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Full text of "Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia"

ity of human life in all nations, 
180.— necessity of eumpiling vocabularies, 182. 


A few remarks on Conchology and MalacholoGy, comprising brief 
noticesofsomeof the more remarkable ^Teslacea*' in Singapore and its 
neighbourhood ; with an appended catalogue of Singapore Shells arranged 
in conformity with Lammarck*s System, by Wm. Traill, M. P. 225-241. 

Prefatory remarks, 225-228.— Paucity of larger shells, 228.— Greater 


abandance and size around is}and9sonthofSingapore,t*d.— Shellfish 
used as food, 230.— Tendency to form Yarielies, {d.— Shells most abun-^ 
dant, 232.-— Notices of particular shells, Magilus antiquus, 233.— Lima. 
Parmapbora, 234.— Planorbis, Natica,235.— Cerithinmlineolatom,2d6, 
Cfprasa tigris, C. olivacea, C. adnsta, 237.— Echina, 238. —Catalogue of 
the shells of Singapore and its vicinity, 239-241. 


The Orang Binua of Johore, by J. R. Logan 242-293. 

Introductory) journey through Johore, discoveries, 242-5.— The country 
of the Binua, td. of the Bermun tribes i. e. Udaij JdJtun^ JIfinfira, Sakai 
and Besisi, 249-9.— Physical characteristics, eipression, and manner of 
the Binoa, 249-252.— Dress, 252.— Houses and household goods, 253. 
Pood and Industry, 254.— Ladangs, cultivated and wild vegetables, 254.- 
6.— Fish and fishing, game and hunting, wild hogs, 256.— Deer, monkeys, 
snakes, snares for large animals, 257.— Birds, wild fk'uits, 258.— Dori- 
an groves, 259«— Great arrack (ampui feast of the JUinrfra, 260%— Col- 
lection of forest produce for Malays, 261.— 7a^n (Gitta Percha) abun- 
dance, mode of procuring, d:c.261-^3.— Camphor and camphor langu- 
age, 263-6.— Condition, c}iaracter and manners. Radical aftnityto 
Malays, 266-70.— Marriage, Birth, Burial, 270-1.— Additional remarks 
on agriculture, arts, ^c, impliments, canoes, sumpitans'271.— War, in- 
Tasion of the Ifinlira by the Rawa fk-om Henangkab'au, 273.— Government, 
crimes, punishments, inheritance, 274. — Religion, Pirman^ Jin Bumif 
JewaJtwQj Poyangi, incantations, 275-7.— Medicines, 277.— Origin of 
the conntiy and race, 277.— Analogy of religion and traditions to thoso 
of Che Battas and Dyaks and probable Hindu origin of former, 279-283. 
— Ideas respecting some natural phenomena 4rc. sun, moon, and stars, 
eclipses, shape of earth, douds and rain, division of time, dread of small 
poi^ofthesea drc, 2S^-5.— The present relation of the Malays to the 
Binuas, 285-8.— Language, 289.— Absorption of the race by the Malays, 
Comparison of the Binuas, Battas, Dyaks and Malays, 290-293. 

Pbysical Characteristics of the Mintira, by J. R. Logan, 294-5. 


TheOraisgSabimba of the Extremity of the Malay peninsula, by 

J.A.Logan 295-298. 

Tradition of origin, 296. —Ibod, wild fruits, roots and 1eaves,<6.— The 
cockprohibitedi^.- Marriage, death, graves, adultery, dreams, 297. — 
Child birth, 298— Pbysical characteristics, ib. 


K. LOGAN 299-302. 

Habits, medicines, burial, ^c, 300.— Physical characteristics, 301-2. 



The Orang Sletah of the rubers and creeks of the Old Strait 



Table of Measurements illastrati?e of the physical pecalisriUes of the 
Afiotira, Bidaanda Kaliang, and Sabimha, by J. R. Logan 305. 


The Superstitions ofthe Mintira, with some additional remarks on 
lheircustomsd:c.,byJ. R.Logan 307-381^ 

HantQ or Spirits of Disease ^., 307«— Spells, tuju, 3^)8.— Incantations 
and InvocatioSy 30B.':~for Defence (Pendindinffjf 809.-;Love (Penga- 
sehj, 310.— Sweetness (Pimdnis)^ 311.— Subjection ofothers f Pdftwn- 
dojy 312.— Abasing of others ^CAucAaJ/ 313.— Rendering ^enemies 
speechless (PemAtd lidaO 314. —Hatred (PehinchQ 315.— Spells us- 
ed in attacking elephants, 316.— Id. to all|y Storms, 317.— For safety in 
the Forest id., for expelling spirits of disease, 318. — Amulets, 318. — 
Wishing Places, td.— Superstitions of Cultivation, ceremonies and 
charms on selecting ground, catting forest, planting or sowing and reap- 
ing rice, 820-2*.— Marriage, 322*.— Birth and naming, 323''-fi*.— Bu- 
rial, 325*. — World beyond the Grave, id. — ^Traditional traces of Origin, 
826^.— The relation of the Malays to the Mintira 328*.— Orang Rawa of 
Sumatra, their annual immigrations into the Malay feninsula, growing 
power, and oppression of the ifintira t'd.— Miscellaneous Remarks, cons- 
titution of society, training of children, measures, music, weapons, disaa* 
ses, flrnit used, varieties of paddy 330-1*. 


Visit of a party of Orang Mintira to Singapore, by J. R. Lo- 
gan 83()-6.* 


The Ethnology of the Jobore JLrghipelago, by J. R. Logan. 8d6*-40* 

Description of the Archipelago, names of tribes, 336*.— Pulo Battam and 
its tribes t'd.— 837'. 
I. The Orang Muka^Kuning of Battam, babiU, industry, 337*.— ReligioD 

conftision of religions, marriage, 838 \— Names, graves, physical pecull* 

arities, 839*-340*. 


Remarks on the Sleter dr Sabimba Tribes : by J. T. Thomson, Esq. 
Bon. M. N. B. S. of Newcastle. .. S41*-861*. 

Two boats of orang Sletar visit the Gunboat, their appearance and man- 


ners S41 ♦-2*.— Namber, language, implements and food of the tribe 843» 
—Customs, births, marriages, boats, 844 •.—Personal characteristics, 
origin of inbe 345*.— Names, 346».— Similarity to the Biduanda Kallagn, 
W.--Physicalpcculiaritics3l7*.— OrangSabimba,theirfood,sampilans, 
atheism, marriages, 348*.— Language, names, ethnographical Iraport- 
anee of proper names, personal appearance, call for Christian Mission- 
aries, 849*.— Description of plates, method of exhibiting the proportions 
of the djfRircnt parts of the head geometrically 330*^-1 ♦. 

TAIN CONGALTON, Commander of the XT. E. I, C. Steamer " Boogk- 
^•" 353*-358*. 

Examination ofP.MuliarA 363*, TAojoBgPatong, coal found, 354*-5*. 
— Tanjong Bombong, 356*.— P. LontAr, td.— TamA, Tanjong Putri, P. 
Ptojang, P. Bouton, 357*.— Low's Island and other islets to the north- 
ward of Pnrlis 358*.— General results, id. 


ThbLaws of THB Indian Archipelago and Eastern k&ik, by J. R. 

lOGAN 321-3-26. 


Off THB Laws of Muung Thai or Siam, by Lieut. Colonel JABfEs Low, 
C. M. B. A. 8. d: M. A. S. C. d^c, .« 328-426. 

ArraDgement of Subject, Powers of Letters, 328.— Introductory Chapter 
329.— Interest of the subject, 329.— Digests, 331. 

Chap. L On Property, The Soil, 386.— Land tax, 336.— Annual plough- 
ing Destival d: other singular customs, 338-9.— Omens, spirit of the pad- 
dy, 340.— Agricultural system, 341.— Gardens, 342. 

Chap. IL Inheritance of Property, 344, 

Chap. IIL Widows and their Property, 347.— Four classes of Wives, 348. 
—Age of marriage, 349.— Forbidden degrees, intermarriage with other 
races, id.— King may marry his sister or daughter. 350. 

Chap. lY. Inheritance of Courtiers and other officers of Government, res- 
irietions on their power of bequeathing, portions of widows of -different 
ranks 351 ,-2.— power of husband to pledge wife. 352,-3. 

Chap. V. Inheritance of Property as regards the Priesthood, Privileges of 
a Priest, 354.— his dress ind possessions, 355.-6.— Brahmins, 356.— 
Number of priests, 357.— Purgatory, td.— Apostacy, td.— Public chari- 
ties, beggars, 358. 

Chap. VI. Testamentary Power, 359. 

Chap. TIL Exclusion from properly and Inheritance, 36] .—Arbitration. 
t<f. — Obsequies and Superstitions. Superstitious practises relating to 
pregnancy, 361.— To women dying in childbirth, td.— Adoption, 362.— 
Attendance of Priest on the sick, Bali formula; repeated, 36^).— Ceremo- 
nies oo death, feast and entertainments, 864-.5,— Burning of the body, 
366. — Cenotaphs, t'ef.— Superstitions connected with Ihem— ofTcrings at 
tombs of aqeestors, 397.— Bali funeral Ritual, 368. 


Chap. VIII. Gifts 969.<-prirate<«t.— F^omgOTe^lorsorProTiQces,870.-- 
Foreign Slates. Tribate, gold and silver flowerSi modeof recei via g Am- 
bassadors, 371. 

Chap. IX. Marriage, 372. -« Polygamy, age of marriage, <ii.— Prelimi- 
naries, feasts aod games, (he ceremony, 873.— Bali Formula repeated 
374.— Character of Siamese wives, 375.— Position and habits of Women 
in Siam, 376.— Chapters relating to women in the P^hra Sara samkrOf 
377.— Reciprocal duties of husband and wife from the Afee/eentAara, ib. 

Chap. X. The parental authority, and obligations of the various members 
of a family to each other, 379.— Training, education, 879-382.— Eti- 
quett'e, 381.— education of females, 382. 

Chap. X(. Slavery, 384.— Condition of slaves, ib. 

Chap. XII. Interest for money, 890— Deposits t6.— €%am nam or pledges, 
891.— Wages, 392,— Copartnership, a. —Sales, <fr— Contracts, 393.-^ 
Ceremonies and oath on entering into secrect compacts for desperate pur- 
poses, t6. 

Chap. XIII. Tattang or administration of lustice, 394.- raf«amo-an, of 
Judges and their corrupt practises, t6.— Mode of procedure, 396-7. — 
Courts of Judicature, 398.— Different orders of law officers 5 399-401,— 
Justiciary forms, 401.— Eipences of process, 403. 

Chap. XIV. Criminal law, 404.— Tortures, 405.— Evidence, proof by or- 
deal, 405.— Classes of persons excluded from being witnesses and rea- 
sons of exclusion, 407-1 4.—0ath taken by witnesses, 414-15. 

Chap. XV. Of speciflc crimes and their punishments, 416.— Modes of 
punishment, t'fr.— Murder, <&.— Inquests, 417.— The tongok for securing 
prisoners, id.— Instruments of torture, 418,— Theft, id.— Police system, 
419.— Charms used by thieves, 423.— Assaults, threats to wound, striking 
parents, 421. 

Chap. XVI. Adultery,422.— Punishment of adulteress, id.— Scale of fines, 
423 —Separation and divorce, 424.— Elopements, 424-5. 

Chap. XVII Prisons, 426.— Killing animals, id.— Prohibitions, ib 

Practice, t6.— Invocation of the spirit before killing, i6.— Manslaughter, 
827.— Suicide, 16.— Punishment of presumptive guilt, 428.— Of rela- 
tives of rebels, i6.— Effect of confession, i6.— Amusing Judicial case from 
the Bali, 428-9. 
[For many inoident(U noUc$s of Siamsie lif9, mann$r$, eusiomSf f uper- 

stiHom 4'c., contained in this paper ^ tee Index I. voce Siam,] 


Miscellaneous Notices, Contributions, and Corrbspondbncb : 
Earthquake in Java, 77.— The Tin Mines of Malacca, letter from L. Neu- 
BRONNER, Esq., t6.— Gulta Percha, Memorandum by Dr. d'ALVBiDA, 
78,— Specimens of Coal from Labuan, Pulo Chirmin, Borneo Proper, and 
Formosa, 78-80.— Specimens of Rocks from Pulo Ladda, Pulo Lankawi 
and the Mainland of the Peninsula between Kiddah and Junkceylon, 80- 
81.— Specimens of Gold from Pankallang Bukit, and of Gold and Tin 
from Gunong in Johore, 81,— Case of Poisoning by Mushrooms, 81-82. 
Earthquake and eruption in Ternate, 168.— Falling in of a mountain in 
Timor, 16.— Correspondence, t6. 


IXDEX. 431. 

I. General Index. 
11. Index of names, and Glossarv. 


Note explanatory of the Index. 

The Index has been prepared under a conviction that the permanent va- 
lue of a work like this depends greatljr upon the facility with which the in- 
formation which it contains can be referred to. Although the table of con- 
tents is unusually full, it is, from its nature, insofar defective that the rea- 
der cannot ascertain, at a glance, what information the volume contains on 
any particular subject. This defect is remedied by the Index, which will 
also be found of great utility for purposes of comparison. The ethnogra- 
phical enquirer, for instance, desirous of comparing the customs of the dif- 
ferent nations and tribes described diS to marriage, burial^ d^c, is enabled 
by the Index to do so by reference to those heads. While our knowledge of 
the Archipelago remains, as at present, in its infancy, and we possess nei- 
ther a general gazetteer, nor even the geography of any one island, and have 
no complete vocabulary of a single language, it appears expedient to intro- 
duce into the Index the names of places, plants, animals dSrc, occuringin 
the volume, and also those of men, offices, human arts dSrc, The Malayan 
names of Malayan objects are more familiar to local writers than any equi- 
valents which could be found for them in their o^n language, and they are 
hence sometimes mentioned without any explanation. In such cases the 
Index will supply the omUsion. 

For easier reference the matter of the Index has been divided into two 
parts. The first, under ^e title General Index, contains 1st. an alpha- 
betically arranged summary of the volume more minute than the table of 
contents, but refering to it when practicable, as under the heads Cochin 
Chinaj Binua dfc, where it seemed inexpediant to repeat the full analysis 
of the papers on those subjects given in the Contents, 2nd. a reference under 
the general titles, Ethnology, Geology, Geography, Arts, Customs 
^c, to all the notices appertaining to each of these divisions of knowledge. 
The title of the second part. Index of names and glossary, explains it- 
self. In itself it will be found to possess considerable ethnological value 
by bringing together names of persons, places and things '' used by dif- 
ferent tribes, and thus facilitating comparison. 


The design of this Journal has been so fully explained 
in the Prospectus^ that we might have dispensed with any 
Preface^ if we had not been desirous of recording the cor- 
dial reception which has been given to the proposal to 
establish it. In particular, the warm interest which the 
Honorable Colonel Buttbrworth, c. b. Governor of 
the Straits Settlements, has, from the first, tak^n in the 
project, and the cordial encouragement and support which 
he has given to it, demand a special acknowledgement. 
The Bengal Government have countenanced the work 
in the manner recommended by him, not only by liberally 
subscribing to it, but by authorizing every facility to be 
given for the communication of information by the Officers 
of Government in the Straits Settlements. Frcm most of 
the local Authorities we have received assurances of their 
aid; and the knowledge which they possess, and the op- 
portunities which they enjoy of obtaining information, 
give a high value to their assistance. Many Residents in 
the Straits, whose names will appear in good time where 
we most wish to see them, had no sooner become acquaint- 
ed with our design than they promised contributions ; and 
the valuable article on Gutta Percha which we are enabled 
to present in the first number, with its important and 
original information, is an earnest how able and willing 
they are to co-operate in rendering our countrymen better 
acquainted with the Archipelago audits resources. 

We shall endeavour to keep two principal objects stea- 
dily lit view. The first is, to present as many papers as 
possible that are either original or new to the English 
reader. The second is, to make the Journal a work of 
reference on all subjects connected with the Arcliipelago. 


With a view to the first object, the papers of contributors 
will always have a preference. Next to these we shall 
most largely draw upon the foreign publications in the 
Archipelago. But as papers of interest relating to thi» 
region are sometimes published on the continent of Europe, 
and remain unknown to English readers, we shall also 
avail of them as opportunity may offer. For the accom- 
plishment of the second object, we shall, from time to time, 
republish papers that have already appeared in English^ 
but may have had a limited or an entirely local circulation^ 
or are no longer procurable. And we shall notice works 
and papers on the Archipelago and Eastern Asia publish- 
ed in England and America, partly with the same view, 
and partly to keep all our Eastern readers and contributors 
informed of every inportant accession made to our know- 
ledge of the field from which the Journal takes its glean* 
ings. To facilitate reference until a volume is complete, 
we shall with each niunber give an analytic table of con- 
tents, which will serve as the foundation of a full table of 
contents and index, to be issued, with a title page for the 
volume, at the end of each year. 

Unless we adopt a quarterly issue, it will be impossible 
to give to each number that variety in its matter which 
might be agreeable to many readers. But, for the reason 
stated in the Prospectus, and in order also to enable us to 
meet the wishes of contributors when early publication 
may be an object, we have resolved to commence with a 
monthly issue. We must therefore request our readers ta 
bear in mind, that the nature of the work requires that it 
be judged not by a number, but by a volume. It may 
indeed sometimes happen that we shall be obliged to occu- 
py a whole number with one article, and that on a subj^t 
which many readers may not find interesting. But we 
have already besought their toleration of such chances iu 
our Prospectus. jt 







■^ ■■ 


Ws should wish, on the threshold of our labours, to bring 
itiio one general popular view some of the most characteristic 
features of the Indian Archipelago as a whole^ — to yield our- 
sdves for a while to the impression which Nature here makes 
on (he senses and feelings of the European, — to trace her more 
permanent influences on the races who have lived for ages under 
her power, — to enquire to what condition these have now been 
brought by their past history,— and to search amongst the clc^ 
ments of change which may be working, or are about to come 
into operation, amongst them, at the present day, for those 
which are most likely to determine their future. But the very 
greatness and variety of the subject, which so strongly attract 
the mind, subdue the hope of being able, within the narrow 
room allowed us here, to present any adequate picture of it, 
and compel us to leave to the reader to clothe with the distinct* 
ness and freshness of truth, the dry and fragmentary generalities 
which we must be satisfied to lay before him. It is in no 
way our design to give a methodical review of the geography 
and history of the Archipelago. This it would be impossible 
to do, with any accuracy, in the space to which we must con- 
fine ourselves, and wc therefore assume that our readers have 

YOt.. I. NO. I, U 


such a Jcnowledge of these that, in followiog our remarks, Ihey 
will recall, or perhaps sometimes approach from new points, 
facts with which they have already made acquaintance, and 
even that mere allusions, where we cannot afford more, 
expand in their memories into the fullness of reality. 

