chief appears to have been 
useful to the Dutch, and to have been employed, in order the 
better to secure the surrender of Pangeran Purbdya, When 
the Dutch officer went with a small party to receive the sub- 
mission of this chief, he found that he had already tied his 
spears together (the sign of surrender) and kept no arms but 
his kris. Ignorant of the customs of the country, the officer 
demanded that the Pangeran should also deliver this weapon 
and his personal ornaments. The demand created the utmost 
astonishment in the PangSran^ who instantly asked if it was 
not sufficient humiliation to a prince of the royal blood that 
he and his people had given up their arms. Santdna en- 
treated of the Dutch officer not to urge the delivery of the 
kriSy and to consider ** that the bird, although caught, was not 
" yet in the cage," but to no purpose : the officer persisted in 
his demand, and insulted Santdna in presence of all who 
were there assembled. The Pangeran seeing that resistance 


was now vain, promised compliance next morning ; but during 
the night, to the inexpressible mortification of the officer, be 
effected his escape. The rage of the officer now fell so rio- 
lently upon Santdna^ that a quarrel ensued. Sanidma and 
his followers fell upon the Dutch party and killed many of 
them ; the officer however escaped. Santdna then moved 
towards CkeriboHy where he had an affair with a chief^ named 
Rdden Surapati^ which being reported to the sultan, that 
chief was put to death, and his title of Surapdii conferred 
upon Untung, Surapdii then proceeded towards K^rta^marm 
to beg assistance against the Dutch, leaving several of his 
foUowers in Bdnt^maSy under the direction of two ckiefr, 
who soon became dreaded as noted kramaru or rebela. At 
Kertasura he found protection from the prime minister, to 
whom he related all the particulars of the story, with the ex* 
ception of that part which related to the establishment he had 
formed in Bdnyumas. This district being now declared in a 
state of revolt, he offered to bring it to submission, and was 
employed by the Susinan for that purpose ; he accofdin^y 
proceeded secretly to BdnyumaSy where, aided by the plan he 
had before laid, he caused the heads of the two krdmamM to 
be secretly cut off in the night, and the rebels to dispcne; 
when returning to Keriasura and producing the heads, he 
was received into the highest favour by the Sumnam. 

The Dutch hearing of his fortune, demanded firmn the 
Su9unan that his person should be given up ; but the reply 
of the Su9unan was, '' that Surapdii having thrown himself 

on his protection and performed a signal service to the em* 

pire, he could not give him up ; but that if the Dutch wished 
" that he should be arrested, they were at perfect liberty to 
^' arrest him in any |)art of his dominions/* 

The Dutch accordingly sent a force, consisting of four bmi* 
dred Europeans and six hundred islanders, under the oidcn 
of one Tax, an officer who had incurred the suspicion of bar* 
ing purloined the centre diamond from the Majapdkit crown, 
and on whom, according to tlie impression which pervades 
the Dutch accounts, the Susunan had determined to be ie> 

On the approach of the Dutch troops, the Susimam^ alarmed 
lest they should succeed in arresting Surapdii^ determined to 


afford him every assistance, and for that purpose directed, 
that when they arrived, the Rdden Adipdti (prime minister), 
who had given his daughter in marriage to Surapdtiy should 
openly espouse his cause, and proceed, in the first instance, 
to attack the lines of the Adipdtis of Madura and Surabdya^ 
who after a skirmish should retreat to the alun alun in con- 
fusion, exhibiting all the appearance of a defeat, while the 
imited party of the Rdden Adipdti^ and Sarapdti should ap« 
pear to threaten the krdton. The Pangeran Pugar being 
strongly attached to Surapdtij received orders, that if, in the 
affair with the Dutch, the party of Surapdti and the minister 
should be worsted, he should render them assistance, by 
sending his people to them clothed in white, the distinction 
adopted by Surapdti. 

When the Dutch arrived, to cover appearances, a new 
prime minister was appointed. The commandei(j:equested 
assistance firom the Susunan^ who pointed out to him the ap- j 
parent state of affairs, and induced him to believe that he was 
himself in dangcr)from the attack of Surapdti. AJndcr this 
impression, Tak made his arrangements ; and the Dutch troops 
appeared on the firont alun alun at eight o^clock in the morn- 
ing, when they<^ere immediately attackedjjby Surapdti. After 
four hours of hard fighting, Surapdti was repulsed , but rein- 
forcements being sent by Pang&ran Pugar^ and by the whole 
population of the city, the Dutch were/completely destroyed., 
Tak, at his last extremity, ordered out lirom the fort two hun- 
dred soldiers remaining there; but as they could not join 
their companions, they were immediately surroimded and cut 
up. Of the two thousand men, eleven himdred and eighty- 
three lost their lives ; and among them Tak, who was mor- 
tally wounded in the neck/by the celebrated ^i<«aA:a spear of 
Pangeran Pugar. The weapon was found blunted at the 
point by the chain jacket which Tak is said to have worn on 
the occasion. 

The SusHnan now directed the Rdden Adipdti and Sura- 
pdti to take refuge in the province of Pasuruan^ and assume 
the habit of devotees ; while to the Adipdtis of Madura and 
Surabaya orders were given to follow them at a certain dis- 
tance, burning the villages and laying waste the country, as if 

VOL. II. o 


in pursuit of an enemy. When Surapdti reached Pa96rmamy 
he took the name of Adipdti Wira Nag&ra. 

The few Dutch who had survived made their escape to the finrt 
of «/apara,which was then more extensive than that at iSnn^f rxm^. 

After this the Susunan wrote to the commanding officer at 
Japdray informing him that Tak, with all the party, had been 
killed by the Rdden Adipdti and Surapdiij who had also 
attacked him, but that they had at last driven them to the east- 
ward, by the force he had collected under the Adipdiis of Aftf- 
{ibira and Surabdya, He also informed him that he had 
elected a new prime minister, in lieu of the one who had 
espoused the cause of Surapdti. The Stuinany fearing leat 
this story might not be believed, and that he might be sua- 
pccted of having assisted Surapdtiy sent with this letter fire 
pikuls of birds* nests, forty oxen, and other articles of Talne, 
which he entrusted to the care of a pridigdndok (a messenger 
of distinction) named Jdga Rdgay with instructions to mark 
well the thoughts of the commander or officer who was tlie 
chief of Japdray and if he shewed the least suspicion of the 
part the Susunan had taken, mainly to deny it, and firmly to in- 
sist that the Sus^nan was true-hearted to the Hollanders. He 
moreover promised to his ambassador, that if he succeeded in 
averting the anger of the Dutch, he would reward him on his 

This messenger accordingly proceeded to Japdray when the 
chief officer, after reading the letter, said he had heard the 
Sumnan was of one heart with Surapdti ; to which Jdfis 
Rdga replied, that what he had heard was false, and that per- 
haps the story might have originated in the part taken by the 
Rdden Adipdtiy whose attachment to Surapati was wefl 
known. He then referred to the circumstance of the coontiy^s 
being laid waste by Surapdti on his flight to the eastward, in 
proof of his enmity. The commander heard this explanatioii 
with patience, and after receiving the presents, with which 
he was much pleased, returned for answer to the Susimamy thai 
he had first heard that he was favourable to SurapdHy but 
was now convinced, firom the explanation afforded, that these 
reports were unfounded, and that he was satisfied of the last- 
ing attachment of his highness to the Dutch. He then 


thanked him for his present, and in return sent one thousand 
ducatoons, with an assortment of velvets and cloth. The 
messenger having thus succeeded, was raised to the rank and 
station of Tumung*gung of Japdra^ by the name and title of 
Kidi Tumung*gung Mdrta Pura, 

The next indignity offered to the Dutch was by this man, 
who laid hold of a half cast Dutch soldier at Japdra^ and in- 
sisted upon his sitting on the groimd on his hams and dancing 
the tanddky after the fashion of the Javans, for his amuse- 
ment The Dutch, highly incensed, demanded the immediate 
release of the man ; but the Turning'* gung refusing, an appli- 
cation was sent to the SusunaUy requesting that Marta Pura 
might be put to death. The Susitnan immediately sent for 
Pangeran Pugar and his minister, and desired them to com- 
mimicate with Mdrta PAra^ and if they found he had the 
courage to oppose the Dutch to give him assistance under 
hand, or to promote his success by some stratagem, in the 
same manner as he had done to Surapdti ; but if not, to let 
him be sacrificed, as a punishment for his cowardice. He 
then replied to the commodore, saying, that he had sent his 
own people to arrest Mdrta Pura^ and to deliver him to the 
commander, who might act with his person as he thought 
proper. When the minister arrived at Japdra it was agreed 
that Mdrta Pura should be invited into the Dutch fort, and 
there apprehended early next morning ; but in the meantime 
the agents of the Susunan had a secret interview with the 
chief, who declared himself ready to oppose the Dutch, and 
it was determined that their pretending to seize him should 
be a signal for all to join and amdk the Hollanders : but in 
the morning the heart of Mdrta Pura failed him. He twice 
refused to quit his retreat, and when at last he came into the 
presence of the party, he appeared trembling and pale, and 
his knees tottered imder him, so that he was scarcely able to 
stand. They then gave him a chair to sit down upon, and plied 
him with wine. An officer having taken his Arm from behind 
him, he rose from his chair and attempted to escape, but was 
bayoneted by a soldier on his way. The agents of the *S'ii- 
sunan^ enraged to see him so thoroughly frightened, gave him 
no assistance, but ordered the dogs to devour his carcase. 
When the Susunnn heard of the cowardly conduct of Mdrta 

o 2 


Pura he ordered that it should be publicly prohibited, on pmin 
of his severest punishment, to harbour or afford assistance to 
his relations or children. 

Afterwards the former Tumung*gung oi Japdra^ Secha Aa- 
gdray was replaced, and a communication was, through him, 
made to the Dutch, intimating the willingness of the SusitMm 
to co-operate against the Surapatiy in consequence of which 
orders were given for the Dutch troops to proceed from Ba- 
tavia. AVhen the Susunan had thus drawn the Dutch into a 
second attack upon this chieftain, he is represented ^^ as being 
^' most delighted at the prospect which it afibrded, that on 
*' the present occasion more of the Dutch troops might be 
*' sacrificed, in the same manner as in the recent affair at 
" Kerta Surar 

The Adipdti of Surabaya and Madura were immediately 
dispatched to Pasuruan to meet the Dutch, but having waited 
some time in vain for tlie arrival, a mock battle took place 
with Surapatiy when it was arranged that tlie Kerta Sura 
troops should take to flight, burning and laying waate the 
country as they retreated. A regular communication appears 
to have been kept up during the whole time between Surapdii 
and the Susunan y who aUowed him quietly to possess himself 
of the adjoining districts of Mdlang and Mddiom. The 
Rdden Adipdti Aurang Kasuma died about this time. 

The Dutch troops now arrived in tlie eastern districti^, and 
the commandant of Japdra applied for the assistance of the 
Susunan ; but tlie latter, alleging tliat his chiefs had been 
recently beaten and obliged to retreat from Pasurua$9y urged 
delay, on the plea of waiting a more favourable opportunity 
of attack. 

In the meantime family feuds disturbed tlie peace of the 
krdton. The hereditary' jmnce, Pangdran Adipdti Amamgkm 
Nagdrtty had married the daughter of his cousin, PamgSram 
Pugar, but after tlie expiration of the forty days he disre* 
garded her, and she returned to her father's ])rotection. One 
of the most distinguished characters at the court was the son 
of the prime minister. The hereditary prince, jealous of the 
universal admiration which he enjoyed, detennined to lower 
him by the infliction of tlie greatest disgrace which could be 
endured. Naturally of a fier)- disposition, he became 


sively enraged at an accident which occurred to him while 
hunting in the forest of Rdnda Wahdna^ and which occa- 
sioned a lameness in his legs. As soon as he returned home 
he sent for this youth, whom he immediately ordered to be 
boimd and severely flogged with a rattan : he then directed 
him to be tied to a tree abounding with ants, which soon 
covered his body ; a favourite mode of inflicting cruel punish- 
ment. There the young man suffered dreadfully, but his 
tortures were not at an end : he was afterwards flogged till he 
nearly expired, and then sent to the house of his father, the 
prime minister, who, although much enraged, was obliged to 
suppress his resentment. Determined afterwards to revenge 
himself, he seduced the wife of the Pangeran Adipdti^ who 
had returned to her father's house, as above stated. The con- 
nection was discovered, and all parties were put to death. 

The Susunan becoming now dangerously ill, from an affec- 
tion of the spleen which he had contracted at the time of the 
massacre of the Dutch under Tak, called into his presence his 
eldest son, the Pang&ran Adipdtiy his brother, Pangeran 
PugaVy and his two firm adherents, the Adipdtis of Madura 
and Surabdyay and thus addressed them : " The time which 
" is allotted to me in this world has nearly expired; but 
" before I depart let me impress upon you all the necessity 
" and advantage of your mutually supporting each other. If 
" you hold together, then will the sovereignty of Java become 
" pure and strong. The Adipdtis of MadHra and Surabaya 
" will be as the surface of the idmpa (or sifter) on which rice 
" is cleansed from the husk ; the Pangeran Pugar as the 
" wdngku (or rim of the sifter) ; and the Pangeran Adipati 
" will be as the one who sifts or fans the rice. When the 
Pang&ran Adipdti ascends the throne, let him attach him- 
self to the other three, by which means he will cleanse and 
strengthen his government, even as the rice is cleansed 
" from the husk in the tdmpa. Let him study the ^Titings 
Niti Prdjay Ntii Sastrdy Srutiy Asia Brdta and Jdya 
Ldngkara ; to abandon his vicious habits, never to ill use 
" his \*dves, and to be kind and constant to his present wife 
" (another daughter of the Pangeran Pugar. Y' 

In a short time the Susunan died. The Pangeran Adipdti^ 
who was destined to succeed him, excited much disapproba- 



tion and disgust by his ungrateful neglect of the cnstoinarjr 
rites due to the body of the deceased, and his indecent eager- 
ness to ascend the throne before it was even vacated. The 
practice of the country required him to wash and purify the 
corpse with his own hands ; but he left the task to the women, 
while he shut all the gates of the krdian and seated himself in 
front on the setingel. The deceased was buried at Megtri^ 
and his widow, R&tu Kanchdna^ attended the procession, dis* 
tributing money as she past along, to the amount of one thoii- 
sand dollars and more. 

As soon as the body was removed the Pangiran Adipdii 
assembled all his chiefs, and addressed them to the following 
effect : " All ye who are present bear witness, that the Paii- 
^* geran Adipdii AmAngku Nag&ra has succeeded to the 
^' sovereignty of his late father, Susinan Mangkirai^ and as 
^* ye acknowledged and respected the father, now do the same 
" to the son ;*' to which they all ejaculated assent To this 
Rdden Subrdfa^ who wished to shew his attachment to the 
young prince by raising him in the eyes of the people, added, 
" the sovereignty descends to you by the will of the Al- 
" mighty ; it has not been assumed by yourself ;" but no one 
answered. All the chiefs present, however, approached the 
prince and kissed his feet, in proof of their acknowledgment 
of his authority. The new Su^inan then declared Rdfiu 
Kanchdna his queen, and nominated the principal officers of 
state : and as soon as he returned to the ddlam addressed 
three letters, one to the Governor General of Batavia, one to 
the commandant at Japdra^ and one to the commandant at 
Semdrangy informing them of his having assumed the sore- 
reignty in succession to his ancestors. He likewise entmsled 
a letter for Batavia, and another for the Governor General, to 
the care of Captain Knol at Setndrang, 

On first granting their support to the deceased prince, the 
Dutch required that he should enter into a bond, dated 10th 
October 1677, confirming the treaty of the 25th Febmary pie- 
ceding, and acknowledging a debt to the Dutch of tliirtj 
thousand dollars, together with three thousand kdfatu of rice, 
as a security for which he was required to mortgage to the 
Dutch all the sea-ports from the river Krdtcang to the eastern 
extremity of the island. The whole revenues of these [daeas, 



including in particular all the rice deliverable to the state, 
were also to be received by the Dutch in diminution of this 

At the same time, also, the Susunan was called upon to 
execute a deed of cession, confirming the act of the 28th 
February preceding, and setting forth that his father, having 
already verbally expressed an intention to make over to the 
Dutch his rights on the kingdom of Jdkatra (or land l3ang 
between the river of Untung Jdwa and Krdwang and the 
northern and southern sea-coasts), the said grant was further 
confirmed, and the whole of the province of Jdkatra ceded 
accordingly, the inhabitants who wished to remain being 
ordered to acknowledge the Dutch as their lawful sovereign, 
but all being at liberty to place themselves under the Stis&nan 
and to leave the Dutch territory, till the expiration of twelve 
months afler the publication of this act 

By this deed of cession, the Susunan also ceded to the 
Dutch, in acknowledgment of the services rendered by 
Admiral Speelman against the rebels, the coimtry between 
the Krdwang and Pamanukan rivers, in a straight line to 
the South Sea, with all the immunities and privileges attached 
to it 

This document further prohibited the importation of cloths 
and opium by any one except the Dutch, and contained the 
appointment of Adipdti Mandardka to be chief of Tegal 
and the western, and Aria Urawdn to be chief of Jdpara and 
the eastern sea coast 

On the 15th January 1678, a charter was procured firom the 
Susunan^ placing the sugar trade of Japdra entirely in the 
hands of the Dutch. A grant was made them of the manage- 
ment of the town and jurisdiction ofSdmrang and the village of 
Kaligwdiy that is to say, the right of appointing governors of 
their own at those places, without the least interference on 
the part of the Susunan ; on condition, however, that the 
revenues should be duly accounted for and paid to his high- 
nesses officers by those of the Dutch. But as his highness 
was still in debt to the Dutch, those revenues were provision- 
ally taken in diminution of the debt 

In Bantam the Dutch had made various treaties with the 


On the 17th April 1684 a contract was signed with the 
sultan of Bantam, by which it was stipulated, among other 
articles, that the contract of the 10th July 1650 should be 
renewed and confirmed ; that the sultan should gire no kind 
of assistance to the enemies of the Dutch, and undertjJie 
nothing hostile against their allies, particularly the Susmmam 
and the prince of Cheribon ; that the Tdng'ran river, from iU 
mouth to its origin, and from thence a line drawn from south 
until it meets the South Sea, should be the boundaries fixed 
upon between the Dutch jurisdiction and the Bantam 
country, it being understood that the whole of the Tdmg'ram 
or Untong Jatca river, with its mouths, should be the pro- 
perty of the Dutch, together with six hundred rods of land 
to the northward from fort Bdbakan to the sea, with liberty 
to erect such paggars^ or forts, on the western banks of the 
river, as should be deemed necessary for purposes of safety ; 
the inhabitants of the Bantam side • to be permitted to fish in 
the river, and to appropriate its waters to the purposes of cul- 
tivation, but no vessels to be allowed to enter the river from 
the sea witliout Compaiiy*s passes ; that the claims of the 
Dutch on the govennnent of Bantam should be reduced to 
twelve thousand rix dollars, or one-eighth of its original 
amount ; that his highness should give up all claims to the 
principality of Cheribon ; that the fourth article of the coo- 
tract of 1659 should remain in force, and consequently that 
no ground or factory rent should be paid by the Dutch, but 
that the sultan should give as much ground gratis, as the pur- 
poses of the factor}* might require ; that his highness should 
conclude no contracts with other powers contrary to the 
present treaty. 

On the same day, however, a bond was executed by the 
Sultan, in favor of the Dutch, for the payment of the expenses 
incurred in assisting his highness against the rebel sultan^ 
and his friend the British resident, who it is stated in this 
document would have received the punishment due to his 
conduct but for the interference of the Dutch, to whose pro- 
tection he was indebted for the moderation with which his 
highness had restricted his punishment to a final remoral 
from Bantam. Tliis obligation states the sultan's debt to be 
six Inmdred thousand rix -dollars, which he promises to pay 


either in specie or pepper, or by remission of duties ; and he 
also grants therein to the Dutch the sole trade in pepper and 
cloths, in the countries of Bantam^ Lampungj and Silebar. 

On the 28th April 1684, a deed was executed, by which the 
sultan of Bantam^s debt of six hundred thousand rix-dollars 
was remitted, on condition that the Company should enjoy the 
privileges mentioned in the bond of the 17th instant ; but 
whenever the above privileges were violated on the sultanas 
part, the Dutch held themselves justified in requiring pay- 
ment of the debt in question. 

. On the 15th February 1686, an agreement was entered into 
with the sultan of Bantam, by which, among other stipula- 
tions, the Dutch engaged to assist the sultan against his 
rebellious subjects, with men, ammimition, and vessels, on 
condition that he would pay the expense ; it being stipulated 
that they should not leave their factory dining the night; 
that they should not be permitted to walk outside the town 
T^dthout the sultan's and the Resident's permission ; that they 
should not enter the houses of the natives, much less stay 
there during the night ; that they should not take away any 
articles in the bazars without duly paying for tlie same ; that 
they should not enter any gardens or premises without per- 
mission from the proprietors ; that they should not enter any 
temples without previous leave ; that they should not detain 
any females in their houses, nor stop them in the streets ; on 
meeting the sultan in the streets, that they should shew his 
highness the accustomed honours ; that they should not stop 
whenever the sultan or sultana bathed in the river, but pass 
without looking at their highnesses; that they should not 
interfere with the disputes and judicial proceedings of the 
natives. By the eighteenth article it was mutually agreed, 
that offenders, of either party, should be punished according 
to their respective laws, and each by his own nation ; and 
that the whole of the black and white pepper produced at 
Bantam should be sold to the Dutch at a fixed price. 

On the 4th December 1687, on the occasion of the acces- 
sion to the throne of a new sultan of Bantam, an act of 
renovation of all former treaties was passed, together with a 
renewal of the bond for six hundred thousand dollars, and of 


the deed remitting the same, on conditicm that the privileges 
heretofore specified were granted to the Dutch at Bantam. 

On the 3d March 1601, on occasion of the elevation to the 
throne of another sultan, an act of renewal was passed of the 
contracts concluded at different periods between the Datch 
and the sultans of Bantam. 

On the 6th January 1681 an agreement was rigned with the 
three chiefs of Cherihon^ setting forth the gratitude of thoee 
princes for the signal services rendered them by the Dutch, 
and their determination to follow the Dutch Company's 
advice under all circumstances, and to assist the Dutch 
government whenever their aid might be required, on coo- 
dition that they should, in like manner, be assisted by the 
Dutch in cases of emergency, each party bearing the expense 
of all armaments undertaken for his benefit The three 
princes promised to live upon good terms with the Sutmnam, 

In the event of one of the three princes, or other persons, 
committing any acts prohibited by the present articles, or de- 
rogatory to his highness the Susinany it v^'as agreed, that 
such conduct should be punished with the utmost severity. 

The other stipulations of importance were, that no fortifica- 
tions should be erected by the princes ^lithout the consent of 
the Governor-General, who should have leave to build a fac- 
tory at Ch&riboHj and to cause all species of merchandijM to 
be imported dutyfree. That all pepper growing in the king- 
dom of Ch^rihon should be disposed of to the Dutch at the 
bazaar price ; that the trade in sugar and rice should be firee 
to all, upon payment of an export duty of two per cent to the 
princes; that vessels belonging to powers at war with the 
Dutch should not be permitted to enter the ports of CkHibomj 
but be dealt ^nth as enemies. 

On the 7th September 1680, another contract was entoed 
into ^nth the princes of Cheribon^ by which all former differ- 
ences were declared to be forgotten, and Panambabam^ Ck^ 
rihon^ and sultan Anam^ promised to respect and honour their 
elder brotlier, sultan S^pu^ as the first-bom of their Pammm^ 
bdhan Kiai Giri iMytih, Sultan Sipu promised, on the other 
hand, not to slight his brothers in any way, but on the con- 
trar}' to treat them, on every occasion, with the deference doe 


to their rank. It was agreed, that there shall be one place 
only for holding tournaments, where the royal brothers would 
appear every Saturday in their state dresses, attended by their 
mdntrisy and that, to prevent disputes, they should be seated 
to the right and left of sultan S^u^ and all the mdntris 
below; but that, should indisposition prevent one of them 
from attending the tournament, they should send due notice 
thereof on the Saturday morning. At the tournament the 
sultan only had the right to speak; but sultan S^pu not 
being present, that right was to devolve on the second, and 
in his absence on the third chief. In the event of all the 
princes being prevented from attending, the eldest sons of 
sultan Sepu and Anom should make their appearance, and 
the command devolve on the PangSran. That in conse- 
quence of frequent disputes having arisen among the princes, 
with reference to the appointment and supercession of prime 
minister, the right of nominating to that office was vested ex- 
clusively in the governor-general of Batavia. That in the 
event of any difference occurring between the princes, which 
they could not adjust themselves, the resident of Ch&ribon 
should be requested to act as arbitrator on the part of the 
Dutch. That should one of the princes refuse to comply with 
this article, the other birothers should on no account molest 
him, but simply report the matter to the Batavian govern- 
ment, through their ambassadors. The dissenting prince 
should, however, in that case, voluntarily place himself in the 
resident's custody, who should not be permitted to convey 
him out of Cheribon. 

Mr. Middlekoop mentions, that during the reign of this 
prince, the principality of Madura was conferred by the 
Sumnan on Chakra Diningrat ; but the inhabitants of Sume- 
nap being discontented with this choice, they informed the 
Stisunan that they would rather die than submit to that au- 
thority ; upon which the Susunan thought proper to divide 
that coimtry into two parts, giving to Chdkra Diningrat the 
western distiict, and the eastern, or Sumenap district, U)Mas 
Ydng WulaUy who took the name of Y6dha Nagdra. In the 
year 1683, the whole island oi Madura revolted, and became 
subject to the Dutch government. 

But to retium to Pangeran Adipdii Amdngku Nagdra^ 


usuaU J caUed Mangkurat MdJt, The authority of this prince 
seems to have been attacked almost immediately after hit 
accession to the throne ; for Rdden Suria Ka9^maj a son of 
the Pang&ran Pugar^ having accompanied the procession 
which attended the body of the late Susunan to the grave, 
persuaded many of the party to declare him sovereign of 
Java, imder the title of Stinun Panatagdma, The SttsAnam 
Mangkurat Mas no sooner heard of this, than he became 
highly enraged with his uncle, the Pangeran Pmgar^ and sent 
hack to him his daughter, the queen Ratu Kanchana. He 
afterwards ordered the Pangeran vnih Ids vi-ives and children 
into his presence, and commanding them to be seized, pob- 
licly exposed them on the alun aitin^ in a pen or railing made 
for that purpose, which the Javans call betek. Rdden Smria 
was apprehended. 

On the one hundredth day after the death of the late Susm- 
fian, the \inves of tlie chiefs being assembled to prepare a 
customary feast, intended ^' to give a blessing to the jonmej 
" of the deceased," the Sustinan conceived a passion for Apu 
Pakutcati, the wife of the Adipdti of Madura^ and availed 
himself of his power over her to gratify it She, however, 
soon made her escape, and reported the particulars to her 
husband, who in revenge concurred with the Adipdti of Se* 
mdrang, in urging tlie Pangeran Pugar to assume the sove- 
reignty. " So large a party," said these chiefs, " being in 
" favoiu^ of your pretensions, you can never be condenmed 
'' for assuming the goveniment ; for as with men who drink 
" a bottle of wine, if there are few of tliem they must neces* 
" sarily become intoxicated, but if there are many, truly it is 
" nothing at all." 

Being assured by the Adipdti of Semdrang^ that the Dutch 
won* not cordial friends of the present Sununany the Pamgeram 
was at last prevailed upon to escape yri\h his family and a 
chi>sen band to Semdrang^ where the Dutch received him, 
and conditionally proclaimed him sovereign of Java. 

As soon as the Susunan Mangkurat Mom was informed of 
the do)Kirture of the Pangeran^ he applied to the commis- 
iUi»iiorH at Semdrang to have him delivered up ; but recetved 
toi ivply an intimation, that he was under the protection of 
ihi* Ouu*h« and that if the Susunan wanted him he most 


come for him himself. Enraged at this evasion, he ordered 
that Baden Suria Kasuma^ the son of the PangeraUj should 
immediately be put to death. The^oung prince wa^ accord* 
inglyObrought into l^p. presenc^ for the purpose Arhen a great\ 
eruption suddenly took place from Merdpi^ the mountain| 
emitting a sound louder than thu^er, and flame which en«( 
lightened all ^rta Sura, ThQySusunan thinking that hisj 
end was approaching, sent the young king back into confine- 
ment, when the sounds immediately ceased, and the mountain, 
emitted no more flame. The Susunan conceiving all danger^ 
at an end, once more ordered the execution of the prince, but 
a more violent eruption than the first instantly rent the moun-/ 
tain asunder. The alarm of the Stisunan was increased, an(^' 
considering this was ^gdro-gdrOj or? sign, that the prince wail 
favoured by the Almighty, he altered his intentions, received 
his intended victim into favour) and appointed him a Pange- 
ratty under the title of Pangeran Ang'^ehdi Salering Peken, 
with an assignment of one thousand chdchas of land. 

He appointed the Adipdti of Madura j under the name of 
Panambdhan Chakra Ntngraty chief over all the coast dis- 
tricts, from Bribes to Banyuwdngiy and the Tumung'gimg of 
Surdbayay under the name of Adipdti Jaeng Bdna^ to be his 
Pdteh. To the Tumung^gung of Semdrang he also gave the 
title of Adipdti Sura Adimang'gdla 

Immediately afler his accession he had written to the Dutch 
government ; but. it appears that the letter was not forwarded 
from Semdrang to Batavia until after the Pangerang Pugar 
had taken part against him. According to the Dutch ac- 
counts, the ambassadors of both parties arrived nearly at the 
same time at Batavia, were admitted to audience the next 
day, and were received, not like ambassadors, but rather as 

The objections urged by the Dutch to the acknowledgment 
of the Siisunan were the following ; — 1st. Because he was a 
great tyrant, and well known to have instigated his father to 
a rupture with the Dutch, and to have himself menaced hos- 
tilities against them, as soon as he should have mounted the 
throne. 2d. Because his embassy did not consist of princes 
of his family, and the piime minister, as usual, but of two 


common regents only. Sd. Becanse the letter which com- 
municated his father^s death, and annonnced his own acces- 
sion, although it contained a request for protection mgainat 
his enemies, did not apply for their sanction or confirmatioiiy 
nor declare his readiness to renew the contracts, to acknow- 
ledge the debts, and to fulfil the engagements formerly stipa* 
lated, though he ought to have known that this was the baas 
upon which alone the Dutch could have recognized his title 
as sovereign of Java. 4th. Because letters had been inter- 
cepted, in which he invited the prince of Madira to jmn him 
against the Dutch, calling them his mortal enemies, whom he 
intended to expel from the island of Java. 

These combined circumstances induced the Dutch goreni- 
roont not to acknowledge him as successor to his £uher, 
although they, with a view to gain time until the arrival of a 
fleet expected from Holland vinth a reinforcement of tioopa, 
wrote to him, merely declining to receive his ambassadors as 
such, and requiring him to send others, whose fSunily coo- 
nections and rank might entitle them to more consideratioii, 
and with whom they might treat. 

After it was arranged that Pangeran Pigar should becone 
sovereign, the three chief Dutch authorities then at Semarmmg 
waited u]K)n him, to inform him thereof, at the same requir- 
ing that, in return for the assistance intended to be afforded 
hiui, he should, on assuming the authority, cede to the Dnlch 
the ])rovinces of Demdky Japdra^ and Tegalj in compensalios 
for tlie expt*nses they might incur on his account Pamgermm 
Pugar fettling no inclination to comply i%ith these conditiooa, 
though anxious to avoid a ruptiurc with the Dutch, propoaed, 
instead of a cession of territor}^ that he should become gene- 
rally responsible for all the expenses of the war; ** toit^ 
said he, 'Mf it is through the assistance of the Dutch thai I 
^^ am ])laced upon the throne, of course it would not be be- 
'* coming in me to refuse them any thing they require : but 
'^ with res]>ect to this n*quest, is it not better that, at present, 
'* we attend to what is necessan* to secure the throne, and 

aftem'ards talk of minor matters ? I am willing to pay all 

the expenses which it may occasion to the Dutch.'* With 
this the commissioners were satisfied ; and the troops 



arrived from Europe, it was resolved, on the 18th of March, 
1704, to place Pangeran Pugar upon the throne, and to 
maintain him on it. 

The Dutch ships and troops having reached Semarang in 
April, and the part they intended to take being now for the 
first time manifest to Susunan Mangkurat Mas, he dis- 
patched three messengers to the Dutch representative at Se» 
mdrang^ with the sum of seventy thousand dollars in specie, 
and authority to renew former contracts, and comply with 
every requisition which the Dutch might make, provided they 
would acknowledge his succession to the throne ; but these 
messengers had only reached Tinker when they fell in with 
the Dutch troops, and were obliged to secure their safety by 
flight, leaving the money behind. 

The Pangeran Pugar was publicly installed by the Dutch 
at Semarang * on the 19th of June. 

The districts oiDemdkj Grohdgan^ SiseUij and all the lands 
beyond Semdrang as far as Un*gdrang^ were immediately 
taken possession of by the Dutch, and the troops of the Susu^ 
nan Mangkurat MaSy which had moved towards Semdrang, 
were forced to retreat on Kerta Sura. 

Before the departiure of the Pang&ran, the Dutch had 
again pressed him to cede the provinces of Semdrang, TegaX, 
and Japdra, but by the advice of the Panumbdhan of Ma- 
dura and his principal chiefs, he still refrised compliance, and 
they were not able to obtain any decided promise from him, 
beyond reimbursement for the expenses of the war. When 
they were arrived, however, at Ung^drang, the prince happen- 
ing to be alone, unattended by any of the Bopdii, the Dutch 
commander seized the opportunity which he had been so long 
watching for, to assure him how truly and sincerely the Dutch 
were inclined to assist him, not only on the present occasion, 
but hereafter, whenever he might require their aid. "The 
" Dutch," added he, " are in great want of rice, and request 
" your highness will have the kindness to grant them a thou- 
" sand koyans (two thousand tons) a year without pajrment.'* 

* From the circumstance of this installation having taken place at Se- 
mdrang, two wdringen trees are allowed to distinguish the ahm alun of the 


The Pangeran made no reply: he wished for time to 
think upon it ; but the chiefs of the Dutch came up to him, 
and returned him many thanks and compliments for his hav- 
ing thus, as they said, agreed to their request The prince, 
though he wished to say he had not given his promisey yet 
felt ashamed, after the thanks and compliments he had re- 
ceived, to express what he thought He therefore bowed his 
head and was silent. They then entreated him to draw out 
his assent in writing, and to affix his seal to it, as a proof of 
his voluntary surrender of the present With this he c<nn- 

The paper was no sooner obtained, than the Dutch 
ojficers again returned their thanks. They then withdrew, 
and the troops being under arms, a salute was fired on the 
occasion. When tliis circumstance came to the ears of the 
Adipdti of Semarangy he hastened to the Pangeran^ and thus 
addressed him, *^ Be not offended, my prince, if I presume to 

open your eyes to the proccediugs of tliese Hollanders, 

who are so rapacious in their demands. They had already 
*^ consulted with mc on the subject of this rice, and they 
*' knew tlie opinion of your advisers to be against it, they 
*' therefore watched for their opportunity to find you akme. 
*' I little thought you would have taken upon yourself lo act 
'^ tlms, witliout consulting your chiefs. I imagined the 
^^ Dutch were satisfied with the answer I had given them, and 
" would not have thought of going to you about it*' The 
Susunan gave him in return the histor}' of the grant, and pro- 
mised faitlifully tliat, if ever they made another request of the 
kind, he would send for his advisers immediately. 

Before the Dutch moved towards the interior, they con- 
trived to bribe Jdga Diningrat^ the chief who commanded 
the K^rta-ftura troops, and with his assistance possessed 
themselves without difficulty of tlie fortified stations of PeJai* 
pogang, Ung^drang^ and Selatiga, The main force of the 
K&rta-nura troops, consisting of about forty thousand men, 
was encamped in a strong position, not far from the latter 
place. After making considerable resistance, they were 
obliged to retreat in confusion, and the combined army |m>* 
secuting its march towanls the capital, carried Asem by as* 
saidt, and reached Kerta-isura shortly afler SttsuHom Mmm§* 


kdrat Mas had quitted it All the chiefs who remained sub- 
mitted to the new authority, and were received under its pro- 
tection, with the exception of the son of Pangeran Pigar^ 
who was strangled. Susiinan Mangkurat Mfis^ called also 
Sumnan Pinckangy on account of his lameness, was at this 
time about thirty-four years of age. His reign was short, but 
remarkable for severity and cruelty. 

Pang&ran Pugar was fifty-six years of age when he as- 
cended the throne. He had seven legitimate children, Pan- 
geran Matdranj Ang^ehdi Lereng Pdser (who had remained 
with the deposed Sumnan J ^ Jdga Rdgay Mdngku Nagdra^ 
Mdngku Burnt (who was declared hereditary prince, and suc- 
ceeded his father), Blttary and Tepa Sena. 

The title assumed by Pangeran Pugar j with the concurrence 
of the Dutch, was Susuhunan Pakahuana Senapdti Ingaldga 
Abdul Rdchman Panatagdma^ which may be rendered " The 
" saint who is the nail of the empire, the chief commander 
" in war, the slave of God, and propagator of the true faith." 

An occurrence which took place shortly afl;er the assump- 
tion of the government by this prince is noticed by the Javan 
writers, and argued highly in favour of the justice and im- 
partiality of this prince. 

The wife of M&rta Yudha^ writer to the SusHnany and 
nephew of the Adipdti of Semdrang^ presented herself before 
him, alleging that her life was endangered by the cruel treat- 
ment of her husband, and imploring that she might be divorced 
from him, or protected against his ill usage. The Susiinan 
inquiring into the particulars, ascertained from the testimony 
of the woman herself, that she was attached to Pangeran 
Adipdti, the son of the SusHnan, who had frequently visited 
at her house in the absence of her husband, and that the se- ' 
verities she had suffered were the consequence of the rage 
which a discovery of that fact had occasioned. He called 
upon the Pang&ran Adipdti to say if it was correct ; and the 
prince, being ashamed to tell a falsehood, acknowledged the 
fact: wherefore his father reproved him in the strongest 
terms, and cautioned him not to be guilty of a lilte transgres- 
sion a second time. Then calling for Merta Yudha, he thus 
addressed him : " Merta Yudha, your wife has come to me 
" requesting my interference to procure her a divorce from 

VOL. II. p 


^' you, or that I should prohibit you from again ill-treatiiig 
" her in the same severe manner you have before done^ on ac- 
" count of her attachment to my son, the Pangeran Adipaii^ 
To which Merta Yudha replied, " Respecting this affair, al- 
^' low mc to explain. She committecl an offence towards me, 
*^ and she now comes to you to complain of mc, saying I had 
" beaten her until she was nearlv dead. That I did beat her 

is true, but that I did so until she was nearly dead is utterly 

false. I beat her when I was enraged ; but, as my anger 
'^ subsided, I quickly became kind to her again ; and yet she 
^' has the audacity to request a divorce. This completes three 
^' offences ; in tlie first, place she committed the fault ; in the 
^^ second, she has told a falsehood ; and in the third, she has 
^' requested a divorce. These points I submit to the jostice 
'* of your majesty.^* The SusynaUj then reflected that as the 
Pang^an Adipdti's conduct had been the cause of this wo« 
man's offence, it would not be just to pimish her, without 
also punishing his son ; and being disinclined to be severe with 
him on account of his youth, he felt at a loss how to decide 
with justice. At length, seeing but one way to get rid of 
the difficulty, he thus addressed Merta Yudha : ** Enoagb, 
" Merta Yudha ; the fault rests ^i-ith my son the Pamfferam 
" Adipdtiy and your wife cannot be condemned to pnnish- 
^' ment, imless my son be also condemned. Now I have not 

the j)ower to condemn my son, on account of his youth ; 

tliercfore, I publicly request your pardon for my sonV of» 
" fence. If you wish to be divorced, the permission is granted, 
" and I will i>rovide you with another wife. You want her 
" inune<liately — it is w<»ll ; — but I have no women at present 

exccj)t my own, none but the Rdty and my own daughters. 

Make your choice, and whichever you prefer of them* I 
" will presi»nt to you in marriage. Mace your confidence in 
*' what I say, and believe that I sav no more than what I 
"will do." 

Merta Yudhay struck with astonishment, knew not how to 
reply. At last, after bo^nng his head several times to the 
ground, he declared that he was overcome by this act of mag* 
naniniity ; that he forgave the young prince from his heart, and 
would willingly n»ceive his wife* back again, and treat her with 
kindness, llie Suimnan then <hsmissod the parties, giving 


them advice as to their future conduct, and preaenting them 
with a sum of money and several rich presents. Merta 
Yudha and his wife, say the Javan writers, afterwards lived 
most happily together, and never ceased to praise the justice 
and magnanimity of the prince. 

In the spring of 1705, the Dutch government again sent a 
force to Semdranffy which was joined by seven thousand 
Madurese, under the command of Panambahan Chdkra 

At this time Surapdii^ who, after his first arrival at Ma- 
tdremy had offered to surrender, again made an application 
to the Dutch for protection, and offered to send six thousand 
auxiliaries, promising at the same time to conduct himself as 
a faithful subject ; but his offer was rejected. 

On the 5th October, 1705, a contract was entered into by 
the new sovereign with the Dutch, by which, 1st, the con- 
tracts of the 24th September, 1640, and 20th October, 1677, 
and all privileges and immunities granted by Susunan Mang- 
kurat Mas to Messrs. Speelman and Cooper, were confirmed. 
2d. His highness ceded to the Dutch the district of G^i^n^ as 
situated within the following boundaries ; viz. *^ From the 
^^ mouth of the Ddnan^ on the southern shore, in a westerly di- 
'^ rection along its banks as far as Pasiiruanj where there is an 
^^ inland lake ; thence along the north-eastern sea-shore to the 
** mouth of the river Che-bronij and ftirther on along the north- 
^^ eastern side of an accessible swamp to Che-satia^ near the 
" village Madura^ thence in a north-easterly direction over the 
'^ mountains of Ddyu-luhur to mount Sumdna or Suhdng, and 
" then south-east over the mountains of Bonkok^ where a nor- 
" therly direction is taken, and continued to the river Losdri^ 
" and further on along the banks of thai river to its mouth on 
" the northern coast of the island." 8d. The StisufMn acknow- 
ledged Cheribon as an independent state, in consequence of 
that coimtry having, in 1680, been saved by the Dutch firom 
the ravages of a banditti. 4th. The Susunan resigned to the 
protection of the Dutch the countries of Sumenap and Pa- 
makdsan^ stated to have been forced on them during the 
reign of Susunan Tegdl-aronij by the chief Yudha Nagdra, 
5th. The Susunan renewed and confirmed the cession of Se- 
tndrang and KtHigawe^ as stated in the transfer of 15th 

P 2 


January, 1678. He further ceded to the Dutch the porto of 
Torbdyd and Gumulak, on condition that the tolls continued 
to be collected for his own benefit, as at Sdmarang. The 
Dutch, on the other hand, agreed to restore about fifty villages 
which belonged to Demdk and Kaligdtce. 

It was agreed that the tolls on goods imported into, or ex- 
ported from, the Susunani's dominions by the Dutch, should 
be levied according to the above-mentioned contract of 25th 
Febniary, 1677, and that the Susunan should in future require 
a duty of three instead of two per cent, firom individuals 
trading with Dutch passes, it being left to his highness to fix 
the duties to be levied on goods belonging to persons who 
were not furnished with licences firom the Dutch. 7ih. The 
Dutch obtained lil>erty to establish factories in every part of 
the Susunan^s dominions, for which sufficient lots of vacant 
ground were to be given them, to answer every purpose of 
safety and convenience, and also to establish yards for build* 
ing vessels. The Javan chiefs were bound to supply the 
Dutch at all times, payment being made for the same, with 
timber, labourers, &c. but tliey were to pay no capitation, and 
only to be considered as Company's subjects, as long as thej 
should be employed by the Company. 8th. Ilis highness 
promised to supply the Dutch with as much rice as should be 
required, at the market price, the Dutch being also at liberty 
to purchase that article from his highnesses subjects, who wete 
also allowed to export rice to Batavia, and all countries at 
peace witli tlie Dutch. 9th. Pursuant to the contract of ld77, 
the Susunan agreed to continue to shut his ports against 
MahUarit^ Bmgin^ MaldyiM^ Bdlianny and other foreigners^ 
except such as should obtain the permission of the Dutch. 
lOtl). It was agreed that the Dutch, and all ]x*rsons authorised 
by them, should continue to enjoy the exclusive privilege of 
in. porting and selling opium and clothes, as granted to then 
by Susunan Mangkurat^ on tlie 20th Octol>er, 1677 : that the 
native chic^fs should carefully prevent all encroachments on 
this monopoly, and that all seizures of prohibited goods made 
by tliem and by the Company's ser\'ants, should be for the 
profit of his highness, to whose discretion it was left to re- 
uuuuratt* the officers making llie seizure. 11th. That all 
seizures made at sea by the Company's cniizers shoukl he fiir 


tlic sole benefit of the captors, although afterwards brought 
into his highness's ports. 12th. The SusunatCs subjects 
were to be prohibited from trading otherwise than with Com- 
pany's passes, and their trade eastward was restricted to Bali 
and Ldmhoky northward to Borneo and Banjarmdsiny and 
westward to Bantam^ Ldmpung, Jdmhij Indragiri^ Joh&r and 
Malacca. They were prohibited from visiting the eastern go- 
vernments, or Butofij Timor ^ Bimay &c., on pain of confisca- 
tion of vessels, cargo, &c. It was declared, that whenever his 
highness should be desirous of sending vessels to these quar- 
ters on his own account, the Dutch should attend to his 
wishes, as far as might be consistent with their regulations. 
13th. The balance remaining due to the Dutch of the debts 
of his highness, adverted to in the contracts of 25th February 
and 15th October, 1677, was remitted, together with the sum 
to be paid to Captain Jonker for the delivery of the rebel 
Truna Jdya, and all other claims of the Dutch on his high- 
ness, for expenses incurred in re-establishing him on the 
throne, &c. on the express condition that this contract should 
be faithfiilly observed ; otherwise the said claims and preten- 
sions to retain their former validity. In consideration of this 
important remission, his highness promised to supply the 
Company during twenty-five years, commencing in 1706, with 
eight hundered lasts of good rice annually, deliverable at Ba- 
tavia by his highnesses own vessels. An article was after- 
wards added to this treaty, by which it was stipulated, that no 
other European nation than the Dutch should ever be per- 
mitted to trade or build factories on Java. 

On the 11th October, 1705 *, a Anther agreement was en- 
tered into by his highness, by which he promised to bear the 
expense of keeping a detachment of two hundred men of the 
Dutch troops at K&rtasHray for his highnesses protection and 
security, amounting to thirteen hundred Spanish dollars per 

On the 12th July, 1706, a treaty for determining the boun- 
daries between the territories of the Susunan and those of the 
Dutch was entered into. 

* Contract Wilde. 


The deposed prince, Sutunan Mamgkiarai Ma$f after flying 
from his capital, proceeded to the eastern districts, and join* 
ing Surapdti, reduced the eastern provinces under their 
authority, and appeared confident of success, being possessed 
of immense treasures in specie and jewels, which he had 
carried off with him. 

In 1706, however, the army of Surapdti was defeated by 
the allied Dutch and Javan forces^ and Kediri was taken. 
Subsequently, the large combined army of Mangkurai Mom 
and Surapdti was put to the rout and dispersed. Smrapdii 
shortly after died in the momitains of Bdngil^ according to 
some accounts, of the effect of his wounds. He was sue- 
ceeded in office by his son, Panydtingj who took the name of 
Adipdti Wira Nagdra^ and being allied by mairiage to the 
chiefs of Kedirij Balambdng^any and Gr^sUcf brought many 
of the eastern districts again to acknowledge the authority of 
Mangkurat Mas, Additional forces were, in consequence, 
sent from Batavia by the Dutch, which arrived at Semdramg 
in 1707, and immediately proceeded, first to Kerta-^ra^ and 
then to the eastward. Falling in with the enemy of Mddiam^ 
they put him to flight, and continued their march to Smra* 
bdya^ where the disturbances which had broken out on the 
island of Madura obliged them to halt 

On the death of the native chief of Madura his elded 
natural son, Sdstra Nagdra^ had declared himself his soc- 
cessor, and placed troops round the island to oppose the 
landing of his uncle, Rdden Suria Nagdra^ who had been 
appointed to the succession by the Dutch. The Dutch, how- 
ever, found means to satisfy both parties, by conferring the 
separate charge o( Sdmpang on Sdstra Nagdra. 

At Sumemtp tliey met with greater difficulty. The native 
chief, Ndga Sid^ma^had been stabbed by his secretary: the 
secretary was ailerw ards killed by the slave of the chie£ A 
tiunult was thus excited, and tlie Dutch commanding officer 
having given offence to the principal inhabitants they pro- 
ceeded witii a large proportion of the population to the 
nortliem part of the island. The Dutch at length succeeded 
in establishing the infant son of tlie deceased as chief of iSil- 
menap^ with tlie title of Rdden Tumimg*gung Prin^ga Ka- 


sumay under the guardianship of his mother, Rdtu Siddyu, 
With these proceedings the campaign closed for that year *. 

In the following year, 1708, the Dutch sent further rein- 
forcements to the eastward, and preparations were making for 
opening the campaign, when the fugitive Susunan^ hearing 
of the arrival of the Dutch at Surabaya, sent ambassadors to 
their representative (Knol,) soliciting his pardon, and an as- 
signment of some lands, independent of any other authority 
than that of the Dutch government. No sooner had he been 
promised this than he came to Surabaya^ where he was re- 
ceived on the 17th July by Knol, who delivered to him a 
letter of pardon written in the Dutch and Javan languages, 
promising to him the independent possession of a district as 
a principality, subordinate only to the Dutch government. 
But, alas ! these concessions were soon found to be nothing 
more than a stratagem to get possession of the prince's person. 
The unfortimate Stisunan, unsuspicious of the treachery, was 
quietly embarked at Surabaya on the 24th August, and with 
his three sons, his wife, concubines, and attendants, conveyed 
to Batavia. 

The Dutch accounts relate, that as soon as the prince arrived 
at Batavia, the commissioners, who had received him on board 
and accompanied him to the castle, demanded that he should 
deliver up his kris before being admitted to an audience, 
which he refused to do. When, however, introduced to the 
high regency, who had been especially assembled for his re- 
ception, he prostrated himself at the feet of the governor- 
general, surrendered his kris^ and implored the fulfilment of 
the conditions on which he surrendered. The governor- 
general replied, that Mr. Knol had not been authorized either 

* The native writers relate a strange proceeding of the Dutch com- 
mandant in this war^^ 

" As soon as the^Dutch commande]^)arrived at Pasiiruan he assembled 
" the people, and ^offered a reward of one thousand dollars to any one^ 
'' who would bring him the body of the deceased chief ^cq)dti, !llie 
body was accordingly brought in a perfect state of preservation, on 
which the commandant ordered it to be placed upright in a chair, as if 
still living. He then approached it, took it by the hand, and made his 
obeisance to it as to a living person : all the officers and men followed 
the example. After this they burnt the body, and havinfl: mixed the 
ashes with gunpowder, fired a salute with it in honour of the victory. 



to grant him a pardon or to make promises, yet that gorem* 
ment would take the matter into consideration : his kris was 
then returned to him. He was lodged in the castle as a pri- 
soner of war, and soon afterwards transported to Ceylon. 

The account of this transaction by the Javan writers is ss 
follows : 

^* The Smunan Mangkurai Mas and the Adipdii Wirm 
*^ Nagdra (son of Surapdti) had not been long at Mdlam§ 
" before they were attacked by Pangeran Blitar^ and farced 
'^ to seek safety in the forests with only a few foUowen^ 
*' There they suffered severely from disease; and most of 
^^ them dying, the rest removed to the land of Blitar^ whence 
*' the Swiunan sent a letter to the chief Dutch authority at 
'^ Surabaya^ asking him why the Dutch had thus assisted the 
Pangeran Pugar against him, and deprived him of the 
sceptre which had descended to him from his anceslots, 
adding that he was himself equally the friend of the Dutch, 
^' that he had never harboured a thought injurious to them, and 
** that if they still believed that he had been guilty of a fault 
'^ against them, it would be well if they would point it out 
that he might exert his utmost to make amends : for this 
they might fully depend on him ; ' therefore,* said he, * let 
*' ' tlie Dutch place confidence in me, let them consider ay 
' youth, and that it is yet but a short time that I hare been 
' a sovereign.* To this the Dutch authority replied, ' If 
^' ' the Susunan wishes to act thus, and his intentions sie 
' good, let him come to Surabaya.^ Susinam Mangkmrmi 
tlien requested, tliat if tlie Dutch would not again place him 
** on the throne, they would assign him a province, in which 
'^ he and his family might reside in |>eace. A piomise being 
^' given to that effect he immediately proceeded to Smrahd^fm^ 
*' where he was received \\\\h all honours and the customaiy 
*' salutes, and aft4.*rwards entertained with the Dutch officers 
*' in tlie Passangrdhan of the Adipdii of Surabdga. The 
^* Dutch autliority at last said to him, with the utmost kind* 
** ness and softness of speech, ' If the Suwnan has no ofajec* 
' tion, I am anxious that we should go to Semdrang to we 
^ tlie commissar}' ; from thence the Susunan can at once 
* proceed to Kerta-nura^ and request the Dutch again lo 
** * acknowledge him as sovereign of Java.* The Sum^ 





*^ immediately assented to this arrangement He was then, 
'^ with his family and followers, embarked on board a ship ; 
" but instead of being conveyed to Semdrangy he was taken 
" to Batavia, and afterwards banished to Ceylon.'* 

It appears, that after the arrival of Mangkurat Mas at 
Ceylon he foimd means to dispatch letters of complaint to the 
prince of Orange and the Court of Directors in Holland. Two 
Mahomedan priests were charged with the mission, but the 
letters being intercepted, the messengers were subjected to 
severe punishment. 

With Mangkurat M{is was lost the celebrated makdta^ or 
crown of Majapdhit, The regalia of the sovereigns of Java, 
with the exception of this important article, were duly deli- 
vered over^by order of the Dutch, to the acknowledged sove- 
reign Pakabuana^ but nothing more was ever heard of the 
crown, and since that timQ the princes have worn a capy as 
described in another place. As the(putch were now become ^ 
supreme on Java^ a crown was perhaps but an empty pageant 
It cannot, however, escape notice, that this proud ornament 
of state should first have been deprived of its brightest jewel, 
and afterwards, as there is too much room to suspect, filched 
by the Dutch, who probably stripped it of its remaining 
jewels, and melted down the gold for its value ! 

The removal of Mangkurat Mas did not, however, extin- 
guish the flame of internal discord which still blazed forth in 
the eastern, provinces of Java, and which increased till the 
year 1712-13. The Susunan sent several embassies to Ba- 
tavia, requesting assistance against the chiefs of Balambdngan 
and of the island of Madura^ as well as against the sons of 
Surapdtiy who had their hiding places in the mountains. On 
this occasion the Dutch sanctioned the nomination of the 
Pang^an Mdngku Nagdra as the hereditary prince, and pro- 
mised the required succours against the rebels, but took care 
to point out the value which they put upon their assistance : 
a piece of policy which, on no occasion, they seem to have 
forgotten. They adverted to the immense simas they had at 
different times advanced, and the extent of the obligations 
which the Susunan lay under to them, admonishing him to 
act with greater circumspection in future, and to adopt such 


measures as might put a stop to the ciril wan and conunotioiis 
which desolated the country. 

It was not longy however, before various circumstances con* 
currcd to render the rebels still more formidable. The chiefii 
of Surabaya^ Proboling^Oy and Kediri, as well as those of 
Madura and Balambdng*an^ united at the instigation of the 
chief of Windng^un (whose life had been unjustly attacked^ 
in a league to shake off the yoke of the SuMinan^ and at the 
same time to rid themselves of the Dutch, whose aim they 
conceived to have been eventually to depose the Susmmam^ 
and to render themselves sovereigns of the whole island. 

A circumstance is related by the native writers, which is 
said to have contributed essentially to the distractions which 
at that time existed in the country. 

*^ The Dutch requested that the Susunan would immedi- 
ately put the Adipdii Jalng Rdna of Surabdya to death, 
alleging that he was attached to the cause of the rebek, and 
*' that if an example were made of this chief, it would strike 
^' fear into the others. On this the Stuunan became exces- 
** sively grieved at heart, for he was sincerely attached to the 
** Adipdti ; and now tliat the Panambdhan of Madura^ who 
*^ had been as his right hand, was dead, if he were to lose the 
'^ Adipdti of Surabdya also, who had been as his left hand, 
*' he would in truth find that he had lost both hands. He 
*' wished, therefore, to refuse compliance with this request; 
*' but at the same time feared, that if he disappointed the 
^' Dutch, there would be an end of his friendship with them. 
^' On these two accounts he gave the subject his deepest cod- 
'^ sideration. At length he \%Tote a letter to the Adipdii^ in* 
'^ forming him of the request made by the Dutch ; and to the 
^' Dutch at Batavia he \\Tote in reply, that he wished to reflect 
^' upon the aiiair, until the time a[)pointed for the chief to pay 
'^ his usual visit to tlie capital should arrive. 

'^ As soon as the Adipdti of Surabdya received these 
^^ tidings he assembled his brothers and his Pdteh^ named 
^' IVira Tantdhay and showed them the letter. Ilis brotheis 
*^ immediately advised that they should miite and oppose any 
*^ one, whoever it might be, who should attempt the life of 
the Adipdti ; for, said they, ' Is it not better to die nobly 



** ^ in war, and to let one's enemies know how dearly the 
" * death of our brother is to be purchased, than to be quietly 
" * killed in one's bed ? they wiU only know of the death and 
" * not of its value.' But the Pdteh replied to them, * What 
" ' you say is correct, and in the service of the state we are 
^' * bound to act as you advise ; but this is a request made by 
^^ *' the general, that tlie Adipdii should be put to death. Is 
" * it not better that he should deliver himself up ? for if he 
" * does not there will be a rupture between the general and 
'^ ^ the SusHnaUf and then (which God forbid) the land of 
" * Jdwa will be destroyed, and universal misery will follow. 
" * You have now, for a long time, enjoyed happiness and a 
" * good name, and now that you have grown old in honour, 
" * it would not be fitting in you to do any thing that could 
" * bring sorrow or ruin on your sovereign, or that would dis- 
" * grace your followers or descendants, which would be the 
" * case if you now got a bad name.' The Adipdti was well 
pleased with the advice of hisPa^M, and after considering 
for a short time, then addressed him, ^ What you say is 
^ true, oh Pdteh ! I am old, and have not long to live. It 
^ is indeed right that I should deliver up my life for the 
" * benefit of my sovereign and the character of my family.' '* 
This resolution being taken, the Adipdii shortly after set out 
for K&rtcLsHray accompanied by his brother and about two 
thousand followers. When he arrived, the Susunan inquired 
how he wished to act ; to which he replied, that he preferred 
to die rather than to be the cause of misfortune to his sove- 
reign or to the people of Java; that he was now old; that if 
his life was spared on this occasion he could not expect to live 
many years, and that he was already satisfied with this world. 
The StisHnan then said, if such was his determination and 
wish, he must of course follow it, but urged him to speak his 
mind fireely, adding that he would think of it, and do what 
would tiun out best for him ; but the Adipdti replied, that he 
had no other wish than what he had already expressed ; that 
it was much better that he should die, than become the cause 
of misfortune to others. All he requested was, that after his 
death the Susunan would not be forgetful of his family and 
children, and that until his son was of a proper age, his bro- 
ther, Rdden Jdya Puspita^ might succeed him in his public 


administration. The Susunan then said, '' It is well. If the 
*^ Dutch again make the demand you must prepare for jour 
** fate ; and I promise you that, in that case, your request shaU 
;^ be complied with.*' At the expiration of about a month, 
during which period iheAdipdti clothed himself in white and 
gave himself up entirely to his devotions, another letter mr- 
rived from the Governor General, making a peremptory de- 
mand that the Adipdti should be immediately executed. The 
Su^unan then sent for the Adipdti y and directed that he sh<iiild 
be brought into the dalam. Dressed in white, he immedi- 
ately attended the summons. When he reached the entrance 
9ri meng*dntiy he quitted his followers, who were not allowed 
to come further but remained without ; and the people who 
guarded the entrance of the krdtoHy having received the 
orders of the Susunan to that effect, seized him, and 
plunging their weapons into his body, immediately dis- 
patched him. They then carried out the corpse and gave it to 
his followers, charging them to give it proper buriaL They 
were all struck with deep grief at the sight, for the Adipdii was 
much beloved. They interred the body at Law^n ; bat im- 
mediately aflerwards the brother, with about two thousand fol- 
lowers, assembled in the alun alun^ determined upoo ven- 
geance, and the disturbance was not quelled until the Sunh- 
ndn entered into an explanation. He then appointed Jdfm 
Puspiia to succeed provisionally to the administration of his 
deceased brother, and otherwise conciliated the parties, who 
were at last induced quietly to return to Surab&ya ; not, how- 
ever, without a determination of one day being revenged on 
the authors of this calamity. On receiving the appointment 
from the SusunaUy while Jdyd Punpita returned their gratdal 
ackowledgments for this mark of kindness, they as openly 
avowed that they would never rest in peace, until they had 
given a due return to whoever was the cause of their biothei^ 

'* In pursuance of this determination, Jdya Pwipiia took an 
early occasion to league with other discontented chiefis and 
soon became the most formidable enemy to the tranqoiUitj of 
tlic cc)untr\'. 

*^ The forces of the Sumnan were completely defeated in 
a pitched battle, and the rebels made themselves masters of 


seTeral important proyinces to the eastward of PasHruan. 
which place they also besieged until the arriyal of the Dutch 
auxiliaries. They were then driven beyond Panariikan ; but 
being reinforced from Bdli^ soon forced the combined Dutch 
and Jaran troops to retreat again to Pamrtmn. 

The effect of this civil war was now severely felt at Ba 
tavia. The country was laid waste, cultivation was neglected, 
and a great scarcity of rice was felt at Batavia. This induced 
the Dutch to march a more considerable force in 1717, and 
again to take an active part in re-establishing the tranquillity 
of the country. 

On the arrival of this force at Madura^ it was found that 
the chief of that island had made two unsuccessful attacks on 
the troops of Pamakdsan and Sumenap, and been forced at 
last to leave his capital with his son, brother, wives, and rela- 
tions, and seek safety with the Dutch. 

"f^Vhen pangeran Chdkra Deningraty'* (say the Javanv 
authors, '^ saw that nothing more was to be done against his I 
enemies, he resolved to throw himself on the protection of the/ 
Dutch ; and a Dutch ship arriving at Madura)he dispatched 
a letter, soliciting their assistance. This letter the captain 
forwarded to Surahdyay and received the instructions of the 
admiral to take the chief and his family on board, and convey 
them to that capital. The captain immediately sent a mes- 
senger on shore to the Pang&ran, informing him of the wishes 
of the admiral, and inviting him to come on board with his 
family. Pangeran Chdkra Deningrat^ who was unconscious 
of treachery or duplicity, and consequently void of suspicion, 
with a joyful heart accepted the invitation, and, accompanied 
by his family, immediately went off in a small fishing-boat 
When arrived alongside of the ship, the followers who carried 
the upachdra (emblems of state) were ordered to go on board : 
afler them the Pangeran himself ascended, and then his wife, 
Rdden Ay^u Chdkra Diningrat. /When the P^ngeran(caxne 
upon deck. Captain Curtis took him by the hand, and de-f 
livered him over to one of his officers, who immediately led' 
him into the cabin. The captain remained till the iSjtden 
Aiju^qlA ascended, and as soon as she came on deck he like- 
i^dse took her by the hand, and after the European manner 
kissed her cheek. Not understanding the custom she became 


idarmedy and thinkiiig that Captain Cmtia wat offering an in* 
imlt to her, screamed out, and caUed aloud upon her hosband, 
sa^dng, *^ the Captain had evil intentions.** The tfiui^ifrmm 
hearing the cries of his wife became ftirious, and drawing hia 
kris rushed out, and without further inquiry stabbed the Cap* 
tain. The attendants of the chief, who had come on board 
with the state ornaments, following the example of their 
ter, raised the cr>' of amdk and immediately fell on the 
of the vessel. The latter, however, were too powerfbl far 
them, and in a short time the whole of the Madurese pait? 
were killed, together with the chief and his wife.^ 

When a question arises respecting the chastity of the JmTan 
/women, this story is usually referred to. 

The rebels, both in the eastern provinces of Java and on 
Madura, were joined by auxiliaries from Bali, Thoae, how* 
ever, on Madura were soon overmatched bv the Dutch 
troops, and obliged to fly again to Bali. Ja^a Pmnpita was 
more successful. Moving from Surabaya through the central 
districts towards Kerta-sura, he subjected the provincea of 
Japan, W^ramba, Kediri, Mddion SHkatrdti and the neifj^* 
bouring districts. ^Vhile his head quarters were mt Kediri^ 
he was joined by Pangeran Dipa Nagara one of the sons of 
the Susunan, who setting himsc^lf up as sovereign of Jarm, 
under the title of Panambdhan Heru Chdkra Senapdii Pa* 
natag&ma appointed Jaya Pu^pita to be his Pdleh, with the 
title of Raden Adipdii Panatagdma, and commenced the 
establishment of a government at Mddion 

An army was sent from Kertasura against Mddiam^ under 
the command of Pangeran Bliiar, another son of the S% 
nan; but before they reached that place the Pangeran 
summoned to return, in consequence of the severe indiqpod- 
ti(m of his fntlier. This prince died in the Javan year IMS, 
and was buried at Megiri, He had previously written to the 
Dutch authorities, requesting them to select one of hia three 
sons Pangeran Adipiiti Amdngku-nagdraj Pangeram Pmr* 
bayd, or Pangeran Blitar, to succeed him in the govem- 

'Ilius ended the reign of a prince, which had had been one 
constant scene of C(miniotion and rebellion, directed perhaps 
not HO much against the authority of the prince hinuelf, at 



against the Dutch, who now took so active a part in the 
affairs of Java, that the power of the native sovereign was 
merely nominal. 

The Javan writers, whether from a desire to exclude from 
the regal line a prince who thus became the mere puppet of 
the Europeans, or from a conviction of the truth of the cir- 
cumstance, seem anxious to prove that he was not the real 
son of Susunan Tegdl Arom^ as related, but a son of the 
Pangeran KajuraUy father-in-law of Tritna Jdya, and who 
afterwards, when he established himself in the southern hills, 
took the name of Panambdhan Rama. The story runs, that 
the Rdtu of Mangkurat being delivered of a deformed and 
imperfect offspring, the Sus&nan secretly sent the child to 
Kajuran^ who was supposed to deal in witchcraft, and that 
the Pangeran took the opportimity of destroying it, and sub- 
stituted his own child in its place. This child, however, was 
bom of a daughter of Pang&ran Purbaya^ the younger bro- 
ther of Sultan Agong; so that on the mother's side it was of 
royal extraction. " But," say the Javan writers, " as the 
" present princes of Java are descendants from Pakubudna^ 
" this story is not talked of in public ; although in private 
" societies there are many who put faith in it." 

On the 18th of December, 1705, articles were agreed upon 
with the Sultan of Bantam, to ensure the weight and quality 
of the pepper to be delivered. 

On the 9th of October, 1708, a ftulher contract was entered 
into with the sultan, with the view principally of renewing 
and confirming the contracts, bonds, deeds of remission, &c. 
entered into and concluded with his predecessors. 

In August, 1731, another contract was entered into with the 
sultan, of which the following were the most interesting 

That all Biigis, Malayus, Javans, and other native traders, 
shall be allowed freely to dispose of their wares at Bantam, 
without any interference on the part of the Dutch Resident, 
provided they do not trade in articles which constitute the 
Company's monopoly. The subjects of Bantam shall be per- 
mitted to trade to Java on condition that they do not abuse 
the confidence thus placed in them by engaging in illicit com- 
merce. The sultan promised to adopt immediate measures 


for increasing the annual deliveries of pepper to the Com- 
pany, and engaged to hold out every possible indacement to 
the Ldmpufig people to extend the cultivation of the article, 
instead of depressing them by unnecessary acts of severity. 
A deed was also executed about this time ceding Pilo Pdm- 
jang to the Dutch, for the purpose of keeping an establish- 
ment on it for assisting vessels in distress. 

On the 9th December, 1733, a further contract was entered 
into with the sultan of Bantam, by which many regulations 
were made respecting the pepper monopoly. 

Being called upon to renew the bond for the sum of six 
hundred thousand Spanish dollars in favour of the Dutch, the 
sultan, after previously stating whence this lawful debt ori- 
ginated, bound his kingdom and revenues for the same, and 
at the same time conferred on the Dutch the exclusive trade 
in pepper and other privileges. The deed of remission, bear- 
ing date 28th April, 1684, was further renewed, by which a 
conditional remission of tlie above-mentioned bond was 
granted. An act of donation from the price of gproond, 
called kdmpung bdliy was at the same time granted. 

Of the three sons of the deceased Sus&naHy the Dutch 
government made choice of the Pang^an Adipdti Amdmgkm 
Nagdray as his successor ; he was accordingly publicly in- 
stalled, under the title of Su^ikhunan Prdbu Semapdii Ingm- 
Idga Abdul Rdchman Sahidin Panaiagdma. 

Tlie first and principal event in this reign was the rebellioD 
of the younger brotliers of the prince, Pang^an Purbdffa and 
Blitary occasioned principally by their being deprived of the 
lands and honours which tliey had enjoyed during the life- 
time of their father. Tliey first raised a party in the capital, 
and made an attempt, during the night, to enter the kraiom 
and put the Suffiman to death, but being repulsed, they lied 
to Matdremy and collecting their followers, the yoongesl 
(BlUar) assumed the title of 5ti//Ait Ibni Mu^tdpka P^Utm^ 
buana Senapdii Ingaldga Abdul Rdchman Patagdma. His 
brother, Purbdya^ was satisfied vnih a secondary authority, 
under the title of Panambdhan Senapdii Ingaldga, 

In a short time the provinces of BdngumaSy Afaidrem^ and 
Keduy submitted to these chiefs, and a union taking place 
with the party under Panambdhan H^ru Chdkra^ the 


authority of the newly elected SusAnan became endan- 

Pang&ran Aria Matdrem^ uncle of the Stis&nany at the 
same time quitted K&rta Sura^ and reared the standard of 
rebellion in Grobdgan and Bl&ra, This chief was, however, 
soon after decoyed into the hands of the Dutch in the fol- 
lowing manner. 

" The Pang&ran was induced to go to Pdti^ and after- 
wards to Japdra^ on an understanding that the Dutch would 
raise him to the throne, where troops were immediately 
assembled, apparently for that object, but in reality to secure 
his person. On his arrival at the fort with his family, he was 
received with salutes of cannon and small arms, and sepa- 
rated from his followers, who were excluded. After he had 
been seated a short time, the gates of the fort were shut, and 
the Pangeran and his sons were disarmed, and placed in 
close confinement. He died in a few days. When the gates 
of the forts were closed, the followers of the Pangeran sus- 
pecting the treachery, would not disperse, until many were 
destroyed and the rest fired upon." 

The Dutch force imiting with those of the Susunan^ the 
rebels, who were now united under the sultan Ibni Mustdphay 
were defeated, and obliged to retreat to Kediri. Here they 
were pursued, again beaten, and driven in disorder to Md- 
lang. The sultan fled to Gdnung Dampulan with only a 
few followers, while Panambdhan Senapdti and Panam- 
bdhan Heru Chdkra rallied their remaining forces at Lamd- 
jang. The Dutch army now returned to K^rta Sura, and the 
tranquillity of the country was once more for a short time 

Sultan Ibni Mastdpha having returned to the village of 
Kdli Gdngsa^ was seized with a violent illness and died, and 
his family and followers, worn out with fatigue, conveyed the 
body to K^ta Sura, and threw themselves on the mercy of 
the SusAnan. Notwithstanding this unconditional submission, 
their chief, Jdya Brdia^ was immediately put to death, and 
his body thrown into the river : the body of the deceased 
sultan, however, received honourable interment. 

The rebels established at Lamdjang still held out, and it 
was not until the arrival of a considerable Dutch force at 



Surabdya that they were induced to submit According to 
the native writers, ^^ The Dutch commander wrote ftmm 
Surabaya to the rebel chiefs at Lamdjamg^ informing them 
that he had been ordered to the eastward with a formidable 
force purposely to destroy them, and that if they did not 
quietly submit, he would force them to do so, in which caae 
no quarter should be given, adding at the same time, that if 
they were i^illing to submit quietly, they should be received 
with favour, treated ^-ith kindness, and want for nothing 
during their lives. The chiefs seeing no pros|;>ect of sncceM 
from furtlier opjmsition, were induced to close with these 
terms. Accordingly Panambdhan Sendpati and/lerif ChakrOj 
with Adipdti Ndta Ptiray attended by only a few IbDowcnt 
surrendered themselves at Swrabdya^ where they were re* 
ceivcd with great honour, the firing of cannon and musketiTt 
and by the sound of the gamelan^ which struck up on thc^ 
approach. It was not long, however, before their persona 
were placed in confinement, and they were embarked en 
board a ship from Batavia, from whence Panambdhan Hirm 
Chdkra and Adipdti Ndta Pura were afterwards banished to 
the Cape." 

The only circumstance from which the peace of the coontij 
api>ears to have been subsequently disturbed during the reign 
of this prince, was by a kniman, or rebel, named Rddem 
Ibrahim^ who gave himself out as a descendant of Surapdii; 
but this movement was instantly suppressed, and all that 
arose out of it appears to have been an attempt on the life of 
tiie SuHu natty made by a woman, who with a small par^ 
endeavoured to force her way into the kraton^ but with aerenJ 
of luT followers was killed in the attempt. The authority of 
the prince was now fully established ; and in return for the 
sen'ices rendered by the Dutch in the late war, he was 
required to enter into a now treaty with the Dutch, containing 
the following, among otlier less interesting stipidations. 

In acknowledgment of the sen* ices lately rendered, and 
also to his highnesses forefathers, and in consideration of the 
considerable (quantity c>f rice still owing by him to the Dotch* 
on the deliveries stipulate<l by the contract of 1705, his hi^* 
nesH now promised to deliver to tlie Company aiinoallj at 
Hntavia, with his own vessi^ls, for a ]ieriod of fifty jean, 



to commence from the year 1734, a quantity of one thousand 
kayans of good rice, or its equivalent in money, it being 
at the same time understood that the Dutch are not bound to 
take money for any proportion of the said annual delivery, 
except when it was sufficiently proved that a failure of the 
crop of rice rendered it impossible to supply the whole 

That with the view to encourage the cultivation of pepper, 
the Dutch should, in future, pay five rix-dollars for each 
pikul of that article ; while, on the other hand, the Su^unan 
engaged to issue an edict, directing the total annihilation of 
the coffee culture, with the exception of a few plantations 
near the houses of the regents, for their own amusement and 
consumption, but by no means for trade, on severe penalties. 
The Sumnan moreover authorized the Dutch to cause all 
plantations, without distinction, in the low countries, on the 
coast, or in the moimtains, to be destroyed, and to confiscate, 
for their joint profit, any quantity of cofiee which might be 
foimd, for purposes of trade, in the hands of any of his 
highnesses subjects, at the expiration of six months firom the 
date thereof. That his highness should direct the coast 
regents to deliver, in the year 1734, the annual quantity of 
timber for repairing and extending the forts of Semdrang and 
Japdra^ the other materials being furnished by the Company. 
The seventh article stipulated for the delivering annually 
about ten thousand beams of teak timber (specified) at Japdra^ 
Demdkf Walirij and BrebeSy the same to be duly paid for 
on delivery; and the Dutch engaged to assure themselves 
that the regulation should be complied with, by causing the 
residents of the timber places to transmit the receipts and 
other vouchers relative thereto, while, on the other hand, the 
Susunan promised to take care that the timber should be of 
good quality and of the stipulated dimensions. 

The Dutch remitted to the Susunan the arrears on account 
of the quantity of rice (the delivery of which was stipulated 
by the contract of October, 1705), consisting of no less than 
6,537 k(yyans ; and also the sums advanced by them in the 
wars and during his minority, on condition that, on the part 
of the Susunanj all previous treaties, deeds, and charters, 
contracted and granted by his highness's predecessors, should 

Q 2 


be fulfilled by him ; iii default whereof the above pretensioiu 
were to regain their full force and value. It wa* further 
agreed that the Dutch should remain in poasession of their 
former commercial privileges at Java, his highness promising 
to render the Dutch trade still more flourishing and consicler- 
able, and to increase the deliveries of cotton thread. His 
highness further boiuid himself to supply every day two 
himdred and forty bdturs^ or Javan labourers, for the senice 
of the fort, free of exi>ense to the Dutch. 

The act which closed the reign of this prince, and which 
affords good evidence of the undisturbed state of public affain 
at the period, was a visit to the burial-place at B6iak^ where 
Kidi Agofig Biiiuh^ and sultan Pajang had been interred. 
The Javans have such a superstitious veneration for this itpot, 
that they declare it is never overflowed, notwithstanding the 
waters rise to a considerable height round it, and that it is 
lower than the adjoining ground. Here the prince was taken 
ill, and after a long confuiement died, in the Javan year 1657. 

lie was succeeded bv his son, under the title of Susmmam 
Pakubudna Senapdti Ingaldga Abdul Rdchman Sdkedim 
Panatagdmay who ascended the throne when he was only 
about fourteen years old, and was yet unmarried. 

Tlie young prince was entirely under the superintendanee 
of Ddnu Rejay his father*s prime minister, until, as he attained 
maturity, he by repeated acts shewed a disposition to shake 
ofl* the controul of that chief He was desirous of appointing 
Chdkra Ningrat to be IViddna of the eastern districts of Pa- 
suruany Bdngily and Probolhig^o; but that chief l)eing on bad 
terms with the minister Ddnu Rejfty the Susunan privately, 
and without the knowledge of the minister, wTote to the Go- 
vernor-general at Batavia, requesting his sanction to the 
measure. Shortly after this the Suxinan made a fiirther ap- 
plication to the Dutch, that they would remove from Java 
the person of Pang^an Ria Mdngku XngdrOy on a plea that 
ho had been discovered in an improper intimacy with one of 
his concubines. On this occasion the minister, Damu Rfjmy 
was dispatched to Batavia; and the inteniew he had with 
the Govenior-general is thus related by the native writers >— 
** The General was displeased with Ddrntt Reja^ beeause be 
had not adjusted these two aflairs ; and aftem anls, when he 


went to Batavia with presents from the Sus^ltnan, the General 
asked him if he was willing that Chdkra Ningrat should be 
Widdna of the three districts ? Ddnu R^ja, not aware of the 
application made by the Sumnariy replied, that if that chief 
was entrusted with so extensive an authority he should 
tremble, as the heart of Chdkra Ningrat would thereupon 
become great ; for he had already been married to the Sttsu- 
nun's sister. The General observed, that it was easy to re- 
move this uneasiness from his mind. ' Let,' said he, * this 
chief be under the authority of the Dutch only. Let him 
pay the money tribute to the Susunan, but in other respects 
let not the Susunan trouble himself about him. Let him 
look to the Dutch only for keeping him under due restraint.' 
To this Ddnu Reja replied, * If such is the wish of the 
General, I cannot follow it, because I fear that hereafter 
the Susunan would object to such an arrangement, and, 
repenting of having followed the General's advice, would 
be justly enraged against me and my successors, for ha\dng 
in any way consented that Chdkra Ningraty or these lands, 
should be placed under the immediate authority of the 
Dutch.' A pause then ensued. At length the General 
resumed, and in a peremptory and angry manner demanded 
of the minister, why he had not prevented the Susdnan from 
applying for the banishment of his brother, Ria Mdngku 
Nagdra^ observing that it had not yet been proved, that he 
was guilty of any oflTence against the Susunan. Ddnu R^a 
replied, ' The offence of the Pangeran is clear and decided ; 

* it is known to many that he had an attachment for the 

* Susunan^s concubine.' He therefore requested he might be 
banished the island, adding, that he would request the Susu- 
nan to make a proper provision for his maintenance. The 
General conceiving that Ddnu Reja was not inclined to follow 
his wishes, became enraged, and desired him not to trouble 
himself further about the Pangeran^ saying that, whether he 
was banished or not. Was not his business ; it depended en- 
tirely on the government. He then dismissed him to his p6n- 
doky where the minister was allowed to remain upwards of a 
year, until the death of the General, when, on the elevation 
of his successor, he was directed to return to Kerta-sura, 
WTiile thus detained at Batavia, he was repeatedly visited by 


some of the counsellors, urging him to accede to the winh of 
the General respecting the lands ; but he contimic<l to u«e to 
them the same arguments he ha<l before used to the General." 

After the return of 'Dif/iw Reja to Keria^ura^ he i» repre- 
sented as having had an inter\ie\v yriih^WangMrdna^ a cele- 
brated devotee; who resided in the first Kaldngbrit^ and who 
foretold the misfortunes which were to ensue^ 

On demanding of this lapa what would he tlie future fate of 
Kertn-sura, he replied, " that it was destined to misfortune, 
" destruction, and sorrow : Rdden Mdx Sujdna and Rdtiem 
" Mds Sdyed will however ])n)fit by it." 1\\\sRdden S^jd^a 
was a younger brother of the Snsunan by a concubine, and 
afleni'ards took the name of Pangeran MaHgkubumi. Rfidrm 
Alas Sdyed was a cousin to the Sitmnany son of his elder 
brother, Pangeran MangkH-nagdra^ who had been jient t*> 
Batavia with a request that he might be banished. Hh'V 
were botli at this time y(mngi'st children (timur). 

This prophecy made a deep im])ressi(m on tlie mind of the 
minister ; and his uneasiness became still greater, when one 
day a woman^ named A'/V// Suka If V///, came to him fn>m her 
misirvssj Rdfti Agoag, the mother of the .Sw^w/f //it, saWng that 
the Ratu had just dreamt that she beheld the mixui descend 
firom the heavens and rest on the top of the large duku tree in 
the krdioN ; and that this had no sooner occuTred, than that 
0iden Mas Niz/Vi/i/iT innnediately came, and seizing hold of 
the moon swallowed one-half of it, the other half slipping 
from his grasp, and resuming its jdace on tlie top of the tree: 
the Riitu then awoke and found it daylight, lliese were the 
first signs of what was soon to befal Krrta-^tura. 

Tlie fate of the ministiT was, howevtT, to be first decided; 

for on the occasion of the Susmtan raising a chief, named 

Sura-I^^imgrat, to be Jiopdti of Pakahhigan^ with a th<Mi- 

sand ckd^'hiii^ without the knowledge of the minister, the 

Utter irfii^^Nl to acknowledge him in that capacity; in coofie- 

oneiKT »-^'«hich the Susunan n^picsted the Dutch to arred 

>ifi^ aiu. >tMr.)>h him from the island. As soon iisthe Dutch 

iiw .•'urtmff^*. to do S4), the unfortunate minist<*r waa di»- 

,gMi«*>«^. «' N/i»w*m*jiy on a spi-cial einbiissy from bin master, 

«^«- t» w*«^ itv^t\l into the Dutch fort and conliDed. He 
.«4iii#--MiNc4KJ for Ceyluu, in tlie same Teasel which 


conveyed Pangeran Ria Mdngku Nagdra^ at whose feet he 
fell, acknowledgmg the justice of his own punishment, for 
having assisted in the banishment of that chief, who had in 
fact committed no fault. The Susdnan then oppointed Natu 
Kasuma to be his minister. 

Accounts were now received from Ceylon of the death of 
the ex-Susunan Mangkurat Mas^ and at the request of the 
Sttsdnariy the family of the deceased were permitted to return 
to Kerta-sdra, On these were conferred distinguished titles 
and considerable assignments of land. To Mdngku Nagdra 
the Susunan gave the name of IVira Mengdla^ with one 
thousand chdchas of land ; to Mdngku Ningrat he gave the 
name of Pangeran T&pa Sdnay with nine hundred chdchas ; 
and to Rdden Jdya Kasdma he gave the title of Pangeran^ 
with three hundred chdchas, Pangeran Purbdya^ who had 
assumed the title of Panambdhan Senapdti Ingaldga^ shortly 
after died at Batavia, and his body was conveyed to Megiri, 
The eldest son of this chief married a younger sister of the 
Susunanj and received the title of Pangeran Purbdya^ with 
an assignment oisdwa. The Susdnan became much attached 
to him, and at length followed his counsel in all things. 
" What was right was declared wrong, and what was wrong, 
" right, just as he pleased, and the Susdnan believed it.'* 

This increasing influence of the Pangeran Purbdya alarmed 
the minister, who secretly acquainted the Dutch with it, and 
by their interference the Pang&ran Purbdya was removed 
from the councils of the prince, and obliged to lix his resi- 
dence at a distance from the capital. 

Various signs now foreboded approaching war and misfor- 
tune, and led the people to expect that Pang^an T^a Sdna 
would attempt to regain the throne of his ancestors. The 
SusHnan and his ministers entirely disregarded these signs ; 
but Pang&ran Wira Mengdla sought the friendship of the 
Dutch commandant, in the hope of obtaining his assistance. 
^ Kx this time occurred the rebellion of the Chinese at Ba-« . 
tavia^ and as the Dutch accoimts of the transaction are far 
from complete or satisfactory, I shall quote two Javan records 
without variation. One of them is as follows : 

" The city of Batavia was now in the highest state of 
prosperity : traders came from all quarters, merchandize was 


in abundance, and the slaves were numerous. The latter be- 
coming arrogant, in consequence of the wealth and power of 
their masters, committed outrages on the Chinese, in the fint 
instance by beating them, and afterwards by attempting their 
lives. At first there were but few who committed these out- 
rages, but at last they formed themselves into parties and 
committed more public acts of hostility. The Chinese applied 
to the European officers in authority, to put a stop to these 
outrages, or to punish tliose who committed them : they cooldy 
however, obtain no redress, the slaves testifying with one 
accord Ihat the Chinese were the aggressors. The Chinese 
finding they could not obtain justice from the great people, 
assembled near the sugar mills at Ganddria *, to the number 
of more than a thousand, and chose a chief, with the deter- 
mination to oppose the Dutch and the slaves ; but as yet they 
thought it advisable not to do so openly, and therefore com- 
mitted their depredations in small parties during the night. 
The Dutch, as soon as they heard of this, empowered several 
natives firom Sdbrany (of the opposite coasts and islands) to 
take up the Chinese who were at Ganddria ; these people 
succeeded in apprehending the Chinese one by one, and as 
soon as they gave them over to punishment they received a 
reward of six ducatoons for each. In this way they secured 
about two hundred. These were immediately embarked on a 
vessel to be banished to another country, but when they had 
got out to sea they were all thrown overboard. Many of them 
who could not s\inm perished ; but a few having succeeded in 
reaching the shore, found their way to Ganddria^ and related 
to their companions how they had l>een treated. The Chinese, 
upon this, concluding that the Dutch had resolved to extirpate 
their race, now openly prepared their warUke instruments, 
gave notice to their countr^^men at Batavia of the manner in 
which the Dutch had determined to destroy them, and re- 
quested that those who were willing to join them would im- 
mediately repair to Ganddria. The Chinese in other quar- 
ters, equally harassed by the slaves, against whom they could 
gain no redress, became of one mind, when they received the 
intelligence of their countrymen having been thrown orer- 

* A viUagf in th^ vicinity of BaUvii. 


board by the Dutch, and when they reflected that the destruc-\ 
tion of their race was determined ; they therefore collected 1 
quietly at Ganddrtay until their numbers amounted to up- ^ 
wards of five thousand^ Here the whole placed themselves 
under the orders of a chief, named Sipanjan^y 

The other account is as follows : 

'^ It is related of Batavia, that General Valkenier was ex- 
cessively liberal in his favours to the Chinese. The conse- 
quence of this was, that of all the races then resident at Ba- 
tavia, with the exception of the Dutch, none were so wealthy 
as they. Whatever was profitable fell into their hands, while 
the other races, the natives of the country and the adjacent 
islands established there, found it difficult to discharge the 
duties and demands made upon them. On this account all 
these races became discontented with the Chinese ; and as it 
is usual with the latter for their hearts to swell as they grow 
richer, quarrels ensued, and disputes continually took place 
between the parties. These increased, until complaints were 
carried before masters of slaves, where slaves were concerned, 
and before the regular courts, where free people were con- 
cerned. But the Chinese being always defeated in these 
suits, and fined for their conduct, they assembled in bands, 
for the piupose of revenging themselves, and began to plunder 
the villages in the neighbourhood of the town. This hap- 
pened in the Javan year 1663 (guna-rdsa-mObah jalma) *. 

^' It is related that at this time there was at Batavia a cer- 
tain Edel Heer^ the Baron Van Imhoff, who had arrived from 
Ceylon. On his arrival at Jakarta^ he learned from General 
Valkenier the particulars of the conduct of the Chinese, who 
were thus committing depredations in the villages ; he said 
there were too many Chinese at Batavia, and proposed that a 
proportion should be sent to Ceylon. This was accordingly 
agreed to by the high council, and a search was in conse- 
quence made to take up the poorest of these, that they might 
be transported to Ceylon. The expenc^s, in the first instance, 
were to be advanced by the Dutch, who were afterwards to 
be reimbursed when the Chinese should have acquired the 
means at Ceylon. The Chinese captain was accordingly di- 

* Meaning, *' ability was now inclined to move or shake mankind." 


reeled to beat the gangy and give public notice of this order ; 
but there was not one Chinese inclined to follow it : and in 
order to carry the proposition of Van Imhoff into effect, it was 
agreed to arrest all the Poor Chinese. This order was given 
to the captain of the Chinese, but he declined to arrest \m 
countrymen. Van Imhoff tlien inquired by what distinction 
of dress he might know the rich firom the poor ? The captain 
replied, '' tlie clothing of the Chinese which may be consi- 
" dered a proof of their being poor, is black (blue)." Upon 
this the governor directed the Baillieu to arrest all Chinese so 
dressed ; and the Baillieu again entrusting the execution of 
this order to his Mdta Mdia^ who belonged to the races ini- 
mical to the Chinese, tlic latter, to gratify particular enmities^ 
arrested many who did not wear blue, some of them of the 
most respectable families. The Chinese, in general, 
much offended, when shortly tlie whole of those who 
arrested, were embarked on board ship apparently for Ceylon ; 
but tliey had been only a few days at sea, when they were 
am6k*d. Most of them were killed, and the rest were thrown 
overboard. Of these some escaped to land, and arriving se- 
cretly at Batavia, communicated to their countrymen the par- 
ticulars of the cruel treatment of the Company towards 
On this all the chiefs of the Chinese entered into an 
ment to raise the standard of rebellion agdnst the Dutch, 
and to endeavour to carr}*^ the fort of Batavia. There were, 
however, one or two who did not chuse to become the enemies 
of tlie Dutch. 

'^ A Chinese named Liu Chu^ informed the government of 
what was going on among his countrymen, for \iiiich be re- 
ceived a reward of eighty ducats, and other valuable presents, 
with a ])romise of future patronage. This man went as a i^y 
to tlie Chinese at Gandiiria^ and endeavoured to persuade tlMS 
chief to submit to the Dutch, pnmiising him free pardon; but 
Si-pdujiwg suspecting that, however fair might be the pro- 
mises of tlie Dutch ill the first instance, tliev would not lail 
to revenge tliemselves uiK)n him, by seeking out some oEeoct 
of which to accuse him, would not listen to these overturn. 
The Dutch then ordered, that of the Chinese who were si 
Batavia, such as wished to join their couiitryinon at Gamddrim 
might do so, but that such as wished to follow tlie Dutch, must 


shave their mustaches as a sign, and deliver up all their sharp 
instruments of every description, even to the smallest knife, 
and neither bum a lamp nor make a fire at night. All the 
Chinese within the city were inclined rather to remain in 
their houses, and conform to the wish of the Dutch according 
to this order, than to quit their houses and join their com- 
panions at Ganddria, The ^utch troops were now making 
preparations in the fort, and shut the gates of the city, hearing f 
that the Chinese from Cranddria were approaching. These \ 
came towards Batavia in three parties, burning and laying • 
waste every thing in their way, until they arrived close under 
the walls, in numbers not less than ten thousand. Some of 
the guns being inefficient, the Chinese became bolder, and 
made a furious attack in which they were repulsed with great 
slaughter. In this affair the Chinese are estimated to have: 
lost one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine lives^ They 
retreated in confusion, but assembled again at Gdding Meldti. 

** Tha^xt morning the Dutch landed all the sailors from 
the shipping in the roads, and having confined the Chinese/ 
to their houses, according to the regulation, the Dutch go- 
vernment gave orders for their own people, the firee black in- 
habitants, and the native Christians belonging to the fort, to| 
slay all the male Chinese, old and young, who were within 
the city. Of these, amounting to nearly nine thousand souls, 
only one hundred and fifty escaped)to join their countrymen 
at Kdmpung Meldti. The property of all the Chinese was 
seized by those who committed the slaughter, not one of 
whom was killed, the Chinese having previously, as before 
related, delivered up their weapons to the Dutch. 

" After this the Dutch troops, to the number of eight hun- 
dred Europeans and two thousand natives, under the orders 
of the Baron Van Imhofi*, proceeded to Kdmpung Gdding 
Meldtiy where the Chinese under Si-Panjang had entrenched 
themselves in considerable ^numbers, and soon drove them 
from this position. The (Chinese then retreated to P)ining*' 
go/ran^ where also they were defeated. The loss of the latter 
affair was on the part of the Dutch four himdred and fifty, on \ 
that of the Chinese eight hundred.") 

While these transactions were going on at Batavia, many 
of the Bopdtis of the coast provinces had arrived at K&rta 


S^a, to present thematrWes at cumt, accofifing to cuslom, 
at the ei»ahig mmlmd. The Bopdti of Detmdk infonned the 
mioMter, Xdia Kofumaj that before he quitted his district, 
the Chme^K, in considerable nnmbers, had assembled in anus 
and elected a chief of their own nation, named Simpmk, The 
Bopdti of Grobogam also reported, that the same thing had 
taken place in his district, in consequence of their haring 
heard that the Dutch at Batavia were determined to destror 
eTerr Chinese on the island. On this the minister waited 
upon the Sutmrnam^ and informed him of these commotioos. 
The Susmmam replied, that be had already heard of what was 
going on at Batavia, and was much surprized that the gene* 
ral bad not sent bim any intimation of the msurrection. The 
Raden Adipati obsened, that perhaps it would not come to 
anv thing, and that very probably the disturbance woidd sub- 
side of itself. To this the Smmiman replied : ^^ if so, it was 
** well ; but if the war was brought into his coimtrjr, what was 
^ he to dci ? lie feared this was to be apprehended, or why 
'^ should the Chinese on his lands be thus preparing to <lefiend 
^' themselves against the Dutch. It is proper at any rate,** 
added the Sununan^ '^ that we should agree with all the 
^^ Bopdtis who were assembled, whether it would be moat ad* 
*^ visablc to assist the Dutch or the Cliinese, for if the war is 
^* to l>e brought into my countr}', it appears to me that this 
IK)int must soon be determined. In the mean time should 
this event happen, let them fight between themselres, don*t 
'^ let us interfere or assist : douH drive the Chinese away.** 
On this the lUiden Adipati obsened, ^^ that if the general re- 
*^ (|iirKttHl tlieir assistance, they were l>oimd, according to 
*' treaty, to afford it,'" 'llie Sununan replied, ^' if the general 
** ref|ueHts assistance from me in men, it is an easy matter, 
'^ and we can readily chuse the right course, but he must not 
*^ force uie to render assistance.'* Tlie Rddem Adipdti then 
said, '' as tliis was the wish of the prince, he would assemble 
'^ the chiefs and be rt*ady to give assistance to the Dutch« 
" sliould they request it." 'Ilie Susinan replied, " rery welly 
*' h't them agree how to act." 

The Rdden Adifxiti then proceeded to his house, wheie« 
iiiiK4*inhliug the chiefs, tlie point was discussed as follows. 
Tilt* Radem Adipdti having informed them of the desivs of 



the Susiinnn, that they should agree how to act, in the event 
of the war between the Chinese and Dutch being brought 
into the SusHnafCs country, whether they should assist the 
Dutch or the Chinese. The Adipdti of Pakaldng^ariy Jdya 
Ningrat, first delivered his sentiments. " I think it is best," 
said he, ^' that the Susunan should assist the Dutch, but on 
" condition they should release him from all the burthens 
" which have been imposed upon his ancestors." The Rdden 
Adipdti said, " That is good ; but I must remain of opinion, 
" that the Chinese who are on Java do not concern our 
" affairs as to the Dutch : they are not under my orders ; 
" they are only engaged in trade ; they have done good, and 
" brought profit to Java : why must we assist the Dutch, and 
" destroy the Chinese ?" Depdti Jdya Nigrat replied, " It 
" is true the Chinese do not interfere with our business, and 
" it is our own fault that we have any thing to do with the 
** Dutch. Is it not better to take this opportunity of ridding 
^* the SusHnan of the exactions he is under to the Dutch ? 
** Let us assist them ; they are strongest. The Dutch are as 
" iron, the Chinese as tin : therefore it is better to assist the 
" party most likely to be victorious." The Rdden Adipdti 
observed, " that it was on account of the Dutch being so 
" strong that he thought it wrong to assist them ; for," added 
he, " if we do they will only become more powerful and great, 
" when perhaps we shall not be able to oppose them, and 
" must remain entirely at their mercy. Is it not better, there- 
" fore, to destroy their strength while they are not too power- 
" iul for us ?" The Depdti Jdya Ningrat then said, " If on 
^^ this accoimt we do not like to assist the Dutch, let us not 
assist the Chinese, but remain neutral, and leave them to 
fight it out among themselves." The Rdden Adipdti said. 
That would not be according to the will of the Su^sHnan : 
he wishes to take part with one or the other, and he only 
asks which." The other Bopdtis inclined to the advice of 
Jdya Ningrat ; but observing the desire of the Rdden Adi- 
pdti to assist the Chinese, were silent, concluding that the 
part he took was in conformity with the wish of the Susunan, 
The Tumung^gung of Grobogdn^ Rdden Merta Puray then 
said, " We are as the people who bear two burthens : the 
" Dutch are on the right shoulder, the Chinese on the left ; 



^* if we throw off one the other still renudna. If we can ac- 
** complish it, why should we not get rid (rfboth ? In llie Bni 
^^ instance, let us assist the Chinese, and get rid of the 
'^ Dutch ; when that is done we can easily get rid of ibe 
" Chinese also." Depdti Jdya Ningrai replied, " It ia Teiy 
^^ well for you to wish this, but perhaps you arc not aufli* 
^^ cicntly strong to effect it In an affair of this importance 
^* we should consider the consequences. If we succeed, it is 
^^ well ; but if wc destroy one party we commit an oflfence 
^^ against the Almighty : what then if we destroy both parties, 
^^ who have done us no harm ? You must have read in 
^^ histor}' what has happened in the laud of Java, an<l whaU 
^^ occurred to those who injured others who did not oliend 
^* them. KecoUect, for instance, the case otJaimg Rtma of 
^* Surabaya^ who was put to death unjustly : was hia death 
^^ not avenged, and for tliis one innocent life was there Dot 
" afterwards a retribution of sixteen lives ?" Merta Pmra waa 
embarrassed, and knew not what answer to make. The Rdd em 
i4r/#/ia// laughed, and was followed by all the chiefs ; he after* 
wards said, '^ lliis is tlie effect of experience. Meria Firm 
^^ is a young man, and not able to contend in argument with 
^^ Adipdii Jdya Ningrai^ his elder.** However, Rddem Al^rim 
PHraj taking a cup of tea, recollected himself, and pivpaicd 
to reply. After drinking the tea, and replacing the cap, ba 
immediately addressed Adipdii Jdya NtHgrai: *' llcvw can 
^' you talk thus ? Is it not better to fmish the busineta at 
" once, and not by halves ? Of what use is it to talk of pre* 
*^ cedents ? Wliat was the case fomieriy is one thing ; the 
^' ]>resont affair is altogether different : they cannot be con- 
'' pared togetlier. We have now our own master, whose 
^' wishes we nmst follow. We must make a new example, 
*^ and leave otiiers to act up to it" The Rdden Adipdii then 
demanded of all Uie oUier Bopdiis their c>pini<m in this aflair, 
to which they replied, *' Let us a<lvise the Susunam Xo follow 
'* his own inclination, either to assist the Dutch accoiding 19 
'^ treaty, on condition tliat tliey cancel all obligations, &c. 0a 
'* the part of tlie SuKtimaH to the Dutch, or to asidal the 
^^ Chinese in destroying the Dutch, and after that to get rid of 
'* the Chinese altogether, or allow tliem to remain, as the 
'* Su^unam may think ))roper.** 


This opinion was on the next day carried to the Susiinan 
by the Rdden Adipdtij who further suggested, that it would 
be well to encourage the Chinese to act against the Dutch ; 
that when the war took place it would be easy to perceive 
which was the best side to assist, and that the Sus^nan should 
appear to remain neutral for the present. The SusHnan 
having listened to this advice approved of it. He in conse- 
quence directed that M^rta Piira should quietly return to his 
province, and should encoiurage the Chinese to act against 
the Dutch, and promise them, that in the event of their suc- 
cess the Susunan would join them. He also directed that 
the other Bopdtis should make preparations for collecting 
their forces. 

In pursuance of these orders Merta Pura secretly pro- 
ceeded to Grobogatiy and communicated with the chiefs who 
had been elected by the Chinese, named Inchi Mdchan and 
Muda Tik. The Chinese of Ch'obdgan immediately wrote to 
Singsehy the chief at Tdnjung JVelahaUj who was equally 
pleased with this promise of support. The Chinese from 
Grobdgan then went and joined those at Tdnjung WcddhaUj 
it being arranged that M&rta Piira should make a shorn 
attack upon them, from which they should appear to fly. 

Merta Pura then wrote to the Dutch commander at Semd^ 
rangy telling him that he had orders from the minister to attack 
the Chinese, and requesting to be supplied with ammunition, 
which was immediately sent The Dutch were completely 
deceived. They ftimished Merta Pura with twenty muskets, 
eight carbines and eight pistols, and eight barrels of powder : 
they also sent thirty Dutch soldiers. M&rta Pura commenced 
the attack before they came, and thus secured the retreat of 
the Chinese. On this occasion he shot three horses with ball, 
and shewed them to the Dutch as having been wounded under 

In the mean time the commandant at Semdrang, deceived 
by the assurances of M^rta Puray requested the officers at 
Kerta Sura to call upon the Susunan for assistance. He 
directed that Mertu Piira should be reinforced, but that the 
chief who commanded the party should receive secret in- 
structions not to annoy the Chinese in earnest, but to act as 


Merta Pura had Jouc. With respect to the Cbineae at 
Kerta Pura^ he directed that they diould be informed thai 
on the next morning the Javans would make a sham attack 
upon them, when they must retreat and join a party of 
Chinese assembled at the D^sa Sardja in Kedm^ to which 
place they would be pursued, and from whence the JaTaa 
chief was to return, saying, that on account of their numben 
he could advance no further. 

Secret orders to this effect were immediately given to aD 
the chiefs. The Adipdiis of Pdti^ Demdkj and Kedm were 
at the same time directed to go and make a Mse attack apoo 
the Chinese at Tdnjnng Waldhan^ and aflerwarda to retreat 
to Semdrangy as if beaten, in order that tlie commander might 
believe that the Susunan was determined to assist the Dutch. 

The captain and lieutenant of the Chinese at Semdramf 
having been put in confinement by the commandant, all the 
Chinese at that ])lace joined tlieir countr^'men at Tdmjmmf 
Waldhan. The Chinese then moved to Kdrang Amyer^ when 
they were attacked. The Javans retreated to Semdramg^ and 
were assisted by the Dutch. The chief, Singsehf in c<Hicert 
with Merta PHra^ now laid siege to Semdramg. 

The commander at K^ta Sura requested assistance against 
the Chinese at Ambardway which was granted, with the same 
instruction to the chiefs as in tlie former instances. These 
marched as far as Saliatgay where they held secret commoni- 
cation with the Chinese; but the chief, Aria Ptimgaldfm^ 
caused ten Chinese to be put to death while both parties 
were about to meet privately, and sent tlie ten heads to Kerim 
Sura^ which were delivered to the commandant This at fini 
exasperated the Chinese leader at Semdrang^ but he was 
soon pacified. 

At this time tlie Susunan discovered tliat one of the sons 
of MangkHrat MaSy Tepa Sdna^ was carrying on an intrigue 
with the commandant of the fort at K^rta Sura^ and caused 
him to be bow-stringed. IVira Meja and Rddem Garemdi^ 
the two sons of Tepa Sdna^ with his other relations, joined 
Pangeran JVira Meng^ala^ and quitted K^ta Siura : tbcj 
were well received by the Chinese. 

The Chinese, besides laying siege to Semdramg, had also 


by this time taken and destroyed Rembang, Jawdna and 
Demdk were abandoned by the Dutch troops, and a want of 
provisions was felt through the country. 

Affairs had come to this pass, when the SusHnan resolved 
to massacre the Dutch garrison at Kerta Sura, The Javans 
were collected under the fort, as by order from the SusunaUy 
in readiness to march against the Chinese, when one of them 
who had entered within the walls fired a shot. The cry of/ 
amdk was given, and many lives were lost on both sides); but 
the plan did not succeed, and it was not till afler he was rein- 
forced by the Chinese that he could effect his object. On the 
renewal of the attack, thei^arrison was compelled to surrender. 
The commanding officer and some others were barbarously! 
murdered in cold blood ; the rest of the troops, with their, 
wives and children, made prisoners, and distributed among 
the Javans : the greatest part of the men being circumcised 
and forced to adopt the Mahomedan religiony 

The Dutch authorities, in endeavouring to account for this 
act, incline to an opinion that the SusHnan was (not without 
an appearance of probability) immediately impelled to it by 
many acts of oppression and injustice exercised against his 
subjects, by a total disregard of all his representations for 
redress, by an evident intention on the part of the Dutch to 
become masters of the whole island, and by the harsh and 
uncivil conduct of the Resident towards the first men of the 
court, which was the more obnoxious from his being the son 
of a Javan w^oman, and for that reason, and the illegitimacy 
of his birth, much despised by the natives. 

When this intelligence reached Semdrangy the Dutch began 
to open their eyes. The first step that was taken was 'to pass 
a decree, absolving the Pang&ran of MadHra from his allegi- 
ance to the Susii7ian, This decree was formally signed by the 
government of Semdrangy and accepted by the Pang&ran^ 
who being married to a sister of the SusHnafiy returned his 
wife back to her brother. No sooner had he delared himself 
the ally of the Dutch, than he ordered all the Chinese on the 
island of Madura to be put to death, and embarking his 
forces immediately, took possession ofSiddyUy TuhaUy Jipang^ 
and Lamdng^an, At Gr^sik about four hundred Chinese were 
put to death. 



The Chinese, in the meantime, finding themselves irio* 
forced by the Javans, spread orer the whole coontrjr withoat 
encountering opposition, and laid siege at the same time to 
nearly all the Company's settlements along the coast, fiom 
T^gdl to Pa^uruan. 

Afler manv feeble and unskilful attacks on the fort of Sf- 
mdrang^ and the loss of many lives, the united forces of the 
Javans and Chinese were compelled to raise the siege. 

A negociation was now brought about by means of the 
Pangeran of Madura^ who represented to the Dutch thai the 
attack upon the fort, as well as the subsequent part taken bjr 
the Javans, was solely at the instigation of the minister, 
Ndia Ka^umOy and that the S^isunan himself was penonaDy 
averse to these measures. The StiSMttan^ according to the 
Dutch accounts, regretted the precipitate steps he had taken, 
cither as beginning to fear that the Dutch might again, as in 
former wars, obtain the ascendancy, and make him par dear 
for his temerity ; or, which appeared to him most likely, ap> 
prehending that tlic Chinese, who, though comparatirelj Sew 
and imused to arms, had hitherto taken the lead in erciy affur 
of consequence, and evinced their superiority to the Jarans in 
ability and courage, should become too powerful, and mi^it, 
in concert iiith some discontented chiefs, think fit to 
him. From one or other, or both of these motives, the St 
nan desired to renew his alliance with the Dutch. 

The Dutch, on their part, considering the precarioos stale of 
the time and circumstances, found it advisable to enter into 
amicable relations, and accordingly concluded a peace, faj 
which were ceded to them the island of Madura^ the 
coast, and Snrabdyay with all the districts to the eastward, 
Balambdng\iHj and Rembdngj Japdra^ and Semaramg^ with 
all their subordinate posts. 

According to the Javan accoimts, this treaty wasconcloded 
without the knowledge of the minister, Kdia KaJfrnma^ who 
with the Javan and Chinese forces still Liy encamped not fiv 
fn)ni Sefftdnnig: and it was agreed ui>on by the Smtmmam^ al 
the request of the Dutch, that the Chinese shoidd be kept in 
ignorance of what was ])assing, in order that they mi^t be 
the more easily massacred by their sup{)osed friends the 
Javans. ydta Kajfimtty however, no sooner heard of the 


ditions on which the peax;e had been concluded, and of the in- 
tention to massacre the Chinese, than he took part with them, 
and revealed the whole plot. To preserve appearances, how- 
ever, he made a sham attack on the Chinese, in which the sick 
alone were sacrificed. The rest moved off unmolested to the 
eastward, meditating vengeance against the SusunaUy by whom 
they had been thus deserted. Their principal force was now 
assembled in the districts of Pdii and Jawdnaj where they 
were joined by many of the chiefs who had hitherto been at- 
tached to their cause. Here they proclaimed as Susunan 
Raden Mas Garendiy son of Pangeran T^pa Sdna^ who had 
recently been put to death by the SusdnaUy and grandson of 
Susunan Mangkurat Mas^ who had died at Ceylon. He as- 
sumed the title of Susiinan Mangkurat Mas Prdbu Kilning^ 
but is usually distinguished by the name of Susunan Kuning. 
This prince was about ten years of age, and therefore the trans- 
actions which ensued are to be attributed to his ministers, 
Mangundnang and Merta Puray and to the Chinese chiefs, 
Singsih and Pdnjang, 

Nata KasumOj the minister, still feigning allegiance, re- 
turned to K&rta Sura ; but the part he had taken being dis- 
covered, he was sent to Semdrang on a false mission, as was 
customary in such cases, and there entrapped by the Dutch 
and conveyed to Ceylon. 

The (Chinese^ with their emperor,^ how marched with great 
expedition to Keria Sura^ in order to attack the Susunan^and 
met with but little resistance^) The troops of the Susunan^ 
under the command of Rdden Pringa Ldya^ were defeated, 
Kerta Sura was surprised, and the Susdnan was obliged to 
leave his court, and treasures to the enemy. His queen, sister, 
and children, on horseback, together with his mother, carried 
by two Europeans, under the conduct of two Dutch officers, 
through a back gate of the ddlaniy were pursued and over- 
taken. The Susunan and the hereditary prince only were 
enabled to save themselves by flight. 

It was not likely that an alliance between the Chinese and 
Javans, people so different and hostile to each other, could be 
of any long duration. While the Chinese became relaxed in 
their discipline, and indulged in every species of irregularity, 
the fugitive emperor, being now joined by the Dutch and Ma- 

R -2 


tiitre*^\ Tccviwd the subiuission of many of the rebel chieCs, 
iiixi ])aTil(auHl ihoui ; l»iit lie refused to pay attention to tbf 
offiTs of .submission made by the Chinese. The prince of 
MtulHni^ at It'll ^^h, succci^detl in making himself master of 
Kertii Sura^ from whcuce the Svsunan KuHiag was obliged 
to riy, artiT a reijn^ of four months. 

'file Cliiuesi^ Wm^ aftemards defeated in a pitch<?d battle 
at Asi'm^ n^treatod to BraMMnamj and the Sajm/MH again 
arrived in his capital, ^\^len, however, the prince of Aladmrm^ 
who was bv no means well inclined to the Swmnan^ fotmd 
himself in ]x»ssession of Kvrta Sura^ he made an attempt to 
rais4' to tlie tliroue Pantfvran Angehai^ the SwfmmoH^n brother. 
The SMXHitan was once more obliged to quit his capital* and 
it was not tnitil aAiT much negcKriation between the Dutch 
and the «lavans, that he was re-established. ^\liether this 
utteinpt on the part of tlie Madiuvse prince was serious, or 
only inteiide<l to render the sovereign more complying to the 
demands of his allies, is not kno^ii. Tlie negociation^ how* 
ever, as was usual in similar eases, turned out highly adran* 
ta^eous to the Duteh interi'st^i, a treaty being dictated by 
them without the walls of the palace, and before the prince 
was ]H'rmitted to enter it. 

Tlie Chinese, who had meanwhile remained at BramUmmm 
unmolested for two whole months, were now joined by Pdtm 
Sntjara^ a man noted among the Javans for his eminent 
abilities, and distingui.shed aften^ards for the conspicuoos 
part he acted in what is calked ^' the war of Java,** and 
through his means tlu* ]^arty were enabled still to make a 
stand : they were at length, however, defeated by the Dutch 
triHips, and compelled ti> retri'at over the southern hills. A 
genenil anniesty bt>ing proclaimed, and the Chinese having 
availed themselves i»f it, the ex -emperor at length simt*ndeml 
to tlie Dutch at Surabaya^ by whom he was banished to 
Ceylon, where he ilied. Hiis event hapjK'ned in thtt Javan 
vear l(»(i7, and tenninated the Chinese war. 

After a few months the SuKunan^ in conformity with 
ancient custom, remove<l the seat of govennnent fmm Kcrim 
Stint to the village of Solo^ about six miles distant, where a 
palaoi^ was built. 'V\\v new capital was called Sura 
and is the prestMit residence of the cm|H*rurs of Ja%'a. 


On the subsequent accession of Mr. Imhoff to the post of 
governor-general, he was of opinion that, notwithstanding the 
favourable terms of the treaties granted by the SusunaUy suf- 
ficient atonement had not been made to the Dutch nation for 
the outrage committed against the Christian religion, and the 
barbarous treatment of the garrison of Keria Sura, He 
therefore required that the two principal ringleaders should be 
delivered up and punished ; and to ensure compliance, mea- 
sures were taken for seizing upon the Susunan and his son, 
and bestowing the throne on the eldest son of Pangeran 
Mdngku Niigdra, But the Susunan thought it prudent to 
comply, and delivered over two priests to the Dutch ; and a 
new tieaty was on this occasion concluded with the Susunun. 

Fresh disturbances soon succeeded. The Pangeran of. 
Madura^ Chdkra Deuingraty a man of a selfish and haughty 
character, considered himself, in consequence of the part 
he had taken, so far exalted above the other chiefs, that he 
neglected to make his annual appearance at court. Of this 
the SUminan complained to the Dutch, who interfered, but 
without effect. The Pangeran^ who, as before stated, had 
taken possession of the provinces of Siddya, Tubafiy Jipang^ 
and Laniung'*any now refused to restore them either to the 
Susunan or the Dutch, to whom they had been ceded, 
claiming them, as well as all the plunder he had obtained at 
Keria Sura, as conquered property. Determined to keep 
them by force, he engaged in his service a number of men 
from Bdliy and fortified the island Mendriy so as to command 
the harbour of Surabdya. 

He now commenced open hostilities by attacking a Dutch 
vessel, and putting to death several European seamen. Two 
thousand Madurese entered the district of Surabaya^ burnt 
some villages, and laid the country waste ; and five thou- 
sand Bdlians were posted on the frontiers of Pamakdsan, 
After having been twice or thrice defeated, the Pangeran 
made a sudden attack upon Sumenap and Pamakdsan^ and 
gained a complete victory over the natives fighting imder a 
Dutch commander, who lost six thousand men on the occa- 
sion, the chief being obliged to fly the country. 

It was not long before the Dutch regained possession of 
Su/nenap and Pamakdsntty on which occasion a brother-in- 


law of the Pang^any with two chiefs, submitted to them ; 
but the Dutch troops were no sooner withdrawn, than thoae 
provinces again fell under the authority of the Pamgfram^ who 
laid them waste with fire and sword. The Dutch tried in 
rain to dislodge him. Rembang was now besieged by an 
army of five thousand Madurese and Javans. Liuem^ 
Pdjang-kungufigy and all the villages as far as Paradfrnt^ 
were in possession of the Pang^ran^ who made himself 
master also of the fort of R^mbangy and of the building yard 
established there; but his fortune suddenly changed. The 
prince was, in his turn, defeated in several engarcments, and 
at length compelled to fly from Java ; and the 'jDutch fbieea 
landing on Madura, took the capital Sdmpamgj by stonn^ 
and in a short time made themselves masters of the whole 

In diis extremity, the prince of Madura still lefiued to 
come to terms, and went with his sons, Scura and Rimm 
Denittgraty to Banjermdsin on Borneo, where he engaged hia 
passage on board an English ship bound to Bencoolen ; to 
which place he had previously, on his affairs taking an mi* 
favourable turn, sent his son, Rdden TumAn^g^tng Wkra 
Deningratj to request assistance from the English, and pio- 
cure men and warlike stores. His plan, howcTer, of pio* 
ceeding to Bencoolen was fnistrated ; for the sultan of 
jermdsiny on application from the Dutch, sent him, 
son Sdjfray to BataWa, whence the father was banished to the 
Cape of Good Hope, and the son to Ceylon. 

In effecting a settlement of the country, the Dutch weie 
compelled to a])point another son of this prince, SArm Di* 
ningraty to succeed as chief of MadAray imder the name of 
Secha Denitigrat, In the year 1758, this chief was also 
appointed Widdiuty or chief, of several of the eastern dis* 

But, however these successes on the part of the Dnlth 
might tend to the immediate tranquillity of the countzy, the 
autlioritv of the Samnan had been seriously shaken. The 
prince possessed neither the esteem nor attachment of his 
subjects. To his evil star it was attributed that the empbe 
had n<»t only lost much of its ancient g^randeur, but was 
lm)iight to the brink of niiii. The chiefs no longer placed 


any confidence in him ; they despised the man who had 
granted such humihating terms to the Dutch, and who, to 
obtain their temporary aid, had thus sacrificed the permanent 
integrity of the empire : they, therefore, were inclined to make 
an efibrt to regain what had been lost. 

The principal character and prime mover in this rebellion 
was the Pangeran Mungkubumi, a yoimger brother of the 
Susunan. During the Chinese war he had obtained con- 
siderable experience, and was distinguished for boldness and 
enterprize of character. On the Chinese being driven firom 
Kerta SurUy he had thrown himself on the protection of the 
Dutch, and was now residing with his brother at Kerta Sura, 
Next to Mangkubumi, the most prominent character in the 
war of Java was Pdku Nagdray who was also called M{is 
Sdyed but perhaps better known as the grandfather of Prang 
Wid&no, After the defeat of the Chinese at BrambdnaUy 
this prince had also returned to court; but being coldly 
received, again reared the standard of revolt, and escaping 
into the southern mountains assumed the title of Susunan Adi 

Mangundnangy the minister of Susunan Kuning, and 
Merta Para, had established themselves in the province of 
Sukawdtiy refiising to come into any terms. They invited 
Mangkabumi to come over to them, and promised their assist* 
ance in raising him to the throne. MangkubUmi accepted 
their invitation ; but finding himself deceived by them, he, 
by his own exertions and those of the son of Merta Pura^ 
obtained possession of that province, and established himself 
under the title of Pangeran Adipdti of Sukawdti. He was, 
however, afterwards induced to listen to terms offered him by 
the Susunan^ who again received him into favour, and con- 
ferred upon him the independent government of Sukawdti- 
But these terms were not granted by the emperor without ex- 
citing the jealousy and apprehensions of the minister Pringa 
Ldyay who easily availed himself of an early opportunity, 
when the Governor-General, Van Imhoff, was on a visit to 
Sura K&rtdy to represent the danger arising firom any subject 
possessing so independent and extensive authority, as that re- 
cently granted by the Susiinan to Mangkubumi. 

It was accordingly determined to deprive Mangkubumi of 


this tract of couiitn-, and the resolution was penumally com* 
municatcd to him in the hall of audience. The chief feigned 
obedience ; but in the coiurse of the night, secretly quitted the 
capital, and asBcmbling his party proceeded to Si$ka9rdii^ 
where he again reared the standard of rebellion. From the 
flight of this ])rince is dated what is usually termed the war 
of Java, which took place in the Javan year 1671. 