The first and most generd consideration in a physical review 
of the Archipelago is its relation to the Continent of Asia, fa 
Ihe platform, on which the largest and most important lands 
are distributed, we see a great root which the stupendous 
mass of Asia has sent forth from its south eastern side, and 
which, spreading far to the south beneath the waters ot the In- 
dian and Pacific Oceans, and there expanifing and shooting up 
by its plutonic and volcanic energy, has covered them, and marked 
its track, with innumerable islands. That there is a real and 
not merely a fanciful connection between the Archipelago and 
Asia is demonstrable, dihougb, when we endeavour to trace its 
history, we are soon lost in the region of speculation. So ob«> 
vious is this connection that it has been a constant source of 
ezdlement to the imagination, which, in the traditions of the 
natives, and in the hypotheses of Europeans, hai sought its 
origin in an earlier geographical unity. G^lainly, if, in the 
progress of the elevatory and depressing movements which the 
region is probably undergoing even now, the land were raised 
but a littie, we should see shallow seas dried up, the mountaio 
ranges of Sumatra, Borneo, and Java become continental like those 
of the Peninsula, and great rivers flowing not only in the Straits of 
Malacca, whose current early navigators mistook for that of an in- 
land stream, but through the wide valley of the China Sea, and by 
the deep and narrow Strait of Sunda, into the Indian Ocean. Thus 
the unity would become geographical, which is now only geological. 
That the great platform from which only mountains and hills 
rose above the sea level, till the materials drawn from them by 
the rains were rolled out into the present alluvial plains, is 
really an extension of the Asiatic mass, appears evident from 
the facts: amongst many others which require a separate geolo-> 
gical paper for their discussion, and would be less readily 



appreciated by the geoeral reader: — that its direction, as a whole, 
is that which a contiouation of south-eastern Asia, under the 
same plolonic action which produced it, would possess; — the 
mount lin ranges, which form the latter, sink into it irregularly 
in the lines of their longitudinal axes; — in one zone, that of 
the Peninsula, the conneotion is an actual geographical one;— 
the Peninsula is obriously continued in the dense dusters of 
islands and rocks, stretching on the parallel of its elevation and 
of the strike of its sedimentary rocks, from Singapore to Banka, 
and almost touches Sumatra, the mountain ranges of which are, 
notwithstanding, parallel to it; — ^Borneo and Celebes appear to 
represent the broader or eastern branch of the Indo-Chinese 
Peninsula, from which they are separated by the ared of the 
China Sea, supposed to be sinking; — and, finally, nearly the 
whole Archipelago is surrounded by a great volcanic curve 
rooted in Asia itself, and the continuity of which demonstrates 
that the platform and the continental projection with which it is 
geographically connected are really united, at this day, into one 
geological region by a still vigorous power of plutonic expan- 
siveness, no longer, to appearance, forming hypogene elevations, 
but expending itself chieQy in the numerous volcanic vents 
along the facers where it sinks into the depths of the ocean. 

Whether the present platform ever rose above the level of 
the sea, and surrounded the now insular eminences with vast 
undulating plains of vegetation instead of a level expanse of 
water, we shall not hear seek to decide, although we think that 
Raffles and others who have followed iu his steps too hastily 
connected the supposed subsidence with the existing geological 
configuration of the region, and neglected the all important evi- 
dence of the comparative distribution of the living flora and 
fauna, which seems to prove that the ancient southern continent, 
if such there was, had subsided before they came into existence. 
No conclusive reasons have yet been adduced why we should 
consider the islands of the Archipelago as the summits of a 
partially submerged, instead of a partially emerged, continent. 
But whether it was the sinking of the continent that deluged 
all the southern lowlands of Asia, leaving only the mountain 
summits visible, or its elevation that was arrested by the ex- 


baostion of the plutonic energy, or the conversion of its uphcav^ 
ing into an' ejecting action, on the opening of fractures along 
the outslcirts of the region, before the feebler action there had 
brought the sea bed into contact with the atmosphere, the result 
has been' to form an expanse of shallow seas and islands, else- 
where unequalled in the world, but perhaps not greater in pro- 
portion to the wide continental shores, and the vast bulk of dry 
land, in front of which it is spread out, than other archipela-^ 
goes are to the particular countries, or continental sections, with 
which they are connected. 

The forms and positions of these islands bear an older date 
than that of any limited subsidence or elevation of the region 
after its formation. They were determined by the same forces 
which originally caused the platform itself to swell up above 
the deep floor of the southern ocean ; and it was one prolonged 
act of the subterranean power to raise the Himalayas into the 
aerial level of perpetual snow, to spread out the submarine bed 
on whieh the rivers were afterwards to pile the hot plains of 
Bengal, and to mould the surface of the southern region, so 
that when it rose above, or sunk into, the sea to certain levels, 
the mutual influences of air and sea and land should be so 
balanced, that while the last drew from the first a perennial 
ripeness and beauty of summer, it owed to the second a peren- 
nial freshness and fecundity of spring. Hence it is that, in the 
Archipelago, while the bank of black mud, daily overflowed by 
the tides, is hidden beneath a dense forest, and the polypifer 
has scarcely reared its tower to the sea's surface before it is 
converted into a green islet, the granitic rocks of the highest 
plutonic summits, and the smoke of the volcanic peaks, rise 
from amidst equally luxuriant, and more varied, vegetation. 
Certainly, the most powerfully impressive of all the characteris- 
tics of the Archipelago is its botanical exuberance, which has 
exercised the greatest influence on the history and habits of its 
human inhabitants, and which, as the most obvious, first excites 
the admiration of the voyager, and from its never staling, be- 
cause ever renewing itself in fresh and changeful beauty, retains 
its hold upon our feelings to the last. 

When wc enter the seas of the Archipelago we are in a 


new world. Land and ocean are strangely intermingled. Great 
islands are disjoined by narrow straits, which, in the case of 
those of Sanda,, lead at once into the smooth waters and green 
Icvd shores of the interior from the rugged and turbulent outer 
coast, which would otherwise have opposed to us ^n unbroken 
wall more than two thousand miles in length. We pass from 
one mediterranean sea to another, now through groups of islets 
so small that we encounter many in an hour, and presently 
along the coasU of those so large that we might be months in 
drcumnavigating them. Even in crossing the widest of the 
eastern seas, when the last green speck has sunk beneath the 
horizon, the mariner knows that a circle drawn with a radius of two 
days sail would touch more land than water, and even that, if 
the eye were raised to a sufficient height, while the islands he 
had left would reappear on the one side, new shores would be 
seen on almost every other. But it is the wonderful freshness 
and greenness in which, go where he will, each new island is 
enveloped, (hat impresses itself on his senses as the great dis- 
tinctive character of the region. The equinoctial warmth of 
the air, tempered and moistened by a constant evaporation, and 
purified by periodical winds, seems to be imbued with pene- 
trating life-giving virtue, under the influence of which even the 
most barren rock becomes fertile. Hence those groups of small 
islands which sometimes environ the larger ones like clusters of 
satellites, or mark where their ranges pursue their course be- 
neath the sea, often appear, in particular slates of the atmos* 
phere when a zone of while quivering light surrounds them and 
obliterates their coasts, to be dark umbrageous gardens floating 
on a wide lake, whose gleaming surface would be too dazzling 
were it not traversed by the shadows of the clouds, and cover- 
ed by the breeze with an incessant play of light and shade. 
Far different from the placid beauty of such scenes is the 
effect of the mountain domes and peaks which elsewhere rise 
against the sky. In these the voyager sees the grandeur of 
European mountains repeated, but all that is austere or sa- 
vage transformed into softness and beauty. The snow and 
glaciers are replaced by a mighty forest, which fills every 
ravine with dark shade, and arrays every peak and ridge in 


glancing light Even the pecaliar beanUes which the snmmiU 
of the Alps borrow from the atmosphere, are someUmes dis- 
played. The Swiss, gazing on the lofty and majestic form of 
a volcanic mountain, is astonished to behold, at the rising of 
the son, the peaks inflamed with the same rose red ^ow which 
the snowy summiU of Mont Rosa and Mont Blanc reflect at iU 
setting, and the smoke wreaths, as they ascend from the crater 
into mid air, shining in golden hnes like the clouds of heaven-* 
But serene in their beauty and magnificence as these mountains 
generally appear, they hide in their bosoms elements of the 
bigbest terrestrial sublimity and awe, compared with whose 
appalling energy, not only the bursten lakes and the rushing 
avalanches of the Alps, but the most devastoting explosions of 
Vesuvius or Etna, cease to terrify the imagination* When we 
look upon the ordinary aspects of these mountains, it is ahnost 
impossible to believe the geological story of their origin, and if 
our senses yield to science, they Ucitly revenge themsdves by 
placing in the remotest past, the era of such convulsions as it 
relates. But the nether powers though imprisoned are not 
subdued. The same telluric energy which piled the mountain 
from the ocean to the douds, even while we gate in sil«»t 
worship on its glorious form is gathering in its dark 
womb, and time speeds on to the day, whose coming 
sdence can neither foretell nor prevent, when the mountain 
is rent; the solid foundations of the whole region are shak- 
en; the earth is opened to vomit forth destroying fires upon 
the living beings who dwell upon its surface, or dosed to 
engulph them; the forests are deluged by lava, or withered 
by sulphureous vapours; the sun sets at noonday behind the 
black smoke which thickens over the sky, and spreads far 
and wide, raining ashes throughout a drcuit hundreds of miles 
in diameter; tHi it seems to the superstitious native that the 
fiery abodes of the volcanic dewas are disembowdiing them- 
selves, possessing the earth, and blotting out the heavens. 
The living remnants of the generation whose doom it was to 
inhabit Sumbawa in 1815, could tell us that this pidure is but 

* M. Zollinger in describing Mount Semird in Java notices this singular 
resemblance to the monntains of his native coqntry. 


a Taint (raoscript of the reality, and that onr imagination can 
never conceive the dreadful spectacle which still appals their 
memories. Fortunately these awfal explosions of the earth, 
which to man convert nature into the supernataral, occur at 
rare intervals | and, thoogh scarcely a year elapse without some 
voleano bursting into action, the greater portion of the Ar- 
chipelago being more than once shaken, and even the ancient 
granitic floor of the Peninsula trembling beneath as, this ter- 
restrial Instability has ordinarily no worse effect than to 
dispel ih€ iUasion that we tread upon a solid globe, to con- 
vert the physical romance of geological history into the 
familiar associations of our own lives, and to unite the 
events of the passing hour with those which first fitted the 
world for the habitation of man. 

We have spoken of the impression which the exteriour 
beauty of the Archipelago makes upon the voyager, and the 
fearful change which sometimes comes over it, when the 
sea around him is hidden beneath floating ashes mingled with 
the charred wrecks of the noble forests which had clothed the 
mountain sides ; but, hurried though, we are from one part of 
our slight sketch to another, wc cannot leave the vegetation 
of this great i*egion without looking upon it more closely. To 
recall the full charms, however, of the forests of the Archipe- 
lago, — which is to speak of the Archipelago itself, for ttie 
greater portion of it is at this moment, as the ^hole of it once 
waSy clothed to the waters edge with trees, — wc must animate 
their solitudes with the tribes which dwell there in freedom, 
ranging through their boundless shade as unconscious of the 
presence of man, and as unwitting of his dominion, as they 
were thousands of years ago, when he did not dream that the 
world held such lands and such creatures. 

When we pass from the open sea of the Archipelago into the deep 
shade of its mountain forests, we have realized all that, in Europe, 
our fancies ever pictured of the wildness and beauty of prime- 
.val nature. Trees of gigantic forms and exuberant foliage rise 
en every side: each species shooting up its trunk to its utmost 
measure of development, and striving, as it seems, to escape from 
the dense crowd. Others, as if no room were left for them 


to grow in the ordinary way, emulate the shapes and motions 
of serpents, enwrap their less ptiant neighbours in their folds, 
twine their branches into one connected canopy, or bang down, 
here, loose and swaying in the air, or in festoons from tree to 
tree, and there, stiff and rooted like the shrouds which support 
the mast of a ship. No sooner has decay diminished the green array 
of a branch, than its place is supplied by epiphites, chiefly fragrant 
orchidaceae, of singular and beautiful forms. While the eye in vain 
seeks to familiarize itself with the exuberance and diversity of the 
forest vegetation, the ear drinks in the sounds of life which 
break the silence and deepen the solitude. Of these, while the 
interrupted notes of birds, loud or low, rapid or long-drawn^ 
cheerful or plaintive, and ranging over a greater or less musi- 
cal compass are the most pleasing; the most constant are those 
of insects, which sometimes rise into a shrill and deafening 
clangour; and the most impressive, and those which bring 
out all the wildness and loneliness of the scene^ are the pro- 
longed complaining cries of the uokas, which rise, loud and 
more loud, till the twilight air is filled with the clear, powerful, 
and melancholy sounds. As we penetrate deeper into the forest, 
its animals, few at any one phce, are soon seen to be, in 
reality, numerous and varied. Green and harmless snakes hang 
like tender branches. Others of deeper and mingled colours, but 
less innocuous, lie coiled up, or, disturbed by the human intru- 
der, assume an angry and dangerous look, but glide out of sight. 
Insects in their shapes and hues imitate leaves, twigs and flowers. 
Monkeys, of many sizes and colours, spring from branch to branch, 
or, in long trains, rapidly steal up the trunks. Deer, and amongst 
them the graceful palandoh, no bigger than a hare, and celebrated in 
Malayan poetry, on our approach fly startled from the pools 
which they and the wild hog most frequent. Lively squirrels, of 
different species, are everywhere met with. Amongst a great 
variety of other remarkable animals which range the forest, we 
may, according to our locality, encounter herds of elephants, the 
rhinoceros, tigers of several sorts, the tapir, the b&bin^a, the 
orangiitan, the sloth ; and, of the winged tribes, the gorgeously 
beautiful birds of paradise, the loris, the peacock, and the argus 
pheasant. The mangrove rivers and creeks arc haunted by huge 

ruM rsmxs archipelago. 9 

alttigators. An endless variety of fragile and richly colored shells 
not only He empty on the sandy beaches, bat are tenanted by 
pagurian crabs which, in clusters, batten on every morsel of 
fat seaweed that has been lelt by the retiring waves. The coasts 
are fringed with living rocks of beantiful colours, and shaped like 
stars, flowers, bushes and other symmetrical forms. Of multi-* 
tudes of peculiar fishes which inhabit the seas, the dugong or 
Malayan mermaid, most attracts our wonder. 

Before we leave this part of our subject, we would assure any 
European reader who may suspect that we have in aught writ- 
ten too warmly of the physical beauty of the Archipelago, that 
the same Nature which, in the west, only reveals her highest and 
most prodigal terrestrial beauty to the unagination of the poet, 
has here ungirdled herself, and given her wild and glowing charms, 
in all their fullness, to the eye of day. The ideal has here pass- 
ed into the real. The few botan'sts who have visited this region 
declare, that from the multitude of its noble trees, odorous and 
beautiful flowers, and wonderful vegetable forms of all sorts, 
it is inconceivable in its magnificence, luxariance, and variety. 
The zoologists, in their turn, bear testimony to the rare, curious, 
varied and important animals which inhabit it; and the number 
and character of those already known is such as to justify one 
of the most distinguished of the day in expressing his belief, that 
^' no region on the face of the earth would furnish more novel, 
splendid, or extraordinary forms than the unexplored islands in 

tbe eastern range of the Indian Archipelago." 

liitberto we have faintly traced the permanent influence of the 

physical configuration of the Archipelago in tempering the inter- 
tropical heat, regulating the monsoons, determining the distribu- 
tion of plants and animals, and giving to the whole region its pe- 
culiar character of softness i>nd exuberant beauty. But when 
its rock foundations were laid, the shadow of its future human, 
as well as natural, history spread over them. Its primal physical 
architecture, in diminishing the extent of dry land, has increased 
the variety in the races who inhabit it; while the mineralogical 
constitution of the insulated elevations, the manner in which they 
arc dispersed throughout its seas, and all the meteoric and bota- 
nical consequences, have afTccled them in innumerable modes* 



Again, as we saw that the platform of the Archipelago is bat an 
extension of the great central mass of Asia, and that the direction 
of the subterranean forces had determined the ranges of the land, 
80 we find that its population is bnt an extension of the Asiatic 
families, and that the direction of migration was marked out by 
the same forces. But, separated by the sea from the great plains 
and vallies of the continent, having the grand routes of commu* 
nication covered by mountains and dense and dilBculUy penetra- 
ble forest, the Archipelago could not be peopled by hordes, but 
must have owed its aborigenes to the occasional wandering of 
small parties or single families. The migrations from one island 
lo another were probably equally limited and accidental ; and the 
small and scattered commuoinities in such as were inhabited, must^ 
for a long period, have remained secluded from all others, saye 
when a repetition of similar accidents added a few more units to 
the human denizens of the forests. 

We cannot here attempt to retrace in the most concise manner 
the deeply interesting history of the tribes of the Archipelago, so 
exciting from the variety of its elements, and its frequent, though 
not impenetrable, mystery. We can but distinguish the two great 
eras into which it divides itseif,< — that, at the commencement of which 
some of the inhabitants of the table land of Asia, having slowly 
traversed the south eastern vaUies and ranges, a work perhaps of 
centuries, appeared on the confines of the Archipelago, no longer 
nomades of the plains but of the jungles, with all the changes in 
ideas, habits, and language which such transformation implies, and 
prepared by their habits to give rise, under the influences of their 
new position, to the nomades of the sea ; — and the second era, 
that, at the commencement of which the forest and pelagic no- 
mades, scattered over the interior, and along the shores, of the 
islands of the Archipelago, in numerous petty tribes, each with some 
peculiarities fn its habits and language, but all bearing a family 
resemblance, were discovered in their solitudes by the earliest na- 
vigators from the civilized nations of the continent. 