The Dutch now took an active part in the war, but found 
that they had enemies to contend with who possessed coo* 
siderable ability and enter^mze, and who in the past disturb- 
ances of the countr}' had gained much ex]>erience. Pdtm 
Nagdra was, in the first instance, defeated, and fled for pn>- 
tection to Mangkubumi^ who received him kindly, gare him 
his daughter, Rdtn Banddra^ in marriage, and appointed him 
his Patehy or minister, llie united forces of these two chie& 
resisted the attacks of the Dutch for about twelve months, 
when Mangkubumi assumed the title of SHximan Aiatarem ; 
but a dispute arising between him and Pdku Nagdra^ who 
demanded his own nomination as presiunptivc successor, 
Mangkubumi took back his daughter, and the chiefs parted in 

While Mangkubumi lay witli his forces at Bundram^ a lil* 
lage on the south coast, and distant about ten miles from the 
present Yugya K^ta^ intelligence was received of the death 
of the Susunan; and such was tlie extensive power of Mamg* 
kubiimi at the time, that the body of the deceased could not 
be removed to the consecrated burial place at Megiri in the 
southern hills, on account of his forces, and was in conse* 
quence interred near the tomb of Jaka Tingker^ sultan of 
Pdjangy at Latvian, near Sura Kerta, whence this prince re- 
ceived the ap])ellation of Susunan Seda Laurigan. 

Mangkubumi had evinced a desire to come to terms, and 
gave assurances to the governor of his attachment to the 
Dutch, but demanded tliat his scm should be pn>claimed Pmm* 
geran Adijmfi Matdrem (heir a])parent); a condition to which 
tlie Dutch would not listen. 

The reduced sUite of the Suitunann authority liefore his 
<lenth, and tht^ distnicted conditic»n of affairs, afforded an 
op])oituuitv loo tavourablr to \w ovrrlooked by the l>iitch, of 
at mu'c attaining tlir p-and objrct ot all their jxilitical inter- 


ference, the sorereignty of the country. A weak prince on 
his deatli-bed was, under existing circumstances, easily 
brought to any terms, in the hope of continuing even the no- 
minal succession in his family. He was compelled, by a 
formal official deed, ^^ to abdicate for himself and his heirs, 
" the sovereignty of the country, conferring the same on the 
** Dutch East India Company, and leaving it to them to dis-- 
" pose of it, in future, to any person they might think compe- 
tent to govern it for the benefit of the Company and of 
Java." After recommending his children, and especially 
the heir apparent, to the protection of the governor, the un- 
fortunate monarch expired. This singular and important 
deed was dated x)& the lljlH December, 174^. 

From this deed is derived the right by which the Dutch 
East India Company subsequ^itly granted in fee to the 

* During the reign of this prince, on the 9th of September 1738, a con- 
tract was entered into between the Dutch and the sultan of Bantam, of 
which the following were the chief articles. 

1st. The Dutch having deemed it necessary to send a detachment to Lam- 
pung TCdang Bdwang, in order to save that province from total ruin, the 
sultan promised to cause a fort, or pdger, to be erected at his expense, on 
the spot which should be deemed most eligible for that purpose, either on 
the Palembang river, or any where else. 

2d. That the sultan should keep this fort in constant repair at his own 

3d. That the sultan should repay to the Dutch the expense of main- 
taining a small establishment, consisting of a resident, a commandant, 
one sergeant, two corporals, twenty-four privates, one drummer, and 
three artillery men. 

4th. That the ground on which the fort was to be built, should be 
ceded to the Dutch, with an extent of one himdred roods in every direc- 
tion. This ground to revert back to the sultan, in the event of the 
Dutch establishment breaking up, in the same manner as had taken place 
in regard to Lampung Samimgka, 

6th. With a view to hold out due encouragement to the industry of the 
Lampung people, it was agreed that, previously to exporting their pepper 
to Bantam, they should state the quantity to the Company's resident, who 
should furnish them with a certificate, enabling them to obtain early pay- 
inent, pursuant to the existing contracts. 

7 th. The Company's ser\'ants at Bantam and Lampung Tidang Bdwang ^ 
were authorized to confiscate any quantity of pepper which was exported 
from the latter place, unprovided with a certificate from the resident. 


native princes, the administration of those piorinces whicb 
still continued under native government. 

On the death of this unfortunate prince, Mamgkmbumi 
caused himself to be formally proclaimed Sutinam Pakmhmamm 
Senapdti Matdremy in the presence of a more numenNit 
assemblage of the princes and chiefs than attended the invet* 
titure of the new Susunan raised by the Dutch. He seat 
ambassadors to the Dutch governor with many assurances of 
attachment and fidelity, requesting to be acknowledged ai 
sovereign, and soliciting that the body of the deceased migfaC 
be delivered to him, for the purpose of solemn interment. 

The son of the decased Susunany however, was prefinrred, 
and at the age of nine years was raised to the throne, under 
the title of Pakubuana the third. 

The enmity of the rebellious chiefs to each other soos 
vented itself in open hostility, and a pitched battle ensoed, 
in which Mangkubumi was defeated and driven to the west* 
ward. Soon, however, recruiting his forces, he returned, and 
had two successful engagements with the Dutch, one at 
Jdnaty a village in Bdglen^ tlie other at Tidar^ a hill in AVrfv. 
In the battle of Jdndr tlic Javan forces allowed the brunt of 
the action to fall upon the Dutch, who were completelj 
routed: of those who had escaped the sword manv were 
drowned in an adjoining marsh, and the rest were m ur deied 
in great numbers by the country- people. The afikir of Tidar 
was of less importance. The forces of Mangkmhmmi were 
sometimes reduced to a few hundred, and at other times 
amomited to as many thousands, the chiefs and people de- 
serting him in his distress, and flocking to him in his pros- 
perity. Afler three victories obtained over the Dutch, he 
marched towards Uie northern coast, fell u{M)n Pakal&mg^mm^ 
and j)lundered the j>lacc. 

Mangkubumi now carried all before him, and was once at 
the gates of Soloy which capital Uie Javans represent to have 
been saved from phmder by the superstitious veneration fior 
the gun nidi ntomiy which the rebels no sooner descried oa 
tlie alun-aluH than they sounded a retreat The Dutch, in 
tlie hope of allaying his displeasure, had given the S% 
the choice of his officers of state, and prohibited the 


from taMng his seat on the throne with him (an indelicate 
assumption which had previously given the greatest disgust 
to the Javans) ; but after nine years of harassing warfare it 
was still foimd impracticable to reduce the rebellious chiefs, 
or to restore the coimtry to order. The Dutch, therefore, 
availing himself of the abdication in their favoiur executed by 
the deceased Susunan^ listened to the proposals of Mangku- 
humiy who offered peace, on condition that one half of Java 
should be ceded to him. A meeting took place at Gingdniij 
a village not far distant from Sura-kertay at which were 
present the SusunaUy Manykubumij and the governor of the 
north-east coast of Java, when a treaty was signed. 

One of the conditions of this treaty was, that Mangkuhimi 
should use his utmost exertions to subdue Pdku Nagdra. 
In conformity with this condition he immediately proceeded 
against him ; but Pdku Nagara making his appearance with 
his whole force, obliged him to retreat and conceal himself in 
a cavern, while his troops, flying in every direction, allowed 
his camp to be burned. Mangkubumiy however, soon collected 
his forces again. The Dutch ofiered a reward for the head of 
Pdku Nagdra^ who was obliged to proceed to the eastward, 
being pursued and his whole force finally overthrown. He 
still reftised to submit, and the celebrity of his name and ex- 
ploits was sufficient to recruit his ranks. 

' In the year A.Z)> 1755, Apingkubumi ^as solemnly pro- 
claimed by the Dutch Governor, under the title of SMtan 
Amangkubudna S^napdti Ingaldga Abdul Rdchman Sah^din 
Panatagdma Kulifatdlah. 

The imited forces of the Susunan and Sultan now resumed 
the attack upon Pdku Nagdra ; several of his chiefs were 
forced to submit, and he himself, after having prolonged the 
war for upwards of two years, seeing no favourable chance or 
hope of ultimate success, at last sent his brother to the Susu- 
natty requesting that certain districts and the southern moun- 
tains might be granted to him for his support, promising on 
that condition to lead a quiet and peaceable life for the ftiture. 
In reply to this he was informed, that the partition of the 
lands had already taken place; that part of these lands might, 
however, be granted, but that it was first necessary he should 
make his appearance at court. To this he assented ; and it 


being stipulated tliat the Susunan should pay bim the con* 
pliment of receiving him at the distance of half an hour'f 
walk from Sura-kerta^ he came in, and throwing himnelf at 
the feet of the Susmmn was kindly raised again, deidrefl to 
sit on the bench, and assured that he had notliing to appre- 

Peace was then concluded, on the conditions that Pdkm 
Nagdra^ commonly called Ma^ Sayed^ should ajucume the 
rank and title of Patigeran Adipdti Mangku Sdgara^ with an 
assignment of land to the extent of four thousand chdchoM^ 
in the districts of Kftdwafig, Maleita, and the southern mouii* 

Thus ended, iii the year 1758, a war which had IsjOmI 
twelve years, in which the fmest provinces of the island wi^e 
laid waste, thou.sands slain on lK)th sidt*s, and the inde|H"n» 
dence of the empire finally annihilatcnl. 'ITie expenst^ in- 
curred by the Dutch on account of the war, from the rear 
1746 until the* ])eace, amounted U) 4,28«,0(K«. 12. 8. florins; 
but, in the result, they acquired, if not the acknowleilged so- 
vereignty of tlie whole; island, at least an effectual cantroul 
over its future administration. 

The SuftHnany on his deatli, was succeeded, in the Jaraa 
year 1714, by his son, tlic present SusAnan^ under the title of 
SiiHunan Pakubtuina the fourth. 

The sultan established his ca]>ital a few miles distant horn 
the ancient cajntal of Maidrem^ at Yiffya4cerin (Djttej^ 
Carta) the present residence of his successors. He dicid, 
after a long reign, in the Javan year 1718, and was succeeded 
by his eldest surviving son, under the title of Amangkuhmmmm 
the second. Iliis prince was deiK>se<l by the British gorem- 
ment in the year 181*2, and succeede<l by his son, Amangkm* 
hudna the third, who dying, was again succewleil, in 1^15, 
by his s<m, a chihl of nine years of age, the present sultan, 
Atnangkuhudfia the fimrth. 

Pangeran Prang Widimo^ still residing at Sim Krria^ n 
the grands(m of Pangeran Adipdti Mdngku Sagara^ and con- 
tinues to enjoy the inde])endent administration of the lands 
as.signed to him at the S4*ttlemenl in 17r)H. 

Hv the final settlrmont t»f the lountrv in 175*^ the Dutch 
rrsi'r^cd to thruisrhrs tlh' diu'ct iidniini'^lration of all the |»r»* 



viuces lying on the northern sea-coast, from Cheribon to the 
eastern extremity of the island of Madura ; but the inland 
and southern provinces stretching from the islands of Cheribon 
to Mdlanf/, were restored to the native princes, between whom 
the lands were divided in nearly equal portions by chdchaSj 
according to the population and the peculiar usage of the 
country, four thousand chdchas from the share of the Susunan 
being set apart for Mangku Nagdra. 

Tlie terms on which the successors of these princes were 
permitted to exercise the sovereignty, suffered no material 
alteration until the year 1808, when Marshal Daendels offi- 
cially declared that the clauses of the existing treaties, by 
which those princes held their territory in fee from the Dutch, 
were void, and that in future he should consider them as inde- 
pendent princes, having no other relation to the European 
government than such as must of necessity exist between a 
weaker and stronger state in the immediate neighbourhood of 
each other. At this time the court of YUgya K^rta^ sensible 
of owing its establishment chiefly to the military success of 
its founder, and the weakness of the Dutch and the Stisunan, 
and that it never fiilly submitted to the terms of the treaty of 
1755 (which it is even stated were imposed upon the sovereign 
by a false translation in the Javan language) evinced a desire 
of independence and an appearance of internal strength, 
which called for the immediate interference of the European 
authority. Marshal Daendels, therefore, marched to Yugya 
Kerta with a considerable force, and a negociation being 
opened, a treaty was entered into, by which the reigning sul- 
tan consented to resign the administration of the coimtry into 
the hands of his son, who was appointed to exercise the same 
under the title of regent, and to cede certain provinces. 

But the stipulations of this treaty, thus entered into, had 
not been carried into effect, when in the month of August,\ 
1811, the British forces arrived in Java. The sultan, it is 
true, had ostensibly resigned the administration to his son,, 
but he still took his usual place on the throne, and not one of, 
the districts ceded by treaty to the Dutch had then been ac-i 
tually transferred. 




IVho kave nded subsequently to the Destruetiom qf the Himdm Gotsrmmemi nf 
Mttjapdkit down to the Javan Year 1742, corr e spo md img wiik the Ckrisiitm 
Year 1815. 


Begmn to Reign. 

A. J. A. D. At Demdky/rom A, J. 1400 to 1503. 
1403 1477 Raden Patah Adipati Jimbun. 
1455 1519 Pangerang Sabrang Lor. 

1457 1533 Sultan Bintara, or Trang^gina, often called 

Sultan Demak. 

At Pdjang.from 1503 to 1540. 
1503 1577 Jaka Tlngkir, Sultan Pajang. 
1532 1606 Adipati Dcmak. 

At Matdrem,from 1540 to 1600. 

1540 1614 Panambahan Senapati. 

1550 1624 Sultan Soda Krapiah. 

1562 1636 Radcn Ransang, also called Siklian Agung, or 

Sultan K6rta. 
1585 1659 Mangkurat, commonly called Seda Teg&l-imm. 

At Kerfa SHrayfrom 1603 to 1675. 

Susiinan Mangkurat the second. 

Susunan Mangkurat Mas. 

Pangeraii Pugar, usually called Susiinmn Pakn* 

buana the first. 
Susunan Prabu Amangkurat. 
Susunan Seda Langkunan, also called SusAnaa 

Pakubiiana the second. 
Susunan Pakubiiana the second removed the 

seat of government to Sura Kertain 1675. 

At Sura Kerta^ in 1675. 

Susunan Pakubiiana second (continned.) 
1675 1742 Susunan Pakubiiana thinl, in whose reign the 

empire was divided into the two kingdoms of 
Smra K^rta and Yugffa Keria, 













At Sura Kerta. 





Susunan Pakil- 
buan third 

bilana the 
fourth and 
present Su- 

At Y^gya Kerta. 
A. J. A. D. 

1612 1756 

1741 1815 

Sultan Amang 
kubiiana first. 

Sultan Amang- 
kubiiana se- 

Sultan Amang- 
kubilana third. 
Sultan Amangku- 
buana fourth, 
and present 

Sovereigns of Dem^ 4 

of Pajang 2 

of Matarem 4 

ofK^rtaSura 4 

of Sura K^rta 4 

The present Susdnan is consequently the eighteenth in suc- 
cession from the first Mahomedan sovereign, and not perhaps 
less than the fortieth from the first Hindu prince. The 
average reign dining the Mahomedan government is nineteen 
years. Taking the same average for the period of the Hindu 
government, its origin would be four hundred and eighteen 
years anterior to the destruction of Majapdhit^ A. J. 1400, 
and may be referred to the close of the tenth century of the 
Javan era, or the middle of the eleventh century of the Chris- 
tian era. 


Which have occurred in Java (from the Traditions and 

Records of the JavansJ 

1 Arrival of Aji Sdka in Java. 
10 The date of (or probable establishment at) Nusa Bdrong, 

— Nusa Tambini, 

— Bawean. 



33 The date of (or probable establUh- } The moantain Mil 

39 ment at) S Tlie great mountain n{ Tegai, 
50 The mountain Bromo. 

— Tlie mountain Semirm. 

70 The mountain Sumbimg, 

— llie mountain Hdia Hmta. 

04 Tlie mountain /Mtra. 

118 Tlie mountain Bentot. 

131 On the southern uiountaint. 

152 The mountain ff 7/m. 

175 ....The mountain Pemlam. 

193 Tlie mountain Prawaia. 

— llie moimtain Arjutta. 

195 llie mountain IngeL 

21 1 Building of Chdndi Mdling. 

297 Hie introduction of maize or Indian com into Jara. 
308 TIic date of (or probable establishment at) TTie mountaio 

343 The date of (or probable establishment at) The mountain 

551 Building of »S'/»^^-*ar/. 
752 I)(»ath of A7rf/ Suka wdti, 
808 Bnniing of the temples at GAnung Wedi, 
5>24 Construction of buildings in the western monntaina. 
It is related, that in fonner times the islands (yf Snnatia, 

Java, Bdli and Sumbdwiiy were united, and aftcr i r anh 

separate<l into nine different parts ; and it \€ also said, 

that when three thousand rainy seasons have ptiscd 

away, they ^"ill be re-united. 
1018 or 1188 Ihiilding of the Chdndi Sewi, or thousand 

temples, at Bramhdnan, 
1055 Date of Telihja Pdsrr in Banyuman. 
1007 Riutdu Kuming in ditto. 

1114 Separation of tlie lands of PaUmbang and Java. 
1 121 In the island of Bdli, 
11 ()4 Ajipciu-ance of Puh Men y arc (near Surahdya) above 

tlie s(»a. 
1201 Separation of the lands of Ddli and Baiamhimgmm in 

1217 Date of (or probable establishment at) Ptig9$Mm$§gmm, 


I31S Building of the temples at Kdti Bening near Bram- 

1260 Separadon of the lands of Giltng Trawdngan and BdU, 
1373 The fall of stones from a mountun. 
1280 Separation of Ibe island of Sela Ptirang (also called 

Jjumbok or Sasak) from Sumbdwa. 
1300 Establishment «( Xhn court of Pajajdran. 

Erection of a stone tfmple at Salatiifa. 

1308 Construclioii of the tank at Peng'ging near Amiaritffa. 

1352 Bate oi TeUhj,i MoineinhH. ' 

1360 Building of the temples at B&ro B6do in Ked&. y 

1400 I>estruclionof il/rtyrtp«/((7. 

1403 EstablishmentofUie court at i>«fi(fit. 

1410 Establishment of ^^2attjr- 

1421 Establishment of fwoMyo. 

1423 The faU o{ Bduiju ptnJah. 

1427 The burning of Pdlok by women. 

1432 Era of Kanilen. 

1483 Era of the Prince of Pdtt. 

1439 Destruction oiPdnjer by fire. 

1440 Deatli of KayubrdlU. 

1441 Kaj6ran surrounded. 
1443 Death of the three princes. 

1448 Conquest of Kediri by Sut&nan Ingaldga. 

1449 of TMan. 

1450 of Wirotdri. 

1451 oSGegeldng. 

1452 oiMenddng k^gam. 

1454 The site of Surabaya changed. 

1455 Conquest oi Pasiiruan. 
1462 of Panarakan. 

1464 Defeat of the sons of the chieb of Xamint^'/ut, BlUar, 

and Wiraxdha. 

1465 Conquest of jPnntTnjiinjon. 

1466 —^^-^ of Pamendng. 

1467 ^^~— ^— of Sing'ga. 

1468 oiBalambdng'amtc^i^BamfiHpAngi. 

1469 Conquest and burning of Sinff'ara, a dependency of 

Ba lam bdng'an . 

1470 Conquest of ^o^niff. 

VOL. II. » 


1471 Arrival of the princo of Oiri^ in the district of Kediri. 
1494 Foundation of the gardens o( Pungk&ran at the foot of 
the mountains. 

1473 Destruction by fire of Dahdj and the disappearance of 

the prince called Prawdta^ at that place. 

1474 The elevation of another prince. 

1475 Wax of Surawdri, 

Kiai lilrasdma proceeds to Jipang. 

1476 The falling do^^ of Danyu pindah. 
1478 Conquest of the district of Bi&ra. 
of Balega in Madura, 

1499 Disappearance of the Adipdti of Kediri and his prin- 

cess, after embracing the Mahomedan religion. 

1500 Conquest of Katujan^ M^rasdhay and Pranardga, 

1502 Swords and javelins fu^t made use of. 

1503 The establishment of the court at Pdjang. 
1506 Occurrence of a great earthquake. 

1509 First destruction of Pdjang, 

1510 Destruction of Demdky when the chiefs and people be- 

took tliemselves to their vessels, and put to sea. 

1512 Dahd conquered by Senapdti. 

1513 The people of Jipdng carried into captivity after the 

battle of Kalidddung ; actions in Pasmman and 

1515 Construction of Kdtah Batu Pfkteh (or >Vhite-walled 

Castle) at Maidrem, 
1517 Rattles of Jafasdriy &c. fought by Sevtapdii. 

1521 Death of Panambdhan Senapdti ^ at Jenar (Ma- 


Tlie palace at Kerta being burnt, the seat of govemmmt 

is removed to Pura, 

The Panambdhan of Cheribon comes to Maiarem. 

1522 Tlie Adipdti of P agar , son of the Senapdti ^ removed to 

Demdky where he ascended the throne. After re- 
maining there a year, there happened an eclipae of 
the sun. 
1525 Sultan Krdpeak surrounds and attacks Demdk, 

While tlie war was carrjing on at Gresiky Sultan Krd» 

peak <lied at Matdrem, 
1.V26 Battle of AWiraMii. 


1532 Death of Adipdti Merta Ldya. 

1536 The people of Matdrem attack Mdlang, under Sultan 

1540 The election of Panambdhan Senapdti at Matdrem as 


1541 The age of Singa Pddu. 
1545 The Madurese war. 

1547 A great sickness at Matdrem^ and the erection of the 
throne of Matdrem. 

1552 The war of Pdti^ and the erection of the Matdrem 


1553 The first Batavian war. 

1555 The measuring of time, and the second Batavian war. 

1560 The people of the eastern districts assembled at Ma- 

tdrem to perform required services. 

1561 Conquest of Balambdngan, and submission of Rdden 


1562 The Sultan removes to Tumbdyat, and a great granary 

of com is destroyed by fire at Gdding, 

1564 The Ch^ibon war, and the first appearance of the 

Prin'gi people (Europeans) at the court of Ma- 
tarem. • 

1565 The anger of the prince towards the minister of Palem-, 

bangy and the appearance of the Bimjar (Masin) 
people at the court of Matdrem, 

1566 The second great sickness appears at Matdrem^ and 

the construction of the large gun, called Kiai Guntur 
Agni, An artificial lake made at Pl4rei. 

1568 Deadi of Sultan Kerta^ and succession of his son. 

1569 The march of the Matdrem people to Bali and Balam- 

bdngaUf and the submission of those people. 

1571 The construction of the mosque, and the marriage of 

the Sultan with the princess Krdnon. The Kdlang 
move to the east of the Sdlo river. 

1572 The establishment of the court at PUret, and the Sw 

mnati's desire for maidens. The chiefs of all ranks, 
the soldiers, the natives of the coast, and the in* 
habitants of the country, were each ordered to marry 
two wives. 

1573 The appearance of the Ch&riban minister with a pre- 

s 2 


sent of an elephant ; also that of the mfantcr of 
Jdmbi (on Sumatra), bringing accounts of the death of 
the Sultan. The first embassy firom the Hollanders 
arrived at Maidrem^ bringing a present of four pieces 
of artillerj'. 

1574 The second embassy from the Hollanders, with varioos 


1575 Great inundation at Matdrenij and the appeaiance of a 

157G The subjection of the Sukaddtia 'people (on Borneo). 
1577 The subjection of the Siam people, and a present from 

the Company (the Dutch) of a horse of large rize. 

1579 The marriage of the Pangeran Adipdii with tht 

daughter of Mdngnn Jdfa, 

1580 The Rdmpok of an elephant. 

1581 Deatii of Pangeran Pvrbdya. 

1582 The introduction of copper pichis (a small coin). 

1584 Death of Rdden Tdpa Sdna. 

1585 Death of the Cheribon prince in Maidrem^ and the 

murder of Merfa Ndta. 

1586 The appearance of a comet. 

1587 The banishment of the Pang&ran Adipdii to Lipmrm^ 

to convert himself and do penance. 

1588 Death of the Rdtm. 

1592 Order of the SusAnan to Aria Pmrbdya to kill Wirm 

Explosion of the powder magazine, by which the 

sentries were killed in a blocking manner. 

The period when Europeans came to Maidrem with a 

present of two horses. 

1594 The Sm^knan^s desire for maidens. 

An uncommon eruption from a volcano, throwing onC a 

great quantity of fire with sand and stonea. 

1595 The arrival of the Bugu people at Demdmg and the 

march of the Matdrem forces joined with thot of 
Manckanagqra and the sea-coast 

1596 The return of them, with the separation of Madmrm^ 

Sumenap^ and Grifik from the Matdrem obedience. 
They join the rebel Truna Jaya. 
laOO They join together and atUck Matdrem and dealioj ftp 



the Susunan leaving the court with the Bdtu and 
family, after having burnt the same ; death of the 
Susunan at Tegdl Wdngij and election of his son 

1601 Mangkurat marches over Japdra to Kediriy to exter- 

minate the rebel Truna Jdya^ with the assistance of 
the Company. 

1602 Kediri taken and Truna Jdya surrenders. 

1603 Trdna Jdya killed. The Susunan goes to Pdjang and 

establishes his court at Kerta Sura. Pangeran 
Pugar rebels against him, but is defeated and flies to 

1604 Insurrection of the rebel Reyu Ndmrud at SaUngo^ and 

the destruction of the krdton by fire. The subjection 
of Pangeran Pugar to the SusHnan. 

1605 The arrival of ambassadors from Joh&r and Palembang 

at Kerta Sura with a present of an elephant. 

1606 Marriage of the SusHnan with a princess of Griri. 

1607 Age of JVdna Kasuma, 

1608 Circumcision of the Pangeran Adipdti, and preparations 

made for a great chase at Kerta Sura, 

1609 Death of Captain Tak and other Europeans, and the 

rebellion of the eastern pepple, who join Surapdti. 
Several personal combats on the Paseban to divert 
the Susunan, 

1612 The deplorable state of the court of KMa Sura. 

1613 Fire in the mosque at Kerta Sura. 

1614 Excursion ofthe Sus^inan to Manchingan. 

1610 March of the Balamhdngan people coming from the 

south across Kediri^ where they assassinate men and 

1620 The Balambdngan people march to Pasuruany but are 

attacked at Pachatan and repulsed, with a loss of one 
thousand men. 

The court at KMa Sura surrounded with a wall of 


1621 The conquest of Pranardga. 

1622 Deatli of Rdden Sukra and the illness of the Susunan. 

1623 Kamagetan attacked by the people oi Bdli. 


1624 Personal combat between the Javans Teka and Jamdim, 

who were both killed. 

1625 March of the Susmnam to Maidrem^ and embaasT aeni 

by the Susunan to Mecca j in order to obtain the rank 
of Haji, 

1626 Death o{ Susdnan MangkiraL 

1628 His son succeeds, and Raden Siria Kantma usurps 
the rank and title. The latter is defeated bv the people 
of Kerta Sura and taken prisoner. Pamgeram Pmftr 
is arrested, and afterwards released. Being offended 
he proceeds to Semdrang. 

1630 The people of the western sea-coast conquer Kiria Sim 

and expel the Susdnan from his ddlam^ who goes to 
the east, where he joins Surapdti with a thousand 
1680 Arrival of the Europeans at Kfrta Sttra^ who opoa 
finding it deserted, appointed Pangeran Pigar as 

1631 The court of tlic exiled Susunan held at Kediri. 

1638 Pangeran Purbdya marches against the exiled SmsAmam 
and conquers him. Surapdti is killed. He marches 
with tlie Admiral towards Pasunfan^ where he is 
again victorious. The exiled Susunan delivers him- 
self up to the Admiral, who sends him to SmraHgm^ 
from whence he is sent with his Rdiu and minister, 
Jaeng Rdnay to Batavia. 

1634 Appointment of Ja^fi Pusplta as Adipdti of Smraidgu, 

1635 Appointment oiTumdng^gungChdkraJdga as minister, 

who is sent to Batavia in the following year. 

1637 Joumcv of the Susunan to Matdrem. 

1611 Journey of the Susunan to Gdding. 

1642 First expedition of the Conmuklore to Surabdya. Con* 
quest of Surabaya y in which tlie Admiral, Van dcr 
Lfce, is killed. Appointment of Brinkman as Admiral 

1648 Death of the Susunan Pakubudna tlie first, and the 
succession of his eldest son. 

1644 Rehellion oi Pang&ran Blitar in Matdrem^ and the ex 
pedition of Admiral Brinkman against him, wberda 
the Admiral gained a complete victon*. 


1645 Flight otPanff^an Blitario Kamag^tan. His death, 
and the transport of his body to Kerta SUfa. 

1648 Arrest of Pangeran Purbdya Ariuy Dipa Nagdra^ and 
Surapdtij who were all sent to Batavia, firom whence 
Pangeran Aria was afterwards recalled. 

1651 Embassy of Tumuny^gung Niti Ndgara to Batavia, 

and the death of Pang&ran Purbdya,. 

1652 Journey of the Kidi Adipdti to Semdrang^ to pay the 

debt of the SusHnan to the Company. 

1653 Arrest of Pangeran Aria Mdngku Nagdra^ and his 

being delivered up to the Company. 

1655 Death of PangSran Mdngkub&miy and the arrival of 

the Commodore at Kerta Sura, 

1656 The Kidi Adipdti dispatched to Semdrang. 

1657 An erupUon from a volcanic mountain which emitted 

flame for three days. 

1658 The Kidi Adipdti sent to Semarang, where he is 

arrested in the Dutch fort Arrival of the Commo- 
dore at Kerta SHra. 

1659 Raden Adipdti Nata Kasdma sent to Batavia. 

1662 The Raden Adipdti sent to Batavia, and arrival of the 

Commodore at Kerta Sura, 
1664 Journey of the Stisunan to Matdrem, 

1667 Conquest of K&rta Sura, 

1668 Conquest of Prdndu Ldwang, 

1670 Removal of the court of Sura KSrta to Sdlo^ which 

place is since called Sura K&rta Diningrat, 

1671 Arrival of General Imhoff* at Sara Kerta, 

1675 Death of Susunan PakubOana the second, and the time 

when Pang&ran Aria Mangkubmi proclaimed him 
self SusHnan, 

1676 Battle oi Mangkubumi ziJenar. Conquest of PaA:^- 

longan by him. 

1682 Interview between the Stisunan and Pangeran Mang- 
kubumi, Peace established. The lands divided, and 
the PangSran made Sultan of YOgya K&rta Adi- 

1685 Rebellion of Pang&ran Aria Mdnku Nagdra at Sura 
Kerta. The Susunan occupies his new palace. 



1686 Arrival of Pang^ran J arm at 8l^ra Kirtm^ and fliglit of 
Pangiran Anom. 

1688 Dissolution of the marriage of the Suwinan with the 
Rdtu of Madiraj and the death of Rdiu Madmrm 
Ritna and RAden Radm^ja. The journey of the 
Rdtu of Madura to Mad6ra. Rdden Kiiom nude 

1690 The SuHtnan assists in the erection of the trimnplial 
pillars of the mosque. 

1692 Tlie ddlatn is surrounded by a stone wall. 

( 265 ) 





In several parts of this work, and in particular when treating 
of agriculture and revenue, reference has been made to the 
changes introduced by the British government in the internal 
management of the country, and to the information of a 
statistical nature which was collected with regard to its re<» 

It may not be uninteresting to the reader to possess, in a 
compressed form, the result of the surveys and inquiries which 
were then set on foot, as far as the same were completed at 
the close of the British administration on Java. The Ap- 
pendix L. contains a copy of the proclamation and of the 
general instructions issued by the government ; the latter will 
sufficientiy explain the principle on which the tables for the 
eastern districts were compiled. 


Bantam, once rich in its pepper plantations and the empo- 
rium of the Archipelago, had, in consequence of the restric- 
tions of the Dutch company and the vicinity of Batavia, lost 
all its trade and importance, long before tiie arrival of the 

The succession of the throne of Bantam was generally dis- 
posed of by the influence of the Dutch government: but the 
administration of the country and the collection of the port 
duties were till very lately entirely entrusted to him. Tliis 
European influence, though strongly resisted in the fitvt in- 
stance, had been long acquiesced in, till an attempt of the 
Dutch government, in the year 1808, to dluw additional be- 
nefit from this province, gave occasion to an insurrection. 
The successive measures of introducing the cultivation of coff^ 
into that part of the island, of opening the communication by 
means of new roads, and of constructing a new harbour, first 


at Mew Bay, and afterwards at Merak Bay, imposed new and 
unusual burthens on the people ; and so many deserted fron 
the public works that an order was issued to the Resident, 
requiring him to inform the sultan that his first miniai^ 
should be held responsible for the due execution of the public 
task assigned to the sultan's subjects. The desertion still 
continuing, an order still more peremptory was issued to the 
Resident, requiring him to call upon the sultan to deliTer up 
his first minister immediately. In carrying these orders into 
execution, the Resident having imprudently risked his person, 
was murdered. This fatal accident was the occasion of send- 
ing a considerable military force to Bantam, by which 
immediate and thorough change in the native government 
effected. The reigning sultan was removed fiom the tbraoe 
and banished to Amboina, and a relative was raised to the 
sovereign power. 

This prince was placed under regulations dictated by the 
Dutch ; for so fallen had the sovereigns of this once flourishing 
and powerful kingdom now become, that the form and lo- 
Icmnity of a treaty was not deemed necessary. The saltan 
ceded part of his territories to the westward, adjacent to the 
environs of Batavia, the bad administration of which had fre^ 
qucntly given occasion to disturbances in the Batavian dis- 
tricts. The new sultan was allowed to administer the rest 
of his dominions under the superior rule of the Dutch govcni- 

The public works to be carried on in Bantam, and the un- 
usual burthens they imposed on the people, continued how- 
ever to excite, from time to time, disturbances and insurrec- 
tions. On one occasion a detachment, ccmsisting of a lieii- 
tiMiant and eighteen dragoons, were surprised and muideivd 
by the inhabitants. Several native PanyeraiM and chieft Ml 
victims to Uie same spirit of discontent and revenge, and ano- 
Uier change in the person of Uie sultan was thought adviaaUe; 
the new sultan was in consequence allured on board a vestd, 
and conveyed to Batavia, and in his place another chief 
installed sultan of the high lands of Bantam, the Dutch 
ser\'ing to themselves the direct administration of the low 

Tlic country, however, remaining still in a disturbed 

BANTAM. fte7 

the PanffSran Akmet united under his banner the discon- 
tented people of all descriptions, in a more regular opposition 
to the European authority. From this time an extraordinary 
military force was constantly kept in Bantam : all attempts, 
however, to arrest the person of Akmet failed. His influence 
increased so much that proposals were made to him of a 
cession of part of the country : these, however, not being 
listened to, it was determined to abandon the interior to his 
depredations, until the inhabitants themselves, wearied of his 
arbitrary proceedings, might seek refuge with the European 

The Dutch force being withdrawn from Bantam, Akmet 
availed himself of the presence of the British cruizers, during 
the blockade in 1811, to strengthen his influence by an inter- 
course with them, which he easily eflected by furnishing them 
with supplies plundered by him from the inhabitants. By the 
cruizers he was considered as an imfortunate prince, main- 
taining his independence against the Dutch ; and when the 
British troops landed, the sultan was his prisoner, and all 
Bantam under his controul. 

At the conquest of Java by the British forces the extensive 
tracts of this fertile province were thus in the hands of a 
lawless rebel, the inhabitants were in a state of revolt, and 
universal anarchy and distrust had prevailed for several years. 
All idea of raising a revenue on account of government had 
been abandoned ; and the general settlement of the country 
under European controul, was the most that could be hoped 

In the year 1813 the sultan voluntarily resigned the admi- 
nistration of the country into the hands of the British govern- 
ment, in consideration of an annual pension of ten thousand 
Spanish dollars. With the detailed system of land revenue 
introduced into this province, an accurate survey was made of 
all the northern divisions ; and a settlement having been made 
with each individual cultivator, the extent of population stated 
in the annexed table, as far as these districts are concerned, 
may be considered as in general correct. The population of 
the southern districts is estimated ; and it may be observed, 
that the total population rather exceeds than falls short of 
what is stated. 

I»W1 PMi'laoO 
















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lO iO ^ »o r* t^ »^ I iS -^ i5 I 

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Of the splendour and magnificence which procured for thi« 
capital the title of the Queen of the East, little is now to be 
found. Streets have been pulled do^n, canals half filled up, 
forts demolished, and palaces levelled with the dust. The 
statd-house, where the supreme court of justice and magistiacj 
still assemble, remains ; merchants transact their business in 
the town during the day, and its warehouses still contain the 
richest productions of the island, but few Europeans of re- 
spectability sleep within its limits. 

The following table comprizes aU fixed residents within 
the city and its immediate suburbs, to the distance of about 
two miles. The municipal regulations of this part of the 
island having been continued in force, and the cxecutioo of 
them, for the most part, delegated to Dutch authorities, it it 
to be a])preheuded that tlic return of the population now 
given may be found deficient in accuracy. A poll-tax being 
levied on tlie Chinese, and other to^'n duties rendering it the 
interest of the parties to withhold information as to the exact 
numbers, it is also probable that the total amount considerabhr 
exceeds that now given : certainly it does not fall short of it 

Account of the Population of the Citt op Batatia akd its Scbcwb^ 

Ruropcani • 

OeAccndanti of Europeans born in the Colony 


Moormen •• 





Balians ••..•< 

Sumh&was • •••.. 

Mandharese ••••.•••••••••••. 

Anibonese and Bandas 

Timorese and Butanese •••• •• 

Pemikans or half-cast Chinexe ( 

Chinese < 














Grand Toul. 

Males. ! Fcmaln. 




















I. so 









The lands comprehended under the denomination of the 
Batavian environs ('OmtnelandenJyOiigmally formed the prin- 
cipal part of the Jakdtra dominions. The native chiefs were 
early deprived of the administration by the cautious policy of 
the Dutch, and the lands subsequentiy sold in property to 
Europeans and others. According to an official valuation in 
1813, the amount of property in houses and lands, belonging 
to individuals, in the city of Batavia and its environs, in- 
cluding the private estates near Buitenzorg^ exceeded eleven 
millions of rix-doUars silver, and the taxes were levied on 
that estimate. Various systems of government had been 
attempted in tiiis district before the arrival of the British in 
1811, but so inefficacious were they, that it was considered 
unsafe for Europeans to travel without arms. As a measure 
of police, a portion of this division, formerly comprized within 
the OmmelandeUy was recenfly annexed to the regency of 
Suitenzorffy and formed into a separate administration. For 
the population of these two divisions, as they now stand, see 
General Table, Vol. I, page 62, Table II. 


Each of these regencies was administered by a native chief, 
immediately dependent on government, and without any 
power beyond his district. The chiefs, however, were mosfly 
allied by frequent intermarriages, and traced their descent 
from different chieftains of the ancient empire of Pajajdran, 
Separated, on the one hand, from the dominions of the 
St^nan and sultan by the country of Ch^ribon, and on the 
other from Bantam by the Batavian environs, their power 
never became formidable to the European government The 
coffee monopoly in the Western Districts having been main- 
tained on its former principle during the period of the British 
administration, the inhabitants of these districts were pre- 
cluded from feeling the effects of the system introduced into 
the more eastern districts ; but as it was in contemplation, 


eventually, to render the change general throughout the island, 
preparatoT}^' measures were taken, and a aurvey of these dis- 
tricts being made, the annexed statistical table was framed. 
The produce stated in the table is estimated according to the 
native returns; these districts likewise fiuniah an annual 
quantity of about seventy-five thousand hundred-weight of 
coffee £>r the European market 

o >■ 




—■ ™= 1 i i i i i i i H M *i| 1 


■"^m S 1 1 1 1 f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


™ 11 i 1 i i . i 1 1 S 5 i 



-™ II 1 1 1 1 II 


™ Sliii^i 1 liSis 


™™s",".„„ 1 1 i i i 6 ' 


■naAoj^,^ 1 1 1 S 1 S 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


■«™i.-,>t,«n,K 1 ^ 1 1 1 P 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


-""—-- 1 § S 1 1 i ' 1 1 ' ' 1 '11 1 




■->i»iu 1 r " s « s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


™,^ 1 B 5 S s S 1 1 1 S 1 s = 


.»»u 1 isiissigss , -^li 

«■"- 1 HigasMss . i^^i! 

i«™ 1 tS ISi S s 1 !« 1 » =|i 

■■"™ 1 i 1 1 E s 1 1 1 * 8 8 =|| 1 

-»H 1 s 1 E i a s 1 s 8 » 6 e 


-a 1 1 1 5 9 ' r» s a 1 1 s 


""■" 1 i i 1 i i i i 1 1 3 i 8 


-,,-„„.o| iiiiiiiiisii 





.,«!. 1 g 2 S S 1 g 1 1 » 1 1 


"<« 1 1 li s s a i s 1 ° 1 1 


-«.,» |3 SSSgSsiajl 


-» 1 i s 5 5 8 S 8 1 s 1 8|f 


■™ 11 lll!il|8S?li 

■--IS IIHiiMssii 

■— « 




TofnuA JO Mqnmn 

IS 1 S S ^ S ' J » s =|f 









Ch6ribon fell under the European influence in the veir 
16G6, and has now been subject to it one hundred and fiftv 
years. It was among the first cessions made to the Dutch bj 
tlie princes of Mat a rem. 

This province had, like Bantam, been in a state of am- 
tinued insurrection for many years preceding the arrival of 
the English. Tlie importance of Uie town of ChfriboH has 
considerably declined, partly in consequence of these com- 
motions, and partly of epidemic fevers which prevailed some 
years ago. 

The extensive and fertile province oi Cheribon did not, 
under tlic administratitm of the Dutch Company, yield tho«e 
profits which were expected from its great natural resources ; 
es])ecially of indigo, coffee, and teak timber. Tlie SultaniK of 
Cheribon J descended fr<mi one of the founders of the Mahoroe- 
dan religion on Java, and on that account objects of religious 
veneration among the more orthodox Mahomedans, were al- 
ways left in the entire management of tlie native adminiftra* 
tion. The coffee and other produce exacted from the people, 
was delivered by the Sultan, and paid for to him. Under this 
system, the residents of Chvrilmn enjoyed an annual income 
of from eighty to one hundred thousand dollars (£*23,000\ 
while the Sultans were even' year more and more impoverished. 
At length an insurrection broke out in 1800, the ostensible lea- 
son of which was the unjust removal of Sultan Kandmnn^ who 
had been baiiislH>d by the Dutch to Amboina, and the real 
cause ])robably the great opjiression of the common inhabi- 
tants, occasioned by the distress of the Sultans, and the indis- 
criminate admission of too many Chinese in the interior of 
the country. 'Ilie reinstallati(m of Sultan Kandman^ in 1808, 
by Marshal Daeii<lals, did not appease the minds of the pco- 
])le ; and the unwillingiu>ss or inability of that prince to restore 
the public traiupiillity, led to an entirely new organization of 
the country'. 

WHien the island was conquered by the British troops, the 
rebel, lUhjun Rdngohy still maintained himself in the eastern 
parts of Krawanyy in perfect defiance of the power of goreni- 


ment, sternly rejecting the offers of pardon and oblivion which 
were on that occasion offered to him, and eluding or defeating 
all attempts to destroy or ensnare him. Such was the vene- 
ration in which this man was regarded by the people of these 
districts, and such the dread in which he was held by the 
native chiefs (through whose means alone his apprehension 
was to be accomplished), that he remained in perfect quiet 
and security, maintained a correspondence with the disaffected 
throughout the province, secured his regular supplies of am- 
munition and provisions from all parts, and even from the 
town of Cheribofiy and tranquilly prepared for the ensuing 
rainy season, to appear again in arms and ravage the country. 

In a few months after the establishment of a British resi- 
dent in the district, the person of Bagus Rdngen was secured, 
and the country reduced to a perfect state of tranquillity, in 
which it remained during the whole period of the British ad- 

The following extracts from the report of the gentleman * 
intrusted with the introduction of the land revenue system 
into Ch6ribon, may serve to illustrate the state of this pro- 
vince : — 

" There is, perhaps, with the exception of the environs of 
^^ Batavia and Bantam, no part of the island of Java which 
^ has so severely felt the bad effects of mismanagement as the 
" district of Cheribon. These effects are visible in the cha- 
" racter of the people, who, even among the Javans, are re- 
** markable for a careless indifference to the pursuit of gain, 
" for indolence, for want of energy, and for a credulity and 
" ignorance, rendering them perpetually a prey to delusion. 
" Within the last forty years, in particular, a series of mis- 
*' management and oppression is said to have wrought a most 
" unfELvourable change in the character of the people, to have 
" destroyed the habits of industry, and consequently to have 
" changed even the aspect of the country, so that it is no 
" longer to be recognized as the finitful district which it is 
" once represented to have been. Within the last seven years, 
" famine, mortality, and civil commotion, have contributed to 

aggravate the evils of mismanagement, and in one or other 

form have desolated some of the finest parts of the district. 

• Mr. Crawfurd. 
T 2 





^^ The history of the civil commotions alluded to afford a 
striking illustration of the character of the inhabitantn. It 
certainly gives no countenance to the representation of tbo>e 
obsen^ers who ascribe to the Javans in general a character 
of the most invincible apathy, stupidity, and indolence, as 
^' if tliese qualities had been irrevocably engrafted upon their 
^^ very natures. A better knowledge of their real character 
enables us to draw very different inferences, and to ascribe 
to tliem a much larger share of sensibility, than could frnn 
reasoning be expected to result from the apparently over* 
*^ whelming causes which contribute to degrade their iacul- 
" tics and blunt their energies and exertions. 

^^ It is an instructive fact, highly worthy of remark, that 
^' the successive commotions and insurrections which hare 
for many years disturbed the peace of ChMboHj hare uni- 
fonnly had their origin In tlie Javan districts, where the 
" rights of private property in the soil were almost entirely 
^' overlooked, that they have only occasionally extended fron 
*^ the Javan to the Sunda districts, and have never reached 
the Priamfen lands, where property in the soil is fully ac- 
knowledged and respected. 
^^ 'Ilie taxes which fell upon agriculture were so rarious, 
^^ and at the same time assumed such a variety of shapes, that 
^' it is impracticable to state in a word the actual portioii 
'' wliich by law or custom fell to the share of the sovereign. 
'^ The most material, howe^-er, are comprehended in the 
following catalogue, to which are added, others falling 
'* equally upon agricultiu'al industry', though not constituting 
a direct source of revenue to government : 

1 . Tlie contingent, called in the language of the countrr, 
(ftuilany. This is usually estimated at fifteen parts in ooe 
hundred of the rice crop ; but it was, in truth, arbitrarily 
assessed, according to a rough conjecture of the capalnlity 
** of the countT}'. In such of tlie Priang^em lands am con- 
** tinned to be directlv administert^l bv their own natire 
^' chiefs, the amount ])aid to the latter was determined with 
" some accuracy to be one tenth of the gross produce, embrac* 
ing, as in the first case, the rice crop only. 
'' '2. A poll tax, or rather a tix on families, called by the 
n«uivrs of this part of the Cinmir}\ pa ffaidfttamg. Part 






^^ levied on account of government, and part on account of 
" the chiefs. 

" 3. Market duties or tolls. These were literally levied on 
" every article vended in the markets, embracing as well the 
" whole produce of their agriculture, as that of their petty arts 
" and manufactiures. 

" 4. A tax on the slaughter of buffaloes, necessarily affect- 
" ing the price of food, and discouraging the rearing of an 
^' animal indispensable to a successfid prosecution of the la- 
" hours of agriculture. 

" 5. The charge of lodging and feeding travellers, and 

transporting troops, baggage, and stores of all descriptions. 

This is termed in the native language, suguhy or the rites 

of hospitality. 

" 6. The obligation to construct and repair bridges,- roads, 

and public buildings, throughout the country. 

7. The obligation to cultivate and deliver, at inadequate 
" rates, certain foreign productions, which the actual condi- 
tion of the country, the habits of the people, and still less 
their interests, could never have prompted them to under- 
take, if permitted freely to pursue their own interest. Coffee 
was the chief of these products. 

8. In speaking of the taxes which fall upon the husband- 
^^ man and the land, the Zakat must not be forgotten. This is 

nominally a tithe, or tenth. The payment is indeed op- 
tional, but from religious motives seldom withheld. Every 
" tenth sheaf of the rice crop is allotted to religious purposes, 
but every man measures its size according to his own piety. 
" Its amount was of course very variable, but almost always 
'^ materially smaller, and generally indeed not half the size, 
** of the ordinary sheaf. This practice gives rise to a well 
^' known distinction between the ordinary sheaf and that al- 
" lotted for the clergy, when the grain is brought to market'* 
The table annexed was framed on the introduction of the 
detailed system ; but it not being practicable, on account of 
the extent of the province, for the European officer to visit 
every part of the district, many of the particidars are stated 
upon estimate ; particularly the quantity of cultivated land 
and amoimt of produce, which, it is to be apprehended, are 
rather over-rated. The return, however, of the population 
may be considered more accurate. 











Chikaio . 
Ung>>li . 



igui 91 




Panjihi ' 

ilDlilrici IM 













Txiil [v<|iul«ii-»i i1i«i<l 



rj.<.i. «^ 





























Jiin)!« Jungs 











8 68 











I,! 04 














































































































































161 1 e 

















3 S 






. 1 














The Dutch, in acquiring these extensive and valuable 
])rovinces on the sea coast, were considered to have acquired 
the same right as had previously been enjoyed by the native 
sovereigns, and deemed it advisable to continue the long-esta- 
blished principles and forms of native govermnenL In the same 
manner, therefore, as tlie emperors of Java were looked upon 
as the ultimate proprietors of the land in their dominions, the 
Dutch Company were considered as possessing the same 
right witli respect to the provinces under their immediate 
admmistration ; and tlie princes of Java having been in the 
habit of entnisting tlie government, police, and revenue of 
the different provinces to inferior chiefs, the same system was 
adhered to under the Dutch. Tlie native system of drawing 
again the revenues of goveniment from tliese inferior chief- 
tains, by means of contributions in kind, in money, and by 
occasional fees and ]>resents, was also maintained ; a portion 
of the connnon class of inhabitants under the native govern- 
ment being assigned to the perfonnance of different sorts of 
public works, transports for government, tlic repair of the 
roads, tlie constniction of public buildings, t)ie guarding of 
I)ublic stores, tlie loading and unloading of government 
vessels, the cutting of grass, the cutting of fire-wood, the 
keeping a police guard, and other offices, the same principle 
was adopted inider the management of tlie Dutch, and as 
under the native fonn of administration a reward for these 
feudal ser^'iees was griuited, by the use of an assignment of 
rice fields allotted eitlier to individuals or to certain classes of 
workmen, but withdrawn from them ius soon as tlie public 
duty ceased to be ])edV>niie<l, the same mode of remuneration 
was also adopted by the Dutch. 

These principles of administration being combined with 
the mercantile interests of the Dutch Company, gave rise to 
certain contracts, which the native chiefs of tlie different 
districts (tenned by the Dutch Rtujents) were com|>eUed to 
enter into on their a])pointm<'iit, for the annual deliver\'to the 
(\niipany, eitluT without payment, which was called a ron- 
thujrnty or for a price far below that of the market, which 


wa8 termed a forced delivery at a fixed pricey of such quan- 
tity of rice, pepper, cotton, indigo, and other articles, as the 
market and present state of trade and commerce made most 
desirable ; while the planting of coffee and the cutting of 
teak timber was always considered as a feudal service, for 
which, besides the use of a certain portion of rice fields, 
allotted to the individuals or villagers employed, a certain 
payment was made, about equivalent to the expenses of 
transportation to the government yards or storehouses. 

The administration of the Eastern Districts, including 
Madura^ was vested in a governor and council for the north- 
east coa^t of Java, The governor was, at the same time, 
director of the Company's trade, and resided at Semdrang. 
Subordinate to this government was that called Gezaghebber 
and council, established at Surabaya, the chief place of the 
east point of Java ; while in the other principal districts along 
the coast, as at Tegal Pekaldngan, Japdra^ JawdnUj &c. 
residents were fixed : no direct correspondence fi-om the 
eastern part of the island was maintained with the govern- 
ment of Batavia, except by the governor, usually termed the 
governor of Java, or by the governor and council. Even the 
residents at the native courts of Sura Kerta and Yugya 
KertUy only communicated with government through him. 
By him the succession to the throne of the Susunan and of 
the sultan was generally determined ; the appointments of 
native chiefs* and regents were made on his proposal ; the 
Company's farms and duties for the Eastern Districts were 
sold by him ; and though he had literally no salaiy whatever 
fi:'om the treasury of government, he was supposed to draw 
firom his situation a yearly revenue of between three and four 
hundred thousand dollars. At the same time the correspon- 
dence with the Eastern Districts was neither very regular nor 
very expeditious, and the management of the Company's 
affairs in those districts was as much a mystery to the chief 
government at Batavia, as the governor of Semdrang chose 
to make it. 

This system continued, without any essential alteration, 
until after the arrival of Marshal Daendals in 1808. 

Some of the contingents, such as indigo, cotton yam, 
pepper, &c. to which, however, the regents had not without 



great reluctance submitted for many jean, were thee indeed 
partially abolished ; but, on the other hand, all the pecnUtioiii 
of the Dutch servants residing along the coast, who had far 
their own private emolument raised the deliveries, chiefly of 
rice, at some places to double, and at others to more thai 
double the quantity legally assessed on the regents, at the 
same time paying for them at some places two-thirds, and tt 
others only half the price assigned by the government, woe 
at once transferred and confirmed to government, by a sin^de 
decree, ordering, \iithout previous inquiry or reserve, that all 
the produce which had been usually delivered to the re* 
spective residents along the coast, under whatever denoai* 
nation, should, in the same quantities and mth their surplot 
weight, be for the future delivered to government, and that no 
higher prices should be granted for the same than that which 
the residents used to pay. 

Equally inconsistent and oppressive in its consequences 
was a measure by which, on the one hand, the wages of 
private laboiur and senices were raised to an unusual price, 
while on tlie other, the public works, the public transports, 
and the plantations of cofice, were carried on either gratm* 
tously or at tlie former inadequate rate. This regulation 
raised the price of all the first necessaries of life, and prin- 
cipally of rice, which the common classes of the inhabitants 
felt as a heavier grievance than any they had ever expe- 
rienced from the former svstcm. Till then, the colonial 
administration had alwavs, as far as was consistent with their 
own monopoly and forced delivery of produce at fixed mtess 
taken particular care to keep down the price of rice and sah 
as much as possible. 

But a measure, still more pernicious in its consequencrs» 
was that by which the native regents were each of them sub- 
jected to a contribution in hard cash, while at the same time 
the power of levying taxes on tlie inhalntants of these dis* 
tricts was left in tlicir hands ; a system which, in all cases, 
afforded thrm a ])retoxt, and in many an apolog}*, far the 
most vexatious opj)rrssion. 

llie conimendaticm which is due to this administration is 
ratlier founded on thosi' arrangements which had a tendency 
to prevent peculations in the inferior European serranis ia 



every department, and on the abolition of the subordinate 
governments of Semdrang and Surabaya. Fixed salaries 
were allowed to the residents; they were prohibited from 
keeping private vessels, and from all trade in the products of 
their districts. The sale of the government farms and duties 
was made public, and in a great measure free from corruption, 
by which means they were immediately raised to more than 
three times the former amount : each branch of public ex- 
penditure and receipt was fixed and ascertained ; new and 
practicable roads were established ; the appointment of every 
native, from the first rank as low as a Demdng, was reserved 
to the government alone ; the Javan custom of pawning the 
person for a small sum of money was prohibited ; fees and 
presents were abolished. By such measures, a much more 
regular, active, piure, and efficient administration was esta- 
blished on Java than ever existed at any former period of the 
Dutch Company. 



The following tables are abstracted fix>m the detailed reports 
furnished during the course of the survey made by the British 
goyemment In some particulars they may be deficient and 
inaccurate, as sufficient time had not been given to complete 
the detailed survey of the country directed by the Revenue 
Instructions ; but the general results may, for the most part, 
be depended upon. 


















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This iftUnd liaving hecn ceiled ti tho Dutch, in the some 
aunnei ah t]ie oiIiit ]iiMscuioiL<i on Java, the Sii1i«n of .1/«- 
i/6ra and Hw chiob of PamakAian aud Simmip vsctc always 
cuiiHidrrcd by Uicni in iirarty thv »uinv light lu thv othor 
re)i(Vitji niong the roiud, witli thv i^xcc-pUmi uiily of a higher 
litJtr aud Konic uitini pertioniLl couMderation grdnlod eKprcuLiljr 
lo the Suliiin of Hankdtan, itmuklly iitylvil the Suluui iif .Ifo* 
i^Hra, KoUi on account of his birth nnd of some ini|M>rt4iat 
M-niccH rxrodercd in Uic wnr uf Java, from 1740 to 1748. 








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S SBs'^-bS 



J J!SS-»«ti 






ThiB extenstre portion of the island was divided, agremUr 
to the settlement of 1764, bctwren tlir Sunuhunan and Solttn. 
It congislfi of a number of separate provinces irt distrirU 
Those still belonging to the Susunan are : 

In on Eastern Direction ftom the Capital : 

1. Sringat and Blitar (forming 5. Ckaribam. 

one province). 6, Kwlitmng, (in pait). 

2. Kediri. 7. Jaffartiffti. 

3. Pranardga. 8. HtikavdH, (in par^. 

4. Pachi. 

And the Bmaller Dislrictk of 
1. Anju. 4. Stnnhrfng. 

9, Ijorog. 5- Rongkok. 

3. Pangot. 

In ihc Western Dire^on from the Capital 
I. Banyumiu. 3. Pamardt^m. 

3. Dai/H Lahur. 6. Pan'r. 

5. Aya. 7. Batten, (in put.) 
4- MalArrm, (in part). 

DcUdes scrrra] smaller districts. 

The ground on nliicli the fort of Sura Kiria is bnitt, willi 
a small part uf tlie adjoining territmy, hiui liM*n crdril to (be 
European goremini-nt, a* has been also llial portioo uf the 
itmnediatr site of the foru of BoifaldU and Ktnlrn, whidi 
was formcrlT the property of the Sugmmam. These ilniimiiii 
ore ilivided among, 

1. Tbeeigbl active TumAmtf^gvttg*, or RegeoU, (the flntof 
which is the Radem AdtpAH, or priuc roinisUT), wbo eoa* 
stantljr resides at court. 

9. The Tumumg'gattgt residing in the distant or Mmulm 
yagdra districts. 

S. The princca of the blnud. 

^ 1 


4. The particular favourites of the Sui^nan, 

5. (^Vllich only respects the smaller territories) a number of 
Df'mangn and Manirin. 

A considerable portion of the provinces of Mai6rem and 
the adjoining districts, towards the southern part of the island, 
ca]]e<l by the Javans Ardi Kidul^ or southern hills, of the 
province of Kadiwang and of the district of Sukawdti con* 
taining altogether four thousand ehachas^ having been ceded 
by the predecessors of the present SusAnan^ under the settle* 
ment of 1752, to the prince Mangku Nagdra^ are stiU held 
and exclusively enjoyed by his successors, ihePangerangAria 
Prdbo Prang Wed&na 

TIic eight active Tumun^gung^^vfho reside constantly al 
court, and belong to the state and household of the Suai^n^ 
are Tumung*gungso(theexienoT ^Titmun^gung JawiJ^ and 
Tumu9ig*gungM of the interior (Tumung^gung lebatj. The 
four former are mostly charged with external commissions or 
orders, or those that do not immediately concern the house- 
hold of the prince ; the four latter, or internal 7VMiifi^*^aiii^ 
are mostly occupied near the person of the Su9unanj and 
have alternately the care of the watch of the Krdion at ni^t. 

The folloiiing tables exhibit the result of a census taken 
during the British government in Java ; but as the informa- 
tion they convey rests principally upon native authority, the 
same reliance cannot be placed upon them as upon the tables 
for the provinces under the immediate direction of the Euro- 
pean government There is no reason, however, to believe 
they are essentially wrong, as they were framed with great 
care and every attention to accuracy, on the part of the native 
officers employed. 


This extensive portion of the island was divided, agreeaUr 
to the settlement of 1754, between the Snsuhunan and Snltaa. 
It consists of a number of separate provinces or districU 
Those still belonging to the Susunan are : 

In an Eastern Direction from the Capital : 

1. 5rt;f^af and £/i/ar (forming 5. Chariban. 

one province). 6. Kaduwang^ (in partV 

2. KedirL 7. Jagar&ga. 

3. Pranardga. 8. Sukawdti^ (in partV 

4. Pache. 

And the smaller Districts of 

1. Anju, 4. Sumbreng. 

2. Lorog. 5. Rongkok. 

3. Pangol, 

In the Western Direction firom the Capital : 

1. Bany^itnas, 5. Pamarden. 

2. Dayu LHhur. 6. Pasir, 

3. Aga, 7. Bag*len. (jai part) 

4. Matdremy (in part). 

Besides several smaller districts. 

The ground on which the fort of Sura Keria is built, witk 
a small part of the adjoining territory, has been ceded to the 
European government, as has been also that portion of the 
immediate site of the forts of Bogaldii and Klaten^ which 
was formerly the property of Uic Susunan, These dominioiu 
are divided among, 

1. llie eight active Tumung^gungHy or Regents, (the first of 
which is the Raden Adipatiy or prime minister), who coo- 
staiitlv resides at court. 

2. 'Die Tumufig^gungs residing in the distant or MamehM 
Xagdni districts. 

3. Hie princes of the blood. 




Tub annexed documents, as far as they can be relied on, afford evidence 
of an extent of mortality in Batavia, as compared with the nmnber of 
inhabitants, that was perhaps never exampled, for the same space of time, 
in any other quarter of the world. 

The Table No. I., incomplete as it is, was drawn out with as much exact- 
ness as the original lists and registers still in possession would admit of. 
In explanation of some inconsistencies which are exhibited in it, it is 
necessary to observe, that on the occasion of the capture of this island, 
part of the most valuable papers were lost or destroyed, and amongst 
them the register in which was stated the Chinese population, and the 
number of their deaths and marriages annually^ which is the reason why 
no mention is made of them in this table. 

The first and third colunms contain only the numbers of European 

The last colunm, which shews the deaths of the Natives and Slaves, is 
probably a list of the deceased slaves only ; because there was a separate 
list kept of the natives who died annually in the Batavian jurisdiction, 
which, however, was for a long time incorrect, and at last destroyed in 

It is also probable, that the column of deaths generally does not extend 
farther than in the town and immediate suburbs; and the other two 
columns of baptisms and marriages extend over the town, suburbs, and 
environs together. 

The specific lists kept in the different hospitals were likewise lost. This 
is to be particularly lamented, because they would have shewn how many 
of the European deaths were inhabitants, military persons, strangers, or 
sailors or marines from the ships of the different nations in Batavia 
Roads, who all sent their sick men into the hospitals of Batavia, who, 
when dead, were comprehended in the number of European deaths. This 
circimistance explains the incorrectness which appears to exist in the two 
statements of the living and deceased Europeans. 

The Table No. II. was discovered among the records of the Dutch 
government at Batavia, and in the absence of a more official document, 
may, perhaps, on that account, be entitled to some confidence. 

a 2 



TABLE, No. I. 

List of the Population, Marriages, BAPn«M«» &md Dm 
Toum and Suburbs o/Batavia, from 1700 to 1813, as far 
could be oMcertained from the Reffisiers, ^rc. ^ft€r ike 

im 1811. 

kTHi, m tk 
ma ike mw 












Within the Walk. In the Suburta. 




'19. 683' 
1 18,580: 
22,150 ; 

216 32,478 
321 48,972 
300 45.452 
534; 47.1 23 
470 49,351 


I __ 

|20,600 ' 



412 55,581 
368 58,761 
341 57,843 



1,566 19,007 503 69,110 
l.(M4 19.758. 553 66,092 
l.fMrj 22,242. 411 fM,657 
1,516 18,!M7 446 60,236 
1,443 '18,965 290 59,831 



121, 156 
23.428 , 

308 68,082 
361 67,792 
387 67,044 
417 67,339 

341 62.!MM» 
332 72,218 

Within the WalU'- ,. n,j„:,. 

and immediate 

1,452 22,814 






304 76,893 58 

28«» 73.141! Ml 
2:« HI .!»77 62 
2(»!l 80,7.v; 45 
241 82.204 4:1 
211 83.602 5.-> 


i.:i38 2<>.:i87 221 74.:«;7 


■ Churrhvt, and 

dncc niM" K»* 
Lutheran Church. 






































• It .ip|«**ar«. that •iib»c«i«ii'nt tn thu >car, nn itriirral lirt mat k«t4. a hal tmlj of Ikai 
childni) I hriatcniii in the rrfonncd churchot beinf finind among tae 







Id «»■ VIcinllT 
ind Ei.rlion.. 

















1,»I7 19,612 




















































1. 286 
























1746 ■ ■ 












1748- ■ 










































1763. ■ 






































































1700- ■ 









761 -. 
















































































1773 ■ 









1774 ■ 



















1776- • 


























3. 131 

































Within the Town 


and aU the 

Id the Etaviroot. 

^ « 




ChlUran. in 

tkc Bcfcmad 

Sw , i 






f J * 




and Natl 




3 1 1 








733 \jm 







^^B ^^ 








1.430 . \,m 



















1787 • 







1.830, 1471 








,^m . .. 















2.379 1. 671 








2.228 1.M0 








1,900 I.I3I 








1,005 ijm 








— .. 








1,121 osa 















215 S» 


— . 






280 CP 

1799- • 







—. ^ 





— . 



106 1 I€i 







^ ._ 







.. — 







263 2.354 








255 : . 




5<N» . 73,728 



1 "^ 








"^ 1 "^ 








— 2.5* 







«• ^ 








^ «. 







— ~ 















_ .. 









List of Decbased nnti Bvribd in the sertral Bmrial PlateM at Batatu. 
from the Ynir 1730, tiii the Mtmtk qfAuguit^ 1753. 

( Tram>Utetl from n Document discovered among the Record* of the Dutch 

at Hatavia.] 

Numb. dcccaMd. ; StiabL 

Numb. (l(H'ea«cd. 
January * • 3.Hfi2 
February • • 3,78«» 
March .. 3.928 

April 3.8(i<l 

May 3.m;j 

June lUWll 

July .... 4.2fM 
Au{;u>t • ■ 4,404 
Septembei 4. 5117 

October.. 4,21M) 
November 3.tN>5 
Deecuibcr 3,7<K) 

J.inuary.. :\.C[^J 
February 3.7*>«'» 
Manh '• ■ 3.«J7 

April 3.K:i:{ 

Mav . • • • 3.71 1 

' June • • • • 3.788 

July • • . • 4,480 

, August .. 4.527 

48.450. Septcmli«r 4.916 

Oitober .. 4.512 
November 4.412 
December 4.430 

43 nm 




January. • 4,359 
February 4,047 
March • • 4,046 
ApHl .... 4,060 
May . • • • 4,066 
June .... 4,191 
July • • • • 4,515 
August .. 4,758 
September 5,314 
October • • 4,912 
November 4,344 
December 4,34M^ 

January • • 
March • • 
April • • • . 
May • • • • 
June • . . . 
July •••• 
August . . 
October . • 



January • • 
March •• 
April .... 
May • • • • 
June . . . • 
July • • * • 
August .. 
October • • 




April • • • • 
Miay • . • • 
June • • • • 
July . • • • 
August • • 
October . . 







January * • 4,110 

February 3,909 
March .. 3^15 
April .... 3,778 
May •••• 3,760 
June •••• 3,699 
July .... 4fi63 
August • • 4,078 
September 4,260 
October .. 4.110 
November 3,841 
December 4,680 

March •• 
April • • • • 
May •••• 
June •••• 
July .... 
August •• 
October •• 




January • . 
March • • 
April • • • • 
May •••• 
June •••• 
July .... 
August •• 
October • • 





January •• 
April • • • • 
May • • . • 
June •••• 
July •••• 
August •• 
October .. 








January . . 3,851 
February 3,747 
March • • 3,758 
April .... 3,878 
May • • . • 4,090 
June • • • • 4,424 
July .... 4,636 
August •• 4,321 
September 4,638 
October • • 4,614 
November 4,224 
December 4,083 

January • • 
March • • 
April . • • • 
May •••• 
June • • • • 
July • • • • 
August •• 
October .. 


March • • 
April • • • • 
Mmy • • • ■ 
June • • • • 
July . . . • 
August • • 
October •• 


January • • 
A|Hrll • • • - 
May • • • • 
June • • • • 
July • • • • 
August •• 
October •• 

4 011 







• • • 


January . 
March • 

May • • • • 
June •••• 
July . • • • 
August • • 
October •• 









January • • 
March • • 
April • • • • 
May • • • • 
June • • • • 
July •••• 
August •• 
October •• 




January • • 




March • • 


April • • • • 


May . . . • 


June . . • • 


July . • • • 


August • • 




October •« 









January .. 4,414 
February 4,389 
March .. 4,305 

April 4,150 

May •••• 4,509 
June .... 4,978 
July • • • • 5,355 
August .. 4,946 
September 5.016 
October . . 3,028 
November 4,506 
December 4,603 


January . . 
March •• 
April • • • ■ 
May • . • • 
October .. 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• • 




January. • 
March • • 
April • • • • 
May • • • • 
June • • • • 
July • • • • 
August . • 
October •• 




January .. 

April • 
Umj . 

June • 
JdIj • 









Janouy •• 




March .. 


April • • • • 


May .... 


June •••• 


July •••• 


August •• 


ScptcinbcT 5,088 

October •« 







January • • 
February 3^1 
March ..4.879 
April •••• 4,116 
May •••• 4,< 
June • • • 4 



July ....4,358 
Augutf •• 4,514 


two yean 
eight monthit 

Grand Total.. 1.1 18,37» 

The unhealthiness of the climate of Bataina is connectedy in tbe 
of many, with the fabulous properties of the poison tree of Jan, aod 
many are so ignorant of the island as to consider the climate of Bataria 
as a fair example of that of Ja\'a in generaL History attests that this city 
has })een highly pernicious to the health both of Europeans and Natirss, 
almoHt from its foundation, and recent experience concurs with the tesli* 
mony of histor)'. The mines of America, when they were first dis c o teiw f, 
did not more strongly allure the Spaniards, nor urged them to sacrifica 
more relentlessly the lives of the unresisting nati\'es to their horaiag 
thirst of gold, than the monopoly of Java and the Spice Islands led the 
Dutch Company, in the track of wealth, through danger, injustice and 
oppression. Though the unhealthiness of Batanawas at all times knova 
and formidable, there were times when the mortality 


dinary and alarming. Although not prone to any speculation, except that 
of merchants, or to any inquiry, except for a new market or a more lucra- 
tive channel of trade, the Company's Government in India was some- 
times forced to institute inquiries into the cause of this insalubrity, and 
to speculate about the possibility and the means of removing it. Passing 
by other occasions, there exists on the records of the High Regency a 
reply to queries about the unhealthiness of Batavia, dated the 14th of 
October 1753. This paper states that between 1732 and 1738, the 
greatest number of casualties happened. It assigns, as a great cause of 
the insalubrity complained of, the situation of the town in a bay, confined 
on the west and east by projecting points of land, and inclosed in front 
by a cluster of small islands. The space between the town and the sea 
is chiefly mud, left by the retreating of the sea : a swamp surrounds the 
town. The mouths of the rivers are generally covered with underwood 
and a species of tree peculiar to swamps. The vegetation of these low 
grounds, it is added, cannot but retain impurities of the most noxious 
kind. The space which is formed at the mouths of the rivers Tdrng^ron 
Ang*ki is an entire swamp, covered with shrubs which emit exhalations of 
an impure nature : these are interspersed with the burying groimds of 
the natives, and the effluvia of these places is felt at some distance. It 
was believed that the earthquake of 1699> by forcing mud from under the 
earth and blocking up the mouths of the rivers more than formerly, con- 
tributed to increase the previously existing unhealthiness. The lime kilns 
in the neighbourhood, the close plantations of trees that prevent a free 
circulation of air, the stagnation of the rivers from the bars of mud or 
sand which obstruct their outcourse into the sea, the kind of water which 
the inhabitants are compelled to drink, the narrowness of their houses, 
and the dirt and filth accumulated in the numerous canals that intersect 
the town, have all their due share of pernicious efiiciency assigned them 
in this report. The buildings, it is said, are admirably adapted to keep 
out the fresh air, and to retain that which is putrid or noxious. To 
remedy the evils felt, a new construction of houses is recommended, and 
a frequent pruning or entire extirpation of the trees. 

The fever, which excited this inquiry, conmienced in 1733 and lasted 
till 1738, and, during its continuance, two thousand of the Company's 
servants and free Christians annually died. In 1739 its violence abated ; 
but it broke out again in 1744, and continued with little diminution or 
variation to the date of the report in 1753. 

Without stopping to inquire whether it would be easier to remove dis- 
ease from Batavia, or the inhabitants of Batavia from disease, I shall take 
the liberty of quoting an extract from a report on the climate of some 
parts of Java, drawn up by Mr. Robertson, the late Superintending Sur- 
geon, which appears to me to afford a satisfactory account of the causes 
of the insalubrity of the capital. After giving a sUtement of the mor- 
tality that prevailed in an Indiaman, a part of the crew of which landed 
at Batavia, he thus proceeds. 

** Such is the melancholy instance of the noxious climate of Batavia, 





which came within my own observation. Thsi it waa not cpide mK ■ 
clearly evinced, from its not extending its inflimce to those wiho attcaM 
" the sick, nor to the reit of the crew, all of whom fjcoji o j ha attack mi 
remained healthy. Among the Dntch who lemain in tha town, Imn 
are, I understand, very prevalent at all afaaona, noCwitlMtaBdnv ihtv 
being, in a manner, inored to the dirnate^ and moat of them km a 
sallow sickly appearance. It is not uncommon, in riding tluoqgfa tkt 
** streets, to meet three or four funerals daily. 

" The Chinese, however, who are very mnaerons, anflei 
" class of the people ; perhqu, from the worse sitoationa of 
*' the manner in which these are crowded, the doaeneaa of 
" ments, and their gross manner of living. Tha nomber of 
" among them, I am told, is incredible, especially daring the dry 
'* and if one may judge from the extent of their burial gfunn d, and the 
" number of their tumuli, it cannot admit of a donbC Tha pae c ed ia f 
" fiEU!t8 are, I conclude, sufficient to establish the trvth of the 
*' character the climate of Batavia has so long pbtainad, and I ahaD 
'* proceed to the causes which have been often investigated, andaecm wril 
** ascertained, though the knowledge of them has led to little ezcitioa fsr 
•* their removal. 

*' The baneful effects of marsh miasmata on the hnman ■yateni v wril 
'* known, engendering intermittent and remittent fevers, dyaenlerics, mi 
*' visceral obstractions. Batavia, built almost in a swaaqi, snrroaaded by 
*' marshes in all directions, trees and jungles, which prevent the cxhdi- 
*' tions being carried off by a free circulation of air, is peculiarly obooi- 
" ious from this cause. Opposite the mouth of the river, and c tIi ndiai 
** a great way to the westwu^, is a mud-bank, which, in many paru tf 
** low water, is uncovered by the sea, and is daily accmnulating from tht 
" quantities of mud and animal and vegetable matter carried don by tfae 
" river during its reflux. Again the sea, often at spring tidea, owr^nw 
*' the adjacent countr}', and, on its receding, leaves the soil co f cie d wak 
*' slime and mud, which, exposed to the action of the sv 
" decom])08ition, and impregnates the atmosphere with its noxii 
" halations, which are carried )>y the sea breeze over Batavia, where thr 
" trees and jungles surrounding the houses prevent their being disaipaud 
" During the hesit of the day these exhalations are more diffiifffhi a»l 
*' comparatively innoxious, hut when the sun withdraws its infloencv ihcr 
*' }>ecome more condensed, and amalgamating with the dnarrnding 
*' ing dews form a morbid atmosphere around the honaes of the 
*' tants. This hypothesis will readily account for a (act well knowa, thai 
" people whose commercial concerns require their preaence ia Daiavn 
'* during the day, and who retire during the night into the country, rinpf 
** this endemic, while scarcely any who sleep in the town, evca fur ■ 
** night, unless those who, by a long residence, are inured to it, cacapr. 
'' In the ingenious and Hensihle work formerly allutled to (Mr. Johaaoa**', 
** I find this h)']>othesis so clearly and penipicuously expounded, thai I 
" must tfike the lil)crty of quoting it. 


" * The cause why the stench emitted by marshes and vegetable matter 
' in a state of decomposition is more perceptible immediately after sun- 
' set, is not that the vapours are disengaged in greater quantities then 
' than during the day, but the marshes retain their heat for some time 
' after the sun's rays are withdrawn, and consequently continue to emit 

* vapours through the atmosphere, as during the high temperature of 
' the day by the sun. They therefore meet the descending dews, con- 
< densing and forming a thick fog, which hovers over the swamps, 
' accompanied by a noxious and disagreeable odour. The miasmata 
' exhaled during the day, in all probability, descend with the dews 

* of the evening, which, meeting and combining with those that con- 
' tinue to be disengaged from their source, must form a concentration 
' highly capable of affecting the constitution. Marsh effluvia become 
' at a certain distance from their source innoxious. Dr. Himter ob- 
' serves, ' a few feet in height gives a comparative security in the same 
' buildings.' This wiU be accoimted for by the supposition, that as 
' the miasmata exhaled during the day descend in the evenings, they 
' become more and more concentrated, till meeting the exhalations 

* from the still reeking marshes, a dense stratum of highly impregnated 
' atmosphere is found contiguous to the surface of the earth : hence the 
' salubrity of sleeping in upper apartments. This leads to another 

* practicable inference of considerable importance, that when necessity 
' compels exposure to these marshes, we should select that point of 

* time least likely to meet those miasmata, whether ascending or de- 
' scending. This period seems to extend from three to six in the 

* afternoon :* that is, after the greatest heat of the earth and air, and 
' consequently the greatest evaporation, and before the condensation 
' and return of such exhalations as rose during the day, and which 

* combine with those still issuing from the heated soil for some time 

* after sunset.' 

" A second, and, I think, an equally powerful cause, is the stagnant 
water of the canals, which, in all directions, intersect the city. In the 
first place, they are filled with filth of every description ; there is scarcely 
at times any perceptible current in them to carry off that filth ; and 
lastly, the sluices are frequently kept shut, for the purpose of swelling 
the waters above them to irrigate the fields, while those below, which 
intersect the town, become almost dry, leaving an extensive surface of 
mud, and every kind of putrified matter, to be acted upon by the sun, 
raising the most pestilential vapours, with which, as before observed, 
the atmosphere gets thoroughly impregnated. 

" As a third cause, the state of the houses may be considered, and the 
mode of living of the Dutch. Houses that are untenanted are seldom 
opened, and thus collect much filth and foul, damp, pemicioos vapours, 
lliose that are inhabited are generally shut up in the day time, most of 
them being glazed, thus preventing a free circulation of air ; and in the 
lower story of most of the houses, the walls are covered some feet from 

* Mr. Robertson's observation and experience led him to give it a greater latitude, firom eight 
or nine in the morning till twelve, and from three to six in the afternoon. 


** the ground with a greenish coat, and on entering the apaitnwnt* i 
" stranger experiences a kind of chiUy feel, and a damp rmw kin*! of 
** smell. ^Vlthough it cannot be enumerated among the cnue*. yrt I 
" cannot help thinking the Dutch mode of medical practicep in an far w 
*' it is inefficient to counteract the diseases of this dimate, must t«ni lo 
" increase the number of fatal terminations. 

" The Dutch practitioners, little in the habit of theorizing, rontinor 
** the same practice in every form of disease, and they are paitimlarlT prr* 
'* judiced against the use of mercury, opium, and other powerfnl mrdi- 
*' cines, in consequence relying solely on the most simple and inen re- 
" medics. Some few of them, of more enlarged understanding, adopt xht 
** English mode, and seem sensible of its superior efficacy. 

" A fourth, and, I am convinced, a very general cause, etfpeciaDy of tbt 
** diarrhoeas and dyMenteries, which seldom fail to attack new comers, is 
** the water. This most essential article is taken either from the cbbiIb 
'' or wells, and it is equally bad when passed through a filtering stooe. 
" It retains a brackish, hard, unpleasant taste, and if allowed to ranaia 
*' some time in vessels without previous boiling, generatea small ammil- 
" culse. Such, I conceive, are the most probable and principal caiiM* of 
" the insalubrity of Batavia ; though there are, I doubt not, othen rw- 
" tributing, which elude obserN'ation. It 'ib generally received, though I 
'* think an erroneous opinion, that the rainy season is the most bb- 
*' healthy. The most unhealthy iqipears to me to be that immfdiaidr 
*' after the cessation of the rains ; and the older and more ezpcrieDcrd 
'* Dutch residents have obsen'ed, that in years when there has bcva ■ 
*' long continued drought, disease has been more than usually preraleBt. 
" and they look forward with anxiety for the accession of the rains, as the 
" means of resisting its baneful dissemination. 

" Welte\Teden, at a distance of not more than three miles, beimr len 
** exposed to these causes, excepting the water, is exempt, in a grrax 
measure, from its prevailing endemic fever ; though diarrhoeas are cma- 
mon, especially amonflr those newly arriving, but they are acldom of a 
serious or alarming nature. 

*' Among the troops stationed at Welte\Teden and Comelin, disea«e« 
arc not more frequent than in the healthiest parts of India which I hare 
visited ; though for some months since the Bali ex]iedition. the canuJ- 
ties in the 78th regiment have been numerous. At Cktmam^, about 
twenty-two miles from Batavia inland, a battalion of Sepoys is stationed, 
** where, from the returns I have received, it appears they enjoy com- 
** paratively good health, and have very few casualties, though a much 
** larger (juantity of rain falls thim in the \ncinity of Welterreden. It i« 
** on an elevated commanding situation, and 0|)en and clear of jungle for 
*• a considerable extent around." 

In KU|){)ort of the opinion wliioh has been given of the general «alu- 
brity of the climate of Java, the abstract returns of sick, &c. among the 
troops serving on Java and its d^KMidencies, for the last two yearv. air 
iiniiexed, together with a statenicnt of casualticN, in His Majesty's 7$th 
regiment, while serving on the continent of India and in Java. 


Abhtract d/ fA« Monthly Retukn b/Sick m Iht Iibmd tf Javjus 
n Def€ndaKiti,fTom 1(1 NoBtmbrr. 1813, lo Mtk Oeltbtr, 1814. 







lion of 


















5,lw' B3» 










'■**|*^i «=•] «» 






fl T3 





lU, OW 



s^.vai as5 65* 






1 TO 







i^issU' «n 47* 





t ea 








».lM531i' 7J TM 



6 S 


( 69 






1 to ll'Sl 



^iBt^ oso, m 

aw 3 IB 

i H 


a bi 






1 toiotrr 



ma Bss 

* t 



1 « 






1 to o-fli 

10 ins 


/tns.™) Tra 031 



13 i. 



» M 






1 to s 

10 15-18 


™u« ODr.i» 



10 t 



a 103 






1 10 7-« 



^.»| J » 





1 8S 






1 to BT7 



WWiSMklSl Oii 


S I- 









ltd 7-M 


* '■"W'-"! ™ 











1 la 9«7 


General Hontblv Avesaqe ijf Sick oitif Cmualtie* «■ tAc /dnd 1^ Java nrf 
I'M Dependeiidett/rom IK NoBfrnttr, 1813, ta 31»* CWoiw, 1814. 






PraiurthiB or 







110 e«t 












MonlhlK Avenge.... 





UENEKAL AUTH.tlT o/thl UllHTULT lUtUaill ^ SiCK •■ (JU lltmij i^ Jt>t K. 
ill DtpendeiKia,/nm IM Ntutmbrr, 1814. to 3}tl Dertwtbtr. 18IA, iiKimtin. 













1 ' 6 















U (♦ *-'l If T 





ioi^iid|i9 n loi iia 




ftb. 'miiWti* 





iM iiwtn 117 





aiir. v,K«wixia 






Bn'V™ ««'».«. 




Apt. iA'-'i.WI fW 





i*( s ai; Til ioi| n 




»■» lyjsKSjW) liiii 


„ .[.^ .|" 


iti n n 110 1UI08 




Juni' »flV^f-Jii>l 



4 1^ All 


Vh'.i BIllO H ICQ 


UIIW 'itW 

Jul, 1,HS.'..«; iu» 



,. .!„ 


io>U 01 71 ga' Tf. 



Aug. i;oiri,H?uJ.-«t 



in U ni ' 71 ' BI or 





sq«. i/w i,ai4 jm 



» 1 i « 


«1 i W Wl 73 H 





tM, l.ltmi.T^N MO 





m' 1 y> M M «3 





s,... MiMoi iin 



i,«, . 1. 


7H^ * W 7i>, Tit W 




Urr. 7M:m;.iail 





70 t » W, lO^ 7.1 



KAL MllNTBtT AVEHACE g/ SiCK Surf CaILMLTIEI «• (A^ /(AnW ^ J*1 

r> lhtKH-l,iifi.i,fTM \il S-itnbfr, ll!N. f" 31i( Ur(i.k-r, IfllS, iwJuin 

State uf IIu Majeit^U lit Battatkm jBCt Hefiine«i, ilitwiag iht Effectixn Sir/nglh and 
Nnmber diedf.ncbuH'if llmt Sitd tf lf'Band$) killtd in Aclim. !;(. HalJ-yrarly, fnm \6lli 
February, \^9^,fivt dagt nfler tkt Itcgimnfi landing in India, lo ibib Dtttmbtr, ISIS. 
Senindote, 13th March, 11)16. 

Fori WillUm, IfiFeb. 1793*. 

Beihiinparc, 25 June 

On the Hivcr, 36 [)M 

AlUhabnd, 2S June, 1798 . 
Cunp ODoopther, 36 Dec 
Cawnpore, 36 June, 1793. .. 

DiEUi, 26 Dec. . 

Dilto, 25 June 
Fon WilHiun, Ifi Dec 

Dtilo, 26 Dec. 
CuDp Rooey, 26 June, 1803 

Cuiuh, 26 Dec. 

—— Cluoboon, S3 June, IBM. , . , 
Old Women'i IbIbdiI. Bombay, 26 D< 

Nilo, 36 June, 1S05 

Camp at Bombay, 25 Dec 

Ditto, 36 June, 1H06 

Butcbec'e liUnd.iiciir ftambay, 36 Dec 
Csbo Island of GiM, 26 lone, 1807 


Ditto, 25 June, 1808 

DitTO. asDet 

Dins, 26 June. 1809 

Ditto, 26 Dec 

DiliD, 8S June, 1810 

DillD, 36 Dec, 

Lowjee Funily TnDipocl,36 June. 
Surabaya, Jira, 36 Dec. 

Ditto, 36 June, 1812 

DillD, aSDec 

Ditto, 35 June, 1813 

Ung'arang, 26 Dec 

Welte.Teeden,Ja«,26June. 18U 

Ditto, 25 Dec. 

Ditto, 25 June, 1U15 

Scrondol, 26 Dec 

SI * 




/l« Feb, 
124 Dec. 
\ 36 Dec. 
f 24Uec. 
S S6Dee. 
(24 Dec. 
I 25 Dec, i: 
t 24 Dec II 
~ 26 Dee. If 

24 Dec II 

25 Dec II 
24 Dec. II 


1708, lo 

1B02, M 
24 Dec. 1803. 

1803. Ic 

» Dec It 

(24 Dec. 
I 26 Dec. 
) 24 Dec. 
\ 25 Dec 
( 34 Dec, 

(25 Dec. 

f 24 Dec. 
( 25 Dec 
j 24 Dec. 
(25 Dec. 
26 Dec 


25 Dk, 
24 Dec 

t 25 Dec. 

( 24 Dec. 

"25 Dec 


1806, to 








1810. to 

14 Dec. 

s Hi 


NoTB ^ N. CuRRiB, Esq. Surgefmo/HisMajettf'M 781 A JRcyiMfli/, m tit 

foregtmig Table. 

When the 78th refitment first arrived at Java, the men had been loor 
confined on board ship, hWng on salt proviaioiu, and were aftcrvvdi 
exposed, not only to the fatigues and privations incident to actual 
but ako to the inclemency of the weather in a tropical climate, AH 
causes produced a tendency to disease, and when the regiment arrived u 
Swrabdya the quarters were bad ; and being in the midcDe of the ton, 
free access could at all times be had to spirituous liquors. The nnmbcr 
of diseases and of casualties was consequently great ; but it diminishnl 
gradually, as the men were Huccessively accommodated with good bamcfa 
at De Noyo. The whole were comfortably lodged in plastered barra^ ia 
March or April, 1813, and in May and the following month a very mbb- 
ble reduction of deaths took place, as may be seen by the abatncts sf 
those months. During the preceding months of January , February, 
March, and April, the deaths were numerous, but the greater pru p u r ti oa 
was among the men of a detachment of about two hundred men iIhi 
joined in January, and continued to be very sickly during thoK (cm 
months. Almost all the men of this detachment hadp when »99»^mA 
violent diseases. 

A very remarkable instance of the bad efifects of ezposrure to night tf 
while asleep, occurred when part of the regiment was aent^ in September. 
1814, from IVeltevreeden to Chemangit^ where the barracka were boih of 
wattled bamboos, and the men lying with their heads to the waOs, k^ 
ceived the current of air directly in their heads. Fifty were aeiaed wdk 
a higlily inflammatory fever in the course of three days. Delirium wm 
always the first s)nnptom in every case, and it was neceaaary to blesd 
several of them largely before they could be sent to the hoapitaL By 
referring to the returns it will be seen that almost every increaae of sxk- 
ness hapi>ened after a change of quarters, as in the detachment abotv- 
mentioned, and after the remo\'al of the regiment from Smrmbd^^ t» 
(/n^'arany and Sirondol in October, 1813, after the expedition to BaJi tf 
Welterreetien in June, 1814, and to Chemangis in September 1814. Aa 
increase of sickness always took place after the use of spirituoua liqnon <■ 
particular holidays, as Christmas, &c. ; and on the contnry, the good 
cflVcts of not cxi>08ing the men to morning dewH or wet, and of ragnlariiy 
in diet, may l>e seen in the healthiness of the regiment after the men goc 
settled in good fiarracks at Surabdya and li'eltecreedefL 

Java need no longer Im* hold u]) as the grave of Europeans, for cxrepi 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Kalt marHhes and forests, as in the city 
of Bataria, and two or three other placcH on the north coaat, it may be 
safely aflinned that no tropical climate is su|)erior to it in aalubrity. Bf 
its insular Kituation, the temperature of the atmosi)here is low and c^uaMr. 
and from its lufty mountainM it jtossesses this great ad\'antage» that a i 
ffw hours* tmvL'lIiiii; a rliniatr of any decree of cold may lie found. 




Thb empire of Japan has, for a long period, adopted and carried with 
effect all the exclusive maxims of Chinese policy, with a degree of rigour 
unknown even in China itself. Previously to the expulsion of the Por- 
tuguese and the extirpation of Christianity in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, the Japanese trade was reckoned by far the most advan- 
tageous which could be pursued in the East, and very much superior to 
either the Indian or Chinese trade. After the expulsion of the Portu- 
guese, a very extensive trade was for some permitted to be carried on by 
the Dutch, on accoimt of the benefits which the Japanese imagined them- 
selves to have received from that nation during the Portuguese war, and 
especially the detection of a formidable conspiracy of some of the Japan- 
ese prifkces to dethrone the emperor, the correspondence relative to which 
was intercepted at sea. It was for these services that the Dutch originally 
procured the imperial edict, by which they were permitted to trade to 
Japan, to the exclusion of all other European nations. This public act 
of their ancestors, the Japanese have repeatedly declared that they will 
not cancel ; but they have done every thing but formally cancel it, for a 
more limited and less free trade never was carried on by one rich nation 
with another.* For more than half a century, the Dutch trade has been 
limited to two yearly ships from Batavia, the cargoes of both of which 
scarcely ever exceeded the value of 300,000 dollars, and their only profit- 
able returns are Japan copper, and a small quantity of camphor. To 
shew themselves impartial in their restrictions, the Japanese have limited 
the traffic of the Chinese, the only eastern nation whom they suffer to trade 
with them at all, in a similar manner to that of the Dutch, and they suffer 
no more than ten Chinese junks to visit Nangasaki in the year. The trade 
of those two favoured nations is also limited to the port of Nangasaki. 

In pursuance of their exclusive maxims, and conformably to the terms 
of their agreement with the Dutch, the Japanese have, on every occa- 
sion, followed an uniform line of conduct, and rejected, in the most per- 
emptory manner, the various overtures of different nations of Europe, 
refusing equally to have any intercourse, negociation or commerce, with 
any of them. It must also be admitted, that the whole foreign trade of 
Japan, compared with the riches of the country, is absolutely trifling ; 
nor is there any rich or powerful body of them, like the Hong merchants 
of China, at all interested in its continuance. The yearly presents, 
whether offered to the governor of Ntmgasaki or the emperor, are of no 
great value, and rigidly limited by law and usage ; and as the government 
of Japan is much stronger and more vigilant than that of China, no such 
abuses can be ventiu-ed on at Nangasaki as those which exist at Canton. 

The commercial intercourse of the Dutch at Japan was established by 
an imperial edict in their favour from the emperor Gonging Soma, in the 
year 1611. 

• For the reguUtiona by which the trade U limited, see Kcmpcter*! Hittory of Ja|Mui. 
VOL. II. b 

xviii APPENDIX. 

The firflt Dutch factor}' was establUhed at Firando, but in thf year 
1G41 it was rrinovcd to Xnngasaki, The numlier of the Dutch «hijt**. u»i 
tlie kind of merchandize which they imported, were then left eniirvly lo 
tlie discretion of the parties ; the mercliandize vrva difl]M>ded of tn th^ }^*t 
advantafj^e, and the return <« consisted of such articles as were e!i{iec:<^i to 
yield the pfreatest profit. They were subject only to the mnninial nt^ 
lations of the country, without any further restraint or incumtinixt 
whatever. The trade remained in this state till the year 1671. fn ihe 
Dutch records of this period, the only complaints made afnun.«t Jv^^sien 
authority relate to restrictions laid upon them in matten* of reli|^i>n. 

In the hej^innin^ the returns from Japan consisted of silver and cnp^; 
and the former bein^ coined, \\'as received according to the current rahic 
in that country, where the coins and weijflits went by the vame name i# 
in C-hina, vix. kafis, tahils, mas, and knndnrins. Ten mas were wonfa a 
tahil, sixteen tahil a knti^ and one hundred katl weighed one hondm! and 
twenty, or one hundred and twenty-one, pounds Dutch, equal to a nurii 
Tliere were two sorts of silver, of which the fine ii'as caDed roma, and 
coarser bar-silver, generally distinguished by tlie Dutch under the trrmi 
of heary and light money. This was at first carried to account at the rite 
of sixty-two stivers and a half \\qt tahil^ no difference being made 'in 'Jm 
l)ooks of that time between the two kinds ; but in the year 1635. the r^«9- 
mon or bar-silver, wa»« fixed at fifty-seven stivers the taMiL Doth kind^, 
according to this regulation, were considered by the Dutch as calculiud 
too high for an article of merchandize, and consequently were not mncii 
in demand in the western parts of India, to which it wza at first lent by 
the Company. 

"^fhe attention of the Dutch bein^, however, aftenn'anls attracted M the 
trade in gold from •la])an, onlers were issued to the factors in the jnr 
1G40, retpiiring gold as a return, to the amount of from ten to twhr 
hundred thousand florins. 'ITiese orders were executed with the bert 
success ; and a wish seems, on this occasitm, to have l>een espR^«ed by 
the factory, that *la])an might, as formerly, lie ])ermittcd to supply froa 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty chests of gold kobangs, uhn^s^ inj 
zehos. <iold and silver were, at this time, the princii>al articles in the re^ 
turns from «lapan. Their co])per was not nnich in demand. prohaMr 
In'cause it was .so little known in India or ICuro]>e; yet the directiir*. in 
their retpiisition for the year lOri.'), state the price of Japan copper havinf 
risen from thirty-six to forty-six fiorins j)er hundred fiounds weight, lad 
an order having been sent to Japan for twenty thousand pikult of thtf 
metal, the same rendered great profit. 

Ill 1()44, re(piisitions were made from Surat for tii'O thousand pikwU, 
from Coroniandel for one thousand pikuU, and from Bata^'ia for four 
thousand pikitis of cop|H.>r ; and in reply it is stated, that it would not he 
difficult to furnish the (piantity required ; that the Japan copper coonsCid 
of both slu'et and bar cop|>er, of which the former was purchased at twenty 
tahih the pihtl, or twelve stivers 'inferior silver]* ])er pound, being twenty 
ptT cent. cluaiuT than I£uro]H-an copj)er. 

The i^old. after being coined. yv?i<t found a ver\' profitable utifie, 



purchased at a favourable rate. In the beginning the kobang was pur. 
chased for six tahil eight mas, and for six t(Util seven mas ; and, as appears 
from the books of 1669, 1670, and 1671, was within those years even 
piurchased as low as five tahils six mas, and five tMls eight mas, from the 
great men of the country, or from merchants, according to circumstances. 
During two of these years, more than one hundred thousand kobangs were 
obtained, which rendered a profit of one million of florins. 

In 1671, an edict was issued by the Japanese government, prohibiting 
the further exportation of silver ; but the profit on the gold being so con- 
siderable, the restriction on the exportation of silver was a matter of in- 
difference to the Dutch, who still were enabled to obtain their returns in 
the more profitable articles of gold and copper. 

The exchange of the kobang was now fixed by the Japanese government 
at sixty-eight mas ; and the free and unrestricted trade which the Dutch 
had hitherto enjoyed, was subjected to an arbitrary valuation of the import 
cargoes, and limited first with respect to the articles of merchandize, and 
afterwards with res]>ect to its extent. 

The loss of the island of Formosa in 1661, is supposed to have given 
the first shock to the credit of the Dutch at Japan. Not long after that 
event they experienced many instances of opposition, and several preju- 
dicial alterations in the trade. 

" They (the Japanese) were consequently," observes Mr. Imhofif, in his 
Memoir on the Japan Trade, " no longer under any apprehension of 
" being annoyed by us, while, if we had remained in possession of For- 
** mosa, we were and might have continued masters of the navigation and 
" trade between China and Japan. In that opinion I am still further con- 
** firmed, when I consider, in the first instance, that the prejudicial 
" change with respect to our situation at Japan, although it took place 
" only several years after the loss of Formosa, had been already in agita- 
" tion some time before ; and, secondly, that notwithstanding the con- 
" fidence of the Japanese in their own superiority, which they always 
" evinced, that arrogance did not conceal altogether a certain fear of us, 
** very evident from their great precautions. This fear has, however, 
" since decreased, and if we may trust to the records, has frequently been 
" succeeded by brutality.* It is an undeniable truth, that if a nation 
" renders itselJf respected and formidable it will flourish, and that other- 
'* wise it is but little esteemed." 

The decline of the trade seems not at first to have been much attended 
to. " Whether the Japanese," says the same writer, " at that period 
" obtained advice of the advantages we derived from the trade, or that the 
bad conduct of our servants gave occasion to further restrictions which 
succeeded each other, we do not know, yet it is imdeniable, that first 
" in the year 1685 our trade was limited to three himdred thousand 
" tahils, of which two-thirds were to consist of piece goods and weighable 

♦ ** We were obliged to submit to many insults, and It firequently happened that the gorernon 

** declined receiving our representations, hinting that we might leave Japan altogether and not 

' return again. From the records also we perceive the despotic regulations resorted to by the 

** Japanese respecting our nation, in consequence of our having at that time but little power in 

•• India."— /mJk4i/f: 

b 2 



" articleR, and the other third of silki. This wu confirmed in 1C<Q. anJ 
" we were allowed to export only twenty-five thouinuid pitmit of rotjipcr. 
" whereas our exports of that article formerly had been regulated armrd- 
" ing to our requisition. In the year 1700, the nmnber of our »hip« w« 
" limited to four or five, in lieu of six or seven as were fonneriy tent, ac- 
" cording to circumstances." 

llie profits of the trade at this period would yet have deserrcd all 
tion had not a change in the current coin rendered the jrear 1 700 «till 
di8ad\'antageous. In 1692 and 1693 and afterwards, rich car|roe« 
sent to Japan which returned considerable profits, and the fond* 
again laid out in copper, as far as thirty thousand chests or pikmU. The 
new stipulation of twenty-five thousand chests was of little importaact 
with the Dutch, who knew how, as they confess, to obtain by bribes fran 
the governors and their 8er\'ants a still further quantity. In the nar 
1685, the system of receiving the Dutch merchaiidise by valnatioa wa 
discontinued ; and although it was introduced again in the jnear 169^, a 
was once more abolished in the following year. 

Various causes are assigned for the change in the current coin vhick 
took place about this period ; but whether, as was supposed by the Dutc^ 
the knowledge of the Dutch profits upon the knbong opened the em d 
the Japanese, or that their long intercourse with Europeans rendered tfata 
more attentive to their own interest, or that the Chinese, who uv 
known to be very exi>ert in the art of coining, proposed that mcsMic 
to them, or that the easy compliance of the Dutch in all former a- 
stances, and while they issued the most injurious orders against tfeir 
commerce, made them believe that they might purchase their fnnA- 
ship at a cheaper rate than hitherto, or, as seems most probable, it wv 
principally occasioned by other and more weighty causes not ycc (b- 
covered, it is certain that in the year 1690 appeared, for the firrt tine, a 
new kind of kohang^ of one-third less in value than the old, altbo^rk 
tendered to and received by the Dutch at the same rate. Here then «« 
said to commence the iron age. 

'Ilie new kohang wa.<t assayed at thirteen carats six or seven grains, whik 
the old kohang was twenty carats eight and a half, nine, ctr even tea 
grains ; yet the Dutch were obliged to receive the former at the late d 
sixty-eight mas like the old, which weighed thirty-one stivers, and 
n (litference upon one thousand of seventy- two marks. The old 
rendered a profit of twenty-five per cent., but the new produced a Iom of 
fifteen or sixteen ]>er cent, on the coast of Coromandel, where it wis n^ 
coined. Some of the old kobangs being however estimated at the ssov 
rate ^nth the new, the Dutch still continued to derive some profits fron 
the gold, until the introduction of a thinl kind of 4ro6aN{^, denominated tke 
small kobangs^ took place. 

In 1710 the Jaiianese resorted to this further change in the coia. br 
reducing the weight of the kobang nearly one half, the value being 
five kamftrinx, while that of the former was no less than forty-i 
Herins. This caused a loss of from thirty-four to thirty-six per cent, lb 
Dutch l)eing obligeil to recei\'e the same at the rate of 


the former kobaugs, of inferior alloy only, were in consequence still pre- 
ferable. From 1710 to 1720, both sorts were in circulation 5 but the re- 
peated complaints of the Dutch were at last, in 1720, so far attended to, 
that the old kobangs, of the same alloy and weight, were again introduced. 
The latter, however, were called double kobangs, and they were charged in 
the Dutch accounts at thirteen t<Uuls six nuu, which was twice as much 
as in former times, so that they became still less profitable than the small 
kobangs, of which two thousand weighed seventy-six marks, while one 
thousand of the old coin only weighed seventy-two marks, and would 
consequently, when received in lieu of two small kobangs, have produced 
a loss of thirty-seven seven-eights per cent. 

When an attempt was made, in 1714, to oblige the Dutch to receive the 
small kobang at the same rate as the old, the exportation of copper was 
limited to fifteen thousand chests, as was the number of ships to two or 
three, according to the quantity of copper in store. 

A fourth kind of kobang was introduced in 1730, about five per cent, 
better than the third or small kobang, but the trade continued rapidly to 
decline until the year 1744. 

The loss of many valuable ships and cargoes,* a reduction in the sell- 
ing price of the articles of merchandize which they imported, and an in- 
crease of charges attending the visits to the Imperial Court, and the 
maintenance of their establishment in Japan, contributed to render this 
period particularly disadvantageous to the Dutch trade, llieir submis- 
sive conduct at the Emperor's Court was of no avail, nor did their presents 
of horses, dogs, and other curiosities, produce any better efiect. There 
was no longer any possibility of exporting kobangs, as in former times, 
for the balance of their accounts. The quantity of copper which they 
were allowed to export annually had been fixed in 1721 at ten thousand 
chests, yet even that quantity they were unable to obtain in 1743, so 
that, together with the high exchange of the tahils, their establishment in 
Japan now actually subjected them to a loss, and it was accordingly pro- 
posed at this period that it should be abandoned, unless some favourable 
change could be efiected. 

The charges had considerably increased during the last year. The 
cargoes were of less value and of an inferior quality, so that their profits 
were reduced to less than one quarter of what they had been : their ex- 
pences on account of the Japan trade were at the same time two hundred 
thousand florins annually. During the last thirty years their profits 
amounted to five himdred thousand, and for some years to six hundred 
thousand, but latterly not to two hundred thousand florins per annimi. 

Thus, to sum up the disasters of this trade, after having been allowed 
to remain free and unrestrained for a period of sixty years, the cargoes in 
the year 1672 were subjected to an arbitrary valuation, and about the. 
same time the exchange of the kobang was altered. A tax was laid upon 

• It is remarkable, that when the Dutch were formerly in the habit of tending seven and eight 
ships to Japan, but few losses took place j whereas afterwards, when only two or three were sent 
and the navigation better known, many were lost. The cause assigned is their being latterly 
overladen with private trade. 


the caigoes in 1685, and further increased in 1689- In 1699 the 
kobang was introduced : in 1700 they were limited to four ■hips aanuaQi- 
in 1710 an exchange still more disadvantageous was fixed : in 17U thor 
exportation was reduced to fifteen thousand /nAiilt of copper; in 1717 a 
order was issued, limiting the trade to two ships only : in 1710 the thiri 
and in 1730 the fourth sort of kobangs were introdnoed : and in 1743 iW 
Dutch were limited to one ship and to one-half of the eugo. 

The Dutch, in deliberating upon the measure of abandoning the tiade, 
in the year 1744, trace all their disasters in this commeroe, to their hsnsf 
tamely submitted, in the first instance, to take the kobang of Rdnesd 
value at the same rate as the old one. It then occnrred to then, that if 
serious remonstrances had been made in the beginning* their fimsaai 
might have prevented the subsequent losses. " In the first infftanrc," 
says Mr. Imhoff, " our commerce was carried on aa by a people gropuf 
" in the dark, neither knowing the actual price of purchaae or aale; ba- 
" cause the kobang being the standard coin of the country, that ko6m§ 
" ought to have been calculated in proportion to the value of the feW, 
** and it would have appeared that since 1710 for forty stivers infehar 
" silver, thirty stivers superior silver were received, and all anicks of 
" trade not disposed of with a profit of sixty-three per cent, rendered s 
*' loss. And this being the case with most of the cargoea that wot seal 
" to Ja})an after the period above mentioned, we ought either to hare rs 
" linquished that commerce, or had recourse to such meana as mtiii 
** have tended to re-establish the aflSsdrs of the Company. Inatewl, Lot- 
" ever, of so doing, fruitless remonstrances and solicitationa were en- 
** ployed, which finally produced this effect, that the Japanese, during tkt 
** latter years, f^ranted us, by way of charity, an additional anm of m 
*' thousand iahih upon the sale of our cargoes." 

From the delil>erationH which took place at this period, it i^ipears that 
the ])roposal then under consideration of relinquishing the trade, was ruber 
intended as a pro\'isional and ])olitical measure, to induce the Japaiif«c 
to admit them to more favourable terms in future, than brought fomil 
with the view of finally abandoning or relinquishing the trade altogether 

The public opinion of the time ^'as, that the Japanese had recoune to measures of restriction for no other purpose, but to oblige the Dnich 
to de])art from the countr}' ; but it occurred to the Dutch gorerannai, 
that a nation which treated strangers in so despotic a manner, bad ao 
need to resort to such shifts to dislodge them. Another opinion wai, 
that the restrictions laid on the trade proceeded from political motires, of 
which the first and most important \^'aA their hatred against aD the di^ 
ferent persuasions of the Christian religion without excepticm;* but the 
government were inclined to consider these reasons as deserving of litik 
notice. '* There is no probability," obser\'es Mr. Imhoff, *' thai, in the 
** present enlightened age, it can be a consideration, even with the 
" Ja])ancse, of what ])ersiin«iion merchants are, who neither attenqn le 

• •• 

It 111) t wli( ro cviiloiit," ^vji Mr. Iinhul)', " that ihc Dutch ercr (are cuue to dfet 
" to h iinhcin fiir Ivihk ('hri-ti.-in> : they mviii ruthiT tu have bvvn aoniicdof 
" tlirir ril.;;i(>ii, .ililii>u.;h I *ii|iiMi«« that thr wiiti-n nn that Mibjcvt ucnol 


APPENDIX. xxiii 

" propagate their religion with a view to promote their interest, nor to 
" endanger the safety of the state, of neither of which they appear ever 
" to have been suspected." The governor-general was further of opinion, 
that the Japanese could derive no advantage from the expulsion of the 
Dutch, as they would thus be cut off from all correspondence with Euro- 
peans, and thereby become subject to greater inconveniences than at pre- 
sent, being exposed to the visits of others, whose great increase in those 
regions was not unknown to them ; for, as he states, it is notorious that 
the Japanese government took annual information of all that passed in the 
world, and that the Dutch servants had orders to answer their queries 
faithfully, in order that contrary reports might not injure their credit, by 
which the Japanese were well aware that if the Dutch withdiew, others 
would soon settle in the country.* Instead, therefore, of attributing the 
conduct of the Japanese to either of these causes, the governor-general 
laid it entirely to the account of their interested desire to take every 
possible advantage of the weakness of the Dutch, who, by admitting the 
first imposition, laid themselves open to all that followed. 

In his very able and interesting memoir ** On the Trade of Japan and 
** the Causes which occasioned its Decline," — " It is by no means sur- 
prizing," says Mr. Imhoff, ** that the Japanese, when they altered the 
kobang, likewise made a change in the delivery of the copper, observing 
'' that oiu* exchange remained always the same, and the prices of our 
** merchandize unalterably fixed. We cannot pass unnoticed, that this 
" wrong calculation has been the cause that, on oiur part, many valuable 
** articles of commerce, which were from time to time tendered to us by 
** the Japanese, were declined. Among those articles was yellow copper 
" or brass, Japan porcelain, of which musters were sent in 1736, and 
'' camphor, which we might have exported from thence, if our return 
** cargoes had not been complete. Whether the sovereign right to r^^- 
" late the trade of their country is not equally vested in the government 
** of Japan with any other nation, I will leave undecided. Seeing us 
" patiently submitting to all kinds of restrictions, inattentive in keeping 
" our accoimts in a regular order, they were encouraged to put us to the 
" last shift. I am not inclined to dwell upon our surprising indifference, 
" which was concealed at the same time under the cloak of mystery, from 
** whence so many e\4l consequences resulted. I am of opinion, that it 
" cannot be either the interest or inclination of the Japanese to oblige us 
'* to relinquish all intercourse with their country, provided our trade be 
" carried on within narrow boimds, and they are not losing upon the 
** articles delivered to us in payment for our cargoes. It is not possible 
<* that they can have any profit on the copper, if it is sold for less than 
'* one kobang. The mines certainly cannot be worked at a cheaper rate 
" than formerly ; and what profit do the venders of the copper derive 
" from our merchandize, after it has fallen into the hands of the inter- 
*' preters to government and others ? Nothing is more natural, therefore, 

« '* Our peaceable conduct at Jai>an, and the alann giren to that country by the RuMians, 
*' plead greatly in our favour ; and as it will be impoMiblc for them to find other Europeans more 
** tractable than oursolvefl, they can certainly hare no reason to desire our departure from thence* 
'* although it may be undeniable that Japan stands in no need of foreigners."— /mActfr. 


" than that our exportation of copper from Japtn thould hsne b cc o oie a 
" hurden to that class of people, and that their complunts eontri bu tod to 
" the restrictions to which we are now subject. There is no doubt, thtt 
" if the Japanese could keep up the communication without aUovii^ m 
" a single chest of copper, they would willingly grant iu stz thouoBdl 
" tahils as a gratification, over and above the stipulated price for ov 
" cargo." 

In considering the reforms to be introduced into the minagcmait of 
the trade in future, the first point which attracted attention was a better 
calculation of the coin, ^'ith reference to the intrinsic value, and a calcu- 
lation being made upon a new basis, allowed a higher price to be paid for 
the copper than l>efore. It was estimated, that if the Dutch could a^ 
nually procure twenty thousand pihds of copper at twenty tmkiia^ the 
Japan trade would still be lucrative, allowing the profits on the ootward- 
bound cargoes to be merely sufficient for the support of the fectoty. 

But in order to purchase and to pay for such a quantity of copper, the 
governor-general obser\*es, ** it is necessary that government shoakl 
" strictly comply with the requisitions from Japan, because our failarei 
'* therein have brought us into such discredit with the Japanese, that they 
" do not any longer place confidence in our promises. We have i«ased 
" our word from year to year, that the qiudity and the quantity of our 
" merchandize should be better assorted, without ever attending to it. 
" Even at this moment, the supply differs so very much from the qma- 
tity required, that it will be extremely difficult to convince the Japsn- 
'* ese that they shall l)e better served in future; and still it moat be dm, 
because if we wish to obtain the \'alue of eight hundred or four hnwfafd 
thousand tahils of copper annually, besides camphor and other aitick*, 
different measures must be resorted to. We are hardly able, at preseai, 
to supply one-third of that amoimt, and load the ships with coane 

We have no doubt but other productions of Japan might abo be pnv 
cured at a cheaper rate than at present. Camphor may be purchased la 
*' abundance at thirty tahiU the pihU, and it is proliable the same could 
still l>e obtained on more favourable terms, if we advert to what it coil 
formerly ; in which case it would become a profitable remittance to Hoi- 
land, and render one hundred per cent., or thereabouts. 
" The white copper (tutenague) has been tendered to us 
'* ttihih \>eT pikul, but has not been accepted, the price being 

too high. If, however, we can dispose of it merely at the same price 
" as the yellow cop{>er (brans), which yields according to the price cv^ 
rent lR*fore us 41 43 f. ])cr 100 lb., it will not only be acceptable, bm 
even render a reasonable profit of fifty \^t cent. 

Iron was formerly imported here from Japan, and might perhaps be 
procured at a moderate price, which for the sake of the small d istan ts 
l)ctwoon us and that ronntr}* wouM be very desirable.* 
** Sulphur was also derlined in IT'^i), on account of its being chaifpsd 

• " In lA')'; thr.TA|ianr«v<ron wajipurrhaM<d at (wo Sftaniih doUan, and MiUal 
And a lulr Sfiani*h^the pikmi. On acxtMint of the mulliMn tif Uie 
qiiiMtion iirt« modi- for one thousand pU^/$ only." 



• < 




4 t 



" too high ; yet it might still hecome an article worth attention, especially 
" if it were purified in Japan. And who knows how many other valu- 
" able productions might be drawn from that extensive country, besides 
" those already mentioned, and which would be very acceptable, in an 
" economical as well as a mercantile point of view?" * 

The following facts are collected from the considerations at this time. 

That in former times the commerce of foreign nations at Japan 
amounted to ten millions of florins, and since then for many years to 
3, 1 50,000 florins, of which the Chinese share was two-thirds, and the Dutch 
one-third ; tuid it was consequently presiuned, that in so extensive a coun- 
try as Japan, merchandize might stUl be disposed of to the value of one 
million, especially if it was paid for in the productions of the country. 

That one of the causes of the decline of die trade was the conduct of 
the Company's ser\'ants, and the extent to which the private trade of 
individuals was carried. The directors of the trade at Japan had been 
selected from a very inferior class of society, and the peculations on over- 
weight of the copper. Sec. formed the subject of a regular complaint made 
by the Japanese to the Dutch government. 

That the trade of the Chinese to Japan had been reduced from ^hty 
to twenty junks in the year, the number then allowed. 

In concluding his valuable and interesting Memoir, the Baron Van 
Imhoff declares it to be his firm belief, that Japan was, in every respect, 
what it had been formerly ; that the same quantity of merchandize might 
be disposed of there as in former times, and that returns of equal value 
might be obtained ; that although the profits should be less at present, 
there could be no reason to relinquish that trade ; that the means of the 
Dutch were certainly inferior at that moment to what they had been, yet 
that if they adhered to the measures proposed (namely, clear accounts, 
correctness and honesty of conduct, and a good assortment of cargoes), 
which were easy, and could not expose them to any risk or danger, they 
might hope for a favourable issue. 

In the course of all these deliberations, the Dutch seem to have con- 
cluded that the debasement of the coin was resorted to by the Japanese, 
solely with the view of affecting their trade, and never to have reflected 
that so important a change in the intrinsic value of the standard coin of 
the country, might have been occasioned by political causes, of far greater 
magnitude to the Japanese than the paltry gain to be obtained on the 
traffic of the Dutch cargoes. It is most probable that the empire of 
Japan, at the periods when these changes took place, wished to check the 
exportation of the precious metals of the country. In the first instance, 
we perceive a prohibition against the exportation of silver. The loss of 
this metal was first felt, because the principal exports were at first made 
in this coin ; but it is never hinted that this prohibition was occasioned 
by any desire to take an undue advantage of the Dutch : on the contrary^ 
this measure was not found to affect the Dutch trade at all. The same 
causes, however, which first led to a prohibition regarding silver, operated 
afterwards in an equal degree with respect to gold ; and it is easy to 

• From Japan was formerly exported timber, wheat, rice, ambergrii, r«w.aUk, cottoo,** &c« 


account for the riHC in the \'alue of this metal, and the conacquent cfaaogre* 
in the coin, by the scarcity which ensued. Let ua but rrflcct on the 
enormous exportation of the precious metals, which took place from Ji{an 
at the ])criod when the trade was unlimited, and we shall find abondaai 
cause for these chanj^es in the coin, without accusing the Ja{janeie of 
resorting to the measure as an imposition on the foreign merchant. " The 
" exports at one period/' says Mr. Imhoff, " amounted to ten millions of 
" florins." These were principally made in the precious metals and a 
the coin of the country ; and when the trade feU exclusively into the 
hands of the Dutch, it had been usual to export at first from one hundnd 
to one hundred and fifty chests of silver, and subsequently the trade 
admitted of no less than two hundred chests of gold coin being exported 
instead of the silver. On a moderate calculation, therefore, the csporu 
of the former ])erio(l were about one million sterling, and those cootmofd 
by the Dutch could not be less than from half a million to a million fSer- 
ling in each year ; ho that, during a ]>eriod of sixty years, the total export 
would have amounted to from thirty to sixty millions of pounds sterlmc, 
and this does not include what foimd its way to China and other neigh- 
bouring countries. 

The discovery of the mines of America reduced, in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, the value of gold and silver in Euro])e to about one-third of whii 
it had before been : * and might not the extensive dndn on Japan have 
])rodueed in that countr)' an opposite effect of the same magnitude ? If 
the gold and silver annually im}H)rted into S]>ain and Portugal, which did 
not commonly exceed six millions imunds sterling, produced this effect an 
the circulating medium, and the price of the precious metals thfoutfbutf 
all Euro{)e, in one countr)' of which alone the circulating gold and silver 
amounted, by some accounts to eighteen, and by othen* to thirty, miUion«> 
Is it not easy to conclude, that a directly contrary and equally extensive 
effect must have ]>een felt in tiapan ? and that this efl^ect must have hn-n feh 
in a still higher degree, while o}HTating on the confined circidating mediiiai 
of one nation, than while o]>erating on that of the nnraerous naticm* of 
Euro{)e, who again found means to dis]>ose of large quantities by rrmii- 
tances to the eastern world ? 

'i'he extensive eirculati(m of money throughout the popidous and rich 
empire of .Fa]>nn, ami the facility with which the drains upon it cooU be 
8up])lie(l from the mines, M'as i)erhaps the cause that, in the first instance* 
the exportation of the precious metals ^-as not sensibly felt ; bm after- 
wanls, when probably the mint couhl not keep )»ace with the demand, and 
what is not unlikely, the demand was even too hea\'y for the mines, the 
intrinsic value of the coins increased in projiortion to the scarcity; and it 
is not suqirixiiiiT that the .)apane*<c shoubi have cntertainetl an apprehen- 
sion lest the mines would become exhausted. Whether theft wviv anv 
immeiliate grouiul't for t^uch an apprehen<tion is uncertain ; but it v 
g^'nenilly l)elieved that an edict was issued to diwontinue working, fim 
the silver, and aftenvanls the ^nild mines, but not until the nominal, aad 
|K>rhaps the real, valui* of both metuN, and particularly of the hUlrr, had 

* Wijitli (if Njii<iii4 f liml. 

APPENDIX. xxvii 

been nearly doubled, as in the instance of the kobang of the original value 
being offered to the Dutch for two kobangs. 