The ensuing, or what, although extending over a period of about 
tvfo thousand years, we may term the modern, history of the Ar- 
chipelago, first exhibits the Klings from southern India, — who were a 
civilized maritime people probiibly three thousand years ago, — 


frequenting the islands for their peculiar productions, awaken- 
ing a taste for their manufactures in the inhabitants, settling 
amongst them, introducing their arts and religion, partially com- 
municating these and a little of their manners and habits to their 
disciples^ but neither by much intermarriage altering their general 
physical character, nor by moral inOuence obliterating their ancient 
superstitions, their comparative simplicity and robustness of charac- 
ter, and their freedom from the effeminate vanity which probably 
then, as in later times, distinguished their teachers. At a compa- 
ratively recent period, Islamism supplanted Hinduism in most of 
the communities' which had grown up under the influence of the 
latter, bat it had still less modifying operation ; and, amongst the 
great bulk of the people, the conversion from a semi-Hindu con- 
dition to that of Mahomedanism was merely formaL Their intel- 
lects, essentially simple and impatient of discipline and abstract 
contemplation, could as little appreciate the scholastic refinements of 
the one religion, as the complex and elaborate mythological ma- 
ehtnery and psycological subtleties of the other. While the Ma- 
lay of the nineteenth century exhibits in his manner, and in ma* 
ny of his formal usages and habits, the influence which Indians and 
Arabs have exerted on bis race, be remains, physically and mo- 
rally, in all the broader and deeper traits of nature, what he was 
when he first entered the Archipelago; and even on his manners, 
usages, and habits, influenced as they have been, his distinctive 
original character is still very obviously impressed. 

We cannot do more than allude to the growth of population 
and civilization in those localities which, from their extent of fer- 
tile soil or favorable commercial position, rose into eminence, and 
became the seats of powerful nations. But it must be borne in 
mind that, although these localities were varied and wide spread, 
they occupied but a small portion of the entire surface of the 
Archipdago, and that the remainder continued to be thinly inha- 
bited by uncivilized tribes, communities, or wandering families. 

Prevented, until a very recent date, by stubborn prejudices and 
an overweening sense of superiority, from understanding and in- 
fluencing the people of the Archipelago, the European domina- 
tions have not directly affected them at all ; and the indirect ope- 
ration of the new power, and mercantile and political policies^ which 


they iotrodaced has been productive of much evil and very lilUe 
good. While, on the one hand, the native industry and trade 
have been stimulated by increased demand and by the freedom 
enjoyed in the English ports, they have, on the other hand, been 
subjected by the Portuguese, English and Dutch, to a series of des* 
potic restraints, extending over a period of three hundred years : 
and, within the range of the last nation's influence, continued, 
however modiGed, to this hour : which far more than counterba* 
lance all the advantages that can be placed in the opposite scale. 

The effect of the successive immigrations, revolutions and admix- 
tures which we have indicated or alluded to, has been, that there are 
now in the Archipelago an extraordinary number of races, differing in 
colour, habits, civilization, and language, and living under forms of 
government and laws, or customs, exhibiting the greatest variety. The 
same cause which isolated the aborigenes into numerous distinct 
tribes and kept them separate, — the exuberant vegetation of th^ 
islands, — has resisted the influence, so far as it was originally 
amalgamating, of every successive foreign civilization that has do- 
minated; and the aboriginal nomades of the jungle and the sea, 
in their unchanged habits and mode of life, reveal to their Eu- 
ropean contemporary, the condition of their race at a time when 
bis own fore-fathers were as rude and far more savage. The 
more civilized races, after attaining a certain measure of advance- 
ment, have been separated by their acquired habits from the un- 
altered races, and have too often turned their superiority into the 
means of oppressing, and thereby more completely imprisoning in 
the barbarism of the jungles, such of them as lived in their pro-» 
ximity. So great is the diversity of tribes, that if a dry catalogue 
of names suited the purpose of this sketch, we could not afford 
space to enumerate them. But, viewing human life in the Ar-* 
chipelago as a general contemplation, we may recall a few of the 
broader peculiarities which would be most likely to dwell on the 
memory after leaving the region. 

In the hearts of the forests we meet man scantily covered with 
the bark of a tree, and living on wild fruits, which he seeks with 
the agility of the monkey, and wild animals, which he tracks 
with the keen eye and scent of a beast of prey, and slays with 
a poisoned arrow projected from a hollow bambu by his breath. 


In loDeiy creeks and straits we see bim in a small boat, which 
is his cradle^ bis bouse, and bis bed of deatb ; wbicb gives him 
all the shelter be ever needs, and enables bim to seize the food 
which always surrounds bim. On plains, and on the banks of 
rivers, we see the civilized planter converting the moist flats into 
rice fields, overshadowing bis neat cottage of bambti, nfbong, and 
palm leaves with the graceful and bounteous cocoanut, and sur- 
rounding it with fruits, the variety and flavour of which Euro^ 
pean luxury might envy, and often with fragrant flowering trees 
and shrubs which the greenhouses of the West do not possess. 
Where the land is not adapted for wet rice, he pursues a system 
of husbandry which the farmer of Europe would view with as- 
tonishment. Too indolent to collect fertilizing appliances, and well 
aware that the soil will not yield two successive crops of rice, 
he takes but one, after having felled and burned the forest ; and he 
then seeks a new locality, leaving nature, during a ten years fallow, 
to accumulate manure for his second crop on the old one, in the ve- 
getable matter elaborated by the new forest that springs up. 

Relieved from the care of his crop he searches the forests for 
rattans, canes, timber, fragrant woods, oils, wax, gums, caout* 

chouc, gutta-percha, dyes, camphor, wild nutmegs, the tusks of the 
elephant, the horn and hide of the rhinoceros, the skin of the 
tiger, parrots, birds of paradise, argus pheasants, and materials 
for mats, roof, baskets, and receptacles of various kinds. If 
he lives near the coast, be collects fish, fish maws, fish roes, 
slogs (trepang), seaweed (agaragar), tortoiseshell, rare corals and 
mother of pearl. To the eastward, great fishing voyages are an- 
nually made to the shores of Australia for trepang. In many parts, 
pepper, coffee, or bctelnut, to a large, and tobacco, ginger, and other 
articles, to a considerable, extent, are cultivated. Where the hirundo 
Gsculenla is found, the rocks are clomb and the caves explored for 
its costly edible nest. In different parts of the Archipelago the soil is 
dag for tin, antimony, iron, gold or diamonds. The more civilized 
nations make doths and weapons, not only for their own use but 
for exportation. The traders, including the Rajahs, purchase the 
commodities which we have mentioned^ dispose of them to the 
European, Chinese, Arab, or Kling navigator, who visits their 
shores, or send them in their own vessels to the markets of Sin- 


gaporc, Balavia, Samarang, Manila, and Macassar. In these ar# 
gathered all the products of the Archipelago, whether such as the 
native inhabitants procure by their unassisted industry, or such as 
demand the skill and capital of the European or Chinese for their 
cultivation or manufacture ; and amongst the latter, nutmefgs, cloves, 
sugar, indigo, sago, gambler, tea, and the partially cultivated cinna- 
mon and cotton. To these busy marts, the vessels of the first maritime 
people of the Archipelago, the Bugis, and those of many Malayan 
communities, bring the produce of their own countries, and that 
which they have collected from neighbouring lands, or from the wild 
tribes, to furnish cargoes for the ships of Europe, America, Arabia, 
India, Siam, China, and Australia. To the bazar of the Eastern 
Seas, commerce brings representatives of every industrious nation of 
the Archipelago, and of every maritime people in the civilized world. 

Although, therefore, cultivation has made comparatively little im- 
pression on the vast natural vegetation, and the inhabitants are devoid 
of that unremitting laboriousness which distinguishes the Chinese 
and European, the Archipelago, in its industrial aspect, presents an 
animated and varied scene. The industry of man, when civilization 
or over population has not destroyed the natural balance of life, 
'must ever be the complement of the bounty of nature. The inhabi- 
tant of the Archipelago is as energetic and laborious as nature re- 
quires him to be; and he does not convert the world into a work- 
shop, as the Chinese, and the Kling immigrants do, because 
his world is not, like theirs, darkened with the pressure of crowd* 
ed population and over competition, nor is his desire to accumu- 
late wealth excited and goaded by the contrast of splendour and 
luxury on the one hand, and penury on the other, by the pride and 
assumptions of wealth and station, and the humiliations of poverty 
and dependence. 

While in the volcanic soils of Java, Menangkabau and Celebes, 
and many other parts of the Archipelago, population has increased, 
an industry suited to the locality *and habits of each people prevails, 
and distinct civilizations, on the peculiar features of which we can- 
not touch, have been nurtured and developed; other islands, less fa- 
voured by nature, or under the inflaence of particular historical cir- 
cumstances, have become the seals of great piratical communities, 
which periodically send forth large fleets to sweep the seas, and 

Ytoi kNOIAN AliCtttPBLA«0. 15 

lili% akmg the shares, of the Arcfafipelago, ftespoffing the seafoib^ 
Wt4^ of di^ frttits df hb iiid^ti*y and his persona! liberty, and car - 
Y^fftg off, frota Ae&r very honiies, the wives and children of the iiihem 
gers. Frtm die icreek^ and HverS of Borneo and Johore, from this 
mmeMiis islands between Singapore and Banka, and from other parlli 
of Vkt Archipelago, piratical expeditions less formidable than those 
"iaC the Lannns of Sulo are year after year fltted out* No coast is so 
thickly peopled, and no faarboar so well protected, as to be seciard 
from all molestation, for, ^here Open force would be useless, ire« 
ebmrse it had to stealth and stratagem. Hen have been kidnapped 
in broad day in the harbours of Pinang and Singapore. Several 
inhabitants of Province Wellesley who had been carried away frotal 
fhdr houses through the harbour of Pinang ind down the Straits oT 
Maheca to the southward were recently discovered by the Dutch 
antfaorities living in a state of slavery and restored to their hoiAiis. 
But the Ordinary abodes of th<^ (pirates themselves are not always at 
a distance from the European settlements. As the thug of Beo« 
gA IS only kno.\n in his own Tillage as a peaceful peasant, so the 
pirate, when not tbieni on an expedition^ appears in the river^ and 
along the shores and islands, of Singapore, as an honest boatm^ 
or fisherman^ 

When we turn from this brief review of the industry of she Ar- 
diipelago, and its great internal enemy, to the personal and social 
condition of the inhabitants, we are struck by the mixture of simpli-* 
dty and art, of rudeness and refinement, which characterises all tie 
principal nations. No European has ever entered into free ^iid 
kindly intercourse with them, without being much more impressed 
by thei^ virtues than their faults. They contrast most favourably 
With the Chinese and the Rling^ in their moral characters ; and al« 
fhbttgfa tbey do not, like those pliant races, readily adapt theiilselVes 
to the requirements of foreigners, in their proper sphere they are 
intelHgent, sb^wd, active, and, #hen need is, taborius. Compar- 
ing tiiem even with general conditidn of iiiany eiviltced nations of far 
bi^ier pretensions, our estimate must be favourable. Their man- 
ned are distinguished by a mixture of conrlesy and fre^OM which 
is very attractive. Even the poorest while frank are well bred, 
and, exdading the eommohities that are Corrupted by phracy or • 
mixture with Em^pean seamen' and Idw Chinese add KHngi, wt 


oerer see to impudent air, an insolent look, or any exhibition of 
immodesty, or hear coarse, abusive or indecent language. In their 
mutual intercourse they are respeclful, and, while good humour- 
ed and open, habitually reflective and considerate. They are much 
given to amusements of various kinds, fond of music, poelry and 
romances, and in their common conversation addicted to senten- 
tious remarks, proverbs, and metrical sentiments or allusions. To 
Ibt 8rst impression of the European, the inhabitants, like the ve- 
getation and animus of the Archipelago, are altogether strange, 
because the characteristics in which they differ from those to 
ivhich we are habituated, affect the senses more vividly than those 
In which they agree. For a time the colour, features, dress, man«r 
iMrs and habits which we see and the languages which we hear^ 
are those of a new world. But with the fresh charms, the ezag« 
gerated impressions also, of novelty, wear away; and then, retracing 
our steps, we wonder that people so widely separated from the 
nations of the west, both geographically and historically, and real* 
ly differing so much in their outward aspect, should, in their more 
latent traits, so much resemble them. The nearer we come to 
the inner spirit of humanity, the more points of agreement ap- 
pear, and this not merely in the possession of the universal attri-v 
bates of human nature, but in specific habits, images, and super* 

What at first seems stranger still is, that when we seek the native 
of the Archipelago in the mountains of the interior, where he has 
lived for probably more than two thousand years secluded from all 
foreign influence, and where we expect to find all the differences at 
their maximum, we are sometimes astonished to find him appror 
ximating most closely of all to the European. In the lakun, for 
inst4npe, girded though his loins are with terap bark, and arme4 
as he is with his sumpitan and poisoned arrows, we reoog- 
nixe the plain and clownish manners, and simple ideas of the 
uneducated po^sant in the more secluded parts of European coun* 
tries ; and when he describes how, at his merry makings, his neigh- 
bours assemble, Ihe arrack tampdi flows around, and the dance, 
in which both sexes mingle, b prolonged, till each seats hunself 
on the ground with his partner on his knee and his bambu of 
arrack by the side, when the dance gives place to song, we are 

fas iNiiiAH Abcripblaqo. 17 

ibrdbly reminded of free and jovial, if rode, manners of the 
lower rural classes of the W^t. Freed from the repellant pre^ 
jndices and artificial trappings of Hindu and Mahomedan civiltia* 
tkm we se^ iii thb man of the Archip<ilago more that is akin than 
the reverse to unpolished man of Europe. 

When we turn to the present political condition of the Archi- 
pelago, we rre struck by the cdntrast which it presents to that 
wliieb characterised it, three or four centuries ago. The mass of 
the people, it is true, in all their privale relations, remain in nearly 
the same state in which they were found by the earliest European 
voyagers, and which they had existed for oiany centuries {Previously. 
Bat, as nations, they have withered in the presence of the uncongenhl, 
greedy and relentless spirit 6t European policy. They have beeri sub^ 
doed by the hard and determined will of Europeans, who, in general^ 
have pursued the purposes for which they have come into the Archipe* 
lago without giving any sympathy to the inhabitants. The nomadic 
spirit^ never extinguished during all the changes which they under- 
went^ bad made them adventurous and warlike wh^n they rose into 
imtions. But now, long overaw^ and restrained by the power of 
Earopeaiis, the national habits of action have, in most parts of the 
Archipelago, been lost, or are only faintly maintained in the piratic 
cal expeditions of some. Their pride has fallen. Their living U» 
terature is g6ne with the power, the wars, and the glory, which in« 
sl>ired it The day has departed when Singapore could be invaded 
by ^Javanese, — when Johore could extend its ddminiOn to Borneo 
on the one side, and Sumatra on the other, — when the fleets of 
Acheen and Malacca could encounter each other in the Straits to dis- 
pute tfae dominion of the Eastern Seas, — when the warrants of 
the Saltan of Menangkabaii were as potent Over the M;«lnyan na« 
tions as the bulls of Rome ever were over those of Cbristendom, 
— when a champion of Malacca could make his name be known all 
over ibe Archipelago,— and when the kings of the Peninsula sent 
their sons, escorted by celebrated warriors, to demand tfae daugh* 
ter of the emperors ol Majapahit in marriage. The Malayan princes 
of the present day, retaining all the feudal attachment and homage 
of their subjects, and finding no more honorable vent for the asser* 
tion of their freedom from restraint and the gratification of their 
self-win, have almost every where sunk into indolent debauchees and 

Id ram pms«syT ciH^i^ivioN •# 

gratdy nMmopoliiU, add, incited bj their owa rapacitj and that of 
tbe cooctieca who snrfound them, draia miA paralyse the iodiistrf 
<lf their people. 

Ifbe foreign elements at presenl ezercisipg, or likely to oxer<-» 
cise, great influence on the condition of tho Archipekgo, arrO tM 
donuoion of the Dutch and Spanish, the commerce aod seltleivents 
of the English, the educational and missionary efforts of Christen* 
dom, the growth of large Chines communities, and the continued 
influx of immigrants from China. It is probable, if England does, 
qpt extend her influence, that the whole Archipelago, with the 
exception of the Malayan Peninsula (mhich is always considered 
a member of it,) the Philippines, and a small portion of Bar- 
n.eo, will, in np long time, become a portion of the Dutch em* 
pire ; and if the humanizing and liberal influences which, we hopoy 
are now modifying the character of the eastern policy of that na- 
tion, receive full effect, and Netherlands India come to be really 
Ipolred upon as an integral part of Holbind, its inhabitants being ad- 
VUtted to a full reci|irocity of advantages with those of the European 
portion of the einpire, there will be little to regret, and much 
to welcome, io the change, England in introducing freedom of 
trade, and in leaving the inhabitants of her possessions^ small a» 
they, are, to the unshackled exercise of their own. mdustry, has 
set an example of rational government, which, if imitated in every 
European possession in the Archipelago, would do something to- 
a^oae for past misgovernment and neglect. It is impossible^ to< 
foresee how great the influence of the Chinese may become. Largo 
as the Chinese population already is, and numerous as the an- 
ijnal immigrants from China are, they must, in the progress oC 
the change which is working in China itself, greatly increase, and 
there can be little hazaid in looking to the pressure of population 
in China, as one of the most nuimentous elements in the future- 
history oC the Archipelago. 

Broken down as the more civilised and once powerful states are, 
till their governments, with hardly an exertion, have lost all the. 
^Mrgy and ambition to be usefu), and retain only the power to. 
be hurtful ; divided as the greater proportion of the pipulation of 
the Archipelago is, into separate tribes and communities too small to 
resist the domineering and exacting spirit of the more covetous^ 


tan IK0f AN AmmiWLAM' 19 

hM and aetire Halays and Kagfs who lafest (heir coasts ; opaaly 
tobbed and enslaved by their brother islanders ; defrauded by thn 
Chinese, King or Arab adventurer, whose snperior activity and 
eonning, enable him to profit moro by their indoslry than they 
to theiaselves ; neglected by the European who feeks the same end 
by honest means, and« thai attained, returns to his native country 
md gives them no seoond thought; and without any active inter* 
9al eleoients of edvanqemoni ;--^it is only by awakening an inter- 
iSt in Europe itself that the inhabitants! of the Archipelago can hope 
f» any amelioration. So long as they only know one place of 
European character,— (he ardent, steady and inventive pursuit of gain^ 
— the iofluence of Europe will remain, what it has hitherto proved, 
more prejudicial than bene.icial. Put let the deep human sym* 
pathy which dwelb in England and overflows on so many sides, 
once effectually reach the people of this noble region of the world ; 
let England learn their many virtues^ their mild and engaging maaf* 
Bars, their freedom from intoleraoee, thar docility, their apti« 
tude for instruction ; and let her hut take senouily to heart the 
fact tliat on the seas where her flag has floated and her commerce 
largely proGiUd for two hundred and fifty years, the peaceful trader 
canoot at this day venture to embark without the risk of being 
slato or enslaved,— 'that from the destruction of all national power, in 
which her own policy aided^ a few thousand pirates now keep the 
coasts of countries numbering millions of inhabit nts in a state of 
iosecurisy, — ^and her energy and resources wilt soon work out the 
best means of suppressing these evils at once and for ever, and 
of implanting fresh and vigorous elements of more development 
in the now stagnant minds of the inhabitants. Without this we 
may continue for another hundred years to mingle in the trading 
communities of the Archipelago^ without ever exercising any of that 
ioflaeoce which our predecessors, the Hindus and the Hahome- 
daos, exercised. But if we would seek to assimilate the natives 
of the Archipelago to those of Europe, and take them with us 09 
onr path of advancement, we must, like the Hindus and Mahomodano, 
begin by acquiring a thorough and familiar knowledge of the9l- 
Their political and material wants are so connected that wha^ 
ever tends to remedy the latter must react on the fbrmer. It 
is no less the duty of the christian and the philan ' "^^Bvsi for their 

so nts pRxAibiT coMm&ft 6w 

ends, than of the economist for his, to take every practicable mca^ 
sore for the improvement of the external condition of the natives 
of the Archipelago. We need not now suffer our minds to b^ 
disturbed by any mbgivings as td the benefit derivable frcAn Ea- 
ropean inOuenee* In the first place, the influence hitherto has 
not been that of Europe in her noblest characteristics { or the lower 
and more selfish have so much predominated that they have not 
yet dreamt of Europe in her earnest devotion to the bettering of 
humanity, her pure and deep love of all truth spiritual and 
physical, aod her ever extending knowledge of the secret springs 
of nature. For, altongh we fully appreciate the earnest and 
noble labours of the missionaries who are found in many of the 
islands, we cannot be blind to the fact, that their numbers and 
resources are, as yet, far too limited to make more than a slight 
impression on the great field which lies arouod them. In the 
second place we have no choice. We may deplore that some 
tribes, happy in their simplicity and guilelessness^ should be roused 
from their repose of peace to pass through the turbulent period 
which separates man first awaking to d sense of new wants and 
setting out on his career of dissatisfaction and action, from man 
when civilization has thrown off its early vices arid evils, and is 
bringing all human wants and desires into harmony. But we cannot, 
if we would, arrest the march of events ; and as the necessities and 
enterprize of China and Europe are yearly more and more invading 
the recesses of the Archipelago, and the roost secluded tribes must 
in a short time be brought within the circle of general economical 
intercourse, we must dismiss from Our minds distrust and hesita- 
tion, and substitute in their place, the fact that this intercourse 
is now most extensive, will soon be universal, and is a mighty 
agent for good as well as for evil. 

UnfoHunately the Chinese, who are so rapidly spreading, can 
only corrupt and debase the natives. Living but for gain and 
merely physical enjoyment, and pursuing these objects with a com- 
bination of the most mature patience, laboriousness, duplicity, 
craft and often fraud, which is tlie more dangerous from the easy, 
open, plain and plausible manner with which it is accompanied, the 
Chinese flow into every opening which European powers effect 
whether by supplanting or weakening native governments. If every 


Step which European enterprize makes it thus followed by an 
accession of Chinese corruption, it is the more incunabent on Eu« 
rope that she no longer stand aloof from the natives, ani aban- 
don them to the debasement of a civilizalion, purely industrial 
and sensual, to which she contributes to expose them 

It is time that England should see and be shocked by the 
effects of her past policy or absence of policy in the anarchy, 
degeneracy, oppressions and ?ices which largely prevail in many 
parts of the Archipelago. England would then learn by what 
a sm;i1l effort, in comparison with those which she is daily mak- 
ing for objects of far inferior magnitU'ie and moment, she might 
make herself known in her true character in the Archipelago, 
and speedily free the slave from his bonds; suppress the trade 
in men and its asseciate piracy; mitigate and eventually abolish 
the hea^y monopolies and restraints which depress industry, and 
noarish oppression, fraud ancl corruption ; and, having thus given 
to the people freedom in person, property and mind, lead them, 
tbroogh her sympathy and pity and their docility and gratitude, 
to a willing reception of the homanizing and elevating knowledge 
f^ cfaristejidom. 



By THOtfAft OxtBt, Esq., A. B. 

Surgeon 9fik§ Settlement pf Prince of W^iee' lelundf Singap9r0 

and Mataeoan 

AJtbOQgfh th6 IVees yielding this substance ebound in our id-* 
digenoQS foresb, it is only four years ttnee it was diseovered by 
ISiiropeans. The first notice taken of it appears to have been by 
Dr. W. MoNTeoMBRK in a letter to the Bengal Medical BoM 
in the beginning of 1813, wherein he comaiends the iabfttaftctt 
as liltely to prove useful for some surgical purposes, and aop* 
poses it to belong to the Pig tribe. In April 1843 the substancd 
was taken to Europe by Dr. Alsibida who presented it to tba 
Royal Society of Arts of London, but it did not at first attract 
much attention, as the Society simply ^cltnowledged the receipt of 
the gift; whereas shortly after they thought prop<^r to award A 
gold medal to Dr. W. MontoomoriK for a similar service. Now, 
as the discovery of both these Gentlemen rested pretty much upon 
the same foundation :— the accidental failing in which it in the hands to 
some Malays who had found out its greatest peculiarity, — and, avail-* 
ing themselves thereof, manufactured it into whips which were brought 
into Town for sale ; there does not appear any plausible reason for 
the passing over the first and rewarding the second. Both gentle- 
men are highly id be commended for endeavouring to introduce of 
public notice, a substance which has proved so useful and interest- 
ing. The Gutta Percha having o.f late attracted much attentioo, 
and as yet but little being known or published about it, 1 would now 
propose to supply, to the best of my ability, this desideratum, and give 
a desaiption of the Tree, its product and uses, so far as it has t>eea 
made available for domestic and other purposes, in the place of its 

The Gutta Percha Tree, or Gutta Ttiban as it ought more pro* 
perly to be called,— -the Percha producing a spurious article,— -belongs 
to the Natural family Sapotea, but differs so much from all describ- 
ed Genera, having alliance with both Achras and Bassia^ but dif- 
fering in some essentials from both, that I am disposed to think it 
is entitled to rank as a new genus. 1 shall therefore endeavour to 


^f c its genial character, leaving the honor of naming it to some 
more competent Botanist, especially as I have not quite satisGed 
myself regarding the stamens from want of specimens for obser- 

The Tree is of large size, from 60 to 70 feet in height, and 
from 2 to 3' feet in diameter. Its general appearance resembles 
the Genos Bario, or well known Dooriao, so much so as to strike 
the most superficial observer. The mider surface of the leaf, how- 
ever, is of a more reddish and decided brown than in the Durio, 
and the shape is somewhat different 

The flowers are axillary, from 1 to 3 in the axils, supported on 
short curved pedicles, and numerous along the extremities of the 

Calyx, inferior, persistent, coriaceous, of a brown color, divid- 
ed into six sepals which are arranged in double series. 

Gondla, monopetalous hypogenous, divided like tiie calyx into six 
acuminate segments* 

Stamens, inserted into throat of the corolla, in a single series, va- 
riable in number, but, to the best of my observation, the normal 
oomber is twelve, most generally all fertile, anthers supported on 
slender bent filaments, opening by two lateral pores. 

Ovary, superior, terminated by a long simple style, six celled, 
each cell containing one seed. 

Leaves about four inches in length, perfect, entire, of a cori- 
xeoas consistence, alternate, obovate lanceolate, upper surface of a 
pale ^een, under surface covered with close, short, reddish brown 
hairs. Midrib projects a little, forming a small process or beak. 

Every exertion of myself and several others having failed in 
procoring a specimen of the fruit of the Gutta, 1 regret being 
conipeUed to omit the description of it in the present instance, 
but hope to rectify this omission in some future number of the 
JooroaL It is quite extraordinary how difficult it is to obtain 
specimens of either the flower or fruit of this tree, and this is 
probably the reason of its not having been earlier recognized and 
described by some of the many Botanists who have visited these 

Only a shorts lime ago the Tuban Tree was tolerably abundant 
ou the Island of Singapore, but already all the large timber has been 


felled, and few, if any, other than small plants are n<nr to he 
found. The range of its growth, however, appears to 'be consider- 
able ; it being found all up the Malayan Peninsula as far as Penang 
where I have ascertained it to be abundant ; although 95 yet the in- 
habitants do not se&a to be aware of the fast : several of the 
Mercantile houses, there, having sent down orders to Singapore for 
supplies of the article, when they have the means of supplyiilose 
at hand. The Tree is also found in Borneo, and I have fitlle 
doubt is to be found in most of the Islands adjacent. 

The localities it particularly likes are the alluvial tracts along 
the foot of hills, where it flourishes luxuriantly, forming, in ma- 
ny spots, the principal portion of the jungle, But notwithstand- 
ing the indcginous character of the tree, its apparent abundance^ 
and "vride spread diffusion, the Gutta will soon become a very 
scarce article, if some more provident means be not adopted in 
its collection than that at present in use by the Malays and Chinese. 

The mode in which the natives obtain the Gutta is by cutting^ 
do^n the trees of full growth and ringing the bark at distances of 
about 12 to 18 inches apart, and placing a cocoanut shell, spathe 
of a Palm, or such like receptacle, under the fallen trunk to re« 
ceive the milky sap that immediately exudes upon every fresh inci- 
sion. This sap is collected in bamboos, taken to their houses, and 
boiled in order to drive off the watery particles and inspissate it to 
the consistence it finally assumes. Although the process of boiling 
appears necessary when the Gutta is collected in large quantity, if a 
tree be freshly wounded, a small quantity allowed to exude, and it 
be collected and moulded in the hand, it will consolidate perfectly 
in a few minutes and have all the appearaRce of the prepared ar- 

When it is quite pure the color is of a greyish white, but as 
brought to market it is more ordinarily found of a reddish hue, aris- 
ing from chips of bark that fall into the sap in the act of making the 
incisions, and which yield their color to it. Besides these accidental 
chips there is a great deal of intentional adulteration by sawdust 
and other materials. Some specimens I have lately seen brought 
to market, could not have contained much less than |th of im* 
purities ; and even in tbe purest specimens I could obtain for 
surgical purposes, one pound of the substance yielded, on being 


ctemed, one ounoe of impurities. Fortunately it is neither diffi* 
cult to detect or clean the Gutta of foreign maUer ; it being only 
neoeswy to boil it in water, until well softened, roll out the 
SBbstanoe into thin sheets, and then pidc out oil impurities, which 
is easily dime as the Gutta does not adhere to any thing, and 
aQ forago matter is merdy entangled in its Obres, not incorporated 
in its substance. The quantity of solid Gutta obtained from each 
tree ?aries- from five to twenty catties^ so that, taking the average at 
lA catties which is a tolerably liberal one, it will require the des- 
tndion of 10 trees to produce one picul. Now the quantity ex* 
ported from Singapore to Great Britain and the Continent from 1st 
Jamary 1843 to the present date, amounts to 6,918 piculs, to obtain 
wbich sixty nine thousand one hundred and eighty trees must have 
been saoifioed. How much better would it therefore be to adopt 
the method of tapping the tree practised by the Burmese in obtain* 
ing the Gaootohoue from the Ficus Elastica, (viz., to make oblique 
incisions in the bark, placing bamboos to receive the sap which runs 
ool frediO ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^e goose in the manner they are at pre- 
sent, doing. True they would not at first get so much from a sin* 
gle tree, but the ultimate gam would be incalculable, particularly as 
the Tree appears to be one of slow growth, by no means so ra* 
pid as the Ficus Elastica* I should not be surprised, if the demand 
increases, and the present method of extermination be persisted 
IB) to find^asndden cessation of the supply. 


The substance when fresh and pure is, as already mentioned, 
of a dirty white color and of a greasy feci with ^ peculiar leathery 
smell. It is not affected by boiling Alcohol, but dissolves readi- 
ly in boiling spirits of Turpentine, also in Naptha and Coal Tar. 
A good cement for luting bottles and other purposes is formed by 
boiliQg together equal parts of Gulta, Goal Tar and Resin. I am in- 
dd>ted for this hint to Mr. Little, Surgeon, and the above were his 
proportions. I have, however, found it necessary to put two parts 
of the Gutta, that is one half instead of one third, to enable the 
cement to stand the heat of this climate. When required for use 
it can always be made plastic by putting the pot containing it over 
the fire for a few minutes. The Gutla itself is highly inflammable^ 


a strip cat off takes light, and burns with a bright flame, cmittiof 
sparks, and dropping a black residoma in the manner of sealing 
irax, which in its combostion it very madi resembles. But the 
great peculiarity of thb substance, and that which makes it so 
eminently useful for many purposes, is the effect of boiling water 
upon it. When immersed for a few minutes in water abo?e ISO 
degrees of Faht. it becomes soft and plastic, so as to be capable 
of being moulded to any required shape or form, which it retaias^ 
upon cooling. If a strip of it be cut off and plunged into b<Hiing wa- 
ter, it contracts in size both in length and breadth. This is a very 
anomalous and remarkable phenomenon, apparently opposed to all 
the laws of heaL 

It is this plasticity when plunged into boiling water that has alto wed 
of its being applied to so many useful purposes, and which first induced 
some Malays to fabricate it into whips, which were brought into Town 
and led to its farther notice. The natives have subsequently ei- 
tendcd their manufactures to buckets, basins and jugs, shoes, traces, 
vessels for cooling wine, and several other domestic uses ; but the 
number of Patents lately taken out for the manufacture of the arti- 
cle in England proves how much attention it has ah*eady attracted, 
and how extensively useful it is likely to become. Of all the 
porposes, however^ to which it may be adapted none is so valuable as 
its applicability to the practice of Surgery. Here it becomes one of 
the most useful auxiliaries to that branch of the healing art, which oC 
all is the least conjectural. Its easy plasticity and power of retaining 
any shape given to it when cool, at once pointed it out as suitable for 
the manufacture of Bougies, and accordingly my Predecessor, Dr. W. 
MosTGOMfiRUB, availed himself of this, made several of the above 
instruments, and recommended the use of it to the Bengal Medi* 
cal Board. But, like many other good hints, for want of suffi- 
cient enquiry, I fear it was disregarded. The practice, however, 
has been continued by me, and I find many advantages in the 
use of this substance. It also answers very well for the tubes 
of syringes which are always getting out of order in this country 
^hen made of Caoutchouc. But my late experiments have given 
it a much higher value, and proved it the best and easiest applica- 
tion ever yet discovered in the management of fractures, combining 
case and comfort to the Patient, and very much lessening the 

propxhtiks of the gutta. S7 

trouble of the Surgeon. When I think of the farago of band- 
ages and spUnts got rid of, the lightness and simplicity of the 
appIicatioD, the Gutta would be no trifling boon to mankind were 
U to be used solely for this and no other purpose. The iojuries 
eonmig under my observation wherein I have tested its utility 
have, as yet, only been two compound fractures of the leg, and 
one of the jaw. But so admirably has it not only answered, but 
exceeded, my expectations, that I should think myself culpable in 
not giving the facts early publicity. Its utility in fracture of the 
lower jaw must at once strike any Surgeon. So well does it 
mould itself to every sinuosity, that it is more like giving the 
Patient a new bone than a mere support. A man lately brought 
Into Hospital, who had his lower jaw broken by the kick of a 
hone, and which was so severe as to cause, hemorrhage from the 
ears, smashing the bone into several fragments, was able to eat 
and speak in three days after the accident^ and felt so well with 
fab Gutta splint that he insisted upon leaving the Hospital with- 
in tea days. My mode of applying this substance to fractures of 
the leg is as follows. 

The Gutta having been previously rolled out into sheets of 
conrenient size, and about one fourth of an inch in thickness, if 
thus kept ready for use. When required, a piece of the neces- 
sary Iragth and breadth is plunged into a tub of boiling water. 
The limb of the patient is then gently raised by assistants, mak- 
ing extension in the usual manner. The Surgeon, having ascer- 
tained that the broken bone is in its place, takes the sheet of Gutta 
out of the hot water, and allows it to cool for a couple of minutes. 
It is stili soft and pliable as wash leather. Place it whilst in this 
stale under the limb, and gently lower the latter down on iL The 
Gutta is then to be brought round and moulded carefully to the 
whole of the back and sides of the leg, bringing the edges close 
together, but not uniting them. If there be any superfluous sub- 
stance, it can be cut off with a scissor, leaving an open slit down 
the front of the leg. Tou have now the leg in a comfortable, 
soft, and smooth case, which, in ten minutes, will be stiff enough to 
retain any shape the Surgeon may have given it, and which will 
also ret^n the bone in situ. Place the leg so done up ob a 
doable inclined plane^ and secure it thereto by passing three of 


tb« common loop bandages around the whole, — that is one at the 
top, one in the middle, and, and one at the lower end. Lei the foot 
be supported by a foot board, and a case of Gatta. put over the 
dorsum of the foot, to bear off the pressure of the small bandr 
age generally used to secure it to the board. Having done this^ 
the Surgeon need not cause his Patient another twinge of paia 
until he thinks he can use the leg, or he deems the bone sufficient^ 
ly united to bear the weight of his patient. If it be a compound 
fracture it will only be necessary to untie the loop bandages, sepa* 
rate the edges of the Gutta splint to the required distance, wash 
and cleanse the limb without shifting any thing except the dress* 
iogs, and having done so, shut it up again. The most perfect 
cleanliness can be maintained, as the Gutta is not affected by any 
amount of ablution: neither is it soiled or rendffed offensive by 
any discharge, all which washes off as easily from the Gutta case 
as from oil cloth. I have had a patient where the Tibia protruded 
through the integuments fully two inches, walking about in mx 
wcdEs from the injury, with a leg as straight and well formed as 
ever it had been. It is quite obvious therefore that if it answeis 
so well for compound, it will answer equally, if not better, for 
simple, fractures ; and that any broken bone capable of receiving 
mechanical support can be supported by the Gutta better than by 
any other contrivance. For it combines lightness and smoothness^ 
durability and a capability of adjustment, not possessed by any 
other known substance. All new experiments have to run the 
gauntlet of opposition, and I do not suppose that these recommends^ 
tions will prove an exception to the rule. But all I ask of any 
Surgeon is to try the experiment ere he argues on its propriety^ 
and I feel fully convinced that all other splints and bandages will 
be consigned to the tomb of the Capulets. There are some other 
uses for which I have tried this substance, viz., as capsules for 
the transmission of the vaccine virus, which ought to keep well 
when thus protected, for it is most perfectly and hermetically 
sealed. But I have not had sufficient experience in this mode of 
using it to pronounce decidedly on its merits. I am at present 
trying the effects of it on Ulcers, by enclosing the ulcerated limb, ia 
a case of Gutta so as to exclude all atmospheric air, and^ so far, thft 
experiment promises success. 