That the Dutch perhaps owe the loss of this valuable trade, in a great 
measure, to the incapacity and worthlessness of their own servants, cannot 
but be admitted ; for had they, on these continued reductions in the value 
of the current coins, adverted to the political cause, and calculated their 
commercial transactions according to the intrinsic, instead of the nominal, 
value, they would not have subjected themselves, unknowingly, to a loss 
of sixty per cent, upon the proceeds of all their exports : nor would they 
have shewn their weakness and ignorance to the Japanese, but they would 
immediately have devised the advantage of other returns from Japan, in 
articles, the exportation of which might, at the same time, have improved 
the industry and prosperity of that empire ; and the Japanese, finding 
them equally intelligent and enterprising under all circumstances, while 
they felt an interest in the continuance of the trade, would have respected 
the nation by whom it was carried on. If, however, by these means, the 
European character and the value of foreign trade thus declined in the 
estimation of the Japanese, how much lower must that of the Dutch 
nation have fallen, when after once dictating the prices of all articles 
both bought and sold, we find them obtaining at last an advance on their 
proceeds of the outward cargo, by way of charity, and the Japanese them* 
selves appealing against the peculations and corruptions that were carried 
on! When we see the Dutch, without power and without respect, 
dictating in the mighty empire of Japan an arbitrary and extravagant 
price for their commodities, in the same manner as they did at home, is 
it surprising that we should find the Japanese having recourse to a fixed 
valuation ? When we observe the illicit trade to Japan carried on by 
private individuals, to such an extent, that Valentyn, a Dutch author of 
the highest authority, says it was so interwoven with the constitution of 
the Company, and so extensive, that it formed the principal part of the 
trade, and could never be prevented, and that the Dutch ships were fre- 
quently lost by being overladen with cargoes of this kind, we cannot be 
astonished at the decline of the prosperity of the Company, or the degra- 
dations which were imposed upon its agents. The Dutch factory was, 
and is, in fact, a sink of the most disgraceful corruption and peculation 
which ever existed. The factor to obtain his own ends, submits to every 
possible degradation, and the government of Batavia knows only just as 
much of what is going on at Japan, as it is his interest to tell them. In 
this work it has become a painful duty to advert occasionally to the 
shameful scenes of fraud and corruption carried on under the very eyes of 
the government of Batavia, and in the dependencies in the more imme- 
diate vicinity of that metropolis, where their residents enjoyed such 
extensive powers, and were so removed from controul and responsibility, 
that their interests constantly interfered with their duties, and the struggle 
between principle and opportimity generally ended in a resolution to make 
fortunes, to connive at each other's peculations, and keep their own secret. 
If this was the case on the island of Java, the seat of government, what 
must it not have been in a country so remote as Japan, where the con- 

xxviii APPi-NDIX. 

nection and intercourse were no peculiar ? It it not aurpruing, that m 
the accounts of such a factory, the government at home diouhi find 
nothing but intricacy and obscurity. It was the interest of the &ctor lo 
keep every thing involved in mystery, and no where was there a bcciff 
opportunity for doing so. 

But had the shameful and disgraceful conduct of these people been felt 
only in its effects upon the past, it would be trifling, compared to whtt 
they are calculated to produce on the future. The unmanly d^gndatioa 
to which these factors have submitted at the caprice, and ofken for the 
amusement of the Japanese, in order to gain their own ends, seem to hare 
established an effectual bar against the future extension of the tnde by the 
Dutch nation, who will find it difficult, if not impnurticable, ever to be 
again respected in Japan. Unless, therefore, the Dutch have 
nimity enough to abandon this trade, when they find it of little 
tive value to them, or when they see it must be conducted on principlsi 
derogatory to the dignity of the illustrious House of Orange, it is to be 
feared, that the day is far distant, when the opportunity wiU be afforded 
of o]>ening a libersd and honourable communication between Europe and 
this interesting and important empire. Perhaps this will noc happen 
until, according to Humboldt, the two great oceans shall be united by 
means of a channel across the Isthmus of Darien, when the productMOi 
of Nootka ISound and of China will be brought more than two *VniTwH 
leagues nearer to £uro])e and the United States, and when alone any 
great changes can be effected in the political state of Eastern Asia ; ** for 
** this neck of land," obser^'es that writer, " the barrier against the waves 
" of the Atlantic Ocean, has been for many ages the bulwnriL of the 
** independence of China and Japan." * 

From the year 1750 no essential alteration appears to hare taken place 
in the trade : the utmost exertions of the Dutch were required to provide 
the cargoes, and whenever they succeeded, return cargoes were alwayi 
provided, to the extent of two or three shi]>s in the year. In order to 
afford a better view of the nature and extent of the restricted ti«de thus 
carried on, the accounts of two of these ex]>editions to Japan are m»«»w<hI, 
from which it will ap])ear, that in the voyage of 1804-5 the 
exported from Batavia to the Jai>an market commodities to the 
of 211,896 rix-dollars in value; that the charges attendant on the ship- 
ment and freight amounted to i67.5(X> rix-doUars (including S,915 rii* 
dollars on account of nistoms), making the whole expenses of the Toyife, 
with the prime cost of the articles, amount to 379i397 rix-doUanb That 
articles, when sold in Japan, brought 1G0,378 rix-doUan; bat the 
ex]>enses aiul disbursements at Japan in one year for the estaUishmcBt, 
the loss on the weight of the sugar, and the ex|>en8e of making the joomey 
to Jai>an, reduced that sum to 02,426 rix-dollars. The return eaf|eo 
l>r()ught to Batavia the sum of 886,554 rix-dollars, or a profit of 507,147 
rix-dullc'u^ on the adventiu^. The cargo and return of 1806, and the 
exiH'HMe of the establishment, cost the Company 393*582 rix-doQan, 
V including '2,S46 for customs :, and the sales and other receipts praduced 


569,089, leaving a balance of 175,606 rix-dollars in favour of the ad- 

A more correct judgment may perhaps be formed from the result of the 
adventures undertaken from Batavia during the provisional authority of 
the British government. The first of these was intimately connected 
with a political object, to which the mercantile adventure was made sub- 
servient, and both were undertaken without those previous arrangements 
which would have insured a better assorted and cheaper cargo. The 
articles were purchased on the spot tmd at the moment, and the vessels 
engaged at a very high rate of freight. In the first, in particular, the 
sugar being of inferior quality, there was a loss in the weight, and it was 
otherwise less profitable than it would have been, had the assortment been 
of the same quality which the Dutch company were in the habit of sending. 
The freight alone amounted to the enormous sum of 82,309 Spanish 
dollars. From the outward-bound cargoes it was necessary to pay the 
debts of the former government, amounting to 48,648 Spanish dollars ; 
and this, with other disbursements and necessary provisions, rendering 
the proceeds of the outward-bound cargo insufi&cient to furnish the 
amount requisite for the payment of the copper; the Dutch factor 
availed himself of the opportunity to supply the deficiency of fourteen 
hundred />tibi& at the rate of twenty- five dollars per 120} pounds, amount- 
ing to 25,000 Spanish dollars; differing from the rate paid to the 
Japanese of 12,3*5 tahils, or ten rix-dollars per pikul, to an extent of 
fifteen rix-dollars against government. Besides this, the whole of the 
outward cargo was not sold : several articles of merchandize remained 
undisposed of at Japan, amounting to 19,688 Spanish dollars, to be 
accounted for in the ensuing year. All these operated essentially to reduce 
the profits of a voyage, which depended exclusively on the return cargo. 

The results of these voyages, however limited as the profits were, 
appear fully sufiicient to shew the importance of this trade to Batavia, 
even as it at present stands, considering that it affords a market for so 
large a quantity of the produce of the country, and that when the govern- 
ment seemed disinclined to send a further adventure on their own account, 
there were not wanting numerous individuals anxious to obtain a license 
to undertake the trade, and to run all the risks attached to it.* 

« *' Our commercial rdatkma with Ja|MUi are of a very peculiar nature. Every one knows 
** ours is the only European nation admitted to it, what humiliations we are obliged to suffer 
** for it, and what expenses we incur by our embassiet to the court of Jeddo. This trade waa 
« once very lucrative, but in the latter yean 1 think it has done little more than cover the ex. 
** pences inddenul to it, and considering the loss of ships and people, i« certainly not such as to 
" justify an exposure to so many humiliations. 

** Notwithstanding this, we have not been inclined to resign the trade; nor indeed Is it ^ther 
'* necessary or prudent to do so. But I am at a loss to know how the government of Batavia 
** will be able to account for sending there, in the years 1*797 and 1796, a strange ship bearing an 
«* American flag, by way of pretence, though really an English vessel, and commanded by Oqitain 
*' Stuart, a real Englishman, though possessed of an American pass, although he bekmged to 
*' Madras or Bengal To abandon this trade would be ridiculous, but as it Is subject to such 
" regulations in Japan as it will be hardly possible to get rid of, it may be impracticable to make 
* ' it quite fVee and open. To pursue it on account of the state or ctf a company will never answer 
*' the purpose, I therefore venture to propose the sale by public auction, to the highest bidder, at 
*' Batavia, of a license or pass for one or two ships, of limited burthen, to trade there, either for 
** one or more years, as may be preferred. The chief of Dedma should be appointed and main. 
*< tained by the government, and should act as a kind of consul, and proceed on the embassy to 


In the year I6l6, the English obtained a grant from the emperor. roA- 
taining the privileges for a general trade with Japan, in coniequcnce of 
which a commercial establishment was formed there by the Compeny. 

In obtaining those privileges, one great object with the Compny 
appears to have been to introduce themselves to a connection with the 
('hinese, and to carry on a general trade between Indian China, sod Japan; 
but finding themselves disap|)ointed in their endeavours to form connec- 
tions with China, and sustaining heavy losses in consequence of their trade 
with Japan, they determined, in 1623, to abandon their eetnUishmem 

From that time, until the year 1673, no attempt appears to ha^-e been 
made by the English Company to renew their intercourse with J^fUL 
The attempt made at that })eriod entirely failed of success, owinir, it was 
stated, to the king of England having marrie«] a daughter of the king of 
Portugal. About the same time the ('ompany, with a view to the nme 
o])ject, formed an establit^hmcnt on the Island of Hounan; but after 
struggling with great difhculties, sustaining heavy losses, and bang tocaUj 
disa])pointed in their ex])ectations of conmiunicating with Japan, the 
factor)' was ordered to be withdra\ini in the year 1682. 

At a subsequent period (in the year 1699), the Company hariof 
cfltn])lished a regular commimication with ( 'hina, their supni-carfroes writ 
instructed to use every endeavour in their power to promote an intercom 
with Japan, for the puq)ose of introducing woollens, &c. into that countrr, 
but without any appearance of success. 

A select committee of the East-India Company, appointed in 1792 to 
take into consideration the export trade of (ireat Britain to the 
Indies, after detailing the cargo of a Dutch ship from Jiqian in the y 
IGG4, which consisteil principally of copper, camphor, silk-stufi, and 
chinaware, conclude their report by obsen'ing, that, in their opinion, the 
trade with Japan never can l>ecome an object of attention for the mano- 
factures and produce of (ireat Britain ; for supposing, they observe, ihtt 
woollens, lead, and curiosities for a cargo to Ja|ian, could be made lo 
.t*8,0(K), what is to ]>e required in pa>'ment ? About t'30,00O or £32.000 
value in cop|)er, an article which is also the produce of Great Britain, nd 
which must be disposed of in India, to the prejudice of their own mines. 
Hius Great Britain would gain, on the one hand, £8,000, whilst the kw, 
on the other, would ])e £32,000. 

*' JeiMo^ if it were rpquired. Kut bc^iiiid thU, the whole pjrrtrm and NguUlkn of IW - 
'* ithiiulil Ih* li-ft wholly to thi* ownor> of the •ht|w, with the excqiCUMi of nick ivfai m 
** J;i|MiH>Hi> lawR in A)- rciKltrr nivnt^ar)- with nvani to our trade. 

*' The >carly cmliohiU**, which an- Kovrry «'X|K.ti«Mc, are already dlipciuod with hf tte 
** t-M> ; .(11(1 At they would Im* UM'ful from tunc to tiino, it niiKht be adritable to otealn ■ 
'* for the Hituri', to|icrform them (>iil> oiire in every ten yean, or to luio it fl&fld Ibr 
** ri<>iiU'iit or (*i>n«iil to undertake it unre during hii> »tay. 

•* It will Hot iH'e.ioy to ohtain any other |iri\ile}rii' <n ft'eed(jin of rmiicquencv, Ibr -^...^ 
" «onie of our latter «vr«antK there ma> havp wanted to make UAbelirre on Ihit fninl, it te •«ffT 
** clear th:(t the Ja|vinei.e are very inditTeniit wlu*ther we |t<i there or not, «nd OHHl^rlkav 
** iKTinittiiiK im fi do ^merely a- an induliceno' on their iiart. It ran niH be doubled, that « m« 
** ao thi« tradei-i>itenwl to indi\idiiali., they will find ineann In make the pin||Uof it ««nb Ito 

n^k and danKer ; and iii proportion a* these profits beuime more valiufalr, lh« «■!■• «f ite 
•' Iurii9e» will mctva»c."'^liiiitmdorpf 


This opinion, however, would appear to have been formed on a very 
partial view of the subject, and with reference to the limited nature of the 
trade as it then existed ; but it would be as unfair to judge of the value 
of the Japan trade to the British nation from this narrow view, as it 
would be to decide upon that subject merely from the result of the adven- 
tures to Japan undertaken during the recent provisional government of 
Bata\na, which, besides other disadvantages, were, for political reasons, 
carried on with a scrupulous regard to the restrictions tmder which the 
trade of the Dutch had latterly laboured. 

It is objected to a direct communication with Japan, and the conse- 
quent exportation of British merchandize by British ships, that, in all 
probability, it would entirely put a stop to the present exportation of 
woollens by the Chinese, and that, in proportion as the exports from 
Great Britain to Japan increased, those from Great Britain to China 
might be expected to diminish ; the Japanese being, at present, almost 
exclusively supplied with British woollens by means of the CTiinese : that, 
however, the demand for teas would continue the same, and therefore the 
defalcation in exports to China must be made up in buUion, or by drafts 
on Bengal. 

It is admitted that the Bengal government might provide for this 
additional demand, by disposing of the copper brought from Japan in the 
Calcutta market ; but this, it is stated, would prove a considerable check 
to the consumption of one of the most valuable articles of export from 
Great Britain, and therefore it has been inferred, that the final result of 
the trade with Japan would, in all probability, be the exchange of oiu: 
woollens for copper, which we have already in abundance, instead of 
bartering them for teas, which, in the present state of Great Britain, will 
be always required. 

But this argument seems evidently to have been groimded on a sup* 
position that copper must always form the principal, if not only, article of 
commerce with Japan. An inference by no means borne out by the 
history of the Dutch trade ; in the course of which, it is expressly stated 
by the Baron Van Imhoff, who appears to have given the subject the most 
mature and deliberate consideration, and to have been aided by much 
local information, that the Japanese would willingly pay a sum of money 
to be excused from the delivery of any copper at all. 

But admitting that a connection between Great Britain and Japan might 
not be attended with all the commercial profits which might be expected 
from a consideration of the productions of the two countries, would it not, 
in a political point of view, be of the most essential importance to her 
interests in China, which are acknowledged by all to be so important ? 
Might we not expect from the Chinese a more respectful and correct 
conduct than has been customary with them, if they knew that we were 
in some measure independent of our connection with them ? and is it not 
important, that in case of our actual exclusion from China, there should 
still be a channel open for our obtaining conunodities, with which we 9Te 
at present supplied by that country ? 

xxxii APPENDIX. 



1,500,000 lbs. of Sugar, second tort, calcuUted at Its 

selling price of 8} each pikul, amounting to 100,000 — > 

Charges of one per cent. 1,000 — 

37,500 lbs. ofTin 7.' 

4,0(K) do. Cotton Thread, at 55 R.Drs. per piknl 1 ,700 — 

Black Pepper... .10} do 3.ftW « 

Cloves (K) Stivers per pikul 37.^00 — 

Seed Cloves ....<>0 do •• 3,733 31 

Lead 20 Stivers per pikul 4.8MI — 

Sappan Wood .. 6 do. 4.8nn « 

2,000 Pieces Patna Chintz . . 50 Stivers per coigie 5.O00 — 

Cloths in sorts . . C do 9iW9 ~ 

of Woollens of sorts 5.149 31 

Long ells of sorts • • 3 27' 1^ 

Perpetuans 2.934 4i 

CauileU • •••••• •••• 7.773 IS 

Ducatoons •.•••• 5,833 IC 

The Presents are calculated at 8.0M — 











2,000 1 














R.Dn. Sll,flM 3 

Add the following Charges incurred on account of the • b OTC-mcntioaed 

merchandise, via. 

Amount of Coolies and Prow-hire attending the purchase 
of articles, calculated at two per cent, on the whde 
amount, being R.Drs. 38,868 = Sp. D. 777 18 

For bringing and lodging the same in the stores, one 

percent 388 33 

Custom Duties, &c. at 7} per cent ••••..•••• 2,915 8 

Amount of Charges •••••••••••• 4.081 II 

Total of the Cargo with the Charges 215.977 H 

Yearly allowance to the Resident at Japan, consisting of 
7<N) pikulit Copper, to be paid by Government, at 25 
R.Drs. each 17,500 — 

Freight of Ships employed, 1.210 tonx, at 08 Sp.D. each 145 920 


Total Kxponsc on .\crount of the Adventure •• 379.397 U 

To balance in favour of the Vuyajjc AU7, 147 21 

Total R.Dn. 886,^4 31 

N B. A ronMdernhIc pnrt of the profit alwve stated, ought proper! j to be 

and introduced iDto the 

APPENDIX. xxxui 

1804-5) IN Account Current Contra. Cr. 

Amount Sale at Japan of the following Articles .— 

Rix-DolUn. Rix.DoUars. 
1,500,000 lbs. of Sugar, at 7 tahilsthe 120} lbs. (each 
tahil being equal to 40 Stivers) amounting 

to 72,388 40 

37,500 do. Tin, at 25 tahils each pikul of 120 J lbs. 6,463 14 

4,000 do. Cotton Thread, 25 do 689 20 

30,000 do. Black Pepper, 15 do 3, 102 18 

30,()00 do. Cloves 150 do 31,023 36 

2,987 do. Seed Cloves, 40 do 823 34 

30,000 do. Lead 10 do. 2.068 12 

100,000 do. SapanWood, 5.5 do 3,79138 

2,000 Pieces Patna Chintz, 2 tahils each piece. . . • 3,333 16 

1,651^ do. Cloths in sorts 4,689 19 

40 do. of Woollens of sorts, 90 tahils 3,000 

82 do. of Long Ells of sorts, 30 do 2,050 

110 do. Perpetuans 25 do • 2,29132 

5,137 do. Camlets 4 do 5,965 — 

3,500 do. Ducatoons....2 5.2.5. do. 7,364 28 

The Presents are calculated at .... 8,000 — 

R.Dr8. 157,045 19 
The surplus of the Trade calculated . . 3,333 16 

Making together 160,378 35 

W herefrom must be deducted : 

The Amount of Expenses and Disbursements at Japan 
in one year, for the Establishment, &c. and also the 
loss on the weight of the Sugar 51,285 32 

The Amount of Money and Merchandizes required for 

making the journey to the Court of Jeddo 16,666 32 

67,952 16 

Remaining to be employed for the purchase of Copper and Camphor. . 92,426 19 

Particulars as follows : 

8,475 pieces of Copper, at tahils 12.3.5. each 87.221 32 

200 do. Camphor, do. 21 do 3,500 -r- 

4,000 chests for copper, do. do.« 1,146 32 

200 bales for Camphor 180 — 

2,525 planks for Dunnage, at Uhils 18 each 100 378 3 

Amount as above to 92,426 19 

The above Copper, and that delivered by the Resident 

being stamped into lumps, amount to 933,369 38 

Deduct Charges of the Mint 71 ,000 — 

Remain 862,369 38 

The Amount of 200 pikuls Camphor, to be sold at 36 

Slivers per pound 24, 175 — • 

Total R.Drfc 886,544 38 

to the Mint, the whole of tlic copper received from Japan being stamped into lumps, 
Java at a rate above its intrinsic value. 




To 1,209,079 lbs. of Sugar • • • .at 6J Sp.D. per pikul 63.4X3 m 

2o.(NK) do. Tin 18 do. 3 #i»i — 

102,000 do. SapanWood, 4J do. 3,#.7- — 

12,0(M) do. Cloves, first sort, 2 Hop. per lb. •••• lliV* - 

5.(Mi7 do. do. second do. 2 . . . . do. •• 4,7'2i 4 

10,<MX) do. Pcpptr 1 1 .', Sp.D. per pikul y<»»; 4S 

100 do. Nuinu'jrs 1 ^ . . . . • -per lb. iK7 Xf 

0',0<K) do. Cotton Thread. .41^ per pikul l.!M4ii ~ 

0.082 i:iU of Woollens 2t>J77 M 

2JU2 do. Ker»eyn)ercs 7* '»'^' 3 

778 do. Fliii>li 2,l»*4 i4 

59 do. r uMians !^3 4S 

:io do. Ko^eUl:. hVJ a 

5 do. Uurants •• ^^ Ut 

20 do. Carpets, English 44 .N 

1,812 do. Ker^ey3 «,fii*lrS 

01 do. Mofin' !fl»i U 

4.900 do. C'hinlz, Bengal ia,i>4.-. il 

r»90 do. do. Ai3 » 

179 do. Cubayahs, Malabar •••• 3H9* Ifl 

220 do. Taleniporcs 4»:j W 

20 d'». Salenipores iM 4 

814 do. Fish Skins 54n 1« 

90 lb>. of Surtron 2,4.'iy i 

122 do. Quicksilver -Jin:. I* 

1,2<H> do. SpaniOi Liquorice «t» U 

ir».l81 do. Cattlm 2,7«»-'» * I 

2.14:{ do. Klephants' teeth XS'Z ** 

:i,Mm do. Ducatoons 4.XO tf 

Presents 2.aCf 24 

Hou>e Expenses *..... 2,52i^ - - 

rifAKGi:s AT B.\T.\VIA. IM «»« W 

To Omlown, Pmw and Coolcy hire S,4Ut >-> - 

(ll^toIn<t, Hi>u»r I)utu*s ^ y/»l<S ^ 

Freight of two Shi|« em]ilo\i-(I,at the rate of iUO S{MinUh Doliari 

|H:r ton '. ...M...... W,jQi 3i 

To ( 1.1. r.. %i/. J.HFAN. llKi,224 » 

rrociit'' to the Kniporor m ..m !M4i«» '— > 

r.\|H.>Mvo4 O'l.voytii^ the lOino tn the Itooiiipfit m....m.. 7^* I) '— . 

I'rt .flits to the wilrrior OtliriT" ot (lie ( tiurt A.^*t «> 

Amiu.iI S.ilarv ol the ('i)tn|uiiy'i> .Servant* ...^ l/il& '— . 

Am. ml r.ihlt> K\|M>tiM-o for do m.«..m.m.»..«..~.m.. \'iM «> 

Kv|H-ri»e l.tiidiitgand •tonn>; CariTo 3,iQB ^ 

I/.-"* i>ii tho ui if;h;ibk- Artu Ir* ol the Cargo, at ti»e |»er cent. ...... y,n46 ^ 

Comnii'-siiin oti largo,.') |M>r rent ^ 7,tl*J ^ 

Annual Hcitt ni'thi- I»laiiti (h'i ii|>.i-«i l>> tin- ('c>iii|Mn\*» S<.-i\aiit> ... 3,l'':f ^ S;ilar> of the .la|MiicM- to guan) tiK- ^ald I<Liiid I,|M> «- 

I'rr^i-nt.* to fill' mil fjor Oiiir-r*, to )iroiiire |MTnii.«i(>n <i|' a tur. 
thrr ('X)H>rtation ot CopiHT, .),<^x) piLuU ln'iiig alJowed ofily 

aiitiii ill\ 7Irt ^ 

Pitt) t hargi-i IIH 30 

To To" |nk<il. of ( I'l'iK-r, at |s , >p 1) |ur jukul <if \M IIm. ........... i;i,lvA ^^ 

7,*^'.'0 i!" I .: .'{ .1. t.ihiN |MT ill*. G*'»?ft<" 40 

()|0 do ( iiiiplior, at IS t. t-iliilo |vr ilo I^t** <— 

I'.t'.- #1.^ 4 

4>«> i l.i-i« f .r C. U'tT ZVi l«S 

i?,>'O0 I' l)iiijiia};r VlT 3^ 


82297 38 

To Anion Ml l)Orro.\(>(l tVoin tlie Ticisury • A.42R — ' 

To [ialaMce in ta\uur of the Voyage 17.t M2t 34 

Total R.Dr«. 5f».0fV <S 


1806) IN Account Current Contra. Cr, 



By sold 1,269,679 lbs. of Sugar, at 7 tahilsper 120^ pieces 45,907 32 

2,500 do. Tin 25 do 3,226 32 

102,000 do. Sapan Wood, 5.5. tahils per lb... 2,897 46 

12,000 do. Cloves, first sort, 150 do 9,297 32 

5,087 do. do. second do. . 40 do 1,051 2 

10,000 do. Pepper 15 do 774 41 

100 do* Nutmegs 100 do 51 40 

6,000 do. Cotton Thread.. 25 do 774 50 

6,082 Ells of Woollens, 7 per 2 f per pikul . . 9,255 — 

2,842 do. Kerseymeres, 4.8 do 2,960 — 

778 do. Plush 6 do 920 — 

59 Pieces of Fustians,3.2. per piece 118 — 

35 do. Roselets of 2033} Elb. 1.6.per 2i 677 32 

5 do. Durants, 190f-1.2 do 47 18 

20 do. Carpets, English do 20 — 

90 do. Kerseys, at 18 tahils per pikul.... 1,012 32 

6 do. Morin, 1.9.6 do 76 — 

4,900 do. Chintz, Bengal, 2 do 6,125 — 

590 do. do. Guzzerat, 1.4 553 8 

179 do. Cabayahs, Malabar, 1. 9- 4 223 48 

220 do Palempores 4.4 618 40 

20 do. Salempores • 40 — 

814 do. Fish Skins, 200 tahils 125 — 

96 lbs. of Saffi-on 2,731 22 

122 do. Quicksilver, 100 tahils per 720} lb. 62 32 

1,200 do. Spanish Liquorice, 832 lb 600 35 

15,181 do. Catchu ^ 30 do 2,351 56 

2,143 do. Elephants' Teeth, 230 do 2,545 40 

3,500 Pieces of Ducatoons, 8,836 tahils .... 6,522 32 

Presents from the Emperor 2,812 32 

Cash borrowed from the Imperial Trea- 
sury to complete the Cargo 5,428 — 

108,797 62 


Amount Sales Copper 

8,238|^| Pikuls, say 50 Drs. per pikul or 125 lb 411 ,942 — 

Amount Sales Camphor, at 40 Stivers per lb 48,350 — 

Total R.Drs. 569,089 62 

C 2 

xxxvi APPENDIX. 

Dr, Voyage to Japax (in rut vLii 

Tol,«3(i,270 lbs. of Soft Sugar Wf.Ul — 

IDJMt do. black IVpper 7:-» — 

:i4,:U!) do. rig Lead 2 «i<i» 'iS 

*jr;.4rU do. Roll do I I»i» 74 

1G4,(MH) do. Sapan Wood X-*W» - 

H7,.')]l do. Tin, or7<H).n.» pikuU, at 17pcrpikul 1I.:«*I » 

I ,.V):) do. Klephaiits' Teeth 1 .74.1 4» 

.50 do. Kgyptian Mummy • .•• O** — 

i:».(N)4) do. Cloves, at KM) per pikul 12.«a«( — 

l'J.a(H) do. Nutmegs, at 1(N» per pikul lO.mat _ 

l.'».()i:tA do. Cotton Thread 4 JftM — 

T) 1 i rieces of Thornhack Skins :f7'' ^ 

5,0U) do. Fatna Chintz C ."U-f M 

VAi do. Coa.>t Chintz fine l.'iii — 

mi do. Printed Cottons 2 «i»^i M 

2ii do. Cambrics • ••••••• 4!*( — 

2Xt\0 do. Surat Talanipores f;.*.Mi> — 

Vrl'.i do. Silks in Sort> '2.i*if» :^ 

'J-J.') do. Woollens in Sorts Ill HU; -'vf 

2*Ml do. Long Ells 4 <t7^ M 

2:U do. rerpettians 'J.!«77 '^ 

.')4 do. Camblcts 1. 4<"» Of 

:i.;)(N) do. Ducatoons 4.54J 42 

I7:#.ii33 K 

Paid the Chief ot* the Factory at Japan for 1,400 pikuls of Copper tie- 

livcred to Government • 26.0IM — 


.Spubh TMUtl 
Bags for the Sugar, Pepper and Cloves : Ca^ks, &c. &c. (j,^'*^ — 

Packing cases 713 — 

Coolies employed on hoard the Ve.s>els and in the Maga- 
zine, packing the Carg(K*s .;.... 2,<MJ;J .V) 

Pro\\> employed lading the Cargoes 1,2<MI — 

Kxtra Clelk^ and Mandores • IIi.'b — > 

Se\eral ArtielcN on Account of the Adventure \tiH 8 

l-'odd tor the Llepluint and other .\niiua!s 2H8 80 

Caiiiplior and pat king ClotliN. ^^c 10!I -* 

P.ii«l the ( ommi»ioners for landing the CopjHT, &c. at 

Hara\ ia 2.'><l — 

Pro\\> emploNttl landing tlu- tariioes (}0{} __ 

Jrei^ht of the Ship Charlotte lor nine Months, at fi.fJOO 

per M*)iitli 50,400 — 

I'reighl i)t'lhe Ship Mary l*or ei^ht Monlh», at <J,0(MI Sia-a 

Uiipce> per Month . . '. 22,009 10 

04.117 4» 

2.!lR.luii m 

Balance in I'w our i»t" the Vuvage •••• 4SMti iSB 

Total Sp.l). 342.I2« — 



1813) IN Account Currsnt Contra. 


By Cargo brought from Japan, viz. 

Spanish DolUri 

902,452 lbs. of Japan Copper, at 31 per pikul 223,727 — 

60,437 do. Camphor, at 50 Stivers 45,785 — 

1,208 do. Pitch 600 — 

670,112 — 

Spanish DoUart. 
Debts of the former Dutch Government paid to the Em- 
peror of Japan • 48,648 — 

Woollens, &c, remaining at Japan for the next Year. . . • 15,000 — 

Cash in the Treasury for do. * 4,688 — 

Advanced to the Commanders of the Vessels and other 

Persons at Japan, to be repaid at Batavia • • • 3,678 — 

72,014 — 

Total Sp.D. 342,126 — 

xxxviii APPENDIX. 



There was a certain raja of the west, named Sdmff Prdbu Smris Altm, 
who, bein^ duly qualified, did, in the establishment of divine justice, 
a code of judiciad retaliations, consisting of fifteen hundred and 
articles, which being aften^-anls digested and reduced to the number of 
one hundred and forty-four, were by him made known and explained lo 
all the i)eoi>Ie of the countries under his authority, thereby dxffnti^ 
knowledge and righteousness where ignorance and wickedncM befoR 

These regulations were also firmly established^ and were put into prar- 
tice without any respect of persons, not cxcqUing the relatioiM and 
dred of Sfinr; Prdbu himself; so that, if the left hand oflfended, 
yvTiii demanded l)y the right, and rice rersii, for such is the law of Cfod. 

These judicial regulations originated in no ambitious riewii, nor 
their author, when he framed them, influenced by feelinffs of either mrvd 
for his frirnds or hatred towards his enemies : neither was he actuated hr 
any selfish considerations : his sole object was the establbhment of true 
justice, founded on divine principles. 


0/ the Duty nf the Jdksa. 

In the first pLice, he must possess a sufficient knowledge of the lav, to 
know Low to act in regard to cases which may come liefore him, which of 
tlio {)arties ou^ht to 1k^ made to pay, what are and what are not propfr 
sii])jects for a law-suit, deciding a;rainst the }H*rs()n who would bring for- 
ward any thing of tlie latter (U'sci-ipti<»u. If the Jdksa is found ignorant 
of thoe matters, he shall have his tongue cut out. 

In the second ]»lace, if the Jejrnnng (the next in order to the Jdkaa] 
shall, in acting for the Jdksn^ prove deficient in a knowledge of hi* duiT, 
he too shall either have his tongue cut out. lose both his ears, or harr 
red-hot pincers applied to his lij>s. 

In the third {>hice, any incorrect statement in writing shall be puniilwd 
bv the loss <»f both hands. 

Should neither of ttieso sentences l>e carried into effect, the Jdkam ougfat, 
at all event**, to be lianiNlieil the country. 

This punishment, however, may lie mitigated by the Rdja^ who, haniy 
coin]visRion on the Jdksa ^ may recid him after one year's exile. 

Should the Hnjn sutler to pa**** unpunisheil such a total derebction of 
duty on the part of the Jdksa ^ as stated. (hthcuUy and distress 
sarily arise in those times 

APPENDIX. xxxix 


The establishment fixed by Sdng Prdbu for the Jdksa consisted of twelve 
persons, viz. two Jej^angs, two writers, six Mdta Mdtas, and two men 
whose business is to be in constant attendance on the court. 

The fees authorised to be taken by the Jdksa from persons who have 
any business to settle, are forty-four for the Jdksa himself, three thousand 
for the Jej^nangSf eight thousand for the writers, one thousand for those in 
attendance in the court, and eight thousand for and on account of the state. 
That for the Panghulu is left to the liberality of the party. 

If the Jdksa shall not conform in practice to what is here laid down, it is 
required that he be disgraced and branded in the conmion market-place. 

If any one shall find fault with the conduct of the Jdksa, without being 
able to substantiate his charges against him, and shall make the same public, 
that person shall be fined agreeably to the rank and quality of the accused, 
viz. fifteen thousand ipichis).* The reason of so large a sum being 
awarded is, because the Jdksa is the chief of the Mdntris. 

The Bopdti is, as it were, the door to the Jdksa, the Kabdyan that to the 
Bopdti, and the Panghulu that to the Raja, These four form a body, 
through which every thing is minutely investigated. 

Let it be understood, that the Raja, who fills so exalted and conspicuous a 
situation, is not without something to do. What he says is the result of 
observ^ation and deliberation. His disposition and way of thinking is that 
which he has received at the hands of the Almighty, who dwelleth where 
no one knoweth, at whose hands the wicked will meet with their deserts. 


The Tri-rdsa-updya, as known among men, comprehend three things, 
which are intimately connected with each other, but which, nevertheless, 
must not be confounded, viz. 1. Hukum ; 2. PWMah; 3. Kasusahan\, 

Where a sentence is very severe, or of a nature which will not admit of its 
being fulfilled, a mitigation or commutation thereof can only take place, by 
a careful consultation of what is written in the book of laws. 

Of the Ddsa Wig4na. 
Ddsa signifies ten, and wigiina, very powerful, and under this name is 
comprehended: 1. Sentence of death; 2. Amputation ; 3. Disgrace; 
4. Confiscation of property ; 5. Banishment ; 6. Extorting evidence by 
inflicting bodily pain ; 7. Getting at evidence by kind treatment and giving 
money; 8. Obtaining it by skilful management alone; 9. Compulsion ; 
10. Letting off from pimishment, by receiving a consideration for the 

There are degrees of those which are to be known and observed. 

♦ Pkhity a graall tin coin. 

+ 1. Hukumt the law of God ; 2. PWentak, the law of th« lovereign ; 3. Suiohant opprecaion 
(of the people from the law of the prince). 



Of the Quntur G'ri. 

Under this head Ls comprehended five things, vxx. 1. The ctutomft of tbc 
country; 2. The orders of the sovereign; 3. Loss by an enemy; 4 A 
change of the Raja and of his orders ; 5. Difficult queries given hy one 
country to another to solve. 

Under the head Mai come three things, viz. Water, land, and p«opie. 
The water is necessar}' to kec]) alive what has been planted in the laaL 
Mankind take all that comes, good as well as bad. 


llie term mal i)ro])erIy means cloth, money, and gold ; which thrre 
articles, above all others, are the grand and most frequent subjects of liv. 
suits, that arise out of the various transactions which take place 


In law-suits there are seven circumstances of material consequence, 
1 Where the cause being good can be taken up and supported ; 2. Whea 
the articles can be minutely describe<l; 3. When the articles, as well v the 
persons, can be pointed out ; 4. Wlien marks can be shcH-n; 5. Wh^o :be 
party suing has l>ecn an eye-witness ; C. When all those things hapjirn to 
take [)lace ; 7* When confession is made of what is the subject of the liv- 


Of the Precious Stone, and that in which it is tei. 
To these may be compared the Ilaja and his people. The former i« a 
a de()endant state, lliosc who surround him are the Pandiia^ the BoptHi, 
m\i\ i\\t Jdksa : and those immediately entertained by himself anr, l.<h» 
who possesses his conii<lence ; 2. \ Jenntulis skilled in writing; 3. .Vn 
intcri>reter well vcrsod in laii«;unge; 4. A good messenger ; 5. An intcC:- 
gent (lo<)rkee])or ; (3. A person who knows in what a want of manners cud- 
sists ; 7- An experiencetl general. — ^Then will the countr}' flourish. 


The Jtiksa \<, according to his chunurter, distinguished by the followuk^ 
€ipf»ellation^, viz. W'irn juiksn, when he inclines to the "ide whence be 
rcci'ivos m(>st lirihes ; 2. I*dtra kild^a, when he goes by what he is loU. 
without duly weit^hin^r ami considerin;r the merits of the case hinuieif ; 
3. Amijnyu, whfu he j)uni>hi-* thi* ;;uilly with severity ; 4. Permdma^ vivn 
he awards the just bcntonce of the law as it is written, unthout lenity or 


Tliere are three thiiijjs which oui^ht not to be allowed to exisi in aconntrr. 
viz. 1. Witchcnift, particularly at critical junctures. The fine to be im- 
])oscil ill such ca^'.'< i^ forty thousand; and if luiy thing is lost, it is to be 
laid to the charj^e of the jKi>ons who pracli>e that JUi. 

1 Should the A'fipiifi hf thv' per-on, he shall \te treated according to the 


Sdhda suwdra, i. e. he shall be dismissed from his office^ and his officers 

and relatives will be considered as implicated in the crime. 

3. Should the Mdntris be fomid guilty of witchcraft^ they shall be fined 

one hundred thousand. 


Of the boundaries or LAmits of Lands named Tugu, 

By which is meant landmarks, such as stones, trees or fences, or what- 
ever else serves to form an enclosure. 

This may and does often become a subject of litigation, especially where 
any thing has been planted : 1 . With respect to lands of inheritance ; 
2. With respect to such as have been given away ; 3. With respect to 
those which have been purchased; 4. With respect to those in which 
something has been planted. 

Disputes arising on any of those subjects are proper to be litigated ; and 
in settling them, besides examining such witnesses as there may be, it will 
be necessary to consult the old men of the village, as well as the lAra who 
collects the annual land revenue, before a decision can be given. 

The true proprietor of a piece of land under dispute, will be he who can 
prove his having enclosed it ; and the true proprietor of any crop will be 
he who can prove his having sown or planted it. 

Proof is to be obtained by administering an oath, which is done by im- 
mersion in water, or by drinking it. 


He in whose hands is vested the power of administering justice, must be 
well acquainted with the nature of the ten following things, and know how 
to proceed in regard to them, viz. 1. Informations ; 2. Grounds for a law- 
suit ; 3. The proper time for trial ; 4. The occupation and condition of the 
parties ; 5. The object sought by the parties ; 6. The prosecution ; 7. The 
defence; 8. Pleading not guilty; Q. Evidence; 10 Eye-witnesses. 


A sufficiency of evidence alone will obtain a favourable decision ; and 
when the witnesses brought forward to prove any fact do not, upon ex- 
amination do so, the party who summoned them ought to be cast and also 


With regard to the Pdncha bdka, which is the case of a woman accused 
by four men of fornication; if, on examination, these four men do not 
agree in their testimony, they ought to be put to death, or else fined agree- 
ably to the Jdna tr^sna, which leaves it to those who have chaige of the 
woman to determine the extent of the fine. 


There are two descriptions of orders, viz. 1. Puhisa, or those which 
come from the Raja or from an enemy ; 2. papariiUahan, or those of the 

If the Bopdti is more severe or more lenient than he ought to be, he 


shall be fined one hundred thousand, or else agreetblf to the Sdbdm 

which is the arbitrary will of the Sovereign. 


The following are thirty different cases of law-suits, vis. 

1. Amra kddang, where one who is accused of theft, points at tithtr 
another ])cr8on or the accuser himself. 

2. Kunddng chiri, where a person presents a paper to the court, ^rah 
something additional written under the signature and date of it. 

3. Meiif/dmukpung^gung, where a person destroys his property while hf 
has a law-suit pending. 

4. Mutung pamdtang, where a person, during the courae of a law-suidt, 
leaves his master or chief and goes to another. 

5. Sdna dent a, wliere a person concerned in a law-«uit either magiu&f 
or lessens the state of the case. 

6. Xg'drika Pdtra, where a person denies his own hand-writing. 

7. Ntdra permdna^ where a (>er!<on, intending to kill another, goe* sad 
lives on tenns of intimacy with him. 

8. Ddmar kitiidnh, where a person, on first making a compUini ot k» 
own accord, brings evidence in supiiort of it. 

9. Ngartka wdrna, where a person has a law-suit, which another iku 
his own chief is ac(jiiainted with the merits of. 

10. Strnn ning jdga, where a ])er8on objects to his own witnc^tse*. 

1 1 . Perhga, where a person finds a thing and does not take it to 
proper person where he lives. 

12. Genti icdtang, i. e. the case of a person who is the firvt to 

13. Sttdesit kemit^ i. e. a thing belonging to two persons and found by i 
third ; the ])oint forthwith litigated, and decided in favour of the f tnm g . 
each of whom hopes to get it : the thing, houTver, cannot }fe mtond to 
cither, or to any of their relations; it must 1)e appropriated for the pur- 
pose ofa.ssisting in defraying theex])en8e8 of the state. 

14. Sdksi rumemhu where a |>erson first of all caUs upon only one 
as a witness, and aftem'ards, when the cause is decided, wishes to 
further evidence. 

l.'). Sasdstra per d la r a, where a i)erson presents a written statement €f 
his grievances without a date to it. 

1(3. Ang*nka-rdjfi, where a person engaged in a law-suit speaks besiw- 
ingly, and at the same time refers to some respectable person for the truth 
of what he woidd assert. 

17. Chini ropdti, where a person acts in a compulsory manner towiidi 
the per)]»le or relations of another. 

18. Kdpra-idga, where a person, in reply to a question put to hinu re- 
fers to one who is dead. 

19. Ahi'ndu pdga, or the ca.^ of a breach of promise. 

20. Ni'leh lura, where the object of the law-suit is for the l e ioi eii sf 
duties, or any thin^ else a long time due. 

APPENDIX. xliii 

21. MaMrdketan, when of two witnesses in favour of any litigating 
party, one is not forthcoming at the time of trial. 

22. Sdmbung wdtan t^er, where a person prefers a complaint of a spe- 
cific nature, and afterwards superadds other circumstances. 

23. Ting* gal pergduy where a person concerned in a law-suit remains quiet 
and keeps himself hack. 

24. Pdncha perkdsa, where those engaged in a law-suit (Hsplay rage and 

25. Andra wichdna, where before a case is decided, a constant inter- 
course is held with the Jdksa by one of the parties. 

26. Perchdya-rasi, where a person prosecuted before the court points out 
the love and regard which some great man has for him. 

27. Katdya rasa, where a person, while his case is pending, makes pre- 
sents to the Jdksa. 

28. Kasuria chdndra mirdda toachdna, where a person refuses to abide by 
the sentence of the Jdksa, 

29. Katdya rdsa upaya, where a person, before his cause is decided, 
makes a present of something to the Raja, the Bopdti, and Panghulu. 

30. Kasdbda maUcha permdna, where a person denies what he has once 
publicly declared. 

With respect to the thirty foregoing cases, it will be for the Jdksa to 
consider and determine when a law-suit can, and when it cannot, be in- 


Here follow eight more cases, viz. 

1. Cupita sdbda permdna, where one of four persons engaged in a law- 
suit, being deputed to act for the others, it appears, on examination of the 
witnesses, that the afikir cannot be settled with this one person. 

2. Hanuk meng tan wiring wisa, where a witness, on re-examination, 
gives a different accoimt from that which he gave when previously ex- 
amined by the Jdksa. In such case the Jdksa must endeavoiur to dis- 
cover which is the most plausible accoimt of the two. 

3. KawUut tdra, where opposition takes place between the witnesses, or 
between those whose cause it is, and others who have been eye-witnesses 
of what is the subject of htigation. 

4. Bhdning handmpuh tdya, where a person is assisted by one who is in 
the administration of justice. 

5. Ng^ddang tdrka, where, on a trial taking place, the deposition of a 
party differs from the account previously taken down by the Jdk$a, In 
this case, such party should be cast. 

6. Ng*dling*gapanddya, when one takes for witnesses worthless persons 
who cannot be depended on or believed. 

7. Eluddi, where a person changes, tears, or makes an erasure in any 

8. Kahusti sdbda parldya, where a person shamelessly makes free with 
what belongs to another, who is neither a friend nor relation. 



Of cases lohere a Law-Suit etmrnoi be ingtUmted. 

These are five in number, viz. 1. WTiere the evidence i* not clev; 
2. WTiere an article which has been lost by one pei^on i« foun<l :n the 
possession of another, who cannot tell whence he got it ; 3. When: *»Le 
evidence of the witnesses produced by any {Kurty varies from that c-f Oa 
parties themselves; 4. \Miere no evidence exists. In this ca.«e, ihr ;anT 
who can give the most plausible story will obtain a decision in his f\xy^ ^ 
5. Wliere the agent of another in any law-suit is cast. 


A law-suit will be instituted with success under any of the fire fuJIov- 
ing circimistances, viz. 

1 . Tata, where the declarations of all those who support the suit an 
uniform and connected. 

2. Ti7i, when the time of the deed or action is known. 

3. Kdrta, where the object of the suit is universally allowed to be good 
and just. 

4. Sang*dra, where there is a readiness to swear to what is asserted 

5. Dupdra, where probability and plausibihty exist. 


Of thinpfs sent by one person to another, and destroyed under cimim- 
stances which admit of no redress, called Pdncha Sedrdsa^ of «*faich that 
are five cases, viz. 1. W^ere it is occasioned by lightning; 2. l^l^n by 
the attack of an enemy ; 3. By being sunk ; 4. In consequence of an onkr 
from the Raja ; 5. By fire communicated from an adjoining house. 


There are three things which, from their baneful nature, are uniremDr 
deprecated, and considered and treated as inimical to the welfare of nam, 
viz. 1. llieft; 2. The injury which cro{)s are liable to sustain from the 
de])redations of noxious animals ; 3. The mischief which is to be appn- 
hended under water, from crocodiles or the hke. 


In a law-suit, the successful party obtains damages of the one thai ■ 
cast. As the agitation of the leaves marks the presence of the wind, to 
does the stir and noise of contending {Kutics shew the existence of a lav- 


There are two cases where it will go hard with any party, via. 1. Whca 
a mark or proof can be given, as well as evidence produced ; 2. VTbere ■ 
a violent dispute between two chirf> respecting the l>oundanes of tfaor 
land*«, one of tht>m is the first to bring wea[K>ns with him : such a 
must be found guilty, and will be cast. The fine to be levied, in 


case, \\'ill, according to the rank of the parties, be one of the following : 

1. Utnma, or that awarded to chiefs, y\z. one hundred and forty thousand ; 

2. Dtada mad^n, or that awarded to those of an inferior degree, viz. seventy 
thousand ; 3. N^stOy or that awarded to the common people, viz. forty- 
five thousand. 

Sentence of guilt will be awarded to any party under the three following 

1 . Chdya rdsmi^ where advice has been received from the Jdksa. 

2. Pring'ga rdksa, where the assistance of the officers of the court has 
been received. 

3. Andrea rdksa, where a case which has been decided is revived at the 
instance of the party that was cast, in consequence of other people's ad- 
vice. In such case, if the party which formerly gained the suit fail to 
appear on the day appointed for a second trial, they shall be cast ; and in 
like manner will it be with the other party, if they fail to attend. For such 
proceeding, however, the Jdksa shall be fined fifty thousand. 


1 . fri/u/ sdbda hiksa masdbda updya, where a person sues another who is 
connected with the business of the suit, but who is not the responsible 
person, and only from his being the more eligible person is attacked on 
account of his means. In such case tha prosecutor will lose his cause. 

2. Sdka dtpay where a person incurs the obligation of paying for any 
thing he has lost or destroyed, and refuses to do so according to a proper 
valuation which shall be fixed thereon. In such case he shall be cast. 

3. Gdndia pdtiy where the Jdksi is silenced in a discussion with one of 
the parties who dispute a point with him. The Jdksa, in such case, shall 
be found guilty, and fined forty thousand. 

4. Bhdning mdya permdna, i. e. if a thief, who is pursued, runs into 
certain premises, by a gap in what serves to enclose them, the proprietor 
thereof will be held responsible for one-third of the amount stolen. 

5. Ng'dmbdga pdtiy i. e. a person having pursued, without effect, a thief 
whom he had surprised in the act of stealing, and the tools of the thief, 
which in his hurry to escape are left behind, are in the meantime foiuid 
in the house of any one, the owner oi the house shall be held guilty. 

6. Liuktta bukti, i. e. the person in whose possession thieves' tools shall 
be foimd, will be held guilty of any robbery which may, at the time, have 
been committed. 

7. S{ma mamdngsa tdta updya, i. e where a person pursues a thief into 
the premises of another, without acquainting him with the circumstance. 
In such case guilt will be attached to the former. 

8. Gdna Una dmit mdngsd tan w&ing kdma, i. e. when a malicious com- 
bination is formed to accuse and prove guilty one who is an object of 
hatred. ITie persons who so conspire shall be held guilty. 


Of cases where a cause will be lost, there are twenty-five in niunber, viz. 
1 . Htna sdksiy where the witnesses are worthless disreputable persons. 

xlvi .VPPENDIX. 

2. H{na$dbda, where a thing is lost, and the cywner thereof doet not ^.re 
information thereof to his chief. 

3. Hifta kliiui, where a person finds a thing and doe* not make it kn>«^. 

4. Hina wang, where a person whom another deputes to act for hio, u 
any law-suit, is deficient in what is required of him. 

5. Kutjundunff sdkgi, where a witness produced by one party is ita ie- 
clared enemy of the other. 

6. Haw/imhu china, where a person who has been robbed gels hold d 
the thieves* tools without making it known that he has done so. 

7. Ny^edong sdksi, when a person brings false mntnesses whom he hat 

8. Hnkdto sdksi, where the witnesses have been bribed. 

9. Hakddanfj sdksi, i. c. where a person instructs his witnesses vhis :-9 
say previous to their examination. 

10. Sdbda laksdna, i. e. where a thing is stolen within certain pr«s:.«««. 
and a person residing therein shall refuse to concern hims«.>lf a}k-/u; the 
matter. Such person shall be made to make good one-third of the ^r^ 
l)erty lost. 

11. Hamdtnng bubukan, i.e. where a person makes one of hi4 enrr:y« 
l)euple his a^ent. Such ]K'rson shall be cast. 

12. Sidatn wdrut, i. c. where persons concert in concealing an uruivful 
pregnancy and in producing an abortion. Such persons shall incur a f.r^ 'J 
one hundred and Hfty thousand each ; the whole of the peuple uf the v^ 
lage where it took ])lace shall each be fined fifty thou.sand , and evrry ;<r- 
son of the village opposite to it shall 1>e fined twenty-five thousand. AD 
])ersons. too, who, though living at a distance, arc stiU under tlie auih-rTj 
of the chief of the village when the thing hap[>ened, shall be each ciicd 
four thousand. A person of great means shall be fined one miUii >n. 

13. TatardpuH raja pfj)dti, i. c. if a person is found deail withiiu: Rf 
1)ein^ known how ho came by his death, nothing can lie done; and it v-J 
rest with the Kiija to cause the body to be dis]M>ijted of in any H-av he mir 
deem proper. If a corrupted dead body, found in a certain vdUt:?. -^ 
first discovered by people of another village, the whole of the person» ':«- 
longin)< to the fornur shall be each fined fifty thimsand. Shtmld tb've 
persons have endcavouriMl to conceal the deatl body, they shall «u:h. la 
that (*asi>, })e tiiud one hundred thousand. If it is in a firld mhrrr it* 
dead body is <liscovered, and that by others than the proprieion of ibc 
land, the tine to be iinposetl upon the latter shall l)eone hundred thousand 
If tlie dead body is tlrst discovered by a ]X'rson of the viliane, and he im- 
mediately, by sounding an alarm, summons all the people of that vilWr lo 
see and !»ear witness thereof; and if those {tersons afteni'ards, on e^umina- 
tion, deny the fact, the wh<jlf of them shall be fined fifty thousand. The 
favounible testimony of thirteen women, however, will get them off fruia 
the said fiiu'. 

14. Si/tpi f/'in, i.e. a juTson is woundetl and sound'* the ahirm manr 
j>enplc(juirkly repair to tlio spoi, Imt se«r no ainH-ariuice of any one by va«ifB 
tin* WMUiiii rouhl have been iiilliriid; pivM-ntly is heard the ioiud of 

APPENDIX. xlvii 

another alaim, at a different place, by persons who declare they have just 
wounded a thief who has escaped from them, producing at the same time 
proof of the fact : in such case the person who first sounded the alarm 
shall be considered the thief. If there is found a person who has been 
wounded somewhere, but without its being known where or when, and 
without there being any thing to lead to a suspicion of his being a thief, 
nothing can be done to him. 

15. Ang'gus sura^ i. e. a wound having been proved to have been in- 
flicted by any party who has been prosecuted for the same, if the skin only 
is broken, the fine to be imposed shall be four thousand. If it is a flesh 
wound, the fine shall be eight thousand ; if a bone be broken or sinews cut, 
forty thousand : but if the injury done to the wounded party be of such a 
nature as to deprive him of the means of earning a livelihood, the offend- 
ing party must, in that case, provide for him. 

16. If a person wounds a thief, and can shew marks of his having done 
80 (as a bloody weapon), and if it has been done in the presence of many 
people, and it has been plainly seen whither the thief betook himself, and 
an alarm is presently sounded in the place to which the thief fled, and a 
person then declares he has just received a wound, such person shall be 
accounted the thief. 

17. Warddya chum^nda, i. e. if a person is observed to pass through a 
village with thieves' tools in his possession, although nothing be stolen, 
that person shall be accounted the thief. 

18. Artisi wdd(a dan d&ma d^nda, i.e. the disputes of ministers with 
ministers, priests with priests, and pundita with pundUa, must be decided 
according to the Wartdrja sawung eng kerta, i. e. by taking into consider- 
ation their different dispositions and natures, as well as their proneness to 

19. Trtta chdndrang guira raditia, i. e. the law (in the inflexibility and 
unchangeableness of its natiure) resembles the sun, moon, and water. 
Whoever acts in opposition to the law, must be found guilty and punished 

20. If any person be courageous enough to seize or kill a thief, he ought 
to receive a reward of four thousand. If the thief has a master, the latter 
ought to be fined twenty-four thousand. 

21. If a person enter a village at an improper hour, and is thrice chal- 
lenged without making any reply, he shall be considered as a thief. A 
person skulking behind a door or fence, under similar circumstances, shall 
be considered in the same light 

22. N6ya r^smi, i. e. a res])ectable person who may endeavour to screen 
a thief, shall be fined agreeably to the vntdra, viz. one hundred thousand. 
If the delinquent is a person of the middle class, he shall be fined eighty 
thousand; if a person of the lower orders, forty thousand. 

23. Tri maldni nagdra comprehends three things, which are inimical to 
the welfare of a country, viz. 1. Corrupt judges ; 2. Breach of promise 
or agreement ; 3. Wigu wiguna, i. e. Where the Raja, or others who are in 


xlviii APPENDIX. 

authority, inconHideratcly decide or give hasty orders about any xhau. 
whereby much mischief never fails to follow. 

24. This section is the work of the Pundita, Pagdwan Ckt'mde Gm-mt. 
and contains seven articles, viz. 1. Suria wigmna, i, e. the KaJA'* c^<rjr^ \* 
like the sun, whose refulgent rays spreail in all directions and (irr.<:n:^ 
tlirough every thing. 2. Anla siiria kumtdka, i. e. the di<}»lfa?*urr if :^ 
lliija in his court is like the heat of the sun, which cauneis th<H« «:.• irt 
expose<l to it to faint away. 3. Kwtila trtsna peridga, i.e. mhrn •cL^rr^:^ 
of death i^; ])assed on any one by the Raja in his cuurt, it mu^t ht r^rrffi 
into effect, as in the case of Kadtirrja fanywri^ where a iiernm r-i:iir*.> 
fornication or adulter}' with any of the Ilaja*^ houstrhoM; or A'<-fii rik 
antukay where a jierson forj^ets himself and wrangles in the co»iri .•: :af 
Raja; ox Knht'rna antdka, where a fight takes place, by which dra:*. -ir 
severe wounds are inflicted; or Maddvcang Itiina, i. e. where a j^r^Jt 
endeavours to ruin another, by endeavouring to make him ap]it-ar .-«..:-• . 
or Anrfgu pdla sdhda, where a jwrson, after receiving a cli><tiiict ^nirr :> c 
the Raja himself, incurs blame by executing it in a ilitferent manr«r' f: a 
what he was told, in consequence of the advice of hi»« chief: *'T J'zUin 
kaperchdndn In'ivnt dtpa, i. e. the effects of the Raja's diji]>lea>urf a*'i.i< 
any one cannot be tnmsferred to another. 


1. Dindang knriihan wdng, i. e. the just and lawful revenues or du*.^. 
and no more, must be levied. 

2. Cregf'r kujnUa, i. e. where a jterson disregards the prohibition* of i2c 

3. Gurmti gandardsa, i. e. several ])eople are assembled toi^ethrr, and irct 
of them hajipens to lose something : whoever is the first to f|uii the jorr. 
shall be considered guilty of having stolen it ; and if there is iDcoDtc«i.^<^ 
evidence of this, he shall be ma<le to jKiy two-fold. 

4. Gora getih ng'ttniirtris, i. e. where an unqualified {lerson decnie* «*<• 
from his own knowledge of the manner of ])roceeding. 

.'). ll'ardksa iapuh, j. e. no ought to l>e settled but by a proper a^i 
e(juiUi1)le decision. 

it. Yang* a ling'ga suria, i. e. when a Pundita does not shew the k- 
cu"<tomfd nspi'ct to the Raja. 

7. Linuin sfnif/u'ra, i. e. when a jktsou mistakes the roail he oujfht lohe 
]Mit right, and not cha>tised for any tres]>ass he may have ni»ie u&- 

s. Ttinjtin;/ tihnrap hint/ Sf'h, i. e. whoever shall give protection m h:* 
housi' to foniifators or a<hilUTers shall forfeit his ])ro|K'rtv. 

<>. Ti'r/tt ktisilruHg jn'kn, i. e. where the wise or skilU*tl aKsist, with ihrir 
a<!vi<'i', tho'-e who livt- by fraud, when under a ])ro«iecutiim. 

h). Utrinnra mniujun hf/fi, i.e. where a persun concerned in a law-net 
uhiihlius bteii brought forward, io in the habit of absenting himself vhta 
hi" prr^iiiiii is ii'<|uir('d. >iu'li ]i(r»onmu>t }»e awarded guiltv. 


11. Ddndang tmnrdping kdyon, i. e. a person from one place comes and 
lays claim to another : the people of the latter all testify that the claim- 
ant has no right or title to that spot or place. In such case, the said 
claimant will be cast. 

12. Anddka kaidwan widsa, i. e. if a person engaged in a law-suit shall 
abscond, from an apprehension of being cast, it will be even so with him. 

13. Kidang lumdyu at%ng*gal sudra, i. e. every person must be held re- 
sponsible for crimes committed, or wrong done, by any one in their ser- 
vice or employ. 

14. Hanio kdna, i. e. a servant or dependant of one person having com- 
mitted a fault, runs for protection to another, who, when applied to, will 
not give him up. The person who affords such protection, if prosecuted, 
will be cast. 

15. Hang Ung*ga praldya, i. e. a person who does not himself appear 
before the court in his own behalf, but leaves his case to be managed by 
the officers of the court, shall be cast. 

16. Simbar tumrdping s^la, i. e. where the witnesses produced in any 
case are persons unknown, and without any fixed place of residence, the 
party who brings them shall be found guilty, or cast, as the case may be. 


The situation and feelings of those in favour of whom sentence is pro- 
nounced is Tirta prdbu tdru Idta. T(rta signifies water, the qualities of 
which are clearness, and a disposition to proceed straight forward, which 
nothing will check or overcome. Those who are thus like unto water, 
let them be ever so hiunble and poor, shall not fail to be successful in any 
cause in which they may be engaged. The lowly, who are thus success- 
ful, shall have as much cause to rejoice as the rich (prdbu J, who are the 
reverse, shall have to be depressed. The former resemble a stately tree 
(tdru), whose base and roots are great and spreading, with fragrant 
blossoms and many creepers (tdta) to entwine and support it. 