Since wrttiDg the foregoing observations I haye had an official 
Ibtiination'from Penang of the vaccine viros transmitted in the Gutta 
capsoles having been received in good order, and of its having suc- 
ceeded most satisfactorily. I have also (ipened a capsule containing 
a vacGiDe crust that had been kept here for one month, and it also 
seems to have lost none of its efficacy as tlie case inoculated has 
lakeo« This \^iil appear the more striking vhen it is recollected that 
to preserve the vaccine virus hitherto in Singapore even for a few 
^js has been almost impossible, — that this Settlement, ^otwithstond- 
w% every exertion on the part of both private and public practition- 
ers, has been without the benefit of this important prophylactic for 
an ialarval sometimes of two years, — and that, at all times, the ob« 
taionig and transmitting this desirable remedy has been a cause of 
trouble and difficulty to all the medical officers I have ever met with 
in the Straits. 

I observe in the Mechanics Magazine for March 1847, a no-> 
lice of several Patents taken out for the workiug of this article by Mr. 
Charles Hancock, in which an elaborate process is described for 
deaoing the Gutta when pure is certainly slightly add, that is^ it wilt 
sraeil. The Gutta when pure is certainly slightly acid, that is, it will 
cause a very slight effervescence when put into a solution of soda, but is 
unaffected by liquor potassa. The smell although .peculiar is neither 
strong nor unpleasant, so that the article experimented upon must 
have been exceedingly impure, and, possibly, derived a large propor- 
tion of its acidity from the admixture and fermentation of other 
vegetable aobstances. Again, it appears to me that, if the Gutta be 
pore, the very elaborate process described as being necessary for 
cleaning it, is superfluous. The Gutta can be obtained here in a 
perfectly pure state by simply boiling it in hot water until well soft- 
ened, and then rolling it out into thin sheets, when, as I have before 
said, all foreign matter can be easily removed, I would recom- 
mend that the manufacturers at home should offer a higher price for 
the article if previously strained through cloth at the time of being 
collected, wben they will receive the Gutta in a state that will save 
them a vast deal more in trouble and expense than the trifling addi- 
tion necessary to the original prime cost. 



Thk Dyaks are, in many respects^ a very interesting people. 
Very different in character from the cringing, fawning Malays, 
who here, and more particularly on the west coast of the Island, 
come in contact with them, they meet us with a free and open conn- 
tenance, and express their opinions and wishes, although not always 
off hand, yet without subterfuge or cloak. They have much natu- 
ral sense and a sound judgement, so that, in themost difficult and 
complicated affairs, they often know how to assist with surprising 
ability and sagacity. The persons of the Dyaks are more graceful 
than those of the Malays, and their colour is much fairer than that of 
the Javanese. Tatooing is very general amongst them,-)* and the 
flowers, circles and other dark flgures which they paint with great 
care, give a good effect to their slender and mostly muscular per- 
sons, which are wholly divested of all clothing. The only thing 
which a yet unpolished Dyak wears is a headkerchief and a small 
piece of cloth, — or from want of it, a small strip of soft beatea 
bark, — around his loins, with which he conceals bis shame* Both 
ends hang down in the manner of lappets, one in front and one 
behind ; a circumstance which has probably given rise to the sin- 
gular assertion ^Mhat some of them are furnished with tails.'' 
Far in the interior the women also arc but scantily dothed: a 
very narrow garment, which scarcely reaches from the wabt to 
the knees, is usually their only dress. 

In the middle of the island the people live, as it were, wholly 
in a state of nature; and neither men nor women appear to havo 
any conception of shame. I myself have seen, in the Kapiis river, 
that the women with their children bathe naked in the presence of 
many men, and without any one perceiving the least impropriety 
or evil in it.^ In proportion to the Dyak's indifference respecting 
hb dress, is his passion for various ornaments, particularly Agate 

* Translated for this Journal from the Tijdsehrift voor Necr lands 
Indie, Negende Taargang, tweede aflevering, 

•Y The Dyaks iu the North West of llorneo do not tatoo although the 
Kayans do.— Eo. i 

t Mr. Brooke says ''Even the Malays speak hif^hly of the chastity of tho 
Dyak women ; yet they arc by no means sl^y under the ua.:i» of sii angers, 
and iised to bathe before us in a btalc of n^^\\l)^."-'JkeplKi'i f^vpc.iUi'j:%to 
fiorncQi vol* /. p. ^^•-'Ei>. 


stonfs, of vhicb he wears large and long pieces on his neck, — and 
Gold, with w hich he ornaments his teeth ai|d wooden ear pins, — 
sometimes as large as a piaster, — and of which large plates are 
likewise worn by the wealthy on the breast. They are also fond 
of copper rings, which are worn in great abundance on the arms^ 
principally by the women. 

Id these things their whole riches generally consist, save that 
persons of consideration sometimes also possess one or more of 
Uwse large far famed pots, of which the finest, called blanga^ has 
not nnfreqaently a value of 2000 GuUders. But, poor or rich, 
the Byak is generally good humoured ; and if he can possibly 
nniage It, and though he, with his wife and children, should re* 
main in debt, he must sometimes in the year kill a hog, which he, 
along with - a numerous gathering of his friends, joyously devours, 
qualified with a large quantity of tuak or arrack. 

Although there are no drunkards properly so called amongst 
the Byaks, a single person seldom remains sober at such feasts. 
' The iiSuik is passed round in large cups, and that till the larger 
pots are emptied, or their heads are so full and giddy that they 
hardly know each other, when they become very noisy, declare 
themselves all rich (tatau) frolicsomely embrace each other, and 
then, talking or singing, tumble to their huts. The principal feasts 
are those named tiwm (death-feasts) which last at least seven 
<lays. On such occasions •ten buffaloes, and about the same num- 
^ of pigs, are often killed. Nearly a thousand men are ga- 
thered, and by the time the- seven days are ended, all the buffa* 
^ pigs, and 20 or 23 piculs of rice, part of which is made into 
tuik, are wholly consumed. 

A chief part i& played at such feasts by the blians (dandng girls) : 
vbo^ day and night, sing improvising^ with all their might : and 
the olo maga lian (the conductor of the soul) who brings the 
dead, likewise singing, and, as he declares,*"^ in an iron ship, past 
hell to a good place, for which service he receives, besides his 
share of the feast, from 20 to 30 bottles. The cost of such a 
tUaa sometimes runs as high as 400 to 500 bottles, and brings 
the givers into such debt ftat they have speedily to become 

Their great 9uperstitioa also costs them many sacrifices. If tbe 


Dyak goes on a journey he flrsl interrogates the Aniaag Ulang^ 
a large bird of prey: that is to saj, he goes to some secluded 
spot on a river^s banir, ivherc he cuts away some wood, brings 
an offering of rice and pork or fowl, and then calls his Na^ 
hi until he takes his significant flight over him. If the flight 
of the bird is in the direction of the contemplated journey, there 
is no need to have any further concern, and he begins his jour- 
ney in earnest. But if the bird flies in a contrary direction, he 
abandons his undertaking, at least for that day: however much 
may occasionally depend on the speed of his journey : and conti- 
nues to go with his meals to the atUang^ and every time with a 
more pressing invitation, till it, finally, satisfies the desire of his 
heart, and starts towards the intended point.* 

The Dyak also makes offerings on the occurrence of sickness^ 
when the bllans must again be present, who, besides the obser- 
Tance of the ceremonies, seek to sustain the patient by singing and 
beating the tambourine. This, however, is often attended with an 
opposite effect, for the patient by the continued noise, day and. 
night, is aU the speedier sent to his grave. 

It often happens too that a dream gives occasion to sacrifices. 
When, for example, I once went into the house of my neighbour, 
the mistress of the house related to me, that in the preceeding night 
a ghost appeared in a dream, which had enjoined her to slaughter 
and offer her largest hog; and although f took the greatest pains 
to enlighten her on this subject, and however much the woman was 
wedded to money and goods, the behest of the ghost had to be 
complied with. In the same evening a heavy shot was discharged 
before the house, a signal to all friends and neighbours that they 
had to expect something on the following morning ; and scarcely 
was the red of dawn visible when they dragged the animal to the 

^ The Sibnowan Dyaks appear to be devoid of this snpersUtioB. (See 
EipeditioD to Borneo, vol. 1. p. 60) Dr. Leyden, who writes on th^ autho- 
rity of Radcrmacher, Dalrymplc, Forrest and Born, says, " They hold 
particular kinds of birds in high veneration, and draw omens from the 
sounds which they utter, and tnm their flights. One of the principal of 
these Is a large species of white headed kite, which preys on fish, snakes, 
and vermin. In all their wars, jonrncys and in short all matters of impor- 
tance, they pay the utmost attention to 4^e omens of birds, and sometimes 
too they endeavour to penetrate the secrets of fUturtty by consulting the en- 
trails of birds."— £9, 

1)YAk£l OP BANJARMASS1N6. , 33 

tlver side, ;knd the whole campong re-echoed with its screech, the 
sweetest music to the ear of the Dyak. 

There exbt many other reasons for sacriOcing besides these* 
The barrenness of women, a bad fall, getting wounded by the 
felling of trees, seeing ghosts Ac cost many pigs their lives. All 
these offerings are made to Dfaia (water god) or Sangiang 
(a higher good being) or to the Telhpapa (bad spirits.) The 
greatest number are generally offered to these last, for, said one 
of the Dyak priests to me lately, we have nothing to fear from 
the good beings and Hatalla (God), and we do not need to 
make any oflerings to them, but we roust feed the bad spirits 
to keep them away from us. 

In the interior, men are still occasionally sacrificed, prindpally 
on the death of chiefs and other considerable persons. In Sirpt^ 
the furthest inhabited point of the Kaptis river, where J, some 
years ago, made a journey of investigation, they had, a short time 
before out arrival, sacrificed two women. An acquaintance, who 
had been present, gave me the following account of the horrible 
event. One morning at Sirat there gathered a great number of 
people who streamed in from all sides to celebrate a great feast. 
There was firing of guns; the open plain before the kotta (fort) was 
prepared for the occasion, and adorned with branches, flowers and 
doths ; a number of hogs were killed ; and when, finally, by mid-> 
day everything had been arranged according to use and wont, 
the real objects of the festival were brought forward, — two wo- 
men, sUU young, who had been purchased for the purpose from 
another race in the JDuaoTi. They had to seat themselves on the 
side of the ready-dug graves, and contem plate for some time the 
noisy rejoicing of the feasters. A lance of about thirty feet in 
length, was then brought and laid on one of the victims. All 
now hurried to take a part in the impending detestable deed. 
A hundred hands seized the long lance, and, the instant the cus- 
tomary sign was given, they threw themselves, amidst the loud 
acdanutions of the multitude, on the unfortunate wretch, and pierc* 
ed her through, even transfixing her to the ground. They then 
cut off the head of the fallen victim, and carried it during the 
rest of the day, dancing and singing round it. The same fate also 
befell her unfortunate companion. Those who arc thus offered 




become in their belief, the slaves, in the other world, of the de- 
ceased friend to whose memory they are offered. 

Respecting the mode of life of the Dyaks I shall here merely 
say that they maintain themselves by rice cultivation, trade, and, 
in the interior, principally by the collection of gold dust, id which 
the ground in many places is very rich. 

The Dyaks do not possess towns, but mostly dwell in small 
kampongs of about 4 to 10 houses. It is orily in the interior, 
from dread of the barbarous Dyak Pari, the rapid ahat nya-- 
toonj and the other enemies : of whom I shall jhercafter give an 
account and who on their forays usually destroy or carry away 
all : that they have them in greater number on certain points, which 
they surround with large fences and bring into a certain degree 
of defence, and therefore name kotta. In such a kotla 1000 to 
ISOO men often dwell. The whole population of Pdlopetak con* 
sists of about 10,000 souls and is distributed in nearly 40 kam- 
pongs, over an extent of ground of some hour's pulling in a fast 



The attachmeDt of the Chinese to their parents and famih'es 
is one of the most interesting features of their character, and it is 
iDteresfing to watch the modes in which it developes itself amongst 
those who have emigrated to th^ Archipelago, and remain for 
many years, and often for life, cut off from all direct intercourse 
vith their homes. 

Jkaring the past month, some of the Streets in the business 
qoarter of Singapore wti'e occasionally densely crowded by Chi- 
nese. These were principally coolies from the Gambier and 
Pepper plantations, who had come into town for the purpose 
of sending then* annual letters and remittances to their families 
in China by the Junks which were leaving on their return voy- 
age. These letters and monies are either entrusted to a com- 
rade from the same part of China, who, fortunate enough to have 
accumulated a small competency, is about to revisit his native land ; 
or they are delivered to a passenger with whom the remitter may 
be acquainted ; or, lastly, they are confided to one of those men, 
to be found in almost every Junk, who make it a regular bust* 
ness to take charge of such remittances. Such persons are de- 
signated Seu P6 K^, and come from all the different places of 
any importance Jrom which emigrants are in the habit of repair- 
ing to the Straits. The remitter entrusts his money to the agent 
from liis own part of the country, who for his trouble, either re- 
ceives a commission of 10 per cent., if the money is to be car- 
ried in specie, or is allowed to invest it in goods, the profit or 
loss on which is his, as he must pay over in China the exact sum 
that has been delivered to him. These persons frequently for years 
exclosively pursue this business : not the least remarkable of the 
thousand-and-one modes by which the ingenuity of the Chinese 
in making money developes itself: until they have realized suffi- 
cient to enable them to embark in more extensive pursuits. 

Remittances are made by all classes of the immigrants. While the 
merchant sends bis hundreds of dollars, the poor coolie sends his 
units or tens. The amount remitted each year varies considerably, 


beiog dependent on many circumstances, such as the general state of 
trade, or the particular fortune of individuals. In some years (he 
aggregate 4momit reaches as high perhaps as 70,000 Spanish 
dollars, while in other years it may faU as low as 30 or 40,000 
dollars. In the season which has just ended, the remittances were 
▼ery small in amonnt^ owing^ in the case of the merchants and trad- 
ers, Co the unprofltable state of trade for some time past, and, in the 
case of the agricultural coolies, to the inadequate price which gambier 
has for many months commanded, and which has seriously affected 
their wages, Ihe amount of which is dependent on the price of the 

Many of these coolies, being unable to write, are obliged to have 
recourse either to an acquaintance : if they are so fortunate as to 
possess one having a tincture of letters : or to one of the public 
letter-writers whose stalls, like those of similar professors in many 
cities of Continental Europe, are to be found in the streets, with 
their owners ready to be the instruments of communication for those 
who cannot write themselves. The Chinese letter- writer's stall is 
a very simple affair: consisting in general of a small rude table, a 
lilUe bundle of paper, a brush, some China ink, and a stool on which 
the operator sits.* These stalls are usually placed at the side of the 
street, and sometimes in the public verandahs ; while, in the outskirts 
of the town, they may be found established under trees, or in the 
shadow of walls. The person who wishes to send the letter stands 
or squats himself upon his hams beside the writer, and states what he 
wants to have written, and the letter being Onished is delivered to him, 
while he rewards the writer with 3 to 6 cents, according to circum- 
stances. On the occasion of the departure of two or three large Junks, 

*" A Chinese has nirnished us with a rude sketch of one of these alalia 
drawn and lithographed by himseir, which, although without artistical pre- 
tensions, and abounding in the usual defects of the Chinese pencil, is aofi- 
eiently faithfUl and characteristic. As example will much better convey a 
correct idea of the state of art amongst the people around us, than mere 
description, we shall allow them, to a certain extent, to be their own illus- 
trators. From the same desire to exhibit oar Eastern f^llow-townsmea as 
they really are, to our readers in England, we shall, occasionally, in giving 
specimens of their books, introduce fac similes of the flgures with which they 
are embellished. Rude as the productions or native art generally are, and 
particularly reckless of perspective and proportion, we are often surprised 
by the fidelity and vigour with which the character of the subject has been 
caught, and by a bro&d drollery or even humour which we should still less 
hare expected. 


not only are the whole of the professed letter- writers Id full operation^ 
but maoy coolies take np the trade for the time being, and assist in 
supplying the large demand, so that sometimes in passing along 
the streets in the morning, we may count as many as from forty 
to fifty stalls* These occasional letter-writers do not expend much 
on then- outfit An old packing case, or a deal board frequent* 
ly supplies a table sufficient for their purpose. 


SHKtR BlDASASr: A Malayan Poem. 

Wiih an SngUih TranttaHcn ond noug. 

Ik order to assist European scholars, we shall aimex traoslations 
to some at least of our series of Malayan works. This indeed is 
iodispensible from the imperfections of the best dictionaries : that of 
Harsden, for instance, omitting a considerable portioi) of the lan- 
guage, and, although abounding in idiomatic expressions for the most 
part faithfully rendered, yet being very far from containing a suffici- 
ent collection for those who cannot refer to Malayan iiierati. It is 
obvious that, under such circumstances, the most literal translation 
will be the most valuable. The authors of the fragments which 
bave hitherto appeared, with few exceptions, present the ideas of 
their original in a flowing English garb, adding and expunging with 
much license, and seeking rather to gratify their own taste than sa- 
tisfy the curiosity of their readers. Some of these translations, 
however, possess a high merit, and often when departing most from 
the words approach nearest to the spirit of the original* For a time 
at least, we shall not propose ^ny higher aim than to facilitate the 
understanding of Malay in England ; and should we, in the progress 
of our labour, be induced to adopt a less literal in order to give a more 
true translation, we shall take care in our notes to explain those words 
and idioms which do not occur in the dictionaries. We shall reserve 
our remarks on Malayan literature for their proper place in the se« 
ries of papers on that people, which we intend to commence in an 
early number of the Journal. But with respect to their poetry, it 
may be proper to remark here, that while the ideas in general are 
simple, and spring neither from passion nor imagination : although 
they are by no means always devoid of these attributes, and are of- 
ten distinguished by much tenderness and truth : the Malay poet, 
consulting the taste of his nation, looks upon verbal melody as the 
great aim of his art. With a language essentially musical, and which, 
having grown under the influence of this taste, so abounds in melo- 
dious expressions and combinations of sounds, that a Malay must 
almost perforce speak in numbers, the poet flnds no difficulty in 
giving beauty to the simplest idea. Add to this that all poems are 
sung or chanted, and that there are numerous words and expressions 
which^ being used oply for poetical purposes; always convey a poetical 

«HAiii BiDASARi: A Malay Potm. 39 

meaning to the ear of the Malay, and the reader may be disposed to 
admit that the best service which any translator, who is not a poet, 
can render to him, is to help him to read Malayan poetry in the ori« 
0]iaL That no one may be deterred from doing so by requiring at 
the cutset to master the Arabic alphabet, we give our first poem in 
Roman characters,* using so far as it appears necessary, Sir Wil- 
liam Jonxs' system of orthography.-)* It may not be the best; but 
udess we ceosent to adopt a common system, we shall never under- 
stand each other, and errors of pronunciation will continue to be 
nnltipUed as tbey have hitherto been. The Asiatic Society has ad- 
hered to tbe system of its founder. The Royal Asiatic Society, with 
most orientalists, have followed it; and as no one had a better right 
than Sir WiLLiAH Jones to legislate on the subject^ we would 
earnestly recommend all contributors to this Journal to submit to his 
rules, even when not entirely approving of them. 

*lt is the less necessary to give it in Malayan characters as Dr. 
W. E. Beron Van Hoevell has already done so. His edition is accom- 
pained by an excellent translation in Dutch somewbtt less literal than 
oars, a«d by a number of learned notes, of which we may occasionally 
avail onrselves with due acknowledgement. 
f The following explanation may be usefbl, 

i, as infer 

a, as If in tab 

€f as the ey in they or a in dare 

i, as M in see 

i, as io pin 

el, as the i in pine 

u, as the oo in room 

u, as in bull 

eu, as the u in user or eu in eulogy. 


I Dingarkan kisat s&iAn viiyit 
Rkj& did^6 nign Kambiyit 

*^ Dik&raiig f&kxr dijidikan kik&yit 
Dibuatkan sh^r sert& berniit 

3 XdUih r&ji 8abu&h nigrf 

SiiltlLn Agus bij& bast&ri 
Asulniah b%ind& r&j& i&ng bh6n 
Melimp^hkan fidi d^fing be&pri 

& Khabarni^ orang impurai termfisA 
Bd^ind^ ituUlh r&j& perkfisi 
Ti&d&14h lib mir&s&i siis&b 

Ant&hl&h kap&d& ^soh dan lusdh. 

BrDASARf: A Poem* 

1 Listen to a tale of the history 

Of the King of a d6sa in the land of Kambayit. 

2 A Fakir composed and produced the story ; 

He made the poem as he had designed it. 


3 There was a King of a certain coantry* 

Saltan Agus, the wise and accomplished, 
His descent was from good Kings: 

He caused strangers and mercbaots to abouod. 

6 The men of bis own time relate 
* That he was a King of might. 
^ Never had he felt misfortune, — 

But who knows of the morrow ? 

* For convenient reference from the original, the translation, although 
not melricaly is placed in verses, line for line, with the former. 


Line 3. ^yJ bljak. As our object is to write Malay in roman cha- 
racters as it is pronounced, and notes it is spelt, we deem it proper to con- 
vert the ^ k, into the short k\ although contrary to the practice follow- 
ed by Marsden and generally adopted. The vowel before the fioal k is 
sometimes prooounced as if followed by a slight aspirate, but more often 
as if the speaker abruptly stopped short when about to pronouoce the A. 
„ 6. Literally^ tomorrow and the day after. 

«BA» BiDASAHi : A Malay Poem* Al 

'^ Sn padiiki nvitin bastin 
Sttl&b i&h stuU benstn 
Bebr&p& btilan berbr&p& hiti 
Uintiaih Piitri pirmeisuri. 

9 Dtmi detant&ng ddti in&kot& 

Mifigkinl&h h^tt bertemb&b chlnti 
Laks&oi mend&p&t biik^t parmftl^ 
Menanting istnnii h&tnil Burti 

1 1 Bebr&p& I&m6Qi& did&l&m kir&j&an 
Sinantiiai iih bersuki siikfiau 
D&t&ngUh mfisi beroleh kaduk&an 

Bagindfi meningalkan takhta k&r&j&an. 


D&t&ngUh kap&da sv&tu mis& 

Meliftnglfih auf aa d^ri mgkisi 
^ Angas Garddi bdrong perk&ai 
Menjadi negri ro8& ben&s&. 

"7 IVhen the accomplished SolUn, the exalted and beloved, 
Had been married 
Some months and some days, 
The Queen of royal race was pregnant* 

^ When his majesty saw this' 

The more his heart was filled with love. 
It was as if he had found a hiU of jewels. 
To see the pregnancy of his consort. 

11 The Prince remained for some time in his realm. 
In continual happiness. 
Tbere came a tune when, finding misfortune, 
The Prince left the throne of his kingdom. 

IS There came upon a certain time 
A bird flying from the heavens, 
The bird Garfida, a mighty bird, 
Destroying and desolating the land. 


Line 14. ,). j^ CrirAAi at i^^ Gi&rd6 is a moostrons bird, which 

Malay romancisia usually evoke for the purpose of desolating a coun- 
try, lo the History of Kedab it is related, << Rlaka datanglah sa^or 
b^oog G6rda Ung &mit b^s4r : m4kA isalniab burong itu d^rlpada 

43 SHAiR BlDASARf: A Malay Poern^ 

1^ D&t&ng menifimbar nifir&Di& hhink 

GaDiparl&h siklian mdlia dan hiQ& 
Sai^ negri gund& gulioi 

Memb&w& dirin^ b&r&ng k&m&ai. 

17 B^iodipun siding deh&dap orang 

Meningarkan gampar seperti prfing 
Bertitah b^ndi raji i&ng g&r&ng 
Gampar ini &p&kfih korang ? 

19 Demilab meningar titah b£gind& 

Berd&tfing sumb&h suatu biduand&h 

16 It came seuiDg, with a terrible cry. 

All were in commotion, high and low. 
The whole land, in a bimuit of ooDsternatioo, 
Betook themselves whatsoever. 

17 The King, whilst in the presence of men, 

Heard an uproar as of war: 
Then enquired the Prince, the bold King, 
^^ What is the cause of this uproar ^" 

19 When the words of the King were beard, 
A certain Bidiianda approached (and said) 


kohh chtjichd mahanija Rewana : maka 66rda ftdp6n d^dAblah M 
8ana menchirt makan. Adaiah akan bdrong Girda ftu pada maaa 
zaroan Sri Rama dan Handoroan fa biesa maso prang baniijuga ka- 
saktlannia. Maka segala benatang fang terbang dan fang melata beijalan 
deb&mf takut akan dfii ftu.'* Although there is some concision here res- 
pecting the ancestry of Gurda, it is clear that bis original was GarAda or 
GiirAi^ who makes so considerable a figure in the mythological romances of 
the Hindus, as the impersonation of strength and swiftness, the bear- 
er of Yishnu, and from his frequently aiding the gods, as on the oc- 
casion alluded to in the History of Kedah. The Hindus generaUy 
represent him as a youth with the head and wings of a bird, and 
as the vehicle of Vishnu this is his form ; but he is also described 
as an adjutant, or a kite. The Malays have apparently drawn their 
idea of Gurda fron the latter bird, for they represent him as a frttr- 
ong I6ng or kite, with a long beak, two heads and four talons, and 
of a size so prodigious, that, when he flies, his shadow covers a whole 
country. The Hindus relate, that when Garuda burst Uam the egg in 
which he was hatched, his body reached heaven. The Uiydng Uiydng 
or paper kites, which the Malays (men and boys) delight at a cer- 
ufn season in flying, have sometimes a garuda painted on them. 
Line 1 A. Liter aUff^ the whole contents of the conutry. 
19. Sidfianda, a Ufe-gnardmaa. 

AHAfE BiOASAEi: A Malay Poem, 43 

<' Doulut ttiMikii^ ddli sri pfid& ! 

Pfiteh aikliaD cKperhambat Gardd&.'* 

SI Sitl&h bfi^nd& menining&rkan sumb&hj 
Daiji lang m&nis puchat benib&h 
Mantripdn bingkit d&d^ ditabih, 
Bertambtt&h b^nda h&ti ralb&b« 

M Putnpun h&mfl tujoh biilan 

Bertamb&l&h b%ind& s&ngat kashrolan ; 
Dfpimpin bfigiodfi, tdrdii beij&lin^ 
ft$u&tupun ti&dih &d&h perbakiUfin. 

85 Meni&r&hkan diri sam&t&m&td 

K&p&d& All&h tuh&D samastd* 
Pdtrf tid&pfit berk&tik&ti ; 

Berj&lanlfih i&h dangan liyir m&ti. 

^ ' Bepr&p& mel&lui k&mpong dan p^&og 
Selangki p&nas h&gi derind&ng. 
ft&ml&h &dind& kdning i&ng i^d&ng 
Bertambih piiu, kalbuni& sidang. 

^^ Prosperous Lord, I prostrate myself) at your exalted feet I 
All your slaves are chased by Gan&da." 

21 When his majesty had heard this address, 
His gracious countenance became pale; 
And the Mantris arose, beating their breasts, 

While trouble increased in the heart of the Ring. 

8S The Princess, too, was pregnant seven months. 

And the soul of the Ring increased exceedingly in sorrow. 
He took her by the hand, and went forth 
Unfurnished with a single provision, 

S5 They committed themselves wholly 
To God the Lord of all. 
The Princess could not speak: — 
She walked in tears. 

^ They passed many villages and plains, 
Scorched at every step by the heat; 
The Princess before of a beautiful yellow became dark, 
And grief the while grew and gathered in their hearts. 

44 sHAiR BiDAaARi: A Molof Potm* 

89 S&mpeil&li bigind& kacUJam hiitan 
Tdbohnii liiki berkr&Ucifitan 
Kind terkfiit duii rotan 
Tamb&han pi&trf dangin kabr&tan. 

31 S&kitnii ti&d& Ifigi terpii 

Bl&s memand^g k&lflc^n iatri 
Ti&d&h terb&u& tiiboh sindiii ^ 
Ol^h b^iDd& dtpimpia jari. 

3S S&ngatlih blfe didfl&m h&ti 

Meliatkan halnii &dmdi ntf 
Sapanj&ng j&l&n bftgindi berhinti 
fi&r&ng k&hand&ntt b&gindfi terdti. 

35 Ihi6 bulan du& hkA dan in&8& 
lim&hULh badan lit£b dir&s& 
Dit&nggongni& ti&d& lagi kw&s& 
Trdslfli b%ind& su&tu dew&s^ 

87 TnisUh kakfanpong s'orang soudligar 
J&l&ni& Bulit terlfila sukar 

» The Prince arriving vithin the wild forest, 

His body was wounded and lacerated, ^ 

Being caught by the thorns of the ratan — 4 

Whilst the Princess walked more and more heatily. 

81 Her trouble became indescribfible. 

Grieving to behold the condition of bis wife, 
Who was unable to support her own person, 
The Prince led her by the hand. 

38 Deeply grieved was he in heart 

To see the state of the beloved Lady. 
At every step the Prince paused, 
Yielding to all that she wished. 

35 Two months and two days having now pasted, 
And her body become weak and languid 
Without strength left any longer to support herself, 
Passed the Prince upon a time, 

37 Passed to the kampong of a merchant 

The road of which was uncertain and very diiBcalt. 

MAiR BiDASARi : A Malay Poem, 4i 

Berhintflih b&giiid& diliidr p&g&r 
Berhintfkan lilfih 8irfiy& bcrsand&r. 

Kampon^ si&pa gar&ngan ini 
Haud&b m&oh tf&cte br&ni 
Bail&h ikd berbenti disM. 

41 Piitn xneD&n^B sbr&yi berk&ta 

K&kand& ui! &p& bich&r& kit& 
S&kit prut r&s&ni& b€t& 

Berdabbar lini&p did&l&m cMt&^ 

48 Mashr&i b%ind& fi&d& terkeri 

Hil&ngl&h biidi, lini&p bech&r& 
Berk&t& dangan perldb&n sd&r& 
Eilii tii&n Aindih berpatri. 

4S Marflih tuin kit& berjttto 

G^ifalih sedikit perlah&nlah&n 

Mencheri sufigie tamp&t perhintian 

Sip&y& kit& j&Qgan kasus&h&a. 

Xhe Prince rested without the fence, 
Rested, fatigued, and leaning. 

39 Then said the Prince, the Rajah Sultani, 
^^ Whose kampong may this be? 
I would enter, but fear to do so; 
It is better for us to wait here." 

41 The Princess wept and said, 

^' Alas, my love I what shall we ? 
I feel paio in my womb^ 

And the beating of my heart is ceasing/' 

48 The distress of the Prince was beyond measure, 
Lost was his judgment, his counsel was gone. 
(At length) said the Prince with a soil voice, 
^^ If you are about to be in travail, 

46 Come, beloved, let us walk on — 

Make a gentle effort to sustain yourself; 
That we may seek a river where we may repose, 
In order that we may not be distressed.'^ 


46 auAim bioasaki: A Malaif Poem 

47 Berjttanlah b^ind& l&ki istri ^ ^ 
Sambfl bigindi, mimimpin putii 
Tipi Bufigie jug& hinda dich&ri 
Du& tigd \ingk& sing&h berdirf. 

49 Sitl&h b&]e^ind& s&mpei ka p&ntei 
Dilihatni& pr&hu di&tia l&ntei 
Langkapl&h sikali&n k&j&ne: dan l&ntei 
Bii\&h putri duduh berjdntei. 

61 Biilanpua sid&ng pern&in& r&i. 

Tr&Dg chuichd s&figat berch&ifi 
Putnnan s&kit ti&d& berd^& 
B^ind&pun bias memand&ng dia. 

^ P4rfisnia biilan amp&tblas b&ri 
Piikul tig&^ din& fa&ri 

47 The Princes went on, husband and wife, 
The Prince leading the Princess, 
Seeking for a river side, 

Pausing every two or three steps. 

49 tJnlil the King reached a bank 

And saw a praii provided with a deck^ 
And completely furnished with kajangs* and lanteb-f' ; 
'' Here, my Princess, recline at ease." , 

61 The moon was near its full and festive, — 

The light of its brightness shining exceedingly — 
The Queen was in pain, unable to conceal it, 
And the King looked on her compasionately. 

51 By the moon's face it was fourteen days (old) 
At the third hour before the dawn, 


Litie oO. Xantei— Moveable (Vames used for flooriog in huts and boats, 
and made of split neebongs or bamboos, about half an inch separate, Cia- 
tened with raians.—fayan^f— Mats made of Ki^ang leaves. 

„ „ IHdM berJtintei^To sit with the feet daogliog ; which the 
Malays do, in preference to their ordinary practice, when fatigued with a 
joarney, in order to allow the muscles to be relaxed, which they are not in 
their ordinary mode of sitting. A Malay on entering a house tired with 
walking ivill seat himself with his feet hanging down, and apologetically say 
** wait a moment till I have recovered from my fatigue,*' as it is considered 
a breach of manners to do so at other times. 

„ 51. This and the three sacceediog verses are highly melodious 

SHAIR BiDASAAf: A MdUny Po€nu ij 

Jamjam darja bersnsn 

B&g^ndipda s&ngat bl&skan putri. 


'^^ Sapuisapui &ngm saUt&a 

Berkokolfih ramei haiem dihutaii 
Dangan mir&h bersdhutsaliutfin 
Siperti meng&lu41ukan $n4h sultan, 

^7 Bulanpun sablah disiput dwan 
Siperti mukd 4n&h per&wdn 
Mefiginte kdk&s^hnii maliimSluan 

Bers&linldh piitri sa'orang peranipuan. 

^^ Bersalinl&h adind& sa'or&ng putri 
Par^nii laks^& Mandiidari 
S&kitni& ti&dd l&gi terpri 
Dinba bagind& k&p^l& istn. 

The moisture on her face glittered, 

And the Prince deeply pitied the Princess. 

•>^ Softly softly blew the south wind: 

The wild fowl in the forest cried in concert : 
And the peacocks answered each other on every side, 
As if welcoming the child of the Sultan. 

•^7 The moon on one side was hidden by the clouds, 
Like the face of the young maiden 
When bashful stealing a look at her love. 
And the Queen received a daughter. 

'^ Received the beloved Lady a princess, 

Whose countenance was like tha^ of Mandijidari 
Her pain became insufferable — 

And the King supported the head of his wife. 


and sonorous; nor is ihe picture and its accessories unworthy of the 

Line 57. 5apti<— Probably derived fromsaputo sweep, to w ipe ; dis4- 
pu iwan, swept by the clouds; disiput Awan, hid or covered by the 
clouds. It is only used as thus applied to the moon. 

„ 58. This elegant and reflned use of ihe word- ta/tn (which in 
iis ordinary senses, is to pour from one receptacle into another, to change 
the dress, to translate, Ac.) is not noticed by Marsden or Van Eysinga. 

„ 59. Mandudari^Tht wife of Rawaiia, and celebrated for her 

18 KHAiR BiDASARi . A Malay Poem, 

<>1 Anahnia putri pasp^ worna 

E'lohnia bag! auahanah^n kanchuna 
Laksand biiiiga champdka worna 
Mdka digiibd sa'orang rana. 

61 The infant of the Princess, the Qower complex ioned 
Was in beauty like the golden children, 
Like the colour of the champaka flower 
Made into a garland by a Queen. 

fTo be Continued.) 


cooHnr oBorra- 








By the Right Reverend Dr. Le Fevre, 

Bishop of Isauropolis and Vicar Apostolic of Lower 

Cochin China."* 


In Ihe course of the fiftccntti century, the King of Tongliing 
took possession of some provinces close to his kingdom, and sub- 
ject to the Ring of Ciampa. In the sixteenth century a family 
of Tongking, called " Ngu yen," who had rendered many services 
to the King, was by him raised to the dignity called ^^ Chua," which 
was the first dignity after that of the King called '^Vua." The 
descendants of Chua Nga yen obtained the governorship of the two 
provinces taken away from the King of Ciampa. In the same 
century thb family, shook off the yoke of the King of Tongking, 
and this gave birth to the kingdom of Cochin China, which was 
thus called by the Portuguese to distinguish it from Cochin on 
the Malabar Coast. The natives called it first ^^^n iVam" (the 
peace of the south) a name which is still commonly given to it, 
but its official name, after many changes, is at present ^^ Dal Nam." 

* Written by his Lordship for this Jouroal at the instance of the Honora<- 
ble Colonel Butlerwortb, C. B., Goveroor of tho Straits Settlements. 

VOL. I. NO. II. C 



Twelve Kings have reigned in Cochin China ^ce the formation 
of the monarchy. 

The first, Tien Vuong, reigned from 1570 to 1614. 
Second, Sai Vuong, ditto 1614 to 1635. 


Thuong Vuong, 


1635 to 1649. 


Hien Vuong, 


1649 to 1668. 


Ngai Vuong, 


1668 to 1692. 


Minh Vuong, 


1692 to 1721 


, Ninh Vuong, 


1724 to 1737. 


Vo Vuong, 


1737 to 1765. 


Hien Vuong, 


1765 to 1777. 