1 . Chandra kalamdkan buda, i. e. the situation or state of one against 
whom sentence has been pronounced, however great he may be, is like 
the moon when obscured by clouds : like her, his countenance is overcast 
and gloomy. 

2. Andmon d^ria, i. e. a person engaged in a law-suit, who shall change 
his outward appearance, shall be cast. 

3. Penchdng'ga anguddna, i. e. if one of the wise shall, for the purpose 
of invalidating the evidence of his adversaries, make any alteration in the 
disposition of his house or premises, he shall, on conviction thereof, be 

4. Anddka penjang*ga amdytmg, i. e. one of the wise who has instituted 
a suit, and becoming himself sick at the time appointed for trial, shall fail 
to make known whether he wishes the business to be settled or postponed, 
shall lose his suit. 

VOL. II. d 


5. Anddka kit {ran, i. e. if «uch party shall fail to appear whrn fvm- 
moned, he will be cast, even Hhould he be otherwise in the ri|{ht. 

C. Ambnli muka amiffantdka, i. e. a person who. taking the law into Lf 
own hands, shall seize the pro{>erty of another, in payment of a debt dn 
to him, shall 1)c held responsible for the same. 

7. Stti tinabUa, i. e. if a person, in search of any thing be hai kafi, 
shall enter a different village to that to which he belongs, withoot ginof 
due notice to the chief thereof, he shall be held responaible for any ait- 
deed which may at the time have been committed, and if any thia^ im- 
portant, he shall be made to pay two-fold. 

8. AngWika mdyay i. e. a person who, being in company with a thief. i»> 
reives a hurt or injury from persons while in the act of apprrhcnduui hxm, 
cannot obtain redress. 

9. Kabrnna pdti^ i. e. a person who accuses another, and in himself the 
more guilty of the two, shall be condemned. 

10. Pdtra laksdna amdng*un satmdta, i. e. a person who, in order to etc 
something which is not his own, shall alter what is written in any pepcr. 
must be condemned. 

1 1 . Kabdli sura, i. e. a person who superadds in court foiiiething whkk 
he urges with \*iolence, shall be condemned. 

12. KiUran mung^gen kdyon, i. e. one person sends another to drsiazki 
|)ayment of a debt which is disavowed, a law-suit ensuing, if he who 
the other to demand payment has no other evidence to produce but i^ 
person, he shall be cast. 

13. Mantra kdckung tdka, i. e. if a person engaged in a law-suit pi^ 
duces, for the second time, 1)efore the court, a paper which, on exanuaa- 
tion, ap])ears to be written in a different hand from what it was befofr, 
although the purport, in both cases, be exactly the same, the penon v^ 
produced such pai>er sludl be cast. 

14. Sangndga amatnungsa tanpa taldwang dmg*aledkam trrka, i. e. a per- 
son, such as a Mdntri or Bopdti, deputes another to act for him in a liv- 
Huit : the person so do])uted has no authority to produce of his hannf 
been so. If the cause is lost, the person who deputed the other caniuc 
bring it forward again. 

15. Knputung*an pikulnn^ i. e. if the i^'itncsses of a person engigfd is a 
law-suit shall leave him and go to his adversary, the former i^Kaii be cisL 

16. Prdja kohdli murdn, i. c. when the circumstances of a case whic^ 
one person brings forward arc contraiUcted by those who ha%*e an oppor- 
tunity of knowing them, the former sliall be condemned. 

17. Bermara amri sari, i. c. if a {lerson to whom another is indebctd 
shall, on the supposition of inability to discharge the debt, procwd M 
seize the pro{)erty of that other, without previously demanding 
of the debt, he shallbe (•a«<t. 

IS. Snna umot amnnuingsa tanwir ring bdga^ i. e. a person in 
rxcet'ds his authority, ougbt to be condemned. 

19. Kniunng lindting'an /H'rwnt, i. c if ])erson whose cause is good, and 
wliosf fvidenco is roinplotc* and satisfactory, shall in.siKt upon 
piini><Iimrnt again>tt his adversarv, he shall he cast. 


20. Oabus boten ng*lem, i. e. when stolen goods are discovered^ the Raja 
ought to cause them to he restored to whom they helong. 

21. Guwdta Samirdna, i. e. those who conceal the wife or children of 
another, ought to he put to death by order of the Raja. 

22. Sulunff alebu dian, i. e. if the relations of one whose guilt is mani- 
fest, shall apply to have the punishment awarded transferred to a substi- 
tute, they shall be condemned. 

23. Apdtra ina perchdyOy i. e. a person obtains permission from the 
Raja so proceed against another, and afterwards, from some consideration, 
neglects to do so, while that other, in the meantime, appears before the 
Raja and declares his innocence of what is alleged against him, stating 
that, if he were guilty, his chief would not have failed to bring him for- 
ward : in such case, the former shall be condemned. 

24. Perwdta brdmantdra, i.e. if a person is found guilty of circulating 
false reports, or of magnifying any piece of intelligence, so as to create a 
great alarm in the country, and put all the people in a ferment, he shall be 
fined four hundred and four thousand. 

ABSTRACT of some of the LAWS which, according to the tradition of 
the Jatans, were in force against the inhabitants, previous to the stqtposed 
arrival ofAji Saka. 

(Collected by Mr. Mioolbkoop.) 


Were administered by repeating certain words after the Priest, accom- 
panied by a motion of the head and body, the hands being folded. 

Were levied according to the following gradations : — 


When a subordinate or petty chief, who had people under him, com- 
mitted a crime, the fine was , 5 

The eldest son of a prince «...•.... •^•••••«h.«*^ 5 

The son of a chief •«••• •• 2| 

A Prince or Raden without employment •••• l\ 

A Menak or Rang*ga holding a public office and transacting (hiblic 

duty ...• • «^«*^ • • 5 

A Menak or Rang'ga restricted from the performance of public duty 1| 

A Menak or Rang'ga who administered a small tract of country • • • • 1 

Children of a chief Rang'ga or Menak • • 2| 

An ambassador (ordinary) of a prince or principal chief 2} 

An ambassador extraordinary • 1) 

Children of the above ^ •.••••••• I 

A male subject 4-. • 1} 

A female subject • .^ ...•• 1 

« The money here alluded to U the coin of Paltnthang, subaequently introduced by Sade» 
PaiaM, in consequence of bii connexion with Paiembang. Rice appears to have been the princi. 
pal medium of exchange previoudy to this period. The pkkii is a small tin coin, of which two 
hundred make a wang^ and twenty.eight toomgt are equal in value to a Spanish dollar. 



Persons having forfeited their right of liberty through 
and thus become dependant upon another, pay fifty piekiM, 

All the above fines might be paid in money, goods, gold, silrer, bona, 
buffaloes, and other necessary articles. 


A free subject having committed a robbery, he was delivered up oa 
detection) to the chief or tribunal of the place to which he belooffvd ; sod 
if unwilling to restore the stolen goods, or unable to pay the value, he m 
to be delivered over to the person whom he had robbed, and made » 
serve him as a bondsman : but no claim whatever was enforced upoo i^ 
wife or children, who did not, on this account, forfeit their liberty. It wv. 
however, lawful to deprive a thief of his life when caught in the art. 

When a robbery was committed by a person in a state of senntnde. the 
proprietor of such person's sen-ices i^i-as bound to pay the value of ibe 
stolen property, or to deliver the person over to the injured party; bu 
on being caught in the fact, and the thief being put to death, the pro- 
prietor was no further liable. 

Robberies haAnng been committed in the day time, were poniiibed br i 
fine or by servitude. 

If one or more stolen buffaloes were killed in or near a village, and ef- 
ficient proof thereof adduced by the owner, the nllage people were roo- 
demned to pay the value of such stolen cattle, unless they produced titf 
thief or thieves. 


A free person who killed a male dependant, ii-as pumshed by a fine af 
two cinil a half t ah 'tis ; one who killed a female dependant was fined time 
and a half tahiU. 

If in an affray between two free persons the one killed the othei, lal 
the offender was seized in the act, he could be put to death by the rt*^ 
tions or friends of the deceased ; but if he succeeded in taking refofie vuk 
the head of a vilLige, he was only liable to a fine of five iakUs if the df- 
cea^ed was a male, and three and a half tahils if a female. 

When a prince, chief, ur ])ctty chief, was murdered by one of hit tab* 
jectK, the party \\n^ punisiied by death, for having killed his superior. 

But a prince or head chief had the right to deprive his ^ulijecu of thnr 
lives whenever he chose, though, when one of their soni*, either a Jfradk, 
Rang^gOt or other ciiief, put to death a free person or dependant, he wm 
bound to pay to the friends or master of the deceased two and a hilf 
tahilsj besides a fine for a male person five, and for a female three ui 
three quarters tah'ih. lliese ])ersons were not liable to be put lo dealk, 
although caught in the fact. 

In ciLse, however, that a jirince or chief caused to be put to death i 
de(KMulant who w:is not guilty of any offence for which he deserved mck 
punishment, the prince or chief was bound to make good half o/ the 
estimated value of the deceased's property, beside being coademiied ts 
servitude, and a fine of ten tahUs. 


Amok being cried, it was lawful for every one to destroy such as ran 
amok ; but in tbe event of its being a false alarm, and any one was killed 
by the crowd, the person that exclaimed amok was liable to be fined. 

In a crowd or assemblage of people, if a dispute ran so high that one 
party was killed in the affiray, and lay dead on the ground, the offending 
party was exempt from fine, but punished by the prince according to the 
circumstances of the case. 

A man having received information that his wife had committed adul- 
tery, was restricted from believing it, even if he was told by credible per- 
sons, unless he found her in the act $ he might then deprive her of life. 
If she escaped, however, and concealed herself among her friends and 
neighbours, it was not lawful to put her to death ; but on complaint being 
made by her husband, she was prosecuted and punished according to the 
circumstances of the case. 

A man found guilty of adultery was liable to a fine of ten tahils, and the 
woman to the same. Being miable to discharge the smn, they were 
transferred to the servitude of another, who was willing to pay the amount 
of the fine, which was then given to the husband of the adulteress. 

An adulteress causing her husband to be put to death was also to suffer 

A man having run away with the wife of another, on her being seized 
by her husband at their abode, both parties could be put to death ; but if 
they were not discovered for a length of time, during which they kept 
themselves quiet and had begotten children, the adulterer was only liable 
to pay, as well for himself as for the woman, a fine of ten takils. He 
was, however, bound to forfeit the half of the children so begotten for 
the benefit of the lawful husband, to whom they were transferred in ser- 

Lawfully married persons wishing to separate from each other, each re- 
took the property brought at the marriage, and an equal division was 
made of what had been gained since the marriage. This included the 
children ; the eldest was always to remain with the mother, the second 
with the father. After the separation on the decease of either, the whole 
effects were to be taken possession of by those children who, at the se- 
paration, had come to the share of the deceased ; but. they were also 
obliged to pay the debts of the deceased, whatever the same might amount 
to. When the number of children was unequal, the odd one was to fall 
to the share of the wife ; but such as were imperfect or deformed wero 
excluded from the division, and maintained by both parties. 




For the Batisfaction of the inhabitants and people of Javm, tb« fol- 
lowing provisionR are made public, in testimony of the nneerr dupon- 
tion of the British government to promote their prosperity and wt]hn. 
The refusal of their late government to treat for their interests, ahboM 
disabled by the events of war from affording them any further procectua. 
has rendered the consequent establishment of the Britiah authonCT im- 
conditional. But an English government does not reqiure the articl.4 of 
a capitulation to impose those duties which are prompted by a sen-e of 
justice and a beneficent disposition. The people of Java are exhorted te 
consider their new connection with England as founded on principles 1/ 
mutual advantage, and to be conducted in a spirit of kindneaa and aftcoea. 
Providence has brought to them a protecting and benevolent gorerB- 
ment ; they will cheerfully perform the reciprocal duties of allegiance lad 

1. His Majesty's subjects in Java will be entitled to the sune gmcfil 
privileges as are enjoyed by the natural-bom subjects of Great Bntan m 
India, subject to such regulations as now exist, or may hereafter be pro- 
vided, respecting residence in any of the Honourable Company's territonet. 

2. They will have the same privilege and freedom of trade to and wnJk 
all countries to the east oi the Cape of Good Hope, and also with Ha 
Majesty's Euroi)ean dominions, as are possessed by natund-bom tabjeea 
of (ireat Britain. 

3. Dutch gentlemen will be eligible to all offices of tnciat, and win enjet 
the confidence of government, according to their respective chancttn. 
conduct, and talents, in common with British-bom tubjecta. 

4. The vexatious system of monopoly, which ia undentood to hne 
heretofore prevailed, in some instances to an oppressive and inconi 
extent, will l)e revised, and a more beneficial and politie principle of 
miniNtration will lie taken into consideration as soon, and to rach 
as full information on the subject can be obtadned, as established 
and habit may ailmit, and as may be consistent with a due regard to the 
health and morals of the ]>eople. 

5. The Dutch laws will remain provisionally in force, under the mo£- 
fications which will l)c hereinafter expressed, until the p l cn aiu e of the 
supreme authorities in England shall l>e known ; and it is concc i Ted thtt 
no miiteriid alteration therein is to l>e apprehended. 

Tho modifications to l)e now adopted are the following: 
TirMt. Neither torture nor mutilation shall make part of any aentcncelo 
1)0 ]>nin(>unced ngiiin<t criminals. 

SeiMMully. When a nritish-l)orn subject is convicted of any oflbnee, no 
piiiiishinent shall he nwaided ii^^ninst him. more severe than woold be 
inllutetl hv the laws of Iji^'laml for the same crime. And in case of dovbi 


concerning the penalty by English law, reference shall be made to the 
Honourable the Recorder of Prince of Wales' Island, whose report shall 
be a sufficient warrant for awarding the penalty stated by him to be agree- 
able to the laws of England. No sentence against any British-bom sub- 
ject, for any crime or misdemeanor, shall be carried into execution, until 
a report shall have been made to the lieutenant-governor. 

Thirdly. No sentence of death against any person whatever shall be 
carried into execution, until report shall have been made to the lieutenant- 

Fourthly. The lieutenant-governor will have the power of remitting, 
moderating, or confirming, all penalties ; excepting inconsiderable fines, 
short imprisonment, or slight corporal punishment. 

Fifthly. British-bom subjects shall be amenable to the jurisdiction of 
the Dutch tribunals, and to the Dutch laws in all cases of civil complaint 
or demands, whether they be plaintifls or defendants. 

Sixthly. All British-bom subjects shall be subject to the regulations of 
police, and to the jurisdiction of the magistrates charged with the execu- 
tion thereof, and with the maintenance of the peace and of public tran- 
quillity and security. 

Seventhly. All persons belonging to or attached to the army, who are 
by their condition subject to military law, shall, for the present, be tried 
for any crimes they may commit only by courts-martial, unless sent by tha 
military authorities to civil courts. 

Eighthly. It being necessary in all countries that a power should exist 
of forming regulations in the nature of legislative provisions, adi^ted to 
change of circumstances, or to meet any emergency that may arise, and the 
great distance of the British authorities in Europe rendering it expedient 
that the said power should, for the present, reside in some accessible 
quarter, it is declared, that the lieutenant-governor shall have fiill power 
and authority to pass such legislative regulations, as, on deliberation, and 
after due consultation and advice, may appear to him indispensably ne- 
cessary, and that they shall have the fiiU force of law. But the same 
shall be immediately reported to the governor-general in council in Bengal, 
together with the lieutenant-governor's reasons for passing the said regu- 
lation, and any representations that may have been submitted to him 
against the same ; and the regulations so passed will be confirmed or dis- 
allowed by the governor-general in council with the shortest possible de- 
lay. The mode in which the lientenant-goveraor shall be assisted with 
advice will hereafter be made known, and such regulations will hereafter 
be framed as may be thought more conducive to the prompt, pure, and 
impartial administration of justice, civil and criminal 

Regulations respecting the paper currency, as well as the relative value 
of coins circulating in Java, will be published in a separate paper of this 

. Done at Molenvliet, the 11th September, 1811. 

By His Excellency the Governor-General of British India. 

(Signed) MINTO. 



A.D. 1814, 



On the Uth of February , 1814, 




The Honourable the Lieutenant Governor in Council bring decpiT 
pressed with the necensity of framinf? one adequate, impartial, and 
sistent code, for the prompt and equitable adminiiilration of justice, in thr 
provincial courts of this island, with a view to ^ve to all rank^ of l*t%^ 
a due knowledf^e of their rif^htH and duties, and to eni^ure to them an ea- 
jo)'ment of the most perfect security of person and property, ha^t bea 
pleased that the folloii^nng regulation be enacted; which, by aitnimmc v 
its basis, rather the ancient usages and institutions of the Jawat, ika 
any new innovations founded on Euroi)ean systems of internal goTcn- 
mcnt, may confidently be ex]>ected to Y)e, at once the moitt pka^ior to 
them, and the l>e<(t ad<iptcd to the existing state of their nociety. 

1. The Resident shall l)e the Chief Judge and Ma^strate in bin di»> 
tric'ts; hut the administration of police and justice, in the towns of Biu- 
vin, Scmrirang, and Surahnyn^ shall, as heretofore, be entnuted to tiv 
particular .Magistrates and other officers appointed by government for 
those ]>laces. 

2. Tlu> Bopntis, or chiefs of districts, and all other public ofllicen. vlw 
may hv R'tained to carry on the duties of this dqwrtment, are pland 
undor the immediate authority and control of the Resident himi«elf. or of 
his I)f|mty »luly I'mpowiTud liy him. These various duties, whether le- 
lati ve or dirort , will he clearly defined in the course of the following sectaoos 

3. To render more easy the attainment of justice, and to carry on brntr 
the ireneral {H)1ire of the country, a subordinate jurisdiction shall be roa- 
Ktitutod in the f(»llowini; manner. 

•t. The Kf^iirlnirv shall he divided into such number of diatricts. a» ei- 
tent of land, pojuibition, former custom, or other circiuni«tance« miT 
reiuler noci'ssary. I^ach of these shall he consigned to the care of a Bep€ti, 
or native chief, witli <ui-h an establishment, as 1»eing deemed by the Resi- 
dent adequate to the puqxise, and by him submitted to government, thiD 
have received their sanctitm. 

.'». These district-!, a -.rain, shall l»e subdivided into dinsions, the 
and limits of eaeli of which will he clearlv marked out and 


Their size must, of course, entirely depend on the greater or less propin- 
quity of the villages they contain, and on the more or less numerous popu- 
lation by which these are inhabited ; but, generally speaking, no division 
shall be less than ten, or more than twenty, square miles in extent. It 
must also be observed, that the limits of the division follow those of the 
villages ; it being quite contrary to a system of good police, that inhabi- 
tants of the same place should be subject to different authorities. 

6. In each division there shall be fixed a station of police, to which 
shall be appointed a competent officer, with such number of inferior 
MdrUris, Peons, &c. as shall be deemed necessary for the execution of the 
various duties allotted to his office, and the due maintenance of the tran- 
quillity of his division. 

7. In each village there shall be a Head-man (whether recognized under 
the name of PenHng*g%, Baked, Ijurah, KutDu, Mandor, or otherwise, ac- 
cording to the custom of the coimtry), to be freely elected by the inhabi- 
tants of the village itself from among themselves ; the only requisites on 
the part of government being, that he actually reside and hold land in it. 
Should any of these be foimd imfit to carry on their respective duties, or 
other good objection arise to their being continued in the posts they hold» 
a representation to such effect will be made by the Resident to the villa- 
gers, who will accordingly proceed to the nomination of some other per- 
son, who, if approved of by the Resident, shall then receive his confirma- 

8. These Head-men shall, in every respect, be considered as the repre- 
sentatives of the villages, and shall be held responsible for all such acts 
committed within them, as fall justly under that controling and preven- 
tive power vested in them by their fellow-inhabitants. 

9. This mode of election and consequent power, it must be observed, 
are no new introductions, but subsist in inunemorial usage, and their 
nature and limits are well imderstood by the Javans throughout the island. 

10. The Heads of villages will receive and carry into execution all such 
orders as government, either directly by the Resident, or through the 
medium of the Bopdtis and officers of divisions, may be pleased to issue 
to them ; and they will furnish, at all times, such oral or written infor- 
mation as may be required from them. 

1 1. The care of the police, in their respective villages, shall be entrusted 
to their charge ; and for the due preservation of peace, the prevention of 
offences, and the discovery and arrest of offenders, they are required to be 
particularly careful that a sufficient night watch be regularly maintained. 
For this purpose they are authorized to require each of the male inhabi- 
tants to take his turn in the performance of this duty ; and, at any time, 
to call on all to aid in the pursuit and apprehension of offenders, or to 
execute generally any of the other duties that may occur. 

12. The Heads of villages will also be held responsible for the amount 
of all property belonging to travellers, which may be lost within their 
villages, provided, however, that the same shall have been placed under 


their chaige ; and they are required to take chaige of dl tnrclkn' pro- 
perty which may be brought to them for that porpoae. 

13. They are directed to keep a reguter of all penona under thdr 
authority, describing the name, age, country, occupatkm, siae, and 
ance of each mdividual, with any other remarks that may be 
cessary. They will also, with the assistance of the Tillage pviest. Conn a 
register of the births, marriages, and deaths, which oocnr within their 

14. These will be drawn up every six months, according to fonna to ba 
furnished to them by the Resident. A copy of each will be ratained intht 
\nllage, and another will be forwarded to the police officer of the 
to be kept by him as records, and to furnish the grounds of andi 
as he may be called on to give in. 

15. Whenever a stranger arrives for the purpose of settling in a ▼iUagit 
or any one of its former inhabitants absconds, the head of it ia required to 
fumi»h immediately to the officer of the division a detailed account of ths 
IKirticidara relative to either circumstance, who will accordingly take sock 
measures for the apprehension or pursuit of either, or forward audi intei" 
ligcnce to his superiors, as the case may require. 

16. Any person producing the express permission of the 
1)e allowed to settle in a \nllage ; but without this, or unleoa ho 
cure two rei«]>cctable inhabitants to become securities for his good 
viour, he Khali not be ]>ennitted to do so. 

17- Ah u'cU heads of villages as officers of divisions are required to kaqp 
a watchful eye u|>on all new settlers, to ascertain, if possible, their 
characters, from their former places of abode ; and to observe, 
ticiilarly, the conduct of such individuals as have no ostensible ncnna af 
earning a livelihood. They will, too, follow vigilantly the motioiM of 
armed persons, preventing them, as much as they can, from tiavdlim 
together in large Ixidies ; and, as far as may be practicable, they o^gkl 
to hinder individuals of ever)' description, but most especially such aa an 
armed with s|)ears, swords, &c. from travelling at all after eight o'clock M 

18. After this hour they are authorised to stop, and detain in their co^ 
tody till the next morning, all such {lersons as may, by having with thca 
more than usual property, or in any other way, justly give groomk for 
suHpicion. But on a summary examination, should nothing further a^ 
pear against them, they must, on no account, keep them detained bfjrnnd 
eight o'clock the next morning ; nor ought detention at all to take piK*, 
if the account they first give of themselves be deemed satisfactory. 

19- Should any thing fiuther aiifwar against them by complaint or ntlwr 
wine, they will then lie proceeded with as with other accused peraona, re- 
lative to whom directicHis will lie given in a subsequent Hection. 

•20. In the aliove case only, it is competent to the officers of police to 
apprehend any |H*n(on of their oti-n authority, unless detected in the actudi 
perpetration of criuK* ; or t«t releaM.* any |>erM>n once apprrhen«lrfl. 


21. It having been represented, that though when the inhabitants are 
settled in one place, in habitations contiguous to each other, the duty of 
the head of a village becomes easy of execution, yet that it is extremely 
difficult for him to perform it adequately, when, from caprice or other 
cause, any of its members are allowed to leave the main part, or d^, to 
go and reside in lonely and remote spots, forming thereby small settle^ 
ments of two or three cottages only together, termed dukus, which being 
necessarily, from their distance, without the guard of night watches, &c. 
must frequently become liable to be attacked and plundered, or more often, 
perhaps, from the absence of all controul, will themselves form the resort 
and shelter of robbers and other abandoned characters ; and, on the other 
hand, it not being wished to repress too much this outsettling, as by the 
creation of new villages (which must owe their formation to such small 
beginnings), a great part of the land, at present waste, may be brought 
into cultivation ; it is ordered, that the following be the line of conduct to 
be observed in these cases. 

22. The head of a village shall, in every instance, report to the officer 
of division when such an out-settlement takes place ; who shall then pro- 
ceed to the spot, and forming a committee of three heads of villages (not 
to include the one in which the ciroumstance occurred) shall judge whether 
or not it be expedient, for the benefit of agriculture, to permit its continu« 
ance, and measures shall be taken accordingly. If the new settlement be 
allowed to remain, a vigilant eye must be kept over its infant state, both 
by the officer of division and head of the neighbouring village ; and when 
it shall have grown to a size that may admit of this, it ought to be sepa* 
rated from the authority of the mother village, and a similar constitution 
be bestowed on it. 

23. It is the duty of heads of villages, generally, to preserve tranquillity, 
as far as their authority extends, to obey zealously the orders of their su» 
periors, to furnish every useful information, and, in short, to contribute 
all in their power to the establishment and preservation of a good state of 

24. Their rewards for this will be a certain portion of land in each yil« 
lage, and the favouring eye and protection of government. 

25. The police officers of divisions are to be considered as immediately 
under the authority of the Bopdtis. Hiey will furnish to these all such 
accounts, reports, &c. as may be required, and will act always on the 
orders received from them, or, of course, directly from the Resident him* 

26. To the Bopdtis, or chiefs of districts, they will forward every six 
months abstract accounts of births, marriages, and deaths which have 
occurred in their division, and of the general state of cultivation and 
population, with such remarks accompanying them as may seem requisite. 

27. Of these and other papers forms will be furnished them, and they 
will prepare them from the general account obtained from heads of villages, 
whom they will, at any time, require to supply them with such further in- 
formation as may be deemed necessary. 



28. On every Saturday they will give in to the BepM, or chief uf the 
district, a detailed statement of the occamncea of the preceding week, :1m 
crimes committed, offenders apprehended, number of new eettlerv. tbflr 
employment, from whence arrived, what individuals hare emiirnaed. 
causes of emigration, and, in short, whate^'er has h^pened out of the 
common track of occurrences. 

29- The officers of divisions shall he held responsible for the doe ad- 
ministration of the police ifiithin their respective jurisdictions; and U 
enable them better to execute their assigned duties, the heads of riBiem 
are placed immediately under their authority. They shall accordinclr be 
watchful that these vigilantly and zealously perform such services a^ nor 
be allotted to their situation ; and they shall report fully to the fiopiri of 
the district, on the conduct of any heads of idllages who may prove nrgleet- 
ful of their charge, or in any way appear remiss in the execution of \ht 
duties entrusted to them. 

30. lliey shall, on no account, exert their police authority in any onine 
interference with the collection of the revenues, thai beini^ conj^iJ^ivii i 
distinct de])artment, to which they will only render their a.4i!si^tancv but 
called upon under the distinct mien laid down in another Re»nilatii»n f.< 
the guidance of their conduct in it ; liere only it is conHiderpii th^: iue^ 
are to lend their aid at such times, and in such manner, as mav \»t ei- 
prcssly pointed out to them in orders from their superiors. But tbtr an 
at all times, on a regular application being made to them by the ini^r^x 
officers of revenue, to take charge of, and give effectual esicort to, t.'v&«-jrv 
passiii<( from or throui^h their divisions ; and after receipt of the «a.«ar. 
they will be held responsible for it until such treasure shall have beea bj 
them delivered to the next constituted authority. 

31 . The peons, and other inferior ser\'ants attached to their office^, fhill. 
of course, be employed in the serving summonses, apprehending uffi-oJcn. 
giving escort, and in other re^rular duties ; but when not in any wa} ih'Ji 
enframed, they shall, as leisure admits, be sent to make the rounds uf thr 
division ; acquiring, by this means, not only comi>etent information U 
all that is transacted within it, but 8er\'ing also, by this occaational and 
uncertain visitation, materially to prevent the imdertaking of nefanuas 

32. As l)efore obserwd, the officers of di\i$ions, and those sulxirdmait 
to them, shall only, of their own authority, ap])rehend such persons a* are 
taken actually in the commission of crime. They are never empowered to 
seize others (witli the exce])tion of those mentioned in Section H of thxi 
Regulation) but when a written ordi-r for that puqwisc has been received 
from their superiors, or when a re^ilar char*;e of an original nature hai 
been given in ag.-iinst theiu by any rosi>ecia])le individual. 

33. In the<ie ca<es, they will take suitable ineasun*s for the apprehensidi 
and securing of the persons complained of ; and when once appreheadfd, 
they will, on no account of their own authority, Bf^ain liberate them. 

34 Should the )u'r»'t>n'« havi- bi vn v,, arro'^ted in coii<iH|uence of onfcn 
iiOi'i\i'(l lo thiit efVcii. the officer's of divisions will, in forwarding then 10 


their destinations, be careful to observe such instructions as they may hare 
received on the subject. 

35. But should the prisoners have been apprehended on complaints, or 
other proceedings originating in the division itself, they will, on their 
arrival at the police station, cause to be written a clear and summary state- 
ment of the offence alleged, and of the facts in the case which have come 
under their observation, whether witnessed by themselves^ or borne testi- 
mony to by any persons present. 

36. They will then, with this statement accompanying, forward under 
a sufficient guard the prisoner or prisoners, together with the persons com- 
plaining or aggrieved, and the witnesses of the facts, towards the chief 
town of the district where the Bopdti resides. 

37. Under no pretence whatsoever, shall any persons be detained at the 
police station longer than twenty-four hours after their arrest. 

38. Should the division in which the arrest has taken place be not that 
in which the chief town of the district is situated, the officers of it shall 
make over the charge of persons and papers to the police officers of the 
division next in the way ; and, in similar manner, they shall be forwarded 
on from station to station, to the chief town of the district, or from thence 
to the principal seat of the residency. 

39- In this transmission, the officers of divisions will take particular 
care that as little delay as possible occur ; any lumecessary infringement on 
the personal hberty of the subject, being that of which this government 
will ever be most jealous. 

40. Whenever a human body is found dead, of which it is not certainly 
known that the death was natural, or even though such illness precede it 
as might be considered as possibly the cause, should any suspicious cir- 
cumstances or appearances attend the death, it will become the duty of the 
head of the village in which this may occur, to take cognizance of the 
fact ; and ordering it so that every thing remain in the state first foimd, he 
shall report the circimistances, without delay, to the officer of the divi- 
sion, who will immediately appoint a commission of three heads of viU 
lages, assisted by himself or officers, to proceed to the actual spot where 
the body lies, and there make due inquiry into every particular that may 
8er\'e to elucidate the affair. For this purpose, such evidence will be taken 
as may, in any way, be thought to bear on the subject. 

41. When the investigation is completed, the persons appointed for the 
inquest shall deliver to the officer of division a statement of what they have 
done, seen, or heard, and annex to it the opinion they have finally formed 
of the manner of death, or degree of guilt any where attaching. 

42. The officer of division shall forward this statement, without delay, 
to the superior authorities ; from whom, in return, he wiU receive in- 

43. But should any degree of guilt be imputed, in the opinion expressed 
by the commissioners acting on this inquest, the officer of division shall, 
without loss of time, proceed to apprehend the suspected person or per- 


ssons, and take such other measures upon that opinion, as he would, baa i 
complaint to the same effect heen regularly lodged. 

44. As it is most necessary that the cultivators of the soil, and o:ber 
industrious inliabitants of a village, should not, on every fri%*olou9 jr 
inconsiderable occasion, be taken away from their labours to aftrod a d;t- 
tant seat of justice, where, even though it be more equitably and xnzfar- 
tially administered, the benefit of this is, in many cases, quite cwizna- 
bahmced by the loss of time and expenses of the journey and suit, — it m 
ordered, that there be a subordinate jurisdiction constituted, by mean* €4 
which the distribution of justice will be rendered far more ea^ to tbe 
governing power, and the acquisition of redress will be presented to trerr 
one aggrieved, with the greatest facility, and the least possible expenw of 
money or time. 

45. The heads of villages are required to look on themselves, and to irc 
with regard to the persons under their controul, as fathers of familw* : m 
maintain, to the extent of their power, a spirit of harmony and tianquilLir 
in the villages entrusted to them ; to curb every approach to fend and l:n- 
gation ; and, with the aid of their officers, to interpose their autbonty la 
settling, with justice and impartiality, all such petty quarrels as may iruc 
among the inhabitants. 

46. Should, however, the dispute be of sufficient magnitude to entxile .: 
to higher consideration, courts are regularly established to viiich it mr 
be referred. 

47. The officers of division shall, at least once a week, or oftener, aitcnl 
in some o|)en place at the station of police, with their Maa/rir, or other 
subordinate ser\'ants, for the purpose of inquiring into and deciding od aO 
such complaints as may be given in to them, for petty offences committed 
within their divisions, as abusive language and inconsiderable atrsiiln or 

48. These, if satisfactorily proved, they shall be authorized to ponitk, 
by fine not exceeding ten ni|iees, of which fine the one-half shall be givta 
to the individual or individuals aggrieved, the other be carried to the v- 
count of government. 

49. They shall also l>e emi>owered to hear and determine on all fork 
I>etty civil cases as may l)e referred to them, provided the amount at usoe 
exceed not the sum of twenty rupees. 

50. And further, they shall investigate the trifling disputes that may be 
brought before them about tres|)ass, nuisance, the irregular distribution sf 
\i'ater, encroachment on boundaries, and other such minor gricvmres sf 
usiKil oci'urrcnce in villages. 

51. Whether civil or criminal, they shall not, in any case, be authorised 
to am'st or imprison. 

52. Hut the compluint having l»een given in, the person complained of. 
if not ])resent, shall Im* summoned to appear by the next day of sittiiy , 
when the cause shiiU be heard and derided on without delay. In fiuhue 
of attendance on the ]>art of the plaintiff, the case sludl be dismisMd; on 


the part of the defendent, the cause shall be proceeded vriih ex parte. The 
sentence, whatever it may be, shall be carried into execution, by means of 
the authority vested in the heads of villages. 

53. Should any persons refuse to obey their award, they shall be com- 
mitted for trial before the Resident, who will not only cause the original 
sentence to be carried into execution, but, at his discretion, order a punish- 
ment suited to their contumacy. 

54. An appeal may be made in the usual manner, in civil cases, from 
the officer of the Division's Court to that of the BopdH at the chief town 
of the district ; and any complaint for imjust or arbitrary proceeding, on 
the part of the subordinate police officers, will likewise be received there. 

55. Of every proceeding of this court a regular record shall be kept ; 
one copy to remain at the police station, and another to be forwarded to 
the chief of the district. 

56. A fee of half a rupee from each party shall be levied prior to hearing 
the cause, to be divided among the officers of police ; and ten per cent on 
the amount of the sentence in civil cases is, according to the custom of the 
coimtry, to be taken from the loser of the suit, to be carried to the account 
of government. 

57' The officers of divisions will be held fully responsible for a xealous 
and conscientious discharge of the important duties entrusted to them, 
and shall meet with exemplary punishment, in the case of any negligence 
or corruption being established against them. 

58. To the Bopdtis, or heads of districts, is consigned the general super- 
intendance and care of theur respective districts. But as these high 
officers must frequently be required to attend at the place where the Resi- 
dent himself lives, that their districts may not sufier any inconvenience 
from their absence, they are empowered to delegate their fiill authority to 
their deputies, or Pdteks, who shall preside in their courts, and issue and 
receive orders, in every respect, like themselves. 

59. They shall, every six months, furnish to the Resident abstract ac« 
counts of the state of cultivation and population within their districts, 
according to forms which will be given to them, and accompanied with 
such remarks as may suggest themselves. 

60. On every Monday morning they shall deliver to the Resident a de« 
tailed statement of the proceedings of the foregoing week, containing an 
account of new settlers, persons emigrated, offences comnutted, offenders 
apprehended, and in short, of every thing remarkable. 

61. The heads of districts shall receive all orders directly frmn the Resi- 
dent, and take due measures for carrying them into inmiediate execution. 
The officers of divisions, heads of villages, and all other police servants 
within the district, are placed immediately under their control ; and they 
will most vigilantly watch over the conduct of them, reporting instantly 
to the Resident every instance of negligence or crime that may fall under 
their observation. 

62. They will be open to receive complaints or petitions of every de- 


scription; reporting and issuing the neccflsaiy ordem on tbcm v;tbv«: 

63. In forwarding persons apprehended within their districts to the tec 
of the residency, they will be particularly careful that the least pncx.ab^ 
delay occur ; no prisoner, on any account, being detained by ihcni, U 
their own authority, for a longer space of time than twenty-four bvun 

64. In forwarding persons, papers, or treasure, they ivill obscne tht 
mode prescribed in Section 38 of this Regulation. 

65. On the receipt of an inquest report from the officers of dxvi«i«>n«. n 
shall be submitted to the chief Jdk^a and Pamgkmlu of the district iut iusi 
opinion, and on this opinion the necessary measures shall be taken. 

66. At the chief town of each district a regular court shall \k f*u- 
blished, in which the Bopdti or, in his absence, the Pdtek^ shall prt>>v. 
assisted by the Jdksa, Panffkuiu, and other law officers a{>pointed. 

67' 'lliis court shall be held in some open spot in the town, n jeifi 
twice a week, or oftener, if necessary. 

68. Its authority shall, however, be confined entirely to ci\*il nux:;r«. 
all cognizance of criminal, beyond that already allotted to trx .i- 
ficers of divisions, being vested solely in the court where the Resulect '* -g - 
self presides. 

69. In the BopdtVs court shall be received appeals from thoK *}'. \u 
officers of divisions, on institution of which the appellants shall pay a itt 
of one rupee. 

70. Before deciding on these causes, the record of the former trial *'-^' 
be read, and sucli new evidence taken as may be produced. 

71. If the former sentence be reversed, the co.its which shall hare bna 
kept in deposit shall be refunded to the appellant, and levied from the v>!hfr 

72. And in confirming it, an enhancement of these costs is \th to t&e 
discretion of the court ; provided, however, the whole ne%-er exceed fiiicrt 
per cent, on the sum originally sued for. 

73. A second api^al to any other authority shall, in no instance, be per* 

74. 'llic Eopnti's court shall l)e comi>etent to receive complaints in c:ru 
cases, where the amount at issue is not less than twenty, nor exceeds BfiT, 

73. This complaint lieing filed, a copy of it shall be sent to the ^no^ 
complained of, with an order to answer it at most within a week ; and, no 
receipt of this answer, notice shall l)e given on wlut day (at farthert a 
week from the lime of the reeeipl; the caii^^e will be tried. Such 
as are necessary will lie suinmoiietl ; and, on the day prescrilwd, the 
plaint and answer being nad, and evidence being taken, the court thall 
give its decision. 

76. In failure of the complainant*s apiiearance, the cause shall be di#- 
Uli•i^ed ; anil on the part of the ilefeiitlant, if he give not in his answer M 
rn|uired, or ap]H\ir not when summoned, the case shall be proceeded with, 
and sentence given on ex parte cvi<ience. 


*!*!, The Bopdii, or his deputy, shall require the Jdksa and Pa$tffhulu to 
assist him with their advice throughout the trial, and to expound the law 
where it is not sufficiently clear. Should their opinions concur with that 
of the president of the court, he shall pass his decision, and carry it into 
execution without further delay ; but when their opinions are at variance 
with his, he shall, previously to pronouncing sentence, refer the case, with 
the several reasons detailed which have influenced each opinion, to the 
Resident, who shall consult with the chief Jdksa and Panghulu of the resi- 
dency, and return his orders on the subject. 

78. A fee of one rupee shall be taken from each party, on giving in the 
complaint and answer ; and ten per cent, on the amount of the sentence 
shall be levied from the loser of the suit. The fees to be divided among 
the officers of the court, and the costs to be carried to the accoimt of 

79. All proceedings are to be carefully noted down, and preserved as 
records. One copy to be kept in the archives of the Bcpdti, and another 
to be forwarded to the Resident. 

80. An appeal, in causes originating in this court, shall lie to that of the 
Resident ; provided notice of the appeal being intended to be made, be g^ven 
in on the day of trial, and the appeal itself be made within a week after. 

81. In this case the costs shall, nevertheless, be immediately levied, and 
held in deposit till the appeal be decided on. Sufficient security shall also 
be given for the amount of the sentence. 

82. Moreover, on the first institution of all civil cases, in this and every 
other court, good security must be taken for the amount of possible costs, 
both from the complainant and person complained of. 

83. The Bopdti will be held responsible for the faithful and just dis- 
charge of these his high duties. To him does government look, not only 
for the vigilant administration of poUce, and impartial distribution of jus- 
tice throughout his district, but for the zealous execution of every mea- 
sure that can at all conduce to the preserving that district in a flourishing 
and happy state. 

84. The duties attached to the office of Resident itself are fiilly explained 
in the general instructions given to that officer on his first entering into 
his situation. In this regulation only such parts of the charge committed 
to him will be dwelled on, as belong properly to the judicial department of 
his service, to his dehberative and executive powers as chief judge and 
magistrate of the province. 

85. As, however, the due exertion of these powers may require a much 
larger portion of time than can be possibly devoted to them by a single 
individual, and more particularly, as much of his attention must be 
directed to other objects, he is empowered to delegate their fiill participa- 
tion to his deputy or assistant, whether in presiding in his court, or in 
issuing and receiving such orders and instructioiis as the govenunent of 
his residency may render necessary. 

BQ. The several Residents, and their deputies or assistants, previously to 
entering upon the execution of the duties of their office, shall take and 
VOL. II. e 



subscribe the following oatb before the Ilonourmble the LieQtcnant-r< 'per- 
nor in Council, or such ]>erson as he may appoint to administer the Mznr. 
•< ly _^ — , solemnly swear that I will truly and faithfully eircou 
" the dutiesi of my office ; that I will administer justice to the be»t of xay 
*' ability, knowledge, and judgment, without fear, favour* pronii«r. or hupt 
" of rewanl ; and that I will not receive, directly or indirectly, any yn- 
** sent, either in money or in effects of any kind, from any party m icy 
suit or prosecution, or from any |)er8on whomsoever, on account of lay 
suit, prosecution, or other legal proceeding to be instituted, or m'tuA 
** may be de])ending, or have been decided, in any court under mr 'j\sr^ 
" diction ; nur will I, directly or indirectly, derive any profiu from xar 
" station, excei)t such as the orders of government do or may authomc at 
" to receive. — So help me God." 

87. The presidents of other subordinate courts shall take and nibfrnbe 
before the Resident, oaths of a similar nature and form, to be adnunisCcRd 
by the priests, accordinf; to the custom of the country. 

88. The Jdksas and Pamjhulus shall like^-ise be required to take lad 
subscribe an oath in the following form : 

"I, , Jdksa (or Panghulu)^ do solemnly swear, that 1 m-iU £utk- 

'* fully execute the office entrusted to me ; I will answer truly to ihequei- 
" tions put to me in exiting, or liy wonl of mouth, by any judge of Uw 
" courts to which I belong, declaring or writing down freely, without iam 
'* or ]>artiality, what is the written acknowledged law or local lone e<a- 
" bhshetl usage ; and 1 will declare or give in writing nothing that li noc 
" warranted by the law or custom. And 1 promise and s«'ear not to ar* 
" cept of any consideration, in money or otherwise, for any opmioB or 
'* declaration of the law or custom I may deliver, as Jdksa (or Pamykmk 
'* of any court" 

89. In the sixth clause of the Proclamation by government, dated 31« 
January, 1812, provisicm was made for the establishment of a LandrMi'i 
court ; but, in the present state of circumstances, government deeming tt 
advisal)le that a considerable extension of the [loweni vested in thai com 
shouhl be gi\'cn, for the more prom])t and effectual ailministratJon of jaft- 
tice, it is ordered, that the following si'Ctions be considered as an enlarf^ 
ment and modification of that clause, and that in lieu of the landraad thetv^ 
in appointed, there Ik* constituted a court, to be in future called the R^ 

(j<). This court shall he comjiosed in the following manner. The R^ 
sident or his a*i^istant shall sit in it as sole judge or magistrate. The 
Bopdtis of the sevend districts, or their deputies, shall attend to aasisC tht 
Resident, thr<Mi;rh every stage of the ])roceedings, with their 
with such inforinatitm as he may n*(|uire. The head Joibsa and 
shall he in waiting to expound, where neces«ar}', the lam-, to state the k>* 
cal usai^e, and to take down notes of the evidence. The Jdksa of tlal 
(li^itrict in which any crime has hccn committed, shall he the public proses 
cut or. where no private one A|>pear4. The other native officers i4iaD be 
buch a< have been u-rd heretr>fi»re to c<»mpose courts of thi^ nature. 



91. This court shall he held at least twice in every week, or oftener if 
necessary, in the Passerban, or Residency public court-room, for the pur- 
pose of hearing complaints of every description that may be brought be- 
fore it, of examining into all offences reported to have been committed, 
and trying all causes, whether civil or criminal, that occur in the Resi- 
dency ; with the exception only of those that will, in a subsequent section, 
be pointed out, as belonging to another and higher authority, the Court of 

92. The court shall be held open from the hour of ten in the fore to that 
of three in the afternoon. 

93. For greater precision, the court days may be fixed to the Monday 
and Thiu^day of every week. It is, however, left to the Resident to alter 
these days of sitting, whenever he may deem that there is sufficient reason 
for so doing, observing, in such cases, to give public notice of the in- 
tended change at least one court day preceding it. 

94. The chief Jdska, who wiU have the custody of all persons apprehended 
and brought into the town imtil regularly committed to gaol, shall imme- 
diately, on opening the court, present to the Resident a list of such 
prisoners as have been confided to his care since the last court day, stating 
from whence they came, what the nature of the offence alleged against 
them, the names of the witnesses brought to prove it, and other necessary 
information connected with their apprehension. 

95. The Resident shall then commence on the investigation of the cases, 
ordering in each that the report of the officer of division, and original com- 
plaint, be fu^t read, and proceeding afterwards to the examination of the 

96. Should it appear to the Resident that there is not sufficient evidence 
against the accused, and should the complainant not be able to adduce any 
further, the prisoner shall be immediately released out of custody. 

97. But should the complainant state that he can produce more wit* 
nesses, he shall be required to enter into a penalty-bond for their appear- 
ance on a given day (that day to be as little distant as possible, nor, if 
practicable, to exceed a week from the time of this first examination), aind 
the prisoner shall, in this case, be admitted to bail, provided the offence be 
of a bailable nature. 

98. If the offence charged against him be one that does not admit of 
bail being taken, the Resident shall sign a warrant to the gaoler, to receive 
and hold him in safe custody until he shall be dischai^ged by due course of 

99. On the second examination, should the innocence of tlie piisoner 
appear sufficiently clear, he shall be forthwith released ; but should, on 
either the first or second day of inquiry, such presumption of guilt be 
established, as to render necessary a regular trial, the prisoner shall stand 
fully committed for it, and be remanded to gaol, there to remain until that 
day of trial arrive. 

100. If the crime imputed to him be murder, treason, gang-robbery, or 
any other for which the sentence may amount to death, the Resident shall 

e 2 


not himself proceed further in the cate» but commit him to prison, tn tak« 
his trial before the Court of Circuit, of which more shall be tani a 

101. Should the offence with which he is charged be one of any k 
magnitude than capital, the Resident shall, in ordering him to jail, nr^idy 
to the prisoner on what day his trial shall come on before himself. THae 
day must not, without some good and sufficient reason, to be reptfr^ w 
government, exceed the distance of a week from the day of hi* cumzx^ 
ment to prison. 

102. On the day of trial, the prisoner being brought up, the fonzifr 7r> 
ceedings shall be read, and the witnesses again examined, and •m-'r. fa- 
ther evidence, on the part of the prosecution, be taken a* may be nece-t^rr 
The prisoner shall then l>e called on for his defence, and the vitnctwt 
adduced by him be he<ird and examined. 

103. Tlie Resident shall finally sum up the evidence, and fttat:r«2 t^ 
reasons that have influenced his opinion, and the law of the ca.*^. pro- 
nounce sentence accordingly. 

104. In these, and all other ca^es, whether civil or criminal, which r-<ae 
before him, the Resident shall be guided in his deciaionn by the tiKJ^ 
native laws, and ancient customs of the island ; provide«l the tame }k a«.t 
decidedly at variance with the universal and acknowledged priJDc;jar^ j( 
natural justice. 

105. In every instance where the opinions of the Pamgkmim and Jcijs 
are in accord with the judgment of the Resident, and in «'hich the pcn^i^ 
ment fixed to the crime does not amount to imprisonment or tran4p<.^ruLK« 
for life, the sentence of the Resident shall bo final, and be immcdi^iclv 
carried into executicm. 

10(3. Rut whenever the opinions of the PaHghulu andJaksa ihall b« ^ 
opposition to that of the Resident, or in which the punishment of tbc 
crime shall amount to imprisonment or transportation for Life, all the p^ 
ceedings shall be immediately transmittetl to government, with the Ken- 
dent's statement of the reascms and regulations on which he ha# ffraed 
his ()i)inion ; hut he shall delay the pronouncing sentence, until the ap- 
proval of the Honourable the LieutenanU<iovemor shall ha%*e been o^ 

107. In all cases whatever of trial Ix'fore this court, the Resident #hall 
tran«iniit to government, in Knglish, a statement of the oflfenre chanev^ 
against the prisoner, the substance of the evidence on the prosecution aai 
defence, the law of the ca»«e as it exists in the regulations of govemnics:. 
or in the written or customary laws of the island, and the particular m> 
son on which he has fonned his own o)iinion. llie Jdksa and Paagkmk 
arc recpiired to take notes of the evidence, and to state their r w pectTt 
opinions o\\ the ca^e in the vemacuLir language ; which documccU 
si^niecl hv them, shall hi* tran<mitte<i to irovemmenl by the Resident, l»- 
gfthcr uilh lu> own •st:iteinent of the ea>e. 

lOS Thr civil juri'Jiliction of this lourt "ihall be constituted as foIlo«« 

1(>1^ It hhall he competent to reiei\e original complaints of ercrrik- 


■cription, and to try such appeals as may be made to it from the decisions 
of the BopdtVs court. 

110. (hi receipt of this complaint, if the amount at issue exceed not 
twenty rupees, the Resident, at his pleasure, may refer it to be inquired 
into and tried by the court of the officer of the division in which the 
matter complained of occurred ; or should the amount be not above fifty 
rupees, he may make it over to the authority of the Bopdti's court of that 
district in which the subject at issue has originated. But all complaints 
which concern a sum of money exceeding this, must be tried only by the 
Resident's court. 

111. It is also competent to this court alone to take cognizance of any 
suits, however trivial the amount at issue, which may be considered as 
involving in them any of the rights of government. 

112. In trying appeals from the BopdtVs courts, after reading the pro- 
ceedings on the former trial, and re-examining such old, or hearing such 
new evidence as may be adduced, the judgment which shall then be passed 
shall be considered as final. 

113. In reversing the former decree, the appellant shall have refunded 
to him the costs which have been kept in deposit, and these shall be then 
levied from the other party ; but if confirming the former judgment, it 
shall be left to the discretion of the Resident to enhance those costs as he 
may think fit : provided, however, that the whole sum do not exceed 
fifteen per cent, on the amount of the sentence. 

114. The appellant, on the institution of the suit, shall pay such fees as 
are customary in the institution of original suits ; but the other party 
shall not be charged with any fees whatever. 

115. When an original complaint is given in, it shall be filed, on a fee 
of one rupee being paid, and sufficient security given for the possiblo 
amount of costs. 

116. A copy of this shall then be sent to the person or persons com- 
plained of, who shall be required, within a certain given time, not to ex- 
ceed a fortnight, to send in the answer ; at which time they will also pay 
a fee of one rupee, and give good security for the amount of possible costs. 

117. On receipt of this reply, a day shall be appointed for the trial of 
the cause, notice of which shall be given to each of the parties ; and both 
they and such others, witnesses or accessaries, as may be necessary, shall 
be smnmoned to attend on that day. The cause shall then come to a 
regular hearing, and be decided on, according to the mode already laid 
down for the inferior courts. 

118. On the decision of the suit, a fee of two rupees from the gainer, 
and of one from the loser of it, shall be received ; and cost*, at the rate 
of ten per cent, on the amount of the sentence, being the custom of the 
country, shall be levied from the party against whom the decision has 
been g^ven. 

119. In all causes originating in the Resident's court, an appeal shall be 
permitted to the Honourable the Lieutenant-Governor; provided that 
notice of such intention be given on the day of trial, that the costs be 


lodged in court, and sufficient security oflfered for the amount of the 
tence, or that amount be paid in, to be kept in deposit until the ftppoi 
shall have been determined on. 

120. AppeaLs from the Resident's decisions are limited to the rpact d 
one month from the day of trial. 

121. Tlie Honourable the Lieutenant-governor will, of conrte. ^iitr 
due investigation, alter, reverse, or confirm the former sentence, «iib it- 
mission or enhancement of costs, as to him shall seem best. 

122. W'henever the two parties in a civil suit, in any stage of it prrriow 
to the decree, shall give in to any of the courts an agreement fum-vi bj 
both, stating that tliey are willing that all further judicial proceedisff :a 
the case be dropped, as being satisfied with what has already paMcni. or 
mutually content to settle whatever further is requisite between themwlTn. 
or by the arbitration of friends, the court shsdl place this paper amov 
their records, and cause the proceedings in such suit to be immedascij 

123. In these ca«es, half costs, or five per cent, only on the imocni of 
the suit, shall be levied. Of this the two parties shall pay an equal «birr. 
or two and a half per cent each, with a fee also of a rupee each to im 

124. All fees wDl be divided among the officers of the coun, inJ lu 
costs be carried to the account of government, for the purpof*e of drfni* 
ing the exi)ensi's to which they are put in the establishment of thcrw raartfc 

125. The same attention sliall be paid to the opinions of the JaUm ifri 
Panghulu in civil a.«( in criminal cases ; namely, that when at variance viu 
that of the Ilosidcnt, reference Khali be made to the Honourable the Lva- 
tenant-(iovern(>r, aocom])anied by the detailed statements, and the dccMoa 
only carried into execution when his instructions, in reply, shall have beet 

126. A record of each trial shall l>e ke]>t in the archive* of the coort. 
consisting of the original complaint, the reply to it, a statement of rJut 
]>roceedings that ensued, and the judge*s final decision. 

127. ( 'oi)ies of any of ihe-^e shall lie glren to any one who may appW far 
them, on the payment of half a nipee for each paper. 

12s. Reiristcr^ shall be framed from these records, one in English lad 
(»nc in the verna<"ular lani;ua;^e (iif course sei>arate ones for ci*-il and 
minal matter^;, stating the eharge**, names of parties, of witneMe«. 
of evidence, sentence i)assed, ^c. aeconling to forms to lie fumisilKdtotfe 
Ilesident ; and of these, one copy shall Ik* kept in tlie court, and anochor 
shall be transmitted, Ik'fore the 5th of every month, to the Hunouralilethe 
Lieutenant -irovernor. 

129. A reirister shall aKo he framed, and sent at the same time, of aD 
persons ajiprehentled, hut afterwanK released, stating their name#. cnnMi 
imputed to them, nature of evidence for and against, and reasons for if^ 
ha^in^r them. 

i:V). (Quarterly reports shall like\vi«-e ]>o furnished by theRe»id«tef 
tl\e ueneial ^tate i>f the district- entnistcd to hi?« care; and e^err sx 


months abstract accounts must be forwarded of the increase or decrease of 
popidation, the general condition of the cultivation, number of new settlers 
and persons emigrated, and generally of whatever relates to the details of 
his administration, with such remarks and comments as he may deem 

131. In summoning persons to attend his court, he shall have a certain 
regard to the loss or inconvenience those persons may sustain in being 
taken away from their usual employments or duties. The cultivator of 
the soil, in particular, is not unnecessarily to be brought from his fields ; 
and, in many cases, a slight delay of trial may be better than causing the 
industrious inhabitant to lose the fruits of his labour by attendance at 
court, when harvest, or other rural duty, demands his presence and entire 
attention. This, however, is an evil that cannot always be guarded 
against ; but it ought to be so, to the extent of the Resident's power, and 
as far as the satisfying the more important ends of justice will admit of. 

132. As an additional check to its occurrence, a discretionary power is 
vested in the Resident, of punishing by fine the complainant in such 
suits as may, in the opinion of the Resident, be satisfactorily established 
to have owed its origin to grounds merely vexatious, and this fine will of 
course be given to the person who has siijSered by the process. 

133. As it is most essential that access to justice and redness be ren- 
dered as easy and free as possible to the injured, the Residents are ordered 
to receive at all times, and to pay the utmost attention, to every petition 
that may be presented to them. 

134. But as, in the ordinary course, the officers or servants of govern- 
ment, or others, may, from interested, partial, or resentful motives, find 
means to debar approach to the Resident in his house, he shall cause a box 
to be placed at the door of the court, into which petitions may be dropped; 
of this he shall himself keep the key, and, on going into court, open it 
with his own hand, and have the contents read to him. He shall, at the 
same time, in the open space before the court, invite the giving in to him 
any complaints from persons who may consider themselves as aggrieved. 

135. It must be observed, that in aU causes which come into the courts, 
the respective parties in them shall plead in their own behalf. It not 
having been heretofore usual to employ Vakeels, or native lawyers, for this 
purpose ; no persons of this description shall be admitted. And it is 
trusted that litigation will be considerably reduced and discouraged by thia 
measure, as the trouble of it will then fall heavily and entirely on the 
principals themselves ; that class of people not being allowed to exist, who, 
as deriving from litigation their sole subsistence, may fairly, and without 
invidiousness, be considered as having some interest in increasing the 
business of the courts. 

136. The Resident is particularly enjoined to pay the greatest attention 
to the state of the persons in confinement by his orders. 

137. There shall be one gaol only in each Residency, and that at the 
place where the Resident himself resides. He shall visit it at least once a 
fortnight, and redress all complaints that may be preferred to him by the 


prisoners of ill treatment, punishing amply crery ioMance that alian 

to his knowledge, of misconduct in the gaoler or other oflkm in chaifs 

of the prison. 

138. He shall take, too, the necessary meaaures for the prearnratioD of 
the health and cleanliness of the prisoners ; requiring the Surveon of iht 
Residency to visit them at leant once a day, and to arfminiatrr lo the cick. 
The Surgeon shall be further directed to deliver in a monthly rrport u 
the Resident on this subject, stating the number of sick, nature of rfiseasr, 
cause of it where asnignable, and result of his medical operationa m the 
several cases. To this may be added any suggestions thai may be dccmsd 

139. Tlie internal arrangements of the gaol ought to be so onkfid. 
that the prisoncrM sliall not l>e confined together promiscuoualy, but dif- 
ferent aiKutments be allotted, not only for persons of different seae*. hm 
also for those in confinement fur different gradations of offence. For tht 
following descriptions uf prisoners, sei>arate wanls ought to be fomcd 
Prisoners undt*r sentence of death. Pririoners confined under scntcnrr sf 
the <'ourt of Oircuit or of the Resident. IVisonem committed to take 
their trial l>efore the <*oiirt of Circuit. Prisonent committed to take thor 
trial bt*fore the Resident. And one spacious and air>' a|»artment should he 
reserved fur such pcr(»uns as are awaiting the preliminary ezaminalios m 
the court. 

140. All prisoners or witnesses detained in criminal case* shall be 
taint'd at the exiK'nse of government. Uut the subsistence of pervooi 
fined on civil accounts shall be furnished in the usual manner by the 
plainants in those suits. 

141. llie rate of maintenance must depend on tlie general price of §oti 
in the district where the confinement takes place. It ought lo be 9d- 
ficiently ample to seeure the necessaries of life, but by no means anr thiif 
further ; it ou^^rht not, in short, to be higher than the price for vhicb tkf 
lowest desrriptiim of laliour could lie obtaine^l. (.hi this principlr ikf 
Residents will regulate the allowance for prisoners, and when settled ani 
approvefl of by ifovernuient. it shall be considered as fited,and be pnbiidf 
made known. 

142. The Residents finally nIuiII see that the prifvonem receive aD tfa 
comforts compatilile with their re«|>eetive situations, and that the aOov- 
ance granted by government, or others, for their support, be propcrif 

143. With res|>ert to the authority of the Resident's <*ourt over Ei 
]H'niis, Chinese, or other foreigners, thmitfh it has not heretofore 
onlered tliat they l)e amenable to any l)ut the courts of ju«tirr m Batara. 
Srmtirantjt and Surabtiyn ; yet «tM great inronvenienct* may lir. and \m 
l>een e\|HTienced, from their lieinf? undiT a se|ianite juriMlu-tion from i1m« 
fellow- inhabitant «, and us it is the wish of Kovemnirnt that thev be alluwid 
to partake i»f e\'ery lirneht dffi»riled to it « other sul»iei*t«. of which a (iroiBpt 
and ea*y areej.H to justice miwt lie con*«idered as the chief, the ftdlo 
orders an' idsuefl resjtecting them. 