Then there was an interregnum of two years. The Tongquinese 
took the northern part of Cochin China. Some rebels called ^^Tay 
Son,'' occupied the throne up to 1801. In this year the legi- 
timate King ^^Gia Long," after having gair.ed many advantages over 
the rebels, being assisted by the counsels of a French Bishop, 
Mgr. Pigneaux, Bishop d'Adran, and by many able French officers, 
recovered his kingdom, and, in the following year, took that of 
Tongquin, and assumed the title of ^^ Emperor.** He died in 
1820. One of his sons succeeded him under the name of ^^ Ming 
Mang.*' He was the famous persecutor of the Christians. He 
died in 1^1, and at the present time his son, Thien Tri, is in 
the sixth year of his reign. 

The old family of the Kings of Tongkiog still reckon many par^ 
tisans in this portion of the kingdom. They have often made 
efforts to shake off the yoke of Cochin China, but without success. 
At present they are so weak that they have little hope of again 
rising by their own exertions from their humble condition. The 
Kings of Cochin China have also taken successively all the king* 
dom of Ciampa, and the greater portion of Cambodia, so that the 
country called in maps Ciampu and Cambodia belongs almost en-r 
jtirely to Cochin China, and is chiefly inhabited by Cochin Chinese. 

There are on the mountains, which divide Cochin China from 
liaos, many wild tribes ; some of whom are subject to the King of 
Cochin China ; others are only his tributaries, and others finally 
are independant. 


The King of Cochin China is himself tributary to the Emperor 
of China, from whom he receives investiture when he ascends tb€ 
throne ; and he is obliged to send him aa embassy \Vith prcsc'nta 
at least once every three years. 



this country extends from Pulo Ubi in the 8^ io* to 25^ lati- 
tude, north. Its breadth is from five to six leagues. Tongking is 
much larger. It begins at the river called Soiih Giang, about 
17^ 15' north. It is divided into fourteen prefectures, the names 
of which are as follows, beginning from the south. — 

Ng^ an, — Tbahh N6i, — Thanh Ngoai, — Hung hoa, — Nam Thu- 
oog, — Nam ha, — Hai dong, — Kinb bad, — Son Tay, — Cao bang, — 
Lang bac, — Thai nguycn, — tueyen Quang, and Yen Quang. 

There are in Tongking only two towns properly so called, Ke 
cho or Bai thanh (the town of the north): the former capital of 
the kingdom : and Vi huang, a petty commercial town. They some-* 
times call the chief place of each prefecture, a town ; but imprd- 
perly, because therd are generally so fefw inhabitants, that i( is 
more a village than a tdwil. 

Cochin China properly so called is divided into fifteen prefectures. 
It may also be considered as divided by nature into three portions, 
which form Upper, Middle, and Lower Cochin China. Upper Co- 
chin China, which is in the north, comprises three prefectures. 

The first, Quang Rinh, is close to Tongking. The second is 
Quang Tri, and the third Thua Thuen, in which Hud the capital 
of the whole kingdom is situated. This town is built almost in 
the European style. Il was surrounded by strong fortifications un- 
der King Gia Long by French officers. 

The portion called ''Middle Cochin China" comprises six pre- 
fectures : Quang Nam, in which is the fine port of Touron : Quang 
Ngai, a sterile province : Binh Denh, one of the finest and mosC 
renowned provinces of the wbftle kingdom : Phu yen, a province 
rather rich : Khon hoa, or Nhia Trang, a hilly and fertile country : 
and Binh Thuan, a very large province, which comprises the old 
kingdom of Ciampa : it is barren, and not much inhabited in pro- 
portion to its xetent, and has many wild animals of all kinds, such 


as the tiger, the wild buffalo, the elephant, the rhinoceros, etc. elcv 
It would be most dangerous to travel alone in thb country. 

Lower Goctiin China, or Dong Nai, comprise! seven prefectures* 
The first, beginning at the north, is Bi^n Hoa ; the second, Gia 
Dinh, where is the town of Sai Gon, formerly frequented by French 
vessels, and laid down on charts ; the third, Dinh Tuong ; the fourth, 
Yinh Long ; the fifth. An Giang ; the sixth. Ha Tin ; and the se« 
venth, called formerly Nam Vang, and now Tr4n. It is in this 
last province that the town of Colomp^, the former capital of Cam- 
bodia, is situated. It has been lately taken again by the Cambodians, 
and, it is said, that it will be dilXtcult for Cochin China to keep 
this place, owing to the want of sufficient troops. 

All this meridional part of Cochin China is the more fertile on 
account of the many rivers which intersect it in all directions, 
it produces rice in great quantity, and it also yields cotton, mul- 
berries for silk worms, and fruits of all kinds. It is justly called 
the ^^ Garden and Granary of Cochin China.'' Unfortunately luxury 
produces many vices. Hence gamblers, drunkards, opium-smokers, 
and, as a consequence, robbers, are found there in greater num- 
bers than in any other part. Journeys are generally eiTected by 
boats, but rivers afford every facility for navigation, and a large 
vessel might go up very far. 

Tongking and Cochin China are traversed throughout by a royal 
road or highway. It is the only one that exists in the country. 
In many places it is badly constructed, and not well kept. 1 have 
been along it from Sai Gon to the royal city. It is intersected 
by a great many rivers or rivulets, without bridges, which you 
must either wade through, or cross in a boat. 

There are some very high mountains, chieQy between the pro- 
vinces of Nhia Trang and Phu y^u, and those of Quang Nam and 
Thua Thieu, the passes of which are very difficult. It would be 
impossible to travel in a carriage, and one cannot ride on horse- 
back far, for the horses being unshod, are unable to carry a man 
farther than half a day's journey : the Mandarins generally travel 
in a litter. You meet here and there trained bearers, who, how- 
ever heavy the burden may be, can go far in a short time. Those* 
who carry the royal despatches go fifty leagues in a day. 



The chief River in Tong King is " Sdng Ca'', or the Great 
River, on which is situated the ancient capital of Tong King. 
The French and English had formerly an entrepot on it. It re- 
ceives, on its course, many large streams: — Sdng Chay in the 
province of Tayen Quang, Song Ngue and Song Diem in the pro- 
vince of Hung Hoa. Tue Dae in the province of Lang Son and 
Thien Due in that of Hai Dong, join the same at its mouth. The 
Song Ba, the source of which is in the Mountains of Laos, and 
'wliich falls into the sea close to the Port of Cna Lac, is also a 
Urge River. The Sdng Mo in the province of Xyc An empties 
itself into tiie sea by three branches. It. is a great and large Ri- 
ver. The SoAg Giauh, which divides Tong Ging from Cochin 
China, is half a mile broad about its mouth. The S6ng V^ in 
Qoang ngai; the Song da Lang in Phu y^o; the SongLnongin 
Binh Thnan; and the Song Cam rauh, which separates this pro- 
vince from Lower Cochin China, are all Great Rivers. But the 
finest and largest of all the River of this country are those of Lower 
Cochin China ; being almost all branches of the great River of Laos 
and Cambodia, called Melcon. It has four principal branches up 
which the largest vessels might sail further than the limits of Cochin 
China. They are in some places more than a mile in breadth. 


Cochin China, throughout nearly the whole of its length, is situ- 
ated on the declivity of the mountains : inhabited by the barbarians 
cralled Kemoi: which separate it from Laos. This chain of moun- 
tains stretches from the west of Cochin China, in a north and south 
direction, from ii'' to 22"" of latitude. By this position the surface 
is agreeably diversified, elevating iCself, as if by degrees, in the form 
of an amphitheatre, from the shore of the sea to the summit of these 
mountains. There are numerous lateral branches, which stretch 
down to the sea ; between which there are formed many vallies and 
even large plains, of which the soil might be rich and fertile with all 
the variety and beauty of the vegetation of the tropics, if it were not 
almost generally abandoned to its spontaneous productions, and de- 
prived of the aid of a skilful culture. The two principal prolongations 
or ramifications of this chain of mountains, are those which se- 


paralc the province of Quang.nam, in which is found the harbour 
of Touron, fromi that of Thua-thicn, where the capital is situated, 
and which is called Aivan; and those which divi<je the province^ 
of Thu y^n, and Nia trang, and which is Darned Deo Ga. There 
is also a secondary chain of mountains which separates Tongking 
from China. The greater part of these mountains are only in- 
habited by some barbarians ; .the Cochin Chinese, and much more 
the Europeans, cannot live on them, on account of the insalubrity of 
the air which wc breathe there. I once took refuge upon the side 
of one of these mountains, in order to find an asylum against per- 
secution; but I had reason to repent of it. I was attacked by*ai 
very serious illness, whilst two elev6s, whom I had with me, there 
lost their lives. These mountains offer a very varied spectacle to the 
view ; here are frightful precipices, — there arid rocks, — elsewhere 
verdure, streams, water-fails and trees; there are lofty peaks which 
project themselves above the clouds, — and, in other places, a levct 
surface, commonly covered with extensive forests. 


\Vc do not find on the mountains of Cochin China a single 
volcano, cither active or extinct: but in many places mines of 
gold and silver occur which the natives do not know how to 
work. The Government itself employs means for working the 
mines which only discourage the workmen. Much gold, however, 
is collected from the sand of the mountains. This sand is thrown 
into the neighbouring river, and the current disengages the parti- 
cles of gold, which are collected, but w^ith much pain and fatigue. 
It is in this manner that they seek the gald in one of the mountains 
which are situated opposite to the harbour of Touron. But the 
principal mines of gold and silver are at Tongking. Mines of iron^ 
copper, lead, tin, and of zinc are also found in abundance. 


The latitude of this country sufficiently indicates the high tem- 
perature of the climate. We may conceive that it must offer a 
sensible difFerence in a length of fourteen degrees. There is nevei* 
any Ice, snow or frost, nor even hail ; but the cold cannot fail to 
be sharp in winter from the 23rd to the 15th degree, when the 
'v^'ind blows strongly from the north : from the 15^ to the 10* wiit- 


tcr does not malce itself felt except for some days by a wind more 
or less cool, and in general unwholesome. In the meridional part 
called Lower Cochin China, there are six months of dryness, and 
six months of rains : these rains produce a great humidity in the 
atmosphere, which renders the province unhealthy, especially about 
the month of April, the time when the rains begin to fall : the 
evaporations which then proceed from the ground arc an almost 
general cause of fevers and other diseases. In the northern pro- 
vinces the time of the heavy rains is in September, October and 
November. They sometimes fall in such large quantity that they 
produce inundations which spread over the whole country ; these 
generally occur during a period of five days in the months of October 
and November. These inundations last two or three days, and 
contribute much to fertilize the soil ; they also sometimes cause 
great disasters. In November 1844, an inundation desolated the 
whole of the province of Thua thien ; the rain was accompanied 
by such. a violent wind that allihe houses and nearly all the walls 
were overturned during one night ; five or six thousand persons 
perishing. In the month of November last year, after a heavy in- 
undation, the earth of a field in the neighbourhood of the capital 
sunk in one night, and formed a lake of 12 feet in depth, 30 
feet broad and 120 feet in length. J was consulted as to the 
cause of this phenomenon, of which they had never had an ex- 
ample, and which even infused some fear into the soul of the 
monarch who governs the kingdom. Not to leave the ques^ 
tioQ without answer, I said that we might suppose that the wa- 
ters, running from the heights of the mountains with impetuosity 
and in great abundance, had excavated a large and deep tunnel, 
and that the eanh of this field, softened by the rains and de^ 
pnved of support, had thus fallen in. This reason appears to mo 
to be very plausible, but 1 leave the decision of this question to 
more scientific persons. 

In Lower Cochin China there are not such abundant rains pr 


similar inundations, but, on the other hand, the ground being al- 
most on a level with the sea, in the high tides, the water of the 
rivers overflows and covers the whole country. It is this which 
readers this part of the country the most fertile of all. Th'^y 
have only one crop of rice in the year, about the month of Fe- 


Lniary, but this single crop yields much more rice than the two 
crops which they have in the other provinces, the one in April 
and the other in October. Sugarcane, tobacco, cinnamon, silk, 
cotton, indigo, yams and potatoes are also very abundant. Fruits, 
such as citrons, plantains, pine apples, and many other kinds are 
also more common in this part than in 9thers: it is on account 
of tliis that they say in the language of the country t?iat it is 
easy to find there the means of living y — it is to be regretted 
that we are obliged to add but it is difficult to live there Oh 
good health!) 


Besides minerals the mountains further furnish excellent wood 
for timber work, such as the pine, the oak, teak wood ; and also 
the ebony, aloes wood and the eagle wood which they use as me- 
dicine, and which they sometimes sell in China and at Japan as 
high as 100 doll irs the pound. These precious woods, to which 
the cinnamon tree ought to be added, are ordinarily reserved for 
the king and the great mandarins. Much, however, is sold surrepti- 
tiously. The most common tree of all, and of more daily use, is the 
bambd. The areca and the betel are also cultivated with the great- 
est care and yield a large profit to the proprietor on account of tho 
general use which is made of the areca and betel in the country. 
The tea of China grows badly in Cochin China ; the tea of the coun- 
try is inferior in quality: it is less strong and less heating than the 
tea of China. Amongst the medicinal plants, they principally make 
use of angelica, of the large celidony, of the Chinese smilax, of 
master wort, and liquorice. The herbal of Cochin China has been 
already published ; I propose to subjoin it to this paper, for which 
reason I have the less enlarged here upon this head. 


The mountain and forests of Cochin China are inhabited by the 
elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, boar, the stag, the bear, the buffa- 
lo and many other wild animals. There is a menagerie in the 
king's garden; one of his amusements and favorite sports, is to 
cause an elephant or a buffalo to fight with a muzzled tiger. There 
arc at least 60 elephants at the royal city, and from 20 to 30, 
in each province, a few excepted. The domestic animals such as 


oxcD, covs, and buffaloes, are very common, but they are pro - 
ducli?e of llltle profit, except in the way of labor. Their flesh 
is far from agreeable to the taste ; it may even be said that it is 
M^ because they bestow no care in fattening these animals. They 
are entirely unacquainted with the good custom of milking the 
cows. The flesh of the hog is the most delicate ; it is much su- 
perior to that of our hogs of Europe; it is tbe custom to kill a 
pig each time they give a dinner to a certain number of guests. 
There are some flocks of sheep in the neighbourhood of the ca- 
pital, but they do not cat them, without doubt for a good rea- 
son; they do not shear their fleece; it is very dirty and yieldi 
sflmost nothing. Goats are very common, and are, with good 
reason, more prized than the sheep. The courtyards are gene- 
rally well furnished with poulty, ducks, and geese with which 
they can feast themselves at a cheap rate. The horse of Cochin 
China is small and weak, it can scarcely carry half the load of 
oar European horse; it is only good for making a journey qf 
some hours. 


There are on the coasts of the Cochin Chinese empire as ma- 
ny Ports as fifty seven. Seventeen in Tongking: Cua Uc, the 
farthest in the north; and Cua dat Binh, at the mouth of tbe 
great River called Song Ca on which is situated the former ca- 
pital of Tongking, Ke Cho; Cua 116; CuaTi^ly; Cua Urn; Caa 
Bi^n; Cua Xien. These seven Ports arc situated between the 
20th and 2ist degrees north latitude. Cua Thuoc; Cna.Xae; 
Cua Tri^n; Cua Houn6; Cua Bich; CtiaBang; Cua Han hon, be- 
tween the 19^ and 20"" ; Cua Thai; Cua Tro, between the IS"" and 
19''. The two best and safest af all these Ports are Cba Dai 
Binh and Cua Lac. Both were formerly resorted to by Euro- 
pean vessels. 

There are seven Ports in Upper Cochin China situated between the 
16** and IS"* : Cua Gianh, at the meuth of the great River which 
separates Cochin China from Tong King; Cua Dong Hoi, a large 
and fine Port close to the chief place of the province of Quang* 
Biak; Cua Tong, a large Port; Cua Vi^i; Cua Thuan, opposite 
^ Boral city: this Port is not quite Safe, a large vessel taay 0c6» 


chor within it, but she must be navigated by a clever Pilot, as it con- 
tains many shoals : Cua Tu Dong and Cua Moi, both Ports whose 
anchorage ground is difficult. 

In Middle Cochin China between the 15th and 16th degrees, there 
n the Grst, largest and safest of all the Ports of Cochin China, the 
Port of Touron: it has been by some writers described as the 
finest Port in the world, and it is at the present day the only one 
resorted to by European vessels. The next to it is Cua Dai or 
Hoi An, called Fai Fo by Europeans and frequented by their 
first vessels which resorted to Cochin China. It is very close to the 
chief place of the Province of Quang Nam. Cua Ap Ho6 and Cua 
Dai Quang ngai, a large Port between the 14^ and 15^ Sa Huonh, 
Kim Bong, Tan Quan and Cua thi phu. Between the 13** and 
14^ are Cua Gia close to the chief place of the province of Binh 
Dloh, a very hrge and frequented Port, and Cua Mai nha, close to 
the chief place of the province of Phii yen. Between the 12^ and 
13*^ Cua da Ran a large Port, and Cua hon Khoe. Between the 
i.1^ and 12® Cira Cam ranh a safe and spacious Port. 

In Lower Cochin China are Cua lh6 Van, a most safe Port ; Caa 
Can gio a large, spacious and much frequented Port, in which there is 
much water; Dong Tranh; Soi Rap, not much resorted to; Cua Ti^n, 
a great and large Port much resorted to ; Cua Dai not accessible by 
large vessels or even to large Boats ; Cua Bang C6n ; Cua C6 Chi^n ; 
Cua Yarn Ray; Cua Cha Vang; Cua Ba Thac; Cua Mi Thanh; Cua 
Qanh Han, Cua B6 D6, Cua Lon, Cuo Ong Doc; Cua Cay Quao ; 
Gut Rach Gia; Cua Can Vot or Compong. It would not be prudent 
tpentBRseveral of these Ports without a clever Pilot, owing to the ma- 
ny shoals. The Ports of Cochin China, where the anchorage ground 
it safest are: Dong Hoi, Touron, Hoi An, Tan Quan, Cua Gia, C^ 
Ranh, Can Gio, Cua Tien, and Can Vot. 


There are no Towns on the coast. They are aU situated at 
some distance from the sea, but one may reach them by going 
^p the river which leads to them. There are only, as I have 
remarked elsewhere, five towns properly so called, in the whole 
of the kingdom; two in Tong King, Ke Gho and Vi Huang; two 
in Cochin China, Hu6 and Sai Gon ; and Colompd in old Cambo- 


dia« Touron aod H6i An and the chief places of each proWnoD 
are merely large villages, the inhabitants of which amount to about 
S,000 souls, and they are governed just the same as other Til*" 
lages throughout the kingdom. 