144. No Europeans, Chinese, or other foreigners, at present settled, or 
who, in future, may wish to settle in the interior, shall be allowed to reside 
in any part of the country without the immediate limits of the towns of 
Batavia, Semdrang, and Surahdya, unless they present themselves to the 
Resident, to be regularly enrolled in a register to be kept for that purpose, 
and obtain from him a license for remaining. This license shall not be 
g^nted, unless each individual enter into a penalty-bond of five hundred 
rupees, that he will abide by the civil decisions of the Resident's Court to 
that amount -, but if this be agreed to, the license shall on no account be 
withheld, unless the Resident can, and does, give such reasons for with- 
holding it as the government shall approve of. No fee whatsoever shall 
be given for these licenses. 

145. Should it, at any time, happen that a cause, in which more than 
five hundred rupees is at issue, should come before the Resident, wherein 
a foreigner living in the interior is concerned, the Resident shall call on 
him to execute a further bond, which may cover the amount of the suit ; 
and in case of refusal to do so, he shall not be permitted any longer to 
reside within his jurisdiction. 

146. After taking out these licenses, foreigners shall, in every respect, 
be considered in the same light as other inhabitants, and sue and be sued 
precisely in the same manner as the natives. 

147. Should any foreigner, after these precautions, refuse to abide by 
the decision of the Resident, a report on his conduct shall be forwarded to 
government, and he shall instantly be made to leave the interior, and be 
prosecuted for the amount of the penalty he has incurred, in the established 
manner, in the courts of justice at Batavia, Semdrang, and Surabdya, 

148. In criminal cases, where a foreigner is charged with any offence^ 
the Resident shall execute the duties of a justice of the peace, issuing a 
warrant for his apprehension, examining into the evidence adduced, and» 
according to circmnstances, releasing him forthwith, or committing him 
to take his trial before the Court of Circuit. 

149. It must be understood, that the term here of " foreigners" is in- 
tended only to include Europeans, Chinese, Arabs, Mussulmen from the 
various parts of India, or, in short, the natives of any country that is 
without the limits of the Malayan Archipelago. But as there will resort 
to the coasts of Java, in small trading vessels, very many of the inhabi- 
tants of the neighbouring islands, to whom the entering into bonds, or 
being subject to other such legal forms, would prove a serious inconve- 
nience, serving perhaps eventually to discourage them considerably from 
engaging in such commercial adventures, which it is rather the wish of 
this government in every way to promote ; and as by the religion, laws; 
and usages of this and the various islands in the vicinity, being, both in 
form and substance, nearly identified (differing only in some few instances 
in shades slight and of little moment), it cannot be considered as repug- 
nant to the principles of justice, that they be at once held amenable to 
the jurisdiction established for this island, during their continuance on it j 
and it is therefore ordered, that they be looked on and proceeded with in 


manner no way difibring from that prescribed for the actual natins of 

150. In the event of the death of any British inhabitani or 
within his district, it is the duty of the Resident to place the aeda of 
immediately on the effects of the deceased, after defrayinf the ezpcaae of 
interment, and to report the same immediately for the farther ordan of 
government ; and, in the event of the death of Burghers, Chinew, Mo^ 
sulmen, or others, he niill be guided by the hiws and regulationa 
on that head. In all cases, he will lie careful that no injustice be 
in this important subject, and that where arrears are due to gorenuDent, 
no pro|>erty be transferred or Hold until the same have been ntiafiedt er 
until the pleasure of government is known. 

151. The Court of Circuit has already been estebhahed by the fifth 
clause of the Proclamation by government, dated the 2 1st January, ISIS. 
But as the taking away at once the president and one nwmbcr firaos tht 
courtM of justice rendered those courts, in their absence, 
carry on the current business of their diiitricts, and as a more 
definition of the duties attached to this department is deemed 
the following sections must be considered as an enlargement and 
tion of that clause. 

152. In onlor to ensure the regular, certain, and impartial 
tion of justice throughout the different districts of the island, 
of the Supreme Court of justice at Batavia, and of the courts of justke M 
Semdramg and Surabdj^a, sludl four times in the >'ear, at stated periods, or 
oftener if necessary, make a circuit through the districts, under the ji 
diction of their respective courts,* for the purpose of hearing and 
all such offences and criminal cases within the same, as shall hara 
made over to them by the magistrates appointed for that purpose. 

153. Previously to entering u|>on the execution of the duties of 
office, each of these judges shall take and sulmcribe, before the Hi 
alile the Lieutenant-governor in (Council, or any person appointed by 
to administer the same, an oath in the same form as already laid down far 
the Ke«iidi>nts in section 8G of this Regulation. 

154. r|>on the arrival of the judge of circuit, the Resident or 
trate shall have in readiness to deliver to him a list of the pe i aom 
milted to prison, or held to ))ail, for trial, together with the ropiw of the 
cli:ir«(c4 preferred against each, their confe<sions, if any hare 
(but these, it must lie obser\'e<l, mutt always be recei«*ed with 
tion and tenderness), or if they have pleailed not guilty, the 
of the witnesses, and all other proceedings held by him in the 
casi's, previously to their commitment to prison, or being held to >*««i 

i:i'>. lie shall likewise sul)mit to the judge of circuit, on his arriral 
the station, a si*]Mirate list of all such penwms as he nuy, within the k 
three months, have apprehended and thscharged for want of 
ilcni-e uguin^t them ; that h, of all such as would, hail pmunpcion if 
guilt lieni ^ufflciently e»tal>lishe<l, have been made over to the coort if 
rircuit for trial. 


156. The judge of circuit shall then proceed to hold his court. Such 
officers shall belong to it as he may have brought with him for that pur- 
pose, and he shall be attended by all such others belonging to the Resi- 
dent's establishment, as he may deem necessary. 

157. The coiut shall be held in the Paserban, or usual chief room of 
justice belonging to the station; and the Resident, in carrying on any 
judicial or magisterial proceedings, during the continuance of the judge of 
circuit at his station, shall use for that purpose some other convenient 

158. On opening the court the head Jdksa shall present a list of persons 
simmioned to act as jurymen ; out of which five shall be taken in the 
usual manner, and be empannelled. 

159- The persons composing this jury ought to be as near on an equality 
as to rank in life with the prisoner as possible. But no one under the 
rank of a head of a village shall be competent to act as a juryman, as 
persons below that office, or in the very lower orders of life, cannot be 
supposed to possess either independence or knowledge sufficient to qualify 
them to execute justly the duties of the situation. The person senior in 
dignity among them shall be appointed to act as foreman ; and, for this 
purpose, it may be as well that one of higher rank than the other four 
should be always selected in the first nomination of the jury. , 

160. A right of challenge shall belong, as in the English courts, to both 
the prosecutor and the prisoner. 

161. The head o{ the village in which the offence is alleged to have been 
committed, shall not be permitted to act as juryman in the trial. 

162. No other prescribed disqualification exists against persons of that 
or higher rank ; the right of challenge being deemed sufficient to secure 
the forming of a competent, imbiassed, and independent jury. 

1 63. The cause shall then be proceeded with i and sentence being passed, 
it shall become the duty of the Resident to see that it be carried duly into 
execution, a warrant for that purpose being given to him, under the seal 
and signature of the judge of circuit. 

164. The circuit judge, throughout the conduct of the cause, in his 
mode of proceeding, of summing up the evidence, receiving the verdict of 
the jury, and passing sentence on the prisoner, shall be guided entirely by 
the established rules of his court, the regulations of government, and the 
general instructions he will receive. 

165. And with respect to the law which must gmde him throughout, he 
must, in the first instance, take down the native law in the case as may be 
expounded by the Panghulu and Jdksa : and modify thereon his decisicm, 
according to the provisions of the colonial law, and the acknowledged 
principles of substantial justice. 

166. He shall not- only try such cases as may have been made over to 
his court, previously to entering the district, but also any such as the Re- 
sident may make over to him while there. 

167. He shall, on closing his court at each station, forward to the Hon- 
ourable the Lieutenant-governor, a clear and full report of all his proceed- 


ings, stating the names of the prisoners tried hj him, the nature of tte 
evidence adduced on behalf of both prosecution and defence, the rtriiX 
of the jur}% and his consequent sentence thereon. 

168. If, in any case, his opinion differ from that of the jury, he fh^ 
detail the reasons which have influenced him in that difference : izai 'zg 
shall always state any such circumstances as may warrsnt a mitigatit^n, j 
even total remission of the punishment. 

169< The approval of these proceedings, and the intftractions on ir^^ 
from the Honourable the Lieutenant-governor, muat be received ^r.-^r u 
his issuing his warrants to the Resident. 

170. But as this communication, and the reply to it, may induce vm 
great a delay, the judge of circuit must, on shutting his court, nzzjoi 
the prisoner to gaol, and move on himself to the next district he hx« u 
visit ; from whence he will l>e able to send back the warrants to the Re«^ 
dent, when an answer to his re]>ort shall have been received. 

171. Accompanying this report, the judge of circuit shall fomvd 10 
government a detailed opinion on the state of the Residenc}*. with rp«p^^ 
to its police, its general administration, and other circumstances cunoccied 
with its actual condition ; sug^enting, at the same time, any such impr r^ 
ment as, in his opinion, would l>e conducive to its general pnHpenTv 

172. It remainn, finally, to l>e observed to the Residents, that u !:k 
police of different districts must be, in some measure, adapted to rkno-zi 
circumstances and localities, they are authorized to enlarge upon i:»t 
genera) regulations for the administration of that department withm '^s 
respective jurisdictions, reporting their suggestions of improvemen: !o 
government. But it is recommended to those officers to become vfS 
acquainted with the ancient usages and institutions of the people pbn^ 
under their authority ; and in submitting their obser\'ations, ther viL be 
solicitous rather to improve upon the solid foundations of ancient rrfu- 
tions and customs, both acknowledged and understood by the people. thM 
to invent new systems of administration, which for some time mn«t. of 
necessity, be quite unintelligible to the inhabitants, and which, after :bc 
experience of a few years, may probably be found to be by no m^^ nf cofi- 
genial to their genius or habits. 

173. Copies of this Regulation shall beforu-arded to the ranouf oficvn 
of government concerned in the carrying it into exeoition ; and traniia- 
tions of it, in the Javaii and MuLiyan languages, shall be furnished to cbt 
Bopdtis and other native oflicers. It shall l>e the duty of these to cx|4ia 
and cause to be made known its puqmrt throughout the countrr ; md 
for the doing this the nif)re etTectiULlIy, copies shall alwa}'8 he on the »»M** 
of the several courts, to be ujH'nftir public reference and Lupection- 























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APPENDIX E.— No. I. —continued. 

Extract from the Dasa Nama.* 

1 . Madia ning S 
mangsa • • • • ^ 

j.h, M&ngsa • •••• 

j,b, K41a 

k. D6k 

b. Tak-k&la • • • • 
b, Panjen&ng'aa • • 

J.b. Jkman • 

k. Titika,ork(itika 
b, D&wegord&wak 
J. L^i 

J,b Waktu 

j.b, Usum 

J.&. Mangsa ren- 7 
dang . . . . { 
i. Ka-telu:3) 

j, Ka-pat 

J. Ka-lima 
J.b. Ka-nam 
J.b. Ka-pitu 
j.b. Ka-w61u 

j.b. Dasta 

Mangsa trang.. 

j.b. Sadi 
j,b. Kitfa 

f. Kiro 

2. Mangsa ren- \ 

k. Paw&ka 

from ordinary thought 
comes knowledge of 
time or season. 

season, time. 


the same. 

the same. 

the time, as applied to 
the reign of a sove- 
reign or governor, a 
dynasty, a rule. 

the same* 

the same. 

present time. 

future time. 


the season of any thing, 
as the paddy season 
or fruit seasons, sea- 
son for breed of cat- 

season or time of rain. 

commencement of the 


ditto, rivers full, 
heavy rains, 
rains commence (idling 

rains nearly over. 

dry or clear seasons. 

commencement of dry 

autumnal, or season of 
the falling of the 

season of heavy dews. 

clear, dry, and cloud- 
less season. 

the season in which 
trees commence to 
throw out their 
leaves and flowers. 

the rainy season comes 
from the hills or 

mountains from which 
wind comet. 

k. Gfri ••••••.. stnpenJooR, abrupt 

mountains, which 
create awe on look* 
ing on them. 

k, Purw&ta original mountains, the 

first or primitive 

Ch&la mountain. 

Mand&la the base or foot of a 









distant mountuns. 

Liw&wan, orl 
him&wan • . f 

Ardi stupendous mountains. 

G(inung mountains or hills. 

Kendeng • • • • low ranges of hills. 

M&dik . 

j. Pap^reng 










the acclivity of a hill, 
the same. 

the space between two 
hills above the val- 

S&nyig • the valley or bottom 

<^ tlie space be- 
tween two hills, 
the steep part of a hill 
which cannot be 
• ascended. 

Hiring or iring the same. 

Ardi akitahs^U the hills have many 


S61a atones, large stonet. 

Ka-rikil • • • • small stones, pebbles. 

KamlAsa small fine stones, gra- 


W&tn ........ ttooes. 

M&nik. a kind of hard black 


P&rang a sort of stone ndther 

hard or soft. 

Rcdjeng the same. 

Gamping .... lime stone. 

W&das a kind of stone. 

Ch6ri a particular kind of 

stone, rather harder 
than redjeng. 

Chini a sort of stone which 

when taken from the 
quarry is soft and 
easily cut, but after^ 
wards becomes hard 
on exposure to air. 

%J.\» intended to shew that the wofd it used In the common or Javan dialect. 

b. that it is used in the Ba»a or Basa Krama, the polite language. 

k. „.. that it belongs to the Kami Unguage ; where two hiitials occur it is used 

in both. 








Three • • • 
Four • • • 



Seven • • • 
Kight •.. 



Man (homo). . 
Man (vir). 




eka • . 
idui •• 
iri • • • < 




Father • 
Mother • 
Head • 

• ••.•.••• ek-kA 

tri • in. 

chitor •• ct^rwA 

pancha ••.••••••.•••..• parrba. 



ashta jasta a:-:ha. 

ndva ••• • n&wa ••••••....• iio>«a. 

dasa • da»a •••••••••. cik>uk 

nian(ishya or manii&ha . . .roanQta ••••••••• maxt.:'^ 

. Ijana, puru>ha • jana, pur6»ia •• burvaa. 

&ha»h or &hat •«> ^kat . 

«apta ..••••••• •• kapta. 

* * * * j&tn, varangana 

jpita or pitn . . 
niata or niitri 

is-tn, warangi^aaa 




taka ...•• mastaka 

Kye ,n£tra, akshi, ch&ksu 


Nose ina-sa, ghrina 







I)a> . 




gr^na • • • 

kc^ |ke»a . • • • • 

jdanta .••••••••• dinti • • . 

garbha, udara ••• gerba • • • 

hasta a»ta . . . • • 

ipada • 'pada ... 

■iohita, sunita* rudhira, &c. rah, ludira 
dina, div&sa, &c. dina, mtn 





• • • • ratri • 
•• • • nidra 

'preta, parata, mrita 

White ihita ,>*ta 

;ratri, kulam •••••.• rarn. 

nindra •••••.•• uua. 


kala {kala, krboa 



Bad du!»hkrita 

Fire agni agni, br&ma, geni 

Water Jala, apa, &c. jalanidi 

Stone bilii 'ncI 

Bird . . 

Kjrg •• 
Fish . . 
Sun • . 
St.irs • 
<M>d . . 
! Fating 

var.^ha, snkara wrahaa» »uk4ra 

paksha paksi 

anda endfig 

mill, ma^itya niina, matMa • hud. 

siirya, prabahkara, aditya •kuria, prabang^k^ra, raditia*una. Alk^ 

cliandra, sitaiigbU jchandra; li.aiigau •••••. f^ra-ckaB. 

,tara t4ra ••••• dara. 

iNV%arii (lA>rd).deva (agiHl) dewa (a god) •••• pra. pra-<lw 

jbhojanHm ,'*<U* •••• l»«oi| cbkM 




Vocabulary of Kawi Words, with the meaning attached to 




God sang yang-j^gat-ke- 

ckn&t sang-yang- 
suksma, yang-wfdi, 
murbeng bu4na, 
yang-t&ya, sang- 
yang-wis^sa, sang- 
yang-j4gat, riya, 
sang- yang - m&non, 
y ang*! ng j&gat, rour- 
ba wi-s^sa, hong. 

Make, do ; or work ang'd^, and6, ay&sa, 

kirtia, pan^ron, a- 

The work ; what ) win&ng'un, in&mer, 
is made or done S iniket 

Pen tan&ser. 

Paper del&nchang. 

A vessel ; pot ; re- ? ^ , . .» ^ . 

ceiver ........ J ^ ' ^^^^' ^ 

Heaven siira l&ya, indra-kila, 

s<ira-16ka sur^ndra, 

Situation, place. C«n«;n«'a«g«ina. pa- 

(_ s4na. 

World rat, bu&na, marcha* 

p&da, jaroiLnda, yatri 

Place patmiinda, kah&nan, 

s4na, laya, ast&na, 
I6ka, pan&pa. 

Hell ••••••.••• tambra-gom(ika, ya- 

y&ma, p&pas&na. 

Sky gagina, diu, barika, 

antariksa, ambar- 
t&la, mariitoam, ma- 
rutp41a, margaw(it- 
ma, nasfinia, sara- 
b&ra, biuma, aksa, 



Moon • cb&ndra, sadira, sas- 

&ngka, idup&tl, s(i- 
ma, sasilan-chana, 
nis&ka, sitingsu, si- 
tarasmi, s^si, rkti, 
bas&nta, indung. 

The first day of the i , , , 
month (moon).. I ^^''^^-P^^^ 

The sixteenth day ) , . , 

of the moon / ^ ^nsna-paksa. 

Names of the months titf-m&sa, p(ispita- war- 
si, kus(ima-wicbitra, 
puspa-darsina, dar- 
ma kus(ima, anta 
warsi, rahfiwand&niy 
warsan dim, chakra 
kuldna,sand4ya kr&- 
ma, dirga moriang, 
renji s4ri, rasmin- 
dran d6ni. 

Neither east nor west sunia dars&ri. 

Day •••^••* mahira. 

Sunday. ••••••••• riti or dite* 

Monday s6ma. 

Atmosphere (be- 1 
tween the sky > 
and the earth • • } 



wiat, madia-gantang, 
tawang, l&yang. 

pr&ba, k(imut-de(i-jiu, 
tesa, t^ja, m&ya. 

bask&ra, raditia, pra 
tangga-pdti, ar(ina, 
h^ri, kardba, t&la, 
sCibandagni, angka, 
ndku, kan(iman, 
astiman, diankdra, 
ddta-p&ti, niw4sa, 
sCiria, sa^ra-suman. 

Tuesday ^ 
Friday • • • ' 
Saturday • 
Star • 


• • • • ang'g&ra. 
. • • • budha. 
•••• raspdti. 

• • • • sukra. 

• * • • sanisch&ra. 
' • • • • trangg&na, 6yut, tuHi- 

sa, tindra, 6chu, t&- 
rang, mangg&rang. 

Wind • • « • mar(ita, s&mi-rina, 

pribanchina, anila, 
b&yu, lisus, indria, 
pancba, war&yang* 
sabda-g&ti, anila, 
ganda-wasta, n&sa- 
mira, sarsa, prili 
wawftlar, sindung. 

Clouds widl-y(ita, sadili, da- 

w&ta, amb^un, am- 
bika, samfta, g&ua, 
toy&da, p&yuw&ha, 
trangga, ambu-mor- 
cha, ima-ima, jila- 
d&ra, jal&da, imang 
kam(ira, imaldya. 

Rain • warsa, jdwah, truh, 

trah, riris, wresti. 

Dark anda, tam^ra, &wuk. 

Cold mertia, slitb, &tis. 

Hot usna, tiksna, landap. 





Specimen of the Mystical Meaning, attacked to the Ijetten r/ :ht 
Alphabet, Sfc. according to the Interpretation of the Panambaiix^ </ 



of the 





Ha ah 

Na ..'anune 







wadun .». , 

iku , 

tatkala • • • 
sira , 

Wa or va 
La ... 





Nia .... 


Ga .... 


I wrong • • 
jlanji • • • • 
jiisor . . • • 
ikarep .• 

It IS or It 
the test ot 

thou or thee, 
alike or u a. 

I man. 


wi>h (to). 



Ba kaduk 

Ta aia . . . 

Nga >ira . . 

Ila-na woiiten 

Cha-ra sairia 

Ka-da-ta • • 'arane Aji &aka 


I Sa-wa-Ia wuskdchap jero tQlis . . 

Pa-da-ja sakin;? nu^a j.iwa. . . . 

'Ga-ba . . . . 

Ta-n|;a . . . . 

Ilan^ .... 
iNang chang 
jRang kang 
J)aiig tang 

Wang .... 

Lang .... 




ing bu.-ina. . . . 
kang kfdcp . . 



. . . • . . 


Yang . . • 

jYang ... 

jNiang . . > 

'Mang ••• 

Jtinalinan .. 
gmiongM I'andan 
kang^inuha .... 
diMiing wong . . 




tudiihe • •• 

kaliangkit ane 



ling alap 



do not want, or do ikk wuh. 

love, or to love. 

cannot help. 

had or badness. 

thee or thou. 

it wa>, there was, or were a. 

a nobleman. 

named Aji lika, or hb 
Aji »aka. 
S was mentioned in tbe 
( among the letters. 

on the ijiland ol Jawa, or in the cej 
of Jawa (hi), 
became a great writer, 
in the world or of this world. 
who know, or whose eye* are 

to tic or make fiuc 
leaf of the Pandan. 
\%hic-h is made, 
by the people, 
it became, 
it is pointing, 
bis knowledge or art. 
GikI or the Lord. 
band<iome or beautifuL 
taken up. 
by and by, afterwards. 


of lhe 




with ur Hiih Ilie. 

w lay upon. 

the hair. 

with or by. 

the mark or dgn or nriting. 

who have given. 

to teach or give imilruciion. 

u> the ritu or king. 

every one ii.ighl agree io il. 

clear, quite pUiu. 

to have properly, 


ii, «faa, were. 


if or if il. 

ibe pains oTbre. 

In the aiy. 

very much. 

any thing. 


linfiieh or tinilah .. 

tZ ::::"":: 


idlU pratlnda 



ksng apaiisn 



p*da heMu-kena .... 

allh kagting'an 

Mi7 ■"'■■""" 








Liri'.. :::...:::: 


■ound or voice, noi^ 
Ke or look at. 

the mind or heart 
don't know what to Jb. 

you or thou, thee. 
10 call or bawl oui. 
uu the way oral road. 
,iu,e tired. 
leeking bit. 


lotl. confuMd. 

iroubleiume or tediouL 
crying, or the lound of crying, 


lhe earth o. wmund. 
behold or look al. 






ing leng'ah marga . . 




h™«enan ...... 

IS ;■."".:'.::::::: 









^nnial or (o> eTct. 

la ^n ap Ihv ndiid W aaf ikn; 



cb2g '.'.'.'.'.['.::: 


\vZg ""■.::::" 


dain. or lib derfrc 
1 bMi Of •curl. 




diau ar you. 

Mung ::..:::::: 

?«n5 ;;;:;;:::: 





Celebes is an island of which hitherto the public has had but very scanty 
accounts^ The part of it best known to Europeans is Makdsar, situated 
nearly at the southernmost extremity of the western side : it was here the 
first European settlement on the island wa» established. On the south 
part of Celebes there are not any ascertained volcanos, but some are said 
to exist in the northern division. Some of the mountains are very high. 
The Bontain mountain, called by the natives Ldmpo Bdtan (big belly), is 
the highest on the south part of the island, and being seen at the distance 
of one hundred and twenty miles, must be about eight thousand five hun- 
dred feet above the level of the sea. 

The largest river on the southern limb is that called Chinrdna, which 
formerly constituted the boundary between the kingdoms of B6m and 
Luum. It rises on the north side of the Bontain mountain, and runs 
northward as far as Mario, whence, inclining towards the north-east, it 
passes through part of Sdping, and then, turning to the east, enters Wdju, 
after having received a navigable stream from the haut-Sdla, or Fresh- 
water Lake. After passing through Wdju it follows a south-east course, 
and falls into the bay of B6n%, a few miles below the town of Chinrdna, 
This river is navigable for boats as far as Mdrio, and admits of the passage 
of prdkus of five or six hdyans as far as the fresh-water lake. Along the 
whole of the coast, at no great distance from each other, smaller streams 
fall into the sea, some of them being so considerable as to admit of a 
navigation of five or six miles, and many of them at their mouths affording 
shelter to trading prdhus. Among the most considerable are Bardbo, Linjd, 
and Kdjang, to the east ; Dunidng, L^nbang, Halikdngkong, Pdnre, and 
Jenepdnto, on the south ; and Chikaang, Tape Jdra, Sdndra bdm, Chia, 
T^u, Mdros, Bendng*a, Langkdra, and Pontidna, on the west. 

It has not been ascertained by whom, or at what particular time, the 
name of Celebes was conferred on this island. It/is generally attributed to > 
the Portuguese, and certainly is of foreign origin : none of the natives, ' 
except those who have intercourse with Europeans, recognize either the \ 
whole island or any part of it under this appellation | even among those 
who make use of the word, it is apphed to Sumbdwa, an island about two 
hundred and fifty miles to the south-west of it, as well as to what we call 

/In the south-western limb of the island there are two principal Ian- -. 
guages, called by Europeans the Makdsar and Bugis) and by the natives 
Mengkdsa or Mengkasdra, and Wdgi or Ugi, The former, or some dialect 
of it, is spoken in all the districts extending from Bdlu kuniba to Seg&e. 
The petty states included in this compass are Bdlu kumba, Bontain, Tara- 


bdya, Giia, Mdros, and Seyere. The Bugii is much more genml lirrmid 

and over the whule tract extending from B6ni to Jjhru^ comprrbrndix^ 

the four f^rcat states of Lwtu, Boni, H a;ii, and Sdpimy, beiaik« thrir 

numerous dcpon»lencies. 

In Mfindhar and itH vicinity is spoken the Mdndkar Ungoase. Tiw 

centre and body of the island to the northward ia distinguished hr brin^ 

inhabited by the Turdjas or Hnrafuras^ who speak a more simple ihalrrt. 

and are considered the aborigines i>f the island ; and on the oortb-caM 

comer of the ishuid at Manddu and Gdntmg film, the inhabitants are di^ 

tin^ii<hed by some ])ccuIiaritii'H. 

The following obser\'ation*i must Iks imderstood as principally refrmof 
to the south- we*<teni limb, the part of the island which fell undiT the ib- 
fluonre of Makdsar. 

It is impoHsil>le to ascertain, with any degree of precision, eiihrr the 

origin of the inhabitants or their present numbcm. From the m<M rwr- 

rect accounts that could l>e obtaine<l, it would ap|)ear that tho souu«^rB 

limb contains a po{>ul:ition of about half a million ; but from tb« quantiif 

of Land now lying wa<te, which liears the ap|H-arance of haviof^ been (locr 

cultivated, from the numbiT of decayed and half-choaked water-mtn, en- 

dently once used for the purpose of irrigation, and the multjtuile of w^M 

where ranges of cocoa-nut trees mark out the sites of vilU^^rs and roffTyn 

no longer in existence, wc may infer that the number of inhabitani* k» 

greatly declined. At present there seem to be no serious checks to popa- 

lution, except the wart and the lauicHS violence of the {leople, and wktf 

often occasions, and always ngt^nivates them, slavery and tlie idara tr«k. 

The |)eople seem to procure a sufficient subsistence without much escr- 

tion. The climate is sjdubriou'*, and tliere is abtmdance of water. Msr- 

riages are early. In the hi*<t4»ry of the island the yean of famine aiv pv- 

ticularly noticed. Tlie women are held in more esteem than ctMiU br 

ex|iected from the btate of civilization in general, ax«d undergo none d 

thi»se severe hardNhips, privatitms, or labtturs, tliat n-strict fecunditv ■ 

other parts of the world. Pnlyiramy prevails, the numluT uf wivr» bn^ 

I united oidy by the means of the hu'«band to purcho-M.* or »U|i|tairt tbr* 

It IS more dillicult to procure a wife than a hu^^lund; a fnnalc i»Uve b««i 

a bii^luT price in tlie miirket th:m a male; ami the cumpen^^tion li«nifar 

the murder uf a m;ui is (inly ihiiiy d*dii*i'i«. uliia' that rf«|Utu-.| fur i)«r Lii 

of a W(iin;t!i i<. f»irtv. 

It c:uinnt lN>kni»wu with certainty, ubence the afhiriirinal inhabitants if 
Telel/e^ omi.:nited to thi*^ i«>l:uid. The eiMMitcn:iiice'« of ihi* natives, rart«> 
cul:irly of the Witinen, more nearly re^iuilde the T;krtar ft;itum> than Mf 
otbiT. 'I here are nn early or geiier.dly leceiveil traditiun^ concrrninc tM 
time when the iol:ind w.-i<« first |K'o)»lt>d. ur the ailveuturt-<« of ihr hr^t rwv 
r..i;-h Ht.ite. ho'.vevt'r, has its tnidiiioiiary tales, m«ist of which r\-Utc u 
remute aiitnpiity. or to a coii<lit!i>ii of siHiety very thtfereiit frun liM 
ubtcbat preofiit e\i«>t-* In the iii..jit «.tales, the larlie^t sltirie^ r«-fer ttfl 
)ieliiid •ollb^Cfj Ill-Ill tn the tiuiij't* 4>f .Slurrij iindufj, iuul III the .IfoiV •> to the Hu/t tiHo ol .V<f litAtuuif, ui.icii will U- ilieiilionni 

APPENDIX. Ixxxvii 

after. The OdUgaa contain an account of the peopling of lAvou or Ldwat 
from heaven. 

The first of the two following accounts was given by the Bugis ambas- — ... 
sador.^ the other is an extract. 

'* In the first place, there was a supernatural being of the female sex^^ 
'/ who, being married to Tafa RasupA^ a person sprung from under the . 
" earth, had issue a boy and a girl^ who were named LacUwati and CkuU' 
*' puji, 

" Chulupuji married Lasikati, and by her had a son, called L^tau, who 
" had two or three other names besides, piz. Matan-tika, Malati-sapranff, 
*' and Pulu Datu Pamtisu, 

" Pamusu*s place of residence was in the coimtry of Teku, afterwards 
" known by the name of Boni. At this time Pamusu and all his children , 
" dying, the coimtry of the Bugis was left without a raja, and remained i 
" so for about seven generations) at the end of which period a raja spring-' 
" ing up among the Bugis themselves, government was again introduced 
" intQ.the country. 

^ On one occasion there came a storm of thunder and lightning, so, 
'' violent as to rend the earth and cause it to rock like a boat tossed by 
" the waves of the sea. On the thimder and lightning abating, and the 
" earth ceasing to be longer agitated, there was observed in the middle 
" of a plain, dressed in white, one of human shape, who was generally 

supposed to be a supernatural being, and to whom many people went 
" up in a body, saying to it, ' remain then here and fly not about from 

' place to place.' Ta them the being replied^ ' what you say is well ; 

' but you cannot take me from your rsya, as I am myself but a slave. 
'* * If, however, you are really desirous of having a raja, there is my 

' master at your service.' The Boni people then observed to the being, 

' how can we make a raja of him, whom having never seen, we cannot 

' tell what he is like ?' ' If,' answered the being, ' you do really desire 
" ' it, he shall be shewn to you.' They said, * ve do earnestly wish it, 

' and request thou wilt be so kind as to carry us where lye may see him 

' of whom thou speakest.' 
When these people of Boni, together with the being who led them, 
*' had reached the open plain called Matajam, there came on a violent 
" storm, accompanied with thimder and lightning, which rent and shook 
" the earth. There arose, at the same time, a thick fog, which totally 

obscured every thing. 
As soon as the storm was over, and. the earth no longer continued to 
" be rent and shaken by the thunder and lightning, the clearness which 
immediately succeeded discovered to the view, seated on a stone, four 
" supernatural beings, of whom three were separately employed in hold- 
*' ing the umbrella, fan, and siri-box of the other, who was dressed in 
" yellow. The being dressed in yellow then said to him in white, * What 
** * would'st thou?' The being in white replied, * I have conducted 
** * hither those people of Boni whom you now see before you ;' and then 
said to the Boni people, * Behold my master, of whom I spoke to you.' 








(4 t 

Ixxxviii APPENDIX. 

'' Those people went up to the supernatural being in yelUiv. an i *.t*tf 
" addressed him : ' We, the slaves of your niightine«^, liave rr-TTc u 

present ourselves before you, to solicit tliat you will favour a&'i o- ^t 

* us, ]>y remaining amonjjc us as our raja, and that you will nui c c.^ac 
to wander about from place to place.' 

*' The being complied with the wishes of the |ieople of Bom', and ^^rli:^ 
" at Matajam had issue five children, of whom the first was a «on jh : '.zt 
** four succeeding ones daughters. One of the ilau^hters iii*a^ c^imri '^ 
" a man of Pulaka. The son was married to a Buni woman. 

** After being forty years in Boni, the su])cmatural being di-caf-pearfl 
" and was succeeded by the son, who, in point of siw and height, hai aiX 
" )iis equal in Buni, neither coidd any one be comiKiretl to hun fur ^t.-vr^^ 
" or valour, or for the ailulation which was ]>aid him. He wa« rhr l-< 
" who introduced the manufacture of ih-t5p«, which he could model ^at. d 
*' pieces of iron, by means of his fingers alone." 

<* Bitara Guru was the eldest son of Dcvata Pituiu by Dnri Poi^ 
" and inhabited the Re\*enth heaven. DAcata Pitutu had a brother, c^z 
« Guru Rvslanff, who held the rule of the region imder the earth />rrCi 
*' Pitutu had nine children in all. 

** \Micn Bitara Guru wsa sent down upon earth by hi* father. ZWtfi 
" Pitutu^ he ^"as ])rovided tiith the following articles, vix. Teiahm^ic 
" Siri atfika, Telarasa, IVampunff, IVanu, Ckachu-bantu 

** IVom these, which were scattered about, every thini; living and liAl 
*' iu the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, which arv to lie f> .zA 
** in the country of Lawaf, originated. Pre{Kiratory to this, Dntcta fv 
" tutn having compounded a medicine, of which the juice of chewe*: Vxi 
'* was an inLrredient, rubbed Bitara Guru all over unth it, which isjat^ 
'* diali'ly occasioned him to swoon. Dewata Pituiu then put hi« «oq -^lo 
** a hollow bambu, and, having; rolled this up in a piece uf cli-ti;. sd 
*' cau>iod the gates of tlic sky to be opened, he hurling («oDt du«-n hi« »«.4 
** to earth, amidst a trenu-mlous stonn of thunder, lightning, w^nd. aad 
** mill, which aroro. on that occasion. Ilavinir reached alnrnt half vit 
" l),.-twi.'rn the earth and sky, Bitfira Giiru ^dreailfidly alarmetl at tae 
*' situation ht.' was in) threw abroad all the articles which hail been ^:vt9 
** to liiin, ai^rec-atily to llie instructions of his sire. After his amY-^ m 
** tlu- L-attli, tiitnrn Guru remained for three days and three nbsht? *h'Jt 
** u]) in the baiutMi, withnui food or drink. My his cxtrtion«, howcrer. 
" the bambu at la^l burst, when, getting out. he wandered tiiruiuh i» 
** won(U till he came to the side of a river, where he met mnth a kizu of 
*' the gods iire<si'd in yellow. One ni,^'ht there arose a violent st4.»nn i-f 
** tliiuider, liuditninif, wind, and rain. On ii^ clearing up there «a» fees 
** a line country, with a supeib palace and fitrt. and huiLses, &c. &c. of tb« 
** ni >-l lieautit'ul •^Inieture. In thi^i beautiful country Bitara Gmru loS 
** hiui-eli' ili)vvn as M»viirign. with a complete establishment, and gave it 
•• the iiaiue of Ittiwat.** 

Nii a<-( tiunt can be procured of any mtercourse having subsisted be- 


tween this island and Western India or Ghina^ prior to the introduction of 
Mahomedanism. No inscriptions or other monnments, indicating the 
former prevalence of the Hindu worship over Celebes, have as yet been 
found, llieir not having been found, however, is no proof that they do 
not exist, for the wars that have lately prevailed have prevented Euro- 
peans from exploring in search of such objects in that part of the country 
where they are most likely to present lliemselves. The J^est informed 
natives call themselves descendants of Hindus, and the names of their 
divinities. Batata Guru, Baruna, &c. seem to indicate either a common 
origin or a former intercourse. It is also remarkable, that some of the 
inhabitants of Luum and the neighbouring state of Bontaiji are said to 
dress in the same manner as the Hindus of Western India, and that Hindu 
temples are reported to eicist in some parts of this state. BrcJtma and 
Budha have, however, never been heard of ; and though Diwas are often 
mentioned, their attributes are equally unknown. 

The intercourse of these islanders with the natives of Java seems to 
have been ancient and frequent. The earliest records of the BigU and 
Mdkasar states denote not only an early communication with Java, but 
render it highly probable that a colony from Java settled in the south* 
west limb of Celebes. In no other way can we account for the transfer of 
the names of places from the former to the latter island, such as those of 
Majapdhit, Gr4s%k, Japan, and some others. In the genealogy, too, of the 
sovereigns of Luwu, one of the first of their D^wa princes is said to have 
been married to a princess of Majapdhit on Java. 

Though some of the Bugis states have a good deal of trade, they prin- 
cipally depend upon themselves for subsistence. The mode of husbandry 
is, of course, very rude, and feudal institutions stand in the way of their 
improvement ; but private property in the soil is established, and lands 
are held in free tenure or by rent-hold. The amount of the rent, in the 
latter case, is generally one-third of the produce, paid in kind ; the culti- 
vator is entitled to one-third, and the owner of the buffaloes or bullocks 
which assist is entitled to the remaining third. Labourers employed to 
reap are paid a sixth of what they collect. No class is excluded from a 
proprietary right in the soil, and the proprietor can dispose of his land by 
sale whenever he chooses. 

The people of Celebes are active and enterprising traders; the character 
of a merchant is held in esteem, and the sovereign princes reckon it no 
disgrace to enter into commercial speculations. Unfortunately, however, 
they are actuated by the narrow spirit of the trader, to the prejudice of 
the liberal policy of the monarch, and make their power subservient to 
their love of gain, by establishing in their own favour monopolies against 
their subjects. Monopolies are conunon in every state on the island, but 
most of them are only of a temporary nature. The sovereign of Lfiwu 
monopolizes the trade in brass ; the Raja of Sdping that of nri (betel 
leaf), which yields him three hundred dollars a month ; and the lUya of 
Sedendreng that of salt and opiiun. 

So strong is the spirit of commercial enterprise among the inhabitants 



.-f :u 

of this island, that they frequently borrow sums for the purchase 
moditied on which they exfiect profit » and etake their personal LVr;. . &::: 
that of their families, on the success of an adventure. In their :r« J:^ 
voyages each jierriun in \\\e prdku has his own share of the c^rj^**, i: : . i- 
ducts business on his own account : each person likewii»e came- i..< ?! 
provisions; the latter practice, es]»ecially, is never de]iarteii from Hx 
owner of the . vessel ain^es to undertake the voya^^e with a nuz:''": A 
people, threat or small, in proportion to its size, and apportion* ih« rr.*e. 
amonfj^ them in the followin;; mcinncr. The Vxojuru mtiJus, ur ^u-r r-nifs. 
receive one pe'ttih (or division; before the sanketan^ and the wholt ^.-ut 
abaft of it ; the owner is entitled to two petahs in the broadr«t [lar. .: lU 
boat ; and the two jtiru b'Uus to the whole )»pace between the ma.-t- . :i« 
remaining 7;eV/zA.f are divided among the crew, from whom the u«t.-:. : 
nakoHa, receives a freight of one-tenth or one-twentieth of the pn.t i i_ 
the commodities they sell, accordin:^ as they are bulky or small, in j r :- •- 
tion to their value. The jiiru mtidis and juru bat us only jiay or*e-:j-: :" 
the proportion of freitflit paid by the rest of the crew. Nimrtizrjro :\f 
owner supjilies the crew with an advance of money fi»r an advenlu.'r. i:. : 
receives at its termination not only re-payment of his loan, but a ::..:; .•: 
the profits of the si>ecuhition. 

'I'he ])rincipal articles of trade are cotton, which ij" imfvirte'l fr. -rr- ::f 
Kurrounding ishinds, and re-exported after iK'ing maxiufi&cciirc i j": 
cloths, known by the name <if /i//^ijr cloths, which are in ixri"-it dr.T-i:.: 
throughout the Archijielago, and, in general, of a more dcLcate tri^,j-f 
than those manufactured in Java; binls' nests, trtjmny (^sea !>luj , *l:zrk'f 
fins, tortoise-shell, fitjar tif/ar, hides, and other articles ralciilateii fi.r iLe 
Chinese market, arc collected in considerable quant it te«, and fum>h rrt-:m 
cargoes for the aimual Chinese junks which visit CeleWs. liuld > ^t^ 
tained on <-elcbes, but in much smaller quantities than on Dome>j- .^r 

Although the Buf/'is, in ginenil, are considered as great traJt-r*. :rf 
foreign commerce srems to be almost exclusivfly confined to the j^r-; r 
of Wtiju. Tiie^^e pe«»ple are settled in con>iderable num'ierx in all :"-? 
tradini? ports, from Acheeii to .Manilla, and it is they who fonn the crc» 
of almost all the liit;/is finifms that naviirate the eastern sea«i. 

Si'vond Hi'ujls prtihus from .l/'/i'i-v/ir annually vi^^it the northern C'S*^ >:{ 
New llolhuid :mrl the <iiilf of ( 'aquMitarin in search of trijttrnq, and •• Hi?- 
times a small ]):irty i>Kft to roUict the tripany in rcadine>H for the i.T-.'.-aI 
of lilt' pnihiis in the follo\vii\.r year. 

Till" Biiijis, indeiil, is tin- gn-at mnriiime and commercial «tate *4 the 
Arehiprlairo. 'I'iie cargoes of tlu'ir vi-j^i K, ]»articularly in opium. \z s-i, 
and ('lotl)s. often amount to tifty or sixty thousand dollars c*Hch. and X'.t 
p<<o|)K' who na\ iirate i.iid are eoru-criK-d m them are acknowledunl to h< 
fan* and houour.tliK' tratli'r<>. 

The natiM's of ilie soutrum limb of ( tlibrs are of a lii;hl ai't:ve fiirm<»f 
liody. gi-nnally well m.i'lf. ami rallur bilow the midillt* st.ituri'. "J'lirv 
.lie saul to be ir\euu'efu]: hut duriiii^ the period of the UritKh ffoitni- 


ment at Makdsar, few, if any, examples occurred to support such an 
asHertion. Certain it is, that in no single instance, was the death of 
those who fell in a recent war between the two parties of the Makdsar 
nation, avenged by their relations, although the persons by whose hands 
they had fallen were perfectly well known. 

They attach themselves to their chiefs principally for their own conve- 
nience, but, in some cases, they have evinced a devoted fidelity. They 
often change their chief, but scarcely any thing can induce them to be- 
tray the chief they have left. In no instance has the prdhu of a Dutch- 
man or Chinese been carried off when navigated by Makdsar or Buffis 
people. Agreements once entered into are invariably observed, and a 
BUgis is never know to swerve from his bargain. ** That natural polite- 
ness which characterises the various nations distinguished by wearing 
what is termed the Malayan kris, is no where more forcibly exhibited 
than among the inhabitants of Celebes. Their minor associations are 
" held together by all the attachment and warmth which distinguished 
" the clans of North Britain : — the same bold spirit of independence and 
** enterprize distinguishes the lower orders, whilst the pride of ancestry 
" and the romance of chivalry are the delight of the higher classes. 
" Attached to the chase as an amusement, rather than as the means of 
subsistence, the harvest is no sooner reaped, than each feudal lord, with 
his associates and followers, devotes himself to its pursuits. The popu- 
lation being equally at the command of the feudal lord, whether in time 
of peace or war, agricultiutd pursuits, beyond a bare subsistence, are but 
little attended to." On the other hand, they are throughout notorious 
thieves, and scarcely consider murder as a crime. Instances of cold- 
blooded barbarous murders frequently occurred within two miles of the 
European fort, previously to the arrival of the British and the abolition of 
the slave trade. The unfortunate people who had been kidnapped and 
brought down to Makdsar for sale, were often murdered to prevent dis- 
covery where a ready sale was not found. 

Many of their customs are also extremely savage. The head of an 
enemy of rank is invariably severed from the dead body, and instances 
have more than once occurred of the heart being cut out and eaten by 
the conquerors. They are fond of the blood and raw flesh of animals. 
hdwar ddra, which is the liver and heart of a deer, cut into slices and 
mixed raw with the warm blood, is esteemed their favourite dish. 

The present form of government in all the states, except Wdfu, appears 
to be legal, fettered by a powerful aristocracy who elect the monarch : in 
lAiwu, particularly, the sovereign possesses a title, with more pomp and 
state attached to it than any other on the island, but with scarcely a 
shadow of authority. In Sed^ndreng he is the most despotic, which has 
enabled him to become the richest and best armed prince in the island. 
A species of feudal system prevails throughout, but it does not extend to 
property in the soil. Each individual of a state considers himself the 
liege subject of some petty chieftain, who is himself equally boimd to a 
more powerful one, and so on, by a regular chain, to the sovereigns of 




G6a, (Makidar), Boni, Ldwn, Sdping, Sedimdring. or Tamete, or :.• 'irf 
aristocracy of }Vdju. 

In each sovereignty there are two classes of nobility, called Pamya^'si 
and PaieU. The Paseajdng*am are the barons of the state, and cay t« 
considered in every respect as subjects, being obliged to obey all < - :cn 
they receive from the sovereign, whereas the Pale le are independcn: ;^:; 
chieftains (who have probably again under them both Paseaji^j'sti hz^ 
Palelejy who have attached themselves to a particular soverriini. ^^'-^t its 
only obliged to do fixed feudal semccs, such as to assi^it with tru^- fi>- 
lowers in case of war, to attend the pubUc feasts given by the -i^vij^^-^ 
and to a^isist in building and repairing the palace of state. In S't/iin^ >.^-; 
PaleleiH obliged to furnish and keep up at all time« one effective !^ li^r, 
called jitOf for the immediate protection of the sovereign. 

Wien the sovereign wishes to give orders to his PaltU\ he ^"^ul^,' ts 
him to his ]>rcsence by a messenger who bean a bila-bUa ; the t%M-:uA 
is a leaf of the lontar with a number of knots on it, specif v-ing ihe lj.-z- 
ber of days at the expiration of which the vassal is required to i\i^i 
llie Pelele receives it seated in the midst of his head people, with L.« r^ti 
hand on the handle of his kris, and as soon as he has got it rij««. :r*rt 
his kriSf and swears on it to be faithful to his sovereign. To ne^lcx-: \lj* 
summons is a breach of allegiance. 

The provinces under I'luropean authority are purely feudal ; the D.*.~i- 
as sovereign, considering themselves as sole ])roprietor of the s^il.L-ii'it 
regents, or feudal lords, being at all times liable to immediate rem<>i-il ir«i 
dispossession, should they neglect to perform the feudal sendee ne^u-rtd. 
of wluitever nature it may be. 

The sovereign is chosen from the royal stock l)y a certain number c( 
counsellors, who also possess the right of subsequently removing Ls ; 
and such is their iniluencc, that the sovereign can neither go to v&r or 
lulopt any jmblic measure, excei)t in concert with them, llicy have :bf 
('liar*^rc of the public treasure, and also a])point the prime minister. Tlc 
]triiu*e cannot himself take the perscmal command of the army; but iht 
usage of the country admits of a temporury resignation of otiice for li-jf 
l)urposo. in which case a rc^^'cnt succeeds ]>rovisionaUy to the rarJi of 
cliirf, and carries on the alFairs of government in concert with the mai>ir.;T 
of tlie council. Women and minors may be elected tn any uAire of :he 
state ; aixl wben this takes place, an additional officer, havmir a Vit^c 
whiili liteniUy means a support or prop, is nppi>inted to a'«si<;t. 

In linni the ])rince is eleeteil by the Onin'/-jtttu, or sevi-n hereiliMrr 
roun»'ellors. In iin'ii {Mako'stir) the prince is eho^ien by ten cnun*t*IiT*, 
of whom ibe first mini^^ler, termed Brchtira Hutu, is one ; thi'» la*t crTit-fr 
IS bniiM'If a]i]>oiiited by the coiineil of nine, termed the nine »taniianl* itf 
liu' eiMuitry, but in the exerei^^e of his otliee possesses very extraordimrr 
]ui\ver'< : it is said he can riinove the sovereiirn himself, and call upiin the 
tK'iiors to make anotlier cli(»iee. The inferior cbiefs, or Kraims, who 
ailnniu>ter tbe (ie])eMilent ]»rovinees, are nppi tinted by the government. 
.Pill Mot elei'ted by .1 nMiru i1. altlHMi;*b in the exercise of their office ibcir 


power is in like manner limited i the nmnber of the council varying in 
different states. When the prince in council has decided upon war, the 
assembled chiefs, after sprinkling their banners with blood, proceed to 
take a solemn oath, by dipping their krises into a vessel of water, and 
afterwards dancing around the blood-stained banner, with frantic gesture, 
and a strange and savage contortion of the body and limbs, so as to give 
the extended his a tremulous motion, each severally imprecating the ven- 
geance of the deity against his person, if he violates his vow to eztermi* 
nate the enemy, to conquer or die. 

The proportion of the crop which falls to the share of the landlord has 
already been stated. In some districts a sixth, and in others a tenth, 
belongs to the sovereign ; but in general the landlord, the capitalist, and 
the cultivator, may be considered to share between them the whole pnv> 
duce of the land. The monopolies which the chiefs assume to themselves 
have also been noticed. Besides these there are a few imposts in bazars, 
which, with some other pecuniary emoluments, accrue to the chiefs, but 
they are, for the most part, rather to meet their personal expenses than 
to defray those of the state, and consequently hardly deserve the name of 
pubUc revenue. 

The arms formerly used for offence by the inhabitants of Celebes were 
the sumpit, or tube through which the poisoned dart is blown, the kru, 
spear, kUwang (cutlass,) bddi, andpdrang: to them may now be added 
muskets, musketoons, and small cannon. Those for defence were chain 
armour ^baju rdnti) and two kinds of shields, the one long the other 
round, made of very tough light wood, and bound together very strongly 
by pieces of spht rattan. 

TheJVf ahomedan religion is professed in all those parts of Celebes which 
have any pretensions to civilization, and the Koran, of course, is the 
standard of law and worship, as far as it is known. According to the 
records of Makdsttr, the Mahomedan reli^^on was introduced there about . 
the year 1603, by Khateb Tungai Datu Bandang, a native of Metukgkaban 
on Sumdtra, Nearly all the inhabitants of the south-west limb are Maho- 
medans, but of the centre and the other limbs of the island only a very 
small portion have been converted. Ther^ are Mahomedan schools in all 
parts of the south-west limb, but the Arabic language is only learnt by 
those designed for the priesthood. They do not consider themselves as' 
belonging either to the sect of Omar or Ali, but as followers of the law of 
the prophet, without regard to either. Circumcision is performed on 
both sexes; on the males at ten or twelve years of age, on the females at 
six or seven. 

It has been related, that the change of religion on Celebes happened) 
just after the arrival of the Portuguese, who are said to have offered; 
Christianity at the same time that the Mal4yus offered Mahomedanism. 
The king of Makdsar is said to have been doubtful which of these systems 
he should adopt, till he consulted the wisest men in his dominions, who 
advised him to embrace the rehg^on of the Koran in preference to that of 
the gospel, stating as an argument in its favour, that it had arrived first. 


and that (lod would never permit error to arrive before tru:b !).::?• 
does not api>ear on t}ie recordit of Makasar. 

'llie public feasts fonnerly held, sometimes for week-* ti"Hre:i-"r r. -^ •'^■ 
to have been for political rather than relifrious purinj^*^ : at j rt-t:: \l£ 
Mahomedan fasts and feeL<«ts are obser^'ed. ronneriy the dead vtrt .'-.r- 
rally buried, but in some instances burnt, lliere is still \»t ^« wis 
Lamuru a burial-])lace ]>eIonging to the royal family, c(>niauur.«: ;<.-- r 
urns with the ashes of their ancestors, which are held sarrtr«i, ^^n-i 
almost worshipped, at the j)resent (by. The Brngig name for thr ] '^- r- ■: 
burial used before they were c«m verted to Islamism iit Pnlmmmm, ..' 'it 
])ljue of buminjr. It is not known that any triber^ of the Tmr^j -j y.:^ 
their dead at present : they are said to de{>osit them in cicaviuir-** 
on the sides of hills, and to be so anxious to be buried amonif il.r.r r^A- 
tions, that if a man of nuik dies in a distant jjart of the cuuniry, ilvr •^.t 
is St'dted to pre>cr\'e it, and, in that btate, carried back to hi* i-u^ :-.- 
dence. Very little is known of these people by the iiiha^iitai::- :' *.-« 
south-western limb, but they are universally considered as the rr-: .Ha- 
bitants of the island. They are a very fine race of people . ibe * zsz 
particularly so. It is said they will not suffer strani;ers or Mar;»^=< i*i« 
to reside amonj^ them, and that the custom of pri>curinij[ a certiir. r..:^. 
her of human heads previous to marria^fe is as prevalent axnunif itrrr. m 
with the Dayas of Borneo, and the Hara/uras of the Ea.<tem Arc:.:-«uf « 
in j^eniTiJ. 

Kac'h state has its o\\'n system of 'aw^, but they nearly conrcr a i:£ 
followini^ ])rinciples. Each sovereiffn generally possej^<«es the ri^rh: •( t'j:- 
tiuj^ to <lt'ath any of his subjects, except the members of his owu {nr-.f 
Should any one of these commit a crime and escape into ant.ither trrr.Turr. 
he cannot ))e touched, but if taken in his own country* he rouht lie ^^•u«l: 
before the hechfira, who alone «ire ca{>al)le of passing sentence on h:m 

Each ])etty state has its bechara, com|>osed of the princi|>al pei.j.>.S»»a 
Pusvnjmu/an and Paiele. All disputes Ix'tween itn followers are deciiit-d *-▼ 
it : it also judj^es and i)asses sentence in cases of theft, murder, and idz^- 
lery, and decides all causes resjiecting the le^pd right to prc>|)ertv ; bu: sa 
appeal may be made to the court or bechara of the pnnci|^ tttat^. lit 
inirnbt-rs of which arc called the Knpdla Bechara. The decisiioQ of ir.j 
bfch'irn is subject to the approval of the sovereign, where he w n-»t Lix- 
sflf a party interested : inrleed he may, in general, su{H.'rsede the au'.h-v 
rity of tiiis court by decidini,' promptly, Imt it l>ehovo!! him to itb«J 
strictly tr) the adat binsn, or ancient customs of the state, in his dec:-;i«. 
for tlu' htrhnra has the pt)wcr to ninove the sovereign aiul elrct a ar* 
one. The sumi" persons at all liini'-i decide an the fact and the la«*. 

It is ditheiilt to ascertain whieh <if the dialects >|Hiken tm 1 elr?>e« hM 
nio^t elaini tt> antiipiity. I have already stated, that the MaJkasar ^ 
Hii'/is are eon^ideretl a*; the twu principal lan^uaifes of that jiart of the«l known to l-^nrojuans. 'Die Muka'sar, the Btii/is, and Mauiikar»ie, 
whieh may he eon^^ideied as dialeets of the same lanmKige. use tie suae 
ehar.ieter with some Iritliri:^ variaiiuii>. The Turiijas or Harafmra^ ^ 


Celebes have a fourth language, probably the most original, but it is not 
known whether they are at all acquainted with writing. 

Each nation considers its own the most ancient character. The Makd- 
sar alphabet is less complete than the Bugis, which consists of twenty- 
two letters, varied by six vocal sounds. The form of the character is 
peculiar, and more nearly resembles that of the Bdtas on Sumatra than 
any other we know of. It is difficult to decide whether the Biigis or 
Makdsar language is the most ancient. Many words have the same 
meaning in both, and many others differ so little* as to be evidently of 
the same origin ; but the Bugis has often six or seven synonymes, whereas 
the Makdsar has never more than two, and seldom more than one. Some 
of the Bugis words bear strong evidence of Hindu origin, as s6da from 
s6nay gold ; pardma from brahma, fire ; which is not at all the case with 
the Makdsar. 

La Galtga, the reputed son of Saw{ra Gdding, is considered the author 
of the history of Sawira Gdding, which is a kind of heroic poem, and is 
read in a chaunting voice, with a pause at the end of every fifth syllable. 
The measure consists of a dactyl followed by a trochee, as Sawtra GSdKhg 
to Malampoa, (Sawira Gdding the great). He is the only author whose 
name is conmionly known ; and all books, even the most modem, which 
are written in the same manner, are called after him GaUga, although, 
properly speaking, the term should only be applied to the history of the 
heroes who are supposed to have lived previous to the seven generations 
of anarchy which subsisted at Bdni. Sultdna 2kienab Zakeyai Udiu, the 
seventeenth sovereign of Bdni subsequent to the anarchy, is said to have 
written an historical poem, containing the exploits of all the sovereigns of 
Bdni, from the reign of Mdta Se Sdmpo, the memtron of Matdjam, down 
to her own time; but it is not to be procured on the western side of 
Celebes. It appears, however, that every Bugis family of high rank pos- 
sesses a very authentic history of that period, collected from the records 
of the court of Bdni. 

The author of the Rupthui is not known, nor indeed is the name of any 
Makdsar author known. The Rupdma is considered by the Bugis, as well 
as the Makdsars, to be of equal antiquity with the Saw(ra Gdding. Copies 
of both these works have been obtained. 

In the account given by Dr.Leyden, in his valuable paper on the Hindo- 
Chinese nations,t upwards of fifty literary compositions in the language 
of this country are enumerated, most of which serve either to celebrate 
the deeds of their national heroes, or are of an amatory character. Be- 
sides these they possess codes of laws, or rather customs, said to be of 
considerable antiquity. The Koran has been translated into the Bugis 
language. The use of rhyme is much less frequent than among the Maid- 
yus: and it has been observed by Dr.Leyden, that *' the melody of the 
" verse depends on the rhythm, and the measure of some of the historical 

« See ComparatiTe Vocabulary annexed, including the dialects of the touth.weit limb of 
Celebes, and some of the islands in its vicinity, on which Bugii eettlements have been formed, 
f Asiatic Researches. 


" poems has, in this respect, considerable ainularity to tome of the 9z^,- 
" mens of Sanscrit verse." The Bugis tongs are Teiy numeroiu, umi a. 
high estimation throughout the Archipelago. 

They have no books on science, philosophy, or astronomy. Tit ct 
stars they are acquainted with, are Jupiter (cmUed Pelm:, the Ke.:^ 
(called lV6rong Porong), Sirius and Orion (Jauff'am Jdrnff^am^ or the F.vl , 
the Great Dear (Jonga Jong'aya), Xavis (Belikaipom)^ and .Vntaref Lem- 
hdro). They na^ngate their prdhus by theae start, tome of vhich mc^t 
al\^'ays be in sight, if the weather be clear. 

The Makdsars use the Mahomedan names for the months. The Bmpt 
divide their year of three hundred and sixty-five days into twelve mi^ci^. 
>>eginning on our sixteenth of May. Whether this division of tLe ytv 
has taken place since the arrival of Europeans or not, is uncertam : 'i/ui 
it is more than probable it has, as, with all this correctne^^, it liot* z-a 
ap])ear they have any era ; at least since the introduction of M^v3£- 
danism, the Hegira seems to be used. The Biigis names of the moLUi. 
and the niunber of days they contain, are as follow :— 

Sarowand ..• • • .^ 30 days. 

Padrowdne 30 

Sujewi »«^ •••..«•*••. . 30 

Pachekae 31 

Posde 31 

Mangaseran ••^••^.. • 32 

Mangasutiice ...»««•• yj ciyi 

Mangalompae 3 1 

yayae ..^.••.. >i 

Palagmmae ..••••• 3ij 

Besakai «,.« 3" 

Jetai »^ ^j 

Some division of time into months and years must have taken plan k 
a much earlier date ; as some of the earliest of the present line of kixiA 
and the length of their reigns, are i)articularly mentione<l. 

I have before stated that slavery is practised on the island, and «^Jt 154 
states not only su])ply slaves for domestic consumption Cii^ I mav u*« lijs 
phrase), but for export and commercial traffic, lliere are examjiir* dtf 
whole villages becoming slaves, and there is scarcely a state or faailv >/ 
rank on the island that has not its assortment of these dcyoadcU bejtf«. 
many of whom are reduced to this condition by the most cruel and i r**- 
dious means. 

Of the thousands exported annually from Makdsttr, the icrcatest porUiV 
consisted of ])crsons who had l)een kidna|)ped by people acting uniirr tbt 
authority of the European Residents, or the princes of the country. 

The sale of their subjects coiLstituted one chief source of the revcsw 
of the Rajahs ; and the factors at the (hfTcrent Dutch residencie* tndsd 
in slaves. It is reported of one factor that he exi)orted nine hundnd u 1 
year, llic payment or contribution to l>e made to the Dutch, ib-a» either 
mea'^ured in Kold, silver, or slaves. In a treaty made between the f^opk 
of Cr'uV/and Admiral S))eehn<in, we find that they promised topay m> nar^ 
of the jtieeiou< metal •<, (»r one thousand slaves. Those sLives that wwt 
obtaiiud hy law or <le>cint. wtro railed Dingen : tho.-se kidnap|)ed, PmM. 

The ies])ecti\ e prices for slaves at Makaxur M-ere as follow >— 


APPENDIX. xcvii 

For a grown lad, legitimately obtained 20 dollars. 

For a young woman, ditto -••••..••• 40 

For a grown lad, kidnapped ..••....•. -^^ •• • 10 

For a yomig woman, ditto 20 

It appears from the report of a commission appointed to inquire into the 
abuses of the slave trade in Celebes^ addressed to the coimcil of policy, 
and dated Makdsar, the 2l8t September, 1799* that the Dutch govern- 
ment of Batavia, from the year 1699 (the period of the first Dutch 
settlement at Makdsar), had sent repeated orders for the prevention of 
abuses in the slave trade in Celebes ; with what effect, the following 
extract from the same report will shew. 

" The abuses which have successively crept in, and the intrigues which 
*' are now practiced to obtain slaves, are so manifold and perplexing, that 
*' it would be very difficult for us to enumerate or to trace them. In at- 
** tempting such a detail with all the precision and attention possible, we 
** should still ignorantly omit some things, and depict others in too faint 
** and indulgent a light, the grounds of our information being often super- 
*' ficial and precarious ; for, it is to be remembered, that the enormities 
" which are committed in this trade conceal themselves in the dark, and 
*' it is only by accident that some traces of them can occasionally be dis- 
'' cemed. For these reasons, the undersigned request that they may be 
excused for confining themselves to the most common and notorious 
abuses, which, being faithfully recorded, may still afford siifiicient evi- 
*' dence of the dreadful and detestable crimes which spring from avarice, 
'< and of the frightful shapes in which she perpetually displays herself, in- 
'' stigating and exciting the vengeful and blood-thirsty passions of the 
*' natives, and creating a fertile source of trouble and mischief. 

" llie making of a slave transport, if properly viewed, consists in no- 
*' thing more than this : — A person, calling himself an interpreter, re- 
pairs, at the desire of one who says that he has bought a slave, to the 
Secretary's office, and accompanied by any native, who, provided with 
a note from the purchaser, g^ves himself out as seller. For three 
rupees a certificate of sale, in the tisual form, is immediately made out ; 
" three rupees are also paid to the notary, two rupees put into the hands 
*' of the interpreter, the whole transaction is concluded, and the pur- 
" chaser has thus become the lawful owner of a free-bom man, who very 
" often is stolen with his (the purchaser's) concurrence and co-operation. 
'* He does not, however, trouble himself about that, because the stolen 
*' victim is already concealed where nobody can find him. The transac- 
" tion also very seldom becomes public, because never were found more 
'* faithful receivers than the slave-traders. It is a maxim with them, 
*' never, as they call it, to betray their prison; a phrase which we shall 
presently have the honour more fully to explain. But what will be 
thought of the vsXue of those public instruments, to which the name of 
Slave Transports is attached, when at times it is found that both pur- 
" chaser and seller are fictitious, and that they are united in one league 
with the interpreter. By such means it is obvious, that the right of 

VOL. II. g 




xcviii APPENDIX. 

" property upon a Htolen man may be acquired with aw much eLv ir .* 
*' he were pinioned before the door or within the yard of the prtTf--:-i 
" purchaser, and with no (greater cost than the small sum of one r:-" - 
" something more, according to circumstances, which mu«t b* : / "-• 
" the hands of him who gave himself out for the seller. Tm fin.i :. ;*r- 
** son for this purpose does not re<|uire a long search, for it i* a ir-r tvt 
" trade to pursue, and there are numbers of the most prollijztc ■ f •:* 
" natives continually roving about who do nothing el*e. and ttli.— aj 
" themselves exclusively upon such smaU profit.** ; even tb* •lavr- f r:* 
** inhabitants being bril>ed, suffer themselves, for a small fre, i.^ > :i'-» 
" employed. The victim himself, who is stolen and snl«i, w nev-r -jx- 
** amined, nor do the Dutch or native interpreters at all conrtm tr-rs- 
" selves a]>outthe matter; they are not much afraid of the h*k «■; ;i*t 
** responsibility ; so that, at any time, it were possible to prej»arr "v: rf- 
*' hand as many transi)orts as might \ye required. 

** Let us further represent to ourselves this, our town of Makaftir. • L^: 
** with j)ri8ons, the one more dismal than the other, which are *xu?:-: ;: 
** with hundreds of \^Tetches, the victims of avarice and tvnuinT. i- . 
" chained in fetters, look forward unth despair towards the.r f--sj^ 
** destiny, and taken away from their wives, their children, their tcj--!"*. 
their friends and comforts, languish in slaver)', helpless and nu**r»""i- 
We may j)icture to ourselves the condition of one (and how oftf?. :o 
** such instances occur) who perhaps saw his aged father lose hi> IJ* '» 
his side, in attempting to rescue the pride and comfort of hbt «i<rLr.r^ 
years, whilst the survivor, incapable of further resistance, is ti-rt fr:a 
him, robbed irrecoverably of what is most precious to every honun v- 
inur, and carried away, in a condition more dreadfid than death rt<^'.f. t 
condition of despair and uncertaintv, in which that moment onlv ^^aL 
])roduce a cliange, when he is resi^^ed for a trifle to the arbitrm* vii ^"^ 
a master, who has paid the stij)idated price, and acquired the njht i 
placing him amongst the number of his domestic animals, treatm^ i.a 
" at times no better than he would do those creatures. 

" If we would lift up another comer of the ciutain, a scene no irf* 

** afflicting presents itself. Here we discover wives lamenting the lo»« vi 

thrir hus1)aiids, children missing their ])arent8, parents misa«ii« Uke? 

children, who, with hearts filled with rage and revenge, run frasLr 

through the streets and 1)efore our doors, to do all that the filial lonr M 

children for their parents, the tenderness of (larents for their otf«pnU 

can inspire, in order, if ])ossible, to discover where their dearest plrdcf 

are concealed. Often, very often, is all their lal)ourand trrHihle m ram. 

being oltliged to return back hopeless and comfortless to their adlirtei 

friends and relations. Sometimes, indeed, the profoundest s ^ ci ecy i* 

" not proof against their indefatigalde scrutiny, and if they do by iot 

'* chance learn where a father, mother, a son or daughter, a hushand or i 

" wife, is ke{)t in concealment, hope revives within their hosoms« ifri 

•• abM>rbe(l in the pro-^pect of brooming their deliverers and «rioBr«. 

•• every sicritiee i** ci»n«*i<lered tiirting, bv means of which they can nctJ] 








** possession of the objects of their anxious care. But, alas! these un- 
" happy people have not as yet reached the end of their sufferings ; an 
" obdurate piu*cha8er, deaf to all the pleadings of distress, will be pre- 
** pared coolly to make his advantage of it, and proportionally to enhance 
" the ransom of his victim, till, by extorting an exorbitant price, he may 
" plimge the unhappy relative from a moderate property into indigence, 
** or, which is still worse, biu*den him with debts, which, sooner or latter, 
" will reduce himself, and perhaps his whole family, to slavery i 

" It must not be thought, that when these wretched people have thus 
" carried their point, and when, to furnish the sum demanded, they have 
" sold their houses and goods, or even pawned themselves*, that, after 
" the payment of the ransom agreed on, the matter is finished. No ! the 
" trader will not deliver up the pretended slave until he departs for 
** Batavia : and if we ask, why ? it is, that his prison may not be be- 
" trayed ; that is to say, that it may not become generally known through- 
" out the country, what numbers of stolen people he keeps shut up within 
" his prison, and that the cry of vengeance against many execrable acts 
" that are concealed in the dark, may not every where be heard, by which 
" many villains would become notorious. A son is therefore only ex- 
'* hibited to the afflicted father : he sees him in a pitiful condition linked 
" with fetters, and it is frequently at such a moment that the ransom is 
" agreed on. The grief wherewith a father's heart is pierced at such a 
" sight, the rapid succession of his emotions from grief and despair to 
" hope and longing, when contrasted with the deliberate cahnness with 
" which a covetous piurchaser knows how to take advantage of the poor 
** man's distress ; the indifference, the obstinacy, with which he persists 
" in his bloody demand of each rix-dollar, each stiver, nay almost of 
'* each penny ; in a word, every thing that can have any relation to such 
" a striking spectacle, can be more easily conceived than described, and 
" we have said enough to exhibit the abomination of proceedings, which 
*' cannot fail to have a most pernicious influence upon society. 

" But it may be said, the laws and regulations speak in favour of the 
" oppressed. We have shown above, in what manner government have 
" endeavoured, from time to time, to provide against such abuses, and to 
" this we beg leave to refer; but where avarice is predominant, laws, 

reason, rights, humanity, all that is sacred^ are too often compelled to 

yield. Besides, various obstacles conspire, which time and local cir- 
'* ciunstances have engendered,^'BO that in spite of the most salutary sta- 
" tutes (which are indeed so far nominally in force) the evil cannot be 
" effectually checked ; and experience has taught us, that the most rigor- 
" ous orders which .government could devise, would be msufficient to 
" make a due provision against the increase of these abuses. 

« Those, whose fate we have now hastily drawn, are not always stolen 
" by foreign nations at distant places. No : about and near the houses 
" of oiu" own inhabitants, in our kampongs, within our own town, it very 
** often happens. A numerous gang of villains, known by the name of 

* Meaning their service« for a stipulated period or for life. 







'' bondsmen (verpimdehmg), with a number of whom ertvy tkre-trkk? » 
" careful to provide himself according to hiH meanSy ure m«^t u.<<f J x- 
" struments in procuring slaves in the easiest and cheapest vzt ; &:•: 
'* being instructed in all the arts of villainy, and eager for prvy, thrr r^i 
about in gangs during the night and at unseasonable hours, and d *u- 
cessful in over|>owering some one, they carry the victim to thrir em- 
ployer, or to any purchaser, and it u very seldom that any thin^ nwft j 
" heard of it, than that such a one has lost his slave, or that surh a u&re 
is missing. The stolen man, woman, or child, is already chained a: 
shut up within the prison of some slave-trader, which is never vk'j^ 
** The slaves for forei^ markets are always carried on board as ii;^b:. 
" and if a stolen person were either free-bom, or the slave of an :sUU- 
tant, he dares not make himself known as long as he is in hi.« nr^acr't 
hands, for, in that case, they would kill him immediately, even wtrt s 
" before the door of the i)erson who wanted to buy him, whilrt \he rr^ 
" hers would have no difficulty in getting out of the way, and beyooi i^ 
reach of justice. 

** Those who are trained to this business, whether bondsmen or thTn 
(for even amongst this latter class of people thieves of men an ufica 
" found), are very fertile in all kinds of intrigues to accomplish their e&i», 
" for except casual victims, who sometimes fall by accident mto :be.r 
" clutches, a considerable time will often elafMte before they nirnvi a 
" securing the object they liave marked out for their prey, becao«c :br 
" devoted creature is frequently on his guard ; and as it cannot he iuor 
" openly without great precaution, for he would certainly sacnbcr bi 
" own or their lives to preser\'e his liberty ; they, therefore, lie is wi:i 
** for him a long time, endeavouring by indirect means to make arqiuu:% 
" ance with him, in order to gain his confidence, and then, we will doC 
" say always, to conduct or allure him into the house of the slave-trMkr. 
" or other^^'ise, as is sometimes the case, to lead him to a remote ipac. or 
** at least to Home distance from his house, when he immediate! r ioM 
" himself attacked by two or three of these ruffians, who have long pcv- 
" viously agreed with his pretended friends, and before he has time to pa 
" himself into a posture of defence, or to take hold of his kris, it is ahcah 
" wrested from him, and hin hands are tied behind his back. To cry for 
** help would be immediately fatal to him, he is therefore compeUed to be 
'* quiet, and to sufler himself to be sold as a slave by the ruffians who had 
•* previously arraiif^od where to carr)' him. 

" Why Rueh violations are so seldom made public, and thieves of mca 
*• are so rarely detected, many sufficient reasons may be assigned. For 
'* instance : the profound n'crecy of the prisons ; the clandestine nnnMr 
*' in which slaves for traffic are Ciirried on board in the dark of the nigbt; 
** the sinister manner in which the purch.ise is transacted and confinoaed; 
" the facility with which the villains are able to escape, when after aonr 
** time the theft l)econies notorious ; the difficulty of making satis&ctory 
** n)(|uii y about a crime, of which hut a few of the |>erpetraton and tlvir 
" accomplices .ue gencmlly withni the reach of justice, whilst the stokn 




person is still more rarely present, so that it generally happens, in such 
a case, tliat the most guilty get off; the still greater unconmionness of 
'* offenders of this sort being caught in the very act, so as to fall at once 
" into the hands of justice; and, finally, the secret protection which some 
" native petty princes, living upon plunder, afford to their subjects. All 
" these, and many other circumstances, combine to facilitate the practice 
*' of kidnapping, which thus goes on almost undisturbed, and generally 
" unpunished i 

" A rich citizen, who has a sufficient number of emissaries called bonds* 
** men, carries on his trade much more easily than a poor one does. The 
latter is often obliged to go himself to the Kdmpong Bugis or elsewhere, 
to take a view of the stolen victim and to carry him home ; whilst the 
" former quietly smokes his pipe, being sure that his thieves will, in 
" every comer, find out for him sufficient game, without his exerting 
" himself otherwise than indirectly. The thief, the seller, the interpreter, 
'* are all active in his service, because they are all paid by him. In some 
" cases the purchaser unites himself with the seller, on purpose to deceive 
" the interpreter ; whilst, in other cases, the interpreter agrees with the 
" thief and pretended seller, to put the stolen person into the hands of the 
*' purchaser ! What precautions, what scrutiny, can then avail, when we 
" reflect, that the profound secrecy of the prisons, and the strict precau- 
" tions in carrying the slaves on board, are equalled only by the licenti- 
ousness with which the transports are fabricated ? 
A distinction ought, however, to be made between such illegal and 
" criminal practices, and a more moderate trade in slaves, many of whom, 
" it is true, are stolen, but not in our vicinity, nor in the districts of the 
" Company. } The remainder are generally such as, according to the se- 
" parate laws and customs of the native nations of Celebes, have in some 
way or other forfeited their liberty, either in war, or for some misde- 
meanour, or on accoimt of debts. These are likewise higher in price, 
" so that the trader cannot have so much gain upon them ; they may also 
" appear at broad day-light, an interpreter may with security answer for 
" them. Such slaves can be brought on board very quietly in the day 
" time ; the frequency of murder, as in other cases, is not much to be 
** dreaded, and our town has considerably less danger to i^prehend from 
** these than from the class before mentioned." 

The report concludes by recommending specific measures, and express- 
ing an opinion, that " it would not be inexpedient, if, but for one year, 
" the exportation of slaves from hence were suspended." 

In the following year, the residents received instructions from the high 
regency, in which several of their predecessors were accused of having 
** assumed a despotic sway over the natives, plundered those over whom 
" they had been placed to protect them, and of having even dared, with 
the assistance of the native chiefs, whom they have found means to de» 
bauch, to put the natives in irons, and to sell them as slaves." 
Mr. Chassd, when governor of Makdsar, much to his honour, attempted 
to put a stop to manstealing in the neighbourhood of his residency. He 




did not, however, succeed to any extent. When the Brituh imr^i. 
appeared that numbcre of plunderers were roaming about for tLc •-:; : 
of the slave market, which ^i^-as still open ; so that the inhabitant* > f *. .f 
villages adjacent to Makdsar, never dared to approach, except in par.:r« r 
at least five or six armed men. ^Vn equal caution pre%-ai]ed throu.-!-: ^ 
the country. 

To enforce the British abolition laws, there was formed at Bauv i. z 
the beginning of the year 18 IG, a society called the Jara Bemeroitn: /w 
stitution, and in the course of the year this society published an x.— -•.: 
of its proceedings, containing, among other interesting matter, " R^rr^r-.^ 
*' upon Makdsar, &c. compiled from the information of Lieutrnan: < >^:n 
'* Phillips, assistant resident there." This {laper concludes 2» f< »!;.:▼• 

•' The laws recognized between the Dutch Com^iany and the •u'** : 
" Boni and Gtta may be considered a fair criterion of ihfir ttrorr*'. •:-• 
and tendency. They were agreed to in an early perio*! tif ;hr i^.- - 
establishment, when Admind S])eelnian conclude<i a treaty wi'.h t ^ 
states, and they have not since undergone any material £tfnt "• 
The penalties therein prescribed were required to be paid in m> r.-- r 
property of any descrii)tion, at the arbitrary rates fixed by the •i.T-* 
laws, and which ap]>ear on the whole to Ik» extremely favnur^ > v r-.r 
individual ; debtors or convicted felons, in default t)f paj-mr-r. >. 
coming bondsmen. But the temptation to corruption aAorie^: ••. ^ 
open market and an increased demand for slaves for tmjfic. intn*:. - 
a pnietice of condemning, first to bondage, and then fabnLa:.-.^- ■ ■ 
three dollars a certificate of slaver)'; a practice which, al;h"<*4.'r. : " 
recognized in the laws subsisting between the Euro^tean an i r-:. ' 
])owers, was yet generally known to prevail, and if not fvr=.*»- 
sanctioned, was openly tolerated under the former systom. 
*• Whilst these laws are administered in the native state** bv th^:T ■ --r- 
cils or bvchdras, the administration of justice in the l'om|ian%'« tr-^- 
•* tories was vested in the Regent, under tiie su|ierinton<lan(v ^^i r 
** Drnst, but who has usurjK'd the power of actually decidinj;. partjp:.i' ■ 
•* iu ca^es where he is interested in the condemnation:!, from i!if r«:/ 
•* which the jud^^c enjoys, of a moiety of the profK-rty ari^^intf fr»>nj :: 
'* sail' t»f juT^oiw cdiiili'niiuMl to slavery, or in the aftpropnatiin ■. : : 
•• ctrtaiii liuinbi'i" uf tluiu to hi** own u<e 1 The abu^ies ari^mi; ••:»• ' 
*• thc-ic unlawful u>ur]»ation*i appear to have attained a ffreat hctfr;". 
** 17I»I^ when the counni^^ion was appointed to inquire into them; ^•-• 
•• (as in the ca^- of restraints which had from time to time lieen im:--*-! 
" by law: that in(|uiry did little more than recognize the right of K-i-z'.t . 
*• over the actor> and participators in ^uch abuses; a right wh:ch c*^^: 
'* readily and protitably he cuuijirumised by men who. from hab:i. vt*: 
** actuated bv little cietii mined ahl.urrence of Mich crime*, and no •trxv. 
** risjiliituiu ti> cra<lica;e tUeui. I'o this cau!«e alunc mu««t }fe attnS'-t* : 
*' the d.jlicultie- staU-d by the coiuuu<»»ion to be «»p|>«i*ied to the diw t\- 
*' cent ion nt'ilie l.iws. and tn ilu' >upprt s'>ii>u of the enomntit-s that wt:t 
" generally piactisi-d; and ahhtiu^h partial refnnnn wiere 


« t 

t < 


did not, however, succeed to any extent. When th« BritUi •rmvd, if 
appeared that numbcrK of plunderers were roaming about far the eapfilj 
of the slave market, which was still open ; so that the inhabitanla qf the 
villages adjacent to Makdsar, never dared to approach, except in panic* of 
at least five or six armed men. An equal caution prevailed th wm g h out 
the country. 

To enforce the British abolition laws, there wai foimed at Bdaria, m 
the beginning of the year 181G, a society called the Jora Brntpolmi la- 
ttitution, and in the course of the }'ear this society published ai 
of its proceedings, containing, among other interesting matter* *' 
ui>on Makdsar, &c. compiled from the information of Lievtenant Owen 
Phillips, a-ssistant resident there." This paper concludes as foDovs : 

The laws recognized between the Dutch Company and the atatn of 
B6ni and Gua may be considered a fair criterion of their general vptrit 
and tendency. They were agreed to in an early period of the D«irh 
establishment, when Admiral Sp<*elman concludeil a treaty with tho« 
" states, and they have not since undergone any material altefatiaos. 
The i)enalties therein prencribed were required to be paid in nonry or 
property of any descrijUion, at the arbitrary rates fixed by the same 
laws, and which appear on the whole to be extremely favourable to tht 
individual ; debtors or convicted felons, in default of payment, be- 
coming bondsmen. But the temptation to corruption afforded by aa 
()[>en market and an increased demand for slaven for traffic, introdncvd 
a practice of condemning, first to Ixmdage, and then fabricating for 
three dollars a certificate of slavery; a practice which, althongh noi 
recognized in the laws sulisisting between the European and natiw 
powers, was yet generally known to prevail, and if not fofmaDy 
sanctioned, was o|>enly tolerated under the former system. 

Whilst these laws are administered in the native states by their rowi- 
cils or beckdrat, the administration of justice in the C ompany's terrv 
toricH was veste«1 in the Regent, under the superintendance of the 
I host, but who has usurped the power of actually deciding, partkobriy 
in cascH where he is interested in the condemnations, from the ngbl 
which the jwltn* enjoys, of a moiety of the property arising fiua tbr 
Mill* of i»er<«on4 coiiilemntHl to slavery, or in the aivpropriation of a 
certain number uf thcni to his own use ! 'l*he abuMea arising out ef 
thcte unlawful u^uqiations ap|)ear to have attained a great heiffhl ia 
171)9. when the commiwiion was appointed to inquire into them ; bnt 
(an in the ca*H* of rcHtraints which hail from time to time been imposed 
by law : that inquir)- did little more than recoguiie the right of coatrul 
over the actor< and piirticiimtom in MUch abuaes; a right which coaU 
reailily ami profitably Ik* cumpromiKcd by men who. from habit, 
actuated by little determined abhorrence of nuch crimes, and no 
** n-«olution to eradicate them. To this cause alone must be attnbnlrd 
** the <litlicultie<> htuteil by the comminHion to lie opposed to the doe cs- 
** ecntion of the lawh, and to the Mippn ration of the enormitiea that 
** generally practisetl^ and although |»artial reforms were 




• « 

• « 


• « 

• • 

• • 






according to the disposition and principles of the persons who presided 
successively in Makdsar, the enormous gains to be derived from the 
toleration of corruption was a powerful obstacle to its removal : and 
it may be said of the abuses and enormities detailed by the commission 

" in 1799, that although perpetuated with more or less aggravation, as 
the controuling authority was more or less conscientious and vigilant, 
no radical removal of them took place, nor were the suggestions of 
that commission carried into effect, except partially within the town of 

" Makdsar, 

** On the establishment of the British government, the practice and 
mode of kidnapping within the town of Makdsar had, in some degree, 
been restricted and ameliorated -, but this did not extend to the coimtry. 
Some limitations had therefore been imposed on the connivance and 
direct participation of the public functionaries ; but bondsmen were 
still generally employed as man-stealers, and the practice of concealing 
in secret prisons, of assassinations to prevent detection, and of mid> 
night embarkations, were but little controuled or inquired into, as may 
be sufficiently inferred from the laxity of the public tribunals, and 
the rare instances of any infractions of these laws being punished by 

** them. 
" The introduction of the prohibitory laws by the establishment of 
the British government, naturally operated to cause a sudden and com- 
plete suspension of the open traffic ; and although individuals are still 
clandestinely carried from Makdsar, the number is so small, that the 
utmost vigilance has hitherto been unable to convict the perpretators, 
especially as the nmnerous gang of bondsmen and man-stealers, though 
compelled at present to resort to other avocations, are yet at the call 
of corrupt employers, and live in the hope that occasion may again 
offer of freely retiuming to their pursuits, without apprehension of any 
consequences. This truth will be more generally appreciated, if we 
explain the course through which these people are led to engage in the 
desperate trade of kidnapping. The bondsmen, who are thus em- 

** ployed by slave-traders, are generally dissolute adventurers from the 
native states, who repair to Makdsar, perhaps, with a little property 
which they lose by gambling ; their next resource is to borrow from 
some one of the numeroiis Dutch or Chinese speculators (slave-traders) 
a sum of money, and which is only to be had at the exorbitant interest 
of fifty per cent, or, as expressed in the local terms, ' one wang per 
' month on the Spanish dollar/ A debt thus dissolutely contracted is 
not likely to be retrieved by patient industry. But were such a dis- 
position to prevail, the opportunity is scarcely ajSbrded, and the obliga- 
tion is generally allowed to accumulate imtil the debtor is about to pay 

** the price in his captivity. To retrieve himself from this dire altema- 
** tive, he has recourse to the trade of kidnapping, and the ready employ- 
ment he meets with, added to the sudden gains which he hopes to 
acquire, stimulate hira to repair his fortunes in this irregular and 
desperate pursuit. Such are the bondsmen who are the active agents 
'* of slave traders in Makdsar ; and while the abolition has had the two- 


* f 








' fold effect of ilnniniHtiing th^ir nunilirre mn>l of cheAinf tjirir dip*^ 
" dations, it miut br oltvioiu that lliin mlutuy ttfomi am attf odan 
" whilst the Bptrii wliirh produced it i* fostered. The tmniMaB n 
" 1799 foTciblj depicttiil the uttn- iitcoiiqwtenejr of iba moMtigid p»- 
" hibitions, in restricting ilic b«r)iaritin whkh xhta ptvnlled i ImI tktn 
" it yet a BtTODfrer fact, which bcani eqtuUljr upon the ttBfie, ■■ « 
" footing it might be nr-admltlcd ; It in, ihu the fMOatcat mt^ag b 
" whU were considered legal cundemiiatioiu to iSmmj, wooM hi Ufe 
" inadequaU to supplj the market under anjr imrfMblc KaiiUiiaHB. 
" the demand increaud, the moi« frequent coad«nne 
" pretencea would nBtunUljr ensue, if indeed mch t prartice in i^ 
■ gree could be considered legal : but the temptationa la apn tiik 
" ariiing from the numeroua aeccaaariea, and the direct or ioAnct | 
" ticipation of jiublic functionarira, added to the cooqanthre cka^ 
" of alolen men, are such strong indueeroent* to mrive Mtbaatabi 
" uoder an actual dcmuul, that no ho|i« could be b 
" ing them. On the uiiier hand, the niaintmance uf tW ■ 
" as they hare httbcrtu tended to comet i 
" roonstroiu pt»cticcii which obtained, nnsl, in their l 
" cflixtually refunn, nut unlj the habiU and dispositione of the iokahit 
" ant* of ifotdntr, but check those frequent oondctiHWlioVM whU^ k 
" the nalire atatea, may be chiefly imjiutcd to the edvaatagva ihalvne 
" generally made of them. To iUuiir>tc. in a familiar inrtancc, tba aAct 
" of this ameliontian brought abtml by the silent opcnOKM of ttm fn- 
>* kibitory laws ; on the Ant arriral of tlic English, the inhabit^aB i4 
" the adjacent villagre did not dale to cobm to Afaleisv in pania of hm 
" than fire or six mtn well armed, lliis waa equally the eaee ihnMgk 
" out the cotmtry, as there was an open ole (or afaaoat aay a^uha rf 
" people that could be etolen. The caae, bowner, k now mMf 
" altered, at least within the inOuenc* of the Britkh anihsKitj. Itn, 
" women, and children, are now to be eeen moriag «M|fr ahaM A* 
■■ country iu all dirrctions, without frar and without atna. Tmmmtj ■ 
" man gmng on a hunting party, w a t»eaini to UB kta gmnd. wmi 
" amw) a* if gi'mg to war ] at the present day uumbMs of pe<ndi wMf 
" be levn in ilw jiaddy fields without a spear amongat them. I RHiyad^ 
" that these eflects are not confined to the Cotnpany'i pnmaam, iMlen 
" fdl nearly thruughual the slatOB uf 04a, TUa. and TWndte, wbnu ttee 
" can be no doubt that a few y«un would be euffiriMil U luuiia*, «^« 
" the present syetem, a great increase to [lopulaliaa, and tt« man '^ 
'• portant intriHliiriiini uf commerce and dTiUaatiaa. 

■• The I'nncipal pintc ■ntlrmetus ere K4li and KR lUK, aitvMri a* 
*' the nunl>-w*a coast. The depredatious uf thne hardee aru gMieiali 
" earned on b etwee n Java and the Straits uf ^aleyer « their hMnSs tm 
•• the iaUndsHMr !Meyer. aleo Oamamf Ayi, and llv tsln at the iiiiimii 
" of the Day of StmUmm, and in guwral ibr unall tstn "■'*'-*H baUNM 
•' the eoMta uf Jata to the weal, Botacu to the ouith, awl C'cMib to 










































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60 e** .mm ^ * * •••••• • 





ROpa form, sliape, appearance, 

face of any thing. 
Chandra ••••moon at the 15th day, 

^ksl • • new moon, month of the 

Nabi or nebe •• the navel, completion of 

the month. 
Biimf the earth, or piece of 


BOda ancient ; original. 

K6n or G6doi\g leaf of a tree. 

M6di abstraction, devotion. 

Eku tail of any thing. 

D&ra large stars, planets. 

J alma or Janma mankind. 

Eka one. 

W&k the body. 

Sfita child. 

Siti . . . • • black earth, earth. 

Aw&ni courageous, hair of the 

W61an the moon, at the 14th 

day, full moon. 
Ydta tlien, forthwith, there- 
Tung'gal .... one. 


Nitra the eye lids, the eye. 

Chaksu the inner comer of the 


Nay&na sight. 

Sikiira • • ■ • • the palm of the hand. 

Buja the upper part of the arm 

near the shoulder. 

Puksa the jaw-bone. 

Dre^ti or desti. . the eye-brow. 

hkma the outer corner of the 


Lochdna • • • • the lips. 

Char&na the side of the cheek- 

Kenia the ears. 

Kerni the inner part of the ear. 

Andmba the act of closing the 

hands in obeisance. 

I'aling'an .... the lobe of the ear, the 


Mdta the eye, the pupil of the 

Tang'an •••••• the hands, the arms. 

SCiku • • the feet, or solea of the 


L4r wings. 

Ddii two. 

L6ro two. 


Bahning • • • • fire (of a furnace). 

Paw&ka fire (from a volcano). 

Siking fire (struck from a flint). 

Guna fire (from firiction of 


Dah&na •••••• the fire which pervades 

every thing that has 
life, extensive fire, fire 
that has never been ex- 

Tri-ningrdna • • fire (of the work-room). 

Uta a leech. 

Buja-ldna • • • . alligator or crocodile. 

H Qti worm of the earth. 

Jdta flame of fire. 

W6da fire or heat confined in a 

vessel, as in a cooking 

An&la the fire which giveth 

warmth to the heart, 
the fire of passion, the 
fire which giveth 
warmth to passion. 

Gnl fire (to a match). 

Utdwa fire. 

K£a ••••••.. great fire. 

L6na fire or flame of a lamp. 

Puyflca fire and ashes, mixed. 

Tiga • • • • • • • • three. 

Uning'a a torch. 


Wddang hot water. 

Seg&ra .the sea. 

Kerti well water. 

S(ichi water after it is used. 

Jalddri water from a lake, or 

where fresh water 
mixes with the sea. 

Hddi •••••••• mountain water, rare or 

pure water. 



Wama colour. 

W6h water which descends 

from a mouutaiu. 

Samiidra sea water. 

Jaladi tank or pond water. 

Ern&wa spring water. 

Toyadi dew water. 

Wahana flood or quantity of water. 

Waudadi • • • • juice from trees, as toddy, 


Siiidu milk. 

W4ri •••..... cocoa nut-water, water. 
Dik glutinous sap taken from 

trees, as the Indian 

rubber, &c 
Tasik sweat, applied to the sea 

on the coa^it. 

Ranyu water. 

Chatur fuur. 

Tapat four. 


B6ta a rasaksa or hobgoblin, 

also a lion. 

Pand&wa • • • • the five sons of Pandu. 

T4ta breath issuing from the 


Gdti ditto mouth. 

^Vi^aya air produced as in bel- 
lows, &c. 

Indri air which refreshes or 


Astra the air created by the 

passing of a missile 
weapon, or by the 
wielding of a sword. 

Sdra the same, created near 

the point or edge of the 

Maruta air which conveys scents 

of any kind. 

i*av^utia strong wind. 

ftana hurricane, violent wind. 

Marguna .... favourable wind in one's 


Saniirdna .... the wind that checks per- 

Warayang • . . • the point or edge of the 

wind which ^tiikes any 

Panrha five, 

Hdyu wind that circulates in 

the human body. 

Wjxikan whispering wind. 

(iuling'an • • • • air circulating in a room. 

Lima five. 

Sadrita the di ta»te> >•*--. 

aour, sail, tine- :.j- 
fpenC ur a».«a*a:/ . ml 
*» pcpp*r) 

Win&yang • • • • to ranfre, fwl mWif^ i: »- 

tier, (whj u .» i: .-- «- 
cording tu she ».& ar- 
tion» o chi:^r* • 

Gana ailk «onu« bee. 

Ket-tn •••••• the feeling or tA*:« « atw 

thiofT nuc pit^^^' ■ 
pain in ibe ire. auW 
gooil and bid. 

Ang'gat •••••• the trunk of a trre •"Mvi- 

in^r mtirr i:« rt'xs.aei 
and lra«c* art itr.s«rt 
■nd fallen. 

.Sayag an inclining tree. 

Kamg'a ....•• the serifr ut hrarr:^. 

Sanda • dear. UghL 

Sandi • plan, prt>.*^t, ^ b« :■*>, 


Bdidia ditpoaition. iDciuu:^*. 


Ka-n^nam .... six. 

Rasa taste. 



Tur&ngga . . • • 


Reksi or resi • • 

Aksa ... 
Baksu . . . 


llem&wan .. 


I Sapta 

i Pandita .... 
' Gengsiara • • 

Yam6nl .... 

I Kiida 



season, the seasons, prey 
of a wild l>ea>t. 


mountains near '.It ws. 

se^'cral muuii'^r.t t*> 

a steed. boTK. 
mountam or yreat ^1 
a pandiia, ur hi^j m 

learned man. 
bull or cow. 
a mountain which .* rtr. 

or split, 
a mountain wbacb •S^r«i 

ii«»hapey Ace cW*'? 
the suiooiit of a cwca- 

cow, great nooc. 

a holy man. 
Che buaxing ooix of ff^* 

ing insects, 
the »ound of a lever < 

ing hb mistrrsi. 

an instruetor, 


Naga serpent 

Panagan the dw riling of a 

the skin wbicka 
has shed. 



Sarira giiafia. 

Bdsu tekk6. 

T&nu camclion. 

Murti • • • lizard. 

Kunj&ra place of confinemeDt, 


G&jah elephant. 

Dipdngga . . • . an elephant fully capari- 

Sain4dia .... an elephant prepared for 

being mounted. 

Hasta elephant. 

Mang'gdla • • • • an elephant with his 

tuskii grown. 

Dir&da an enraged or savage ele- 

Hestl female elephant. 

Matdng'ga • • • • a large elephant. 

Bramina .... a pandita from Sabrang 

or opposite coast. 

Liman a tame elephant. 

Kila time. 

Was, &was • • • • a scorpion. 

Ula a snake. 


Rudra a muddy hole. 

TrCistra the hollow of a tube, a 

hollow in any thing. 

Trfjsti the same. 

M6ka the face, the mouth. 

GapOra the gate or doorway of a 

Wiwira a doorway, the opening 

of a case. 

Didra the gateway of a fort. 

Druna doorway into a holy 

place, or place of mis- 

Yiitu • • the eye of a needle, or 

the like. 

G6tra a small hole or cell in the 

earth, made by insects. 

Gua •..a cave. 

Waddna ••<••• the front of a door. 

L6ng .all kinds of holes or hol- 
low places. 

Ldwang doors of every description 

S6ng a long passage under- 

Babdhan .... the hole made for the en- 
trance of a thief. 

Ndwa •••••• nine. 

B(ima decayed grass,dried grass, 


S(inya solitude, quiet. 

Gegdna endless space, as between 

the earth and the sky, 

indefinite space. 
Ng'ambdra .... flight. 
Widik widik • • that which is seen or 

heard but not known, 

as thunder. 
Mal^tik to fly off", drop off, anj» 

thing small which is 

knocked off from what 

is greater. 

Sirna gone, vanished. 

LangMt •••••• that of which one has an 

idea but cannot see 

cleariy, astliesky. 

Kdsia the air, atmosphere. 

Maldyewa .... to run off. 

Windu the period of revolving, • 


Sakdta • carriage. 

Hang gone, lost, past. 






gni, bdnyu, mariita, sadrftsa, trdi, ndga, Uwang, lang'it. 

fire, water, air, taste, hill, snake, doors, Ay, 

3 45 6 7890 






Before the heavens and earth were created, there existed 5a^ i 
Wis^su (the all-])owerfu1). lliiM deity, remaininir in the cvntrv of u» 
universe, inwardly and earnestly desired of the .Vlmii^hty Ruler to iznzr* i 
wish that he liad. A dreadful conflict of the elements cn«uc«i. ;r. *.£« 
mid8t of which he heard a reiictition of sounds, like the rapid rtnkjw ■< 
a hell. On looking up he saw a hall BU8|)ended oxer him, and on hi* lir. 
ing hold of it, it separated into three parts : one fiart became the hr&TtD» 
and earth, another became the sun and moon, and the third «-a» '"■>'^. or 
manek mdya. 

All having made obeisance to the Sang yang Wlsitsa^ he a<ldre4«fti L.a- 
self to Mdnek may a, and said, '* Hereafter thou shalt be callcid Saac ^a/ 
** Guru ; and placing entire confidence in thee, I give up the canh &s^ 
** all that is attached to it, to be used and dis|)oiied of acconUnA: i'* iti 
** will and pleasure." Having sjioken thus, Sattg yang IVUita v^si^he^ 

The earth being in great distress, unfixed and liable to >>e dnven :•• izk* 
fro by every gust of wind, anxiously ]N?titioned of Samg yamg H'ursc irx 
its situation and condition in the univense might be fixed. The rc 
moon, and sky, deeply afl'ected with the distress in which the earth 
all came to lend their assisti'mce ; a violent hurricane at the nmc 
arose, and. by their united influence, the earth l)ecame still and fixed, 'itf 
conti'uding waters then receivijig their saltness and disiK)«ition to v^- 
bnlonro. The continual ])resence of the suu and moon ocra.<^iunfd p^- 
petual day. Snng ynng Guru, empowen»d by the deity, then directed tlitf 
tlnKo two liuninnries should show themM.*lves alternately, relieving; cvh 
other by turns ; the sun dispensing hght and lieat during the dav. lod ti 
the close thereof entering intt>the bo^om of fire ; the moon contmu:aff tck 
light the earth by night, for fifteen days in a month, and deacenJL-^j m 
due season into the bosom of the waters. 

At the request of i>nng ynng Giiru, the deity granted that he •>r.titdi 
have nine male and five fem:de children liorn unto him, «ith<^*:: tut 
assistan ce of a mother. 

<.)ne of the sons, called Mnhadrwa, being furnished with one of th« 
tlaui^htiTs, cA^K'A Mtihml&u-i^ as a \i-ift', was st'Ut to preside in the ea«t He 
was, morouver, proviiled with a fort and p;daci* of silver, a sea of con»- 
nut milk, and a white ptiri l>ird. Mis tetters were A/i, a«f, cAa, ra, and hi, 
(tlio five first letters of tlie Javan alphabet', and his day. Irgi i,whKh n$ 
nifies sweet*. 

APPENDIX. cxiii 

The second son. Sang yang Sdmlnt, was sent to preside in the south : 
the daughter allotted to him for a consort was Sangydna. His krdton was 
of copper ; his bird was a bhramdna kite ; his sea was of blood ; his letters 
were da, ta, sa, wa, and la j his day pdhing. 

The third son. Sang yang Kamajdya (the most beautiful), was sent to 
preside in the west : the daughter allotted to him for a wife was Dewi 
Rat^h (which signifies the most beautiful female). His krdton was of 
gold ; his sea was of honey ; his bird was a kapddong, or yellow minor ; 
his letters were pa, da, ja, ya, and nia ; his day was pon. 

The fourth son. Sang yang Wisnu, was sent to preside in the north : 
the daughter allotted to him for a wife was Sri. His day was wdgi: his 
krdton was of iron ; his sea was indigo ; his bird was gdga, or crow ; his 
letters were ma, ga, ba, ta, and nga. 

The fifth son. Sang yang Bdyu, was appointed to preside over the centre 
of the earth : the daughter allotted for his wife was Dewi Sumi, His 
krdton was of bell-metal ; his day was kUwon : his letters were ga^ long* 
nia, ma, ma, la, pa, ya, and a ; his sea was of hot water ; his bird was a 

The foiu" remaining sons were appointed to preside in the north-east, 
north-west, south-west, and south-east quarters, respectively. 

The god of the north-east was Sang yang Pretanjdla, and the letter 
attached to him was named fya. 

The god of the south-east was Sang yang Kw&a, and the letter attached 
to him was named narasunya. 

The god of the south-west was Sang yang Makaydktit and the letter 
attached to him was named gandia. 

The god of the north-west was Sang yang S4wa, and the letter attached 
to him was named norw<H. 

These arrangements being made. Sang yang Guru went under the earth 
to put things to rights there. The earth consisted of seven regions, one 
under the other, like so many folds. In the first region he appointed the 
goddess D^ci Pratiwi to preside ; in the second region, a god named 
Sang yany Kus(ka : in the third region, a god named Sang yang Odng'gaj 
in the fourth region, a god named Sang yang Sindula ; in the fifth. Sang 
yang Dasampdlanj in the sixth, a god named Sang yang Manihdra; in 
the seventh region, a god named Sang yang Anta Boga, and who was head 
over all the others. 

Then Sang yang Guru returning from under the earth, and observing 
that it was depressed towards the west, and elevated towards the east, 
summoned all the deities to a consultation respecting what might be the 
cause of this inclination. The deity of the west said that it was in con- 
sequence of a large mountain that was towards the west, and whose 
weight bore down the earth in that quarter. Sang yang G4ru then 
directed that the mountain should be removed from the west and placed 
in the east, so as to preserve the earth in due balance. All the deities 
were accordingly forthwith dispatched to efiect the same. 

Sang yang Guru, at the same time, got Sang yang Wis4$a to create him 

VOL. II. h 


a Vulcan or Empu, whose name was Rawtddi. iH this VnSran. hi« mv-.:^. 
sen'ed to Rupply fire, his rip^ht and left handfl served resipertireiy :' i ii 
and beat his work, while his knee answered the purpose of an an^il 


Besides Sang yang Guru, Sang gang fl^ii^ created another dtzr^t ■{ 
mankind, viz. : Sang yang Derma Jdka, who, having humbled :.:=^".' 
before JVis^sa^ petitioned him to be-^tow on him a son, which wx«^ru;>i. 
and his son's n<ime was Chntttr Kanaka. 

Chdtur Kantika havinjjf previously done penance, petitioned fTi'-t: r- 
p^nt him a son, which he did, and his son's name wa!« Sang yen^ An*. 
kaputra. Thin Kanekapvtra^ who was su|)erior in alitlities to all tr.r ■.■''r-r 
created beiii^fs, being grown uf), was sent by his father to do j>tTiir. - jr 
the ocean, who gave him at the same time a precious ^tone. rail- : —*m 
dumihty fraught with the wonderful iK)wer of rendering it< po*«r-». - -- 
sensible to hunger, cold, thirw, &c. and which completely f'irt:r.«-i ": -2 
against the effects of water, fire, &c. Chtihir Kanaka also in«trurt<-i h.f 
son to remain quiet and silent during his penance. 


The, deities who were sent to remove the heavy mountain which 
down the west end of the earth, were so fati^^ued with the Labour it 
them, that they were all very thirsty. In louking out fur whervwiizo. v: 
quench their thirst, they discovered issuing from the side of xht E^i:- 
tain a clear stream, of which they all drank and died shortly after. *jc 
water being im])regnated with poison. 

Sang yang Guru himself having come to the mountain, and bt:ii^ &ao 
very thirsty, drank from the poisonous stream : i>erceivin#f, hovcvf.-. a 
time that the water was not good, he immediately vomited it, aci »v 
saved his life. Tlie only bad effects of it was a blackneM vh^^h Tt- 
mained about his throat, and from which he received the appt:lU::i-.n of 
Siln Knnta. The water was called chdla kuta, which signifies the notf 
potent poison. 

On a further search, Sang yang Guru discovered another stream is*;iJj| 
from the summit of the mountain, and of which the water was of an ir> 
matic and excellent quality, llie name of this ^-ater was kamamddim, ii>i 
was so called from its having the property of bringing the dead to lif< 

Instructed by IVisesa, Sang yang Guru drank of the life-giving water. 
and at the same time carried with him some of it, in order to give :: to 
tho>e deities who had died in consequence of their having drunk of ibc 
di-ath-giving stream On the water being appUed to their lips the} al 
immediately n-vived. 

What n'mained of the mountain on removing it from the west to "i* 
cast formed the liill calK-d Tcmpnka iat Chiringin, in Bantam V 

Id till' loufM' of the convtyiuice t)f the mountain towards the ea«t, i 
p. in* ^^\ It ilnjpt t)iV. ami bicame ihr large mountain in Bantam. 




Ounung Kdnmg. Other pieces falling off became the mountains HaJa 
Hulu, near Pajajdran, Qumtng G4de, the momitain called Chermdi (which 
is in Cheribon ), and the Giinung Agtmg, (which is in TegdlJ, 

The fragments which continued to fall all the way along, on either 
side of the large mountain, during its conveyance from the west to the 
east, formed the two ranges of hiUs stretching along the south and north 
coasts, and known by the name of Gitnunp K^ndcmg. 

Two large pieces fell off and formed the Brothers, called Sinddro and 
Sinddrif or Sumbing. The deities employed in transporting the moimtain 
stopped to rest themselves in that part of the country afterwards known 
by the name of Kedu : and the perspiration which then ran off their 
bodies was the cause of that country being so well supplied with water. 

These deities seeing Ramddi above in the clouds, at his ease compared 
with them who were working so hard, asked how he came to be there so 
much at his ease ? He replied, that he was ordered by Sang yang Guru 
to remain there and work for the gods. High words, and at last a battle, 
ensued, in which all the deities were defeated. So great was the power 
of Ramddi, whose mouth sent forth flame, and whose breath was fatal to 
those exposed to its baneful influence. 

Sang yang Guru interposed his authority, and having appeased the com- 
batants, the deities returned to the work of carrying the mountain. More 
pieces of the mountain dropped, and formed the mountains Merdpi and 
Merbdbut into which the volcanic fire they have ever since contained was 
then breathed from the nostrDs of the fiery vulcan Ramddi. 

Ramddi then asked Wis^a to give him a son, which was granted, and 
his son's name was Brdma Kaddli, Brdma KaddU resembled his father in 
every respect, and was equally powerful and formidable. 

Other pieces of the mountain dropt, and formed the mountains Ldwu^ 
Wilis, Antang, and Klut, besides a number of small hills. What remained 
of the moimtain when it had reached the east, was set down and formed 
the Gunung Semiru (which is in the country now called ProboUng*go), 
the height of which reached the sky. 

Having removed the mountain from the west to the east end of the 
island, the several deities presented themselves before Sattg yang Giiru, 
who then ordered them to take <^'a-grained wood, earth, and stones, for 
the purpose of making him a heaven of the most transcendant beauty, it 
being his intention to vie with the Almighty himself; and in order that 
he might be on an equality with the Almighty, he gave orders for the 
construction of a bdli mdrchu kiinda, which should resemble the dras of 
the most divine ; and like unto the Siirga Pihrdos he made the Surga 
Loka. To resemble the Yamdni he formed a kdwa^ j corresponding to 
the Wailul, or hell of perishing cold, he made Endut Blagddba, or the 
place of filth ; similar to the bridge Seratal mastakim he made the bridge 
Ogaldgil. He at the same time nuule himself as many jawdias as the 
Almighty himself had malaikat (or male angels), also 100,001 widaddris 
(or female angels), the odd one being Batdri Rdteh. Sang yang Chiru 
further provided himself with a consort, whose name was Batdri Uma, 

h 2 


All this having been aiicomplished, the JamitmM ud WHmiina 
bled under the bdli mdrcku himdo, and began to driok of the tertm 
ddlUf or invigorating beverage, which aoon made them quite happj. 

While they were Htill quaffing, lUmim Ckuhmg, one of the Bamkm who 
are the dregs of creation) having olMerved them, deacended from abufe 
and joined the ])arty. When one of the Jawatat, called Ckmmdrm, ptr- 
ceived this, he made a motion to HYma to appriae him of it. Befan 
therefore the lieverage, which the rasakta bad applied to hia lip*, had 
time to descend into his stomach, HYnut shot an arrow into hia tkraal 
and 8top{)ed his passage. The head only of the Riuak$a (beini; all thM 
experienced the effects of its immortalizing quality) re-aacendcd, and b»- 
aime the devourer of the sun and moon (obscr%-able at eclipaeik ; tha 
whole of the rest of the l>ody perished. Hence originates the great noae 
and clamour which is always made on an eclipiie of the sun or aooa. tha 
object of those who make it being to drive away the animal vfaich cm 
those occasions attacks the luminaries, and thereby produoea what an 
termed eclii>ses. ••••••• 

(The scene which follows is too indelicate to be inserted). 

Sfinff ynng Guru immediately disi^tched all the deities to dcstioy il, 
and to prevent its growing into any thing gross or unnatural. 

The deities accordingly went forth and commenced their attack, daitmr 
«ill tlieir missile weapons at it. Insteail, however, of sufferinir fmm tka 
ertectM of their wea|Mins, it only increased in sise, and forthwith bc^gan ta 
a<:^uiiie a sha{H-, of which the weajxins called chakra dekMoma formed tW 
head, those culled hmfutng mang*gaUi furmed the two shoulders, and thoM 
called gtiJa the rest of the Inxly. The former )>eing now complete, md 
of a very terriAc appearance, all the deities were greatly afrmid and na 
away from Sang gang KnlCt the name of the monster, as it continued is 
|iiir'*iie them. The deities tied to Sang gang Gum for protect ioo aai 
assi •stance, informing him of what liad hap|>encd, and telling him, at tht 
s;ime time, that the Sang gang Kdla was advancing in order to mquuv md 
1*111(1 out who was his father. 

The Rtudkna immediately made his appearance, having eyes like tkt 
tila/.inif sun, hair long, lank, and clotteil with tilth and dirt, his budy 
covi-red all over with liair like a wild beast, and large tuska aticking Mt 
of lii"* jaw^. 

TliiLs di*ifi»rured, he stood liefore Sang gang (runt, and asked him 
he was f The latter replied, that he was a (Niwerful lieing and the 
of many deities. ** if that U* the case,*' said ^a^ gamg Kaia, *' 
'* niu»«t thou }>c able to tell me who my father was ?*' CrWra then 
'* I know thy fatherland will infonn thee who and where he is, ptovidii 
•• you eon 1 ply with what I tliall require of thee." 

Sung gang Knln a«MMited. and ttien inquired what it was thai Osra 
wioheil him to ilo. " That.** said Guru, ** I will |Miint out to you, and 4 
" y«iu fail to do it. I will iiiHtuntly devour you. You muM. m the frsi 
" phue. ho\%ever, make oU'i«»aiice to me '* While the HtudkMawmm mtW 
.!• t of prohiratiiitf hiiniK-lf before Guru, the hitter plucked tmu haim fr 


APPENDIX. cxvii 

hia head : upon which the former opening wide his mouth, Mm thrust 
his hand into it, and wrenched out his tusks and the poison which was 
at their roots. The poison he deposited in a small vessel, and of the 
tusks he formed two weapons, called limpung and neng^gdla, so heavy that 
it required seven hundred men to lift one of them. 

• •••••• 

Sang yang Guru then confirmed to the Rasdksa the name of Sang yang 
Kdla : after which, becoming greatly enraged with his consort, he seized 
and held her by the toe, upon which she began to bellow, and was imme- 
diately transformed into a female monster, receiving the name of Ddrga, 
He then gave her to Sang yang Kdla for a consort, and allotted them for 
a place of residence the island called Niisa Kmnbdngan, where they con- 
tinued to live very happily. 

Sang yang Guru then ordered the deities, Brdma and W{mu, to go and 
destroy the forty children of R6nbu Chulung, the devourer of the sun and 
moon. They accordingly destroyed all the children except one, named 
PuttU Jantdka, whose severe penance alone saved him. 

After this Guru saw in his sleep an appearance like a rainbow, and 
which seemed to be portentous of some great event. Sang yang Tdmban 
being sent by Guru to make inquiries respecting the nature and meaning 
of this sign, which, from its being in the water, he termed suba sita, Tdm- 
ban went imder the water, and saw there a devotee, who, notwithstanding 
his situation, was quite unwet from the water, and undergoing the pe- 
nance of remaining perfectly still and quiet. 

Guru being informed of this, and feeling jealous of what the devotee 
might gain by his penance, became very desirous of causing him to break 
his vow : he accordingly sent a number of Dewdtas and Widaddris to 
tempt the hermit. On their reaching the spot where the latter was, they 
were not asked to sit down, and were completely disregarded by the her- 
mit. Brdma, who was one of those sent, then observed to the hermit, 
that such haughty and neglectful conduct was highly unbecoming, and 
that if it proceeded from ignorance, on his part, of the rank of the per- 
sons sent to him, he begged to inform him that they were the messengers 
of the Great Deity, and ought to be attended to. 

These words making no kind of impression on the hermit, who con- 
tinued obdurately silent, the deity. Sang yang S^wa, then advanced, and 
addressing himself to the hermit, spoke thus : " Holy hermit, be not 
" offended with what Brdma has just said to thee. I come not to dis«> 
" turb or annoy you, but merely to apply to you for the means of ciuing 
" the sickness of Batdri Uma, who has been taken very ill.'* Neither 
this, nor any other of the devices which the rest of the deities successively 
had recourse to, succeeded in making the hermit break his silence. 
The deities, however, being determined to do all in their power to 
make the hermit break his vow of uninterrupted silence, Sang yang 
Sdmbu took a vessel of water and emptied it upon him, while others, at 
the same time, began to belabour him with sticks. Notwithstanding 
all this, the hermit persevered unshaken in his resolution of maintaining 

cxviii APPENDIX. 

a dead silence. Seeing this, Samg ffam$ Bdyu cmme up and ^<fffi& u 
batter his head with stones, which, instead of doin^ anr inmrr b' 
that usually tender part, were only broken themielves into maor r^tf^rvt 
Brdma had then recourse to fire, which he heaped afiout the brrait. 
so that he was, for a considerable time, entirely concealed froc lu 
view, by the vast flames thereof, and supposed to be completely .ir»tr- yri 
AVhen the fire had done burning, however, the hermit i»-a^< ob-^rr-: : 
continue in the same situation as before, uninjared by the deAr^rt^n 
element, and, like gold, only the more pure and beautiful. 

Astonished and exasperated at all this, the deities then besan to u^ 
the hermit with all their various weai>onfl, via. 1 . ekaJtrm : 2 trmu . 
3. hardaddli ; 4. neng*gdla ; 5. pardtu; 6. Umpumg : 7. patopcu. im 
8. trisula. llie body of the hermit proved invulnerable. Tnc \itiiM% 
then, quite confounded and asliamed of their failure, returned to Gs-s. 
and informed him of all that had been done. 

Sang yang Giim then went himself to the hermit, and asked him vki: 
it was he wished to obtain by his penance, telling him at the ame tiae. 
that if he was desirous of having beautiful and accomplished vuvui*. &« 
had plenty at his service. Receiving no reply, 5dii5r jroa^ Gtirm thea lak 
to him, ** I know what the object of this ])enance U, and I shouiii ;«^o<ea 
very limited power if I did not know every wish of thy heart. Tb« 
art ambitious of supplanting me in the {wwer and rule vhich 1 hoia a 
heaven ; but thou dcceivest thyself. Wert thon to do penance fm otm 
thousand years, while I should continue to enjoy myself m a tcnrf d 
imintemipted pleasures, thou wouldst never be able to come near t>> ^ 
in i)ower or glor)' ; for after Trja or Ckdjfa (which signifies bgh: « 
brightness), Btimi (the earth )» and Ijdngit (the sky), I ittand the txit 
eldest work of creation ; aufl the power superior to the« ju<t iik»- 
tioTied is Sang yang JVisesa^ who is the olflest and gTeatc»t of aL.'* 
U])on this the hermit could contain himself no longer, but, borNtintf isto 
laughter, said, " Thou art wrong, and what thou hast said of Smmg f^ 
JI'i.sV'A77, is tniL* of the Almighty himself only, whose di!«plea.<unr i>3f^ 
hast consc(pK'ntly incurred by what thou hast Just stated. Knovuix 
I uin i>iing yang Kani'kaputra ; and to prove to thee that I know hetin 
tlip.n to brlit've what thou hast said of Sang ynng fl'istsa^ I wonld urlv 
a^^k thee who could have been the cause of those simnd« which wen 
heard bv Wist'sa before the heavens and earth wen-. Without diM^ 
they were occasioned by a power older and gn.*ater than him " 
On this Uiiru wxs nlenccd, and had not a word to «av. He then «a- 
treat "rl ha nf kaput ra to tell him who this eldest and most |»o«rerful br::^ 
was, pro[u)«<in'i, at the same time, that he should go m'ith him. andbeco 
joint ruler over the deities in heaven. ** ITiese soimds.** ansiwrrrd S 
yang Kantkaptifra, ** were the voice of the Almighty, sifnif^'ing hif wJ 
th.'it there should be created things of an op|)Os(ite nature to earh otivx. 
as male and female, above and Ik'Iow, and mother, Wautifui sati 
ugly, ,^:c. ^tr — every thing Treated having its op]H>'*ite. except thre lao 
111.'. mIh* are n\u and the ^amr *' 


f I 





Sanp yang Kanekapitra and Sang yang G^ru then ascended to heaven, 
and seated themselves on the Bdli mdrchu kunda. After they had re- 
mained there for some time. Sang yang Guru perceiving a case belonging 
to Sang yang Kanekaputra, to remain constantly shut, inquired of him the 
cause thereof, and was told by him that it contained the most precious of 
all precious stones, which had the wonderful power of making the pos- 
sessor of it feel neither hunger, cold, nor thirst, &c. and which fortified 
him against the effects of water, fire, &c. 

When Sang yang Guru heard this, he requested to have the stone ; but 
Kanekaputra told him it was of so subtile a natiure, that it would pass 
through the hands of innumerable people, and would never remain with 
any one but him destined to be the possessor of it. Sang yang Guru 
asked Kanekaptura to part with the stone, and give all the other deities an 
opportunity of getting it, provided it should not remain with him. Ka- 
nekaptHra then threw up the precious stone, and Guru caught hold of it. 
It not only passed through his hands, but also through the hands of all 
the deities who successively caught and attempted to retain it The pre- 
cious stone then falling down upon the first region of the earth, where 
presides the deity Pratiwi, dropped successively through all the others, 
without the presiding deities Bagdwan Kus(ka, Sang yang Crdng'ga, Sin^ 
dula, Drampdlan, and Manik Kdga, being able to retain hold of it, till, 
coming to the last region, Anta Bdgo, the presiding deity, who was in 
ehape like a dragon, opened his mouth and swallowed it. 

809147 yang Guru then asked Scmg ycmg Kanekapdtra what he should do 
to become possessed of the precious stone ? Kanekaputra replied, he must 
go and search for it as far as even the seventh region of the earth. Sang 
yang Guru approved of this, but at the same time wished that Kanekapi- 
tra should go himself, accompanied by all the deities. K