The Great Mandarin, Governor of each province, the Collector 
General and the Judge reside at this chief place, which is called 
Tiuh or Town of the first order. There are also Towns of the 
Second order called Phu, and of the third order called HuySn go- 
verned by inferior Mandarins, who are like our sub-prefects and 
chiefs of arrondissement in France. But the word Thanh, used 
to designate all these towns, means nothing else, in the language 
of the country, but a " walled circuit." The reason is that the 
House destined for the Mandarins is enclosed by walls. But this 
vord should never be understood in the sense we give in Europe 
to the word " Town." 

Each Province or Prefecture is generally divided into 5 or 6 
Phu, or sub-prefectures, and into 8 or 10 Huyen, or arrondisse- 


It is difficult to know accurately the population of Cochin China 
I believe that one would not go far from the truth in stating that 
the Dumber of the Cochin Chinese amounts to 13,000,000. There 
are besides about 3,000,000 Barbarians, and subjected GambodiaDS, 
which makes a total of 16,000,000 inhabitants. 


Taxes are levied upon ground in proportion to its quality and ara 
dividid into three classes ; They are paid in money for uncultivated, 
and rice for cultivated ground. They are generally low, but not well 
apportioned ; because the collectors are easily bribed. There is also 
a personal tax for the heads of the chief houses. What is more ag- 
gravating for this poor people are the public corv6es, and the vic- 
tuals which each district is compelled to provide the soldiers enrolled 
in it ; for the Government does not provide them with the third part 
of their expences. The mayor or head of each district has it in 
charge to make up the required number of soldiers and levy duties. 

He does not receive any salary tor this office. On the contrary 
it very often subjects bkn to be flogged with the ratan and to harsh 


treatiutsijc, iui*, when the duties are collected, he is chiirgeu Cu remit 
the same to the great Itfandarin, who does the duties of a Collec- 
tor General, and he is responsible for the whole district This great 
Mandarin is paid by the King; but a very small amount is allowed 
him : his fixed salary amounts not to above the value of one hun- 
dred dollars yearly. However, if he performs his duty well, he 
sometimes receiver (besides his salary) gratuities which mostly con- 
sbt of fine silk vestments. These gentlemen take also good care Ca 
compensate thf^mselves by their exactions from poor people. 


The Cochin Chinese occupy a lower ranli in the scale of civiliza-* 
tion than their neighbours the Chinese. But the resemblance of 
. their shape, their cofour, and their features, as well as the identity of 
their manners, their superstitious ceremonies and thefr customs, indi- 
cate a common origin. The universal practice of chewing betel and 
areca and of smoking tobacco, which reddens their lips and blackens 
their teeth, joined to their natural ugliness, render them sufficiently- 
disagreeable to European eyes. A pouch or little bag of silk, attach- 
ed to their girdle, or suspended from their shoulder when they are on 
a journey, containing areca, betel and tobacco, forms a necessary part 
of their dress, of >vhicbever sex and of ^whatever condition they ma^ 
be. Every person in the least rich or distinguised is followed by a 
;servant, whose office it is to carry the instruments and the ingre- 
dients which serve fbr mastication and smoking. Tliis people is 
of a childish and servile character. They make no difficulty in 
submitting to the most humiliating meannesses before the authori- 
ties to' whom they are subject, in order to obtain what they desire : 
hence the repeated prostrations in token of their devotion and sub- 
mission. When they are interrogated, they never give themselves the 
trouble of answering the truth, they only think of giving to those 
with whom they are speaking a reply which will please them. It 
is requisite to knew them well in order not to allow oneself to be 
deceived by their knavery ahd duplicity. There is more indepen- 
dant spirit and less hypocrisy in the manner of the inhabitants of 
Lower Cochin China. It is the Tongkincse who show most out- 
'^ard humiliation in action and speech before their superiors, and 
in whom one remarks the most hypocrisy. 


'i^ic Lochia Chinese, in general are possessed of gouu reason- 
ing powers and a judicious mind ; it is this which makes them ve- 
ry susceptible of instruction. We meet very many amongst them 
who are endowed with a very happy memory, such as we rarely 
see amongst Europeans. I have met many who could recite long 
pieces of verse which they had only read one or two times ; but 
in general they are indolent and lazy in spirit ; they do not make a 
step, without being, as it were led and conducted by the hand. 
Moreover, they only possess the talent of imitation in an imperfect 
degree. They invent nothing, and improve nothing. They are not 
strangers to feelings of friendship, gratitude and affection ; however, 
in general they require to be led and kept to their duty by fear. 
Their mandarins know them well, and, in consequence, they do not 
spare the blows of the ratan. 

Among no pagan people can we expect to find models of chasti- 
ty, modesty or morality. The idea of evil is much obscured in them' 
by the passions, custom, and the absence of instruction. The Go- 
chin Chinese are given to vices, but less than many other heathen 
people. They have less pride and less immorality than the Chinese* 
Gamblers aud drunkards are very numerous amongst them, and 
(bey have many other faults ; but they have also estimable qualities. 
They are generous, not in regard to strangers whom they dread^ 
but amongst themselves and in respect of those who exercise any 
authority over them ; avarice is a rare fault with them. They aro 
BotataU hasty or vindictive ; I have often admired how easily pa- 
gans forget injuries which our christians of Europe, instructed in 
the sublime maxims of the Gospel, would resent all their lives. 

The Cochin Chinese have an erect carriage. They are in general 
of feeble health ; strong men form rare exceptions : a very great 
number of children die before the age of reason : old person of 6(X, 
70 and 75 years are less common amongst them than in Europe, 
but those of 80 and upwards are found in very great numbers. In 
these hot countries the breath of life which sustains the aged, iti 
more tardily extinguished. 

The beat and the uncleanness produce many infirmities in them, — 
sores in all parts of the body and all kinds of skin diseases. The 
average number of children in each family is six or seven, and It 
very frequently rises to 10 or 12 ; which multiplies the population 


very rapidly. Food and maintenance cost so little that the poorest 
do not give themselves any trouble, and have no dread of being able 
to nourish a numerous family. Polygamy is allowed ; and has be- 
come a general rule amongst the great and the mandarins, that is to 
say, amongst all those who have the means of maintaining several 
women. According to the ideas of the country, it is obligatory to 
take a second wife, when the first has no children. For, say they, it 
is a great ingratitude towards one*s parents not to seek the means 
of perpetuating tlieir race. It is a maxim derived from Mencius, 
a Chinese philosopher, and is spread and rooted in the who|e na- 
tion. This polygamy b the greatest obstacle to the progress of the 
Christian religion amongst the great, but not at all amongst the peo- 
ple. Adultery, on the part of the man only^ is regarded but as a 
very light fault. If the woman has no child, she will not be liable to 
punishment on account of adultery. If she has one child, it is a ca- 
pital crime, which according to law ought to be punished with death. 
If she has several children, she ought to have her body cut in a 
hundred pieces, and thrown into the river. Parents are attached to 
their children. They never expose them, and do not kill them 
as they do in China. Only sometimes they sell them, when they are 
in great misery. A Cochin Chinese cannot be a slave, according to 
law, but they may have barbarians for slaves, and they have 


Flax is unknown in Cochin China ; the cloths of which their gar- 
ments are made, are of silk or cotton, in full dress the outward 
garment should be a long robe with large sleeves, of a green colour 
for men, and violet for women. It is to be observed that in the 
Northern provinces the garments are worn longest, and that they are 
progressively shorter, as we advance towards the South. Thus at 
Tongking the upper dress ought to descend to the ande, or at least 
to the middle of the calf; in the neighbourhood of Hu£ it only 
descends to the knee ; and in Lower Cochin China in does not pass 
the middle of the thigh. For the rest, it is every where very de- 
cent and modest. TheAnnamites allow their hair to grow; they 
roll it up and fasten it with a comb on the top of the head. 
The men as well as the women ordinarily wear a handkerchief or a 


kind of turban on the head. In journeying, and when they expose 
themselves to the rain or the sun, they have a large hat, made of 
long leaves, which serves them for umbrella and parasol. AH go 
with naked feet, without stockings and without shoes: Mandarins 
sometiines wear sandals in their houses : The sabots in use in the 
country are so inconvenient a covering for the feet that they can only 
serve to walk a few paces. 


I will not enter into much detail on the manners and customs of the 
coontry; this would carry me too far. I will content myself with 
saying that the Cochin Chinese have inclination and aptitude for 
trade, and that the situation of the country, the coasts of which are 
watered by the sea to so large an extent, with its numerous Ports, 
much facilitates the intercourse with foreigners. But it is to be 
regretted that despotism, under which this people are crushed, 
does not allow them to give themselves up to commercial affairs 
00 any large scale. The king aims at monopolizing trade with 
foreigners, and his subjects have not the right of building vessels: they 
ore only permitted to have small boats unfit to proceed far. They 
seldom leave the coasts of Cochin China, and if some go to Sin- 
gapore or Macao, they do so surreptitiously and with little gain. 

Rice and every description of Food, is cheap in Cochin Chi- 
na. One can easily live on five or six dollars monthly. The na- 
tives seldom spend one. The meridional part being, as I have said, 
the more productive, money is also more common in it, and food 
dearer. Servants too are on low ^ages: the highest pay is six 
dollars a year. Labourers or workmen are hired at oue dollar 
per month, or four cents a day: this is the highest price. The 
farther you go to the Northwards, the price of food and the sa- 
lary of servants progressively diminish: because there is less trad6 
and affluence. 


Ardiitecture is yet, in this unfortunate country*, very rude in it$ 
elements. The walls of houses do net ordinarily consist of any 
thing else than some branches interlaced, and sometime plastered 
with day, and more often with mud or even cowdung. In Lower 

j61 details respecting cochin china. 

Cochin China the roof is commonly covered with leaves; in the 
olhcr provinces they cover it with rice straw, or with a kind of 
long grass called Tranh. Many houses are almost entirely made 
with bambij and some olhcr woods. In some parts they are built 
upon piles. The public edifices are covered with tiles, and have 
thick walls of brick. 

Little furniture is found in these houses, and few household 
utensils. Some pots, some cups, two or three mats, bits of wood, 
some porcelain spoons, and that is all. 

Rice forms the most essential part of their food, the same as 
in China; they could not make a single meal without rice. They 
most often cat it with a bad ragout of fish, pungent beans, and 
a water o4 very salt fish which they c^ll nu6c mam At grc ;t 
dinners their table is furnished with the flesh of pigs or other 
animals, amongst which ought to be comprehended dogs, foxes, 
and frogs. They ordinarily make three, meals a day, always with 
rice. Breakfast they call the morning rice; dinner the noon rice, 
and supper the evening rice. The rich drink tea from China, and 
the poor the tea of the country. They hive a kind of wine made 
from rice or millet which we call arrack, and which is nearly as strong 
as our brandy. There are vines which grow sponlaticously on the 
mountains, but the grape is very acid, and will not do to make 
wine. They sit, with the legs crossed, four or five persons round 
a circular table, and thus eat, each holding a bowl of rice in his 
hand. The women never cat at the same table with the men. 


As in many other Asiatic countries, the women in Cochin China 
are in a state of the most abject degradation. The rich regard 
^hem as destined to serve as the instruments of their pleasure, and 
the poor of their wants. For this reason they are devoted to 
offices which require the greatest bodily fatigue, and are subject- 
ed to such a submission to the lords of creation that they can- 
not have a will of their own* The labours of the fields are or- 
dinarily their portion. They guide the plough, and handle the 
spade and mattock; from morning to evening they wade in the 
water transplanting rice. They caixy provisions to market. They 


coltiTate and they manufacture the cotton and silk for the use of 
their families. They often take the prindpal part in commercial 
affairs. The Cochin Chinese women, howerer, more fortunate than 
those of China, do net submit their feet to torture in order to 
make them small and pretty. They have also sufficient liberty 
of motion, and of oommanicatioa with strangers ; their habitual inno- 
eoce leares no room for the jealousy of their husbands. BiUt these 
remarks only apply to the lower class of people; for aU mandarins, 
as wdl as the king, and those of his family, imprison, so to say, their 
wires and their coacubines, and exercise over them, as over aU their 
ioferiors, the most absolute authority. Concubines are slightly suhordi- 
nate to legitimate wives, but real harmony rarely reigns between them. 


The Cochin Chinese have little knowledge of painting and scuip- 
lure. Some amongst them, however, shew talent and facility in the 
acquisition of Arts; but they have no school for teaching them; 
aad men of natural talent are discouraged by the prospect of being 
employed in working almost gratuitously for the king, if they give 
proof of ability. They have made some progress io music and the 
comic art; that is to say, they play some instruments and some come- 
dies which please them ; but this music and these dramas would he 
far from agreeable to the taste of a European. In agriculture 
and architecture they are inferior to the Chinese. They work me- 
tals with a passable skill s^nd neatness. They do not at all know 
hour to manufacture porcelain ; they buy that of China. It is in the 
boiiding of ships that they have attained the greatest perfection. 
Tbey have vessels which are made in a masterly manner with 
osier, and plastered with a paste made of diluted mud and sea shells. 
But ordinarily, their vessels are constructed nith fire planks joined 
together without any kind of carpenter's work; they make them take 
the requisite form by exposing them to fire. They are attached to 
each other by pegs of wood and united by four hoops of bambd, after 
which they are plastered with oil and bitumen. Two eyes are paint- 
ed at the bows of their ships and vessels, to denote the vigilance 
which oaglil to characterize those who guide them. They are re- 
markable for their power of resisting the shock and the violence of 
waves, as also for going close before the wind, and for quick sailing. 

[To be Continued,) 




By the Hkkr Zollinobr, M. Bat. Soc., Ac. 

This flower, which still continues a problem in botany, and a 
rarity in the collections of botanists, appears not to be so scarce 
as has hitherto been believed. I know that it occors on the south 
coast of Java on the hills near the boundaries of the Residencies of 
Passardwan and Bezt&kie ; I found it also on the mountain Watargan 
near Puger on the south coast of the division of Bondowosso. The 
flower was brought to me from Jengawar in the same division. AU 
these places lie in the lime formation, and I consider that the Raf- 
flesia is an exanthem of the roots of Cisius Scariosa BI., and may 
occur whereever its mother plant grows. It is still uncertain whether 
my specimens belong to the species which filume found on Nusa 
Kambangan. Blume's specimens must have been larger. The larg- 
est I possess do not attain so much as a foot in diameter, and 
mostly only ^ — f f. This plant probably occurs also on Nosa 
Baron and, it is likely, along the lime hills which nearly sur- 
round the whole south coast of Java. I have often seen on one root 
of Gissus scariosa three or more Rafilesia. It does not occur on the 
the sand of the coast as many believe and assert, but mostly in the 
ravines and humid hollows of the lime rocks. The Javanese of 
Eastern Java name this flower Pidh mo or Pidehmd. It is 
scarcely possible to concieve what idolatrous notions are entertain- 
ed concerning the flower by this people. An ordinary man would 
not be able to find it until after he has fasted and prayed, or been 
jsanctifled when he goes to search for it The flower is prepared 
with other articles as a medicine which is used after delivery by 
women, in order completely to purify the matrix. It is also amongst 
the most reputed aphrodisiacs of the Javanese, althot^gh only for 
women of the higher classes. Common women would be taken 
sick were they to use this medicine. It is further said that if a 
woman of the people has recourse to it, and afterwards goiog out on 
foot treads on some dirtyplace, she will ever after forfeit ttie inclination 

* Translatad for this Journal from the Natuur^en Grf^mkvmdig Archief 
vo^r K^Mands Indie, 


of all men. The Javanese reckon the Rafflesia properly amongst the 
fungi, an opinion which is partly received in science, at least in so 
far, that we have placed the plant in the natural system as a link 
between the sponges and the higher plants. 



By J. T. Thomson, Esq., 

.tf. Nitccastle Nai> HisL Socy.^ Surveyor to Government. 

We left Singapore in the H. C. Steamer Hooghley for the neigh-' 
booting Dutch town of Rhio, (we call it neighbouring, in this part 
of the world, tho' distant 50 miles), on the morning of the 1st. 
inst., (July). Daybreak found us off the Pan Shoal, — a large coral 
reef situated in the centre of the channel, and a stumbling block 
to mariners, — there being no good land marks or transit bearings 
for clearing it, nor beacon to denote its position. As the morning 
advanced, we found continually disclosed to view the numerous 
bushy Islands which bestud the calm waters of the Strait, until, at 
noon, we anchored off the small Island of Piniogat which fronts 
the settlement and fort of Rhio. 

From the anchorage we could not help admiring the neat ap- 
pearance of the town and its vicinity, with the well built fort 
erowninga grassy eminence, the white walls of which, standing out 
from the surrounding verdure, helped to give variety to the pic- 
turesque scenery. The town of Rhio does not stand on the Island 
of Bintiing, but on a small island adjoining it called Pulo Pfn4ng, 
from which it is divided by a narrow strait. It is to the produce 
of the large island that Rhio owes it importance, having been long 
known for its gambier and pepper cultivation. The island of Bioting, 
lying on the high road between India and China, seems to ha?c 
been of early importance, affording excellent harbours and shelter 
from the storms of the China Sea in the North East monsoon ; and wc 
find Marco Polo, in his celebrated travels, mentioning it under the 
name of Bentan, while Singapore is passed unnoticed. The shape 
of Bintang is not, as its name would denote, that of a star, though 
the untutored Malayan voyager, who could only view its shores in 
detail, might be led to fancy such a resemblance in the numerous 
long points and capes which radiate from the body of the island. 
The shape is more a crescent, whose convex side stems the waves of 
the China Sea, and in the concave side of which the calm harbours 
already noticed arc formed. 

On landing at the wooden jetty, we found the Europeaa town 

A olam;k at rhio. 69 

hidden from view by groves of fruit trees, and were only convinc- 
ed that we wore in it, when, on stepping ashore, we found our- 
selves in front of the public offices. To a Singaporean the change is 
striking. In five hours from an English town, surrounded by every 
thing as nearly English as the climate will allow, and where Eng- 
lish costoms and manners prevail, you step into a place where every 
thing appears strange and foreign. T>as midday, but nothing was 
stirring. Every thing was death-like in comparison with our own 
bosy Cmnmercial Square. The Dntch Sepoy^ with his conical 
long peaked hat, lobnging in front, when asked if mynheer was in 
oftee, responded with a yawning Trdddd^ which spoke volumes. 
He and all had retired to their siesta. We took the opportunity 
of looking about us. The town, small as it is, we found to be lai4 
out widi a truly Dutch neatness and regularity. The houses of the 
Europeans, embowered in groves of oranges, mangosteens and other 
tropical fruit trees, imparted a cheerfulness to the otherwise dull and 
lonely settlement. The Residency House is a handsome building 
irliose facade is ornamented with bold pediments supported by coup- 
fed colnmns of the Roman Dorif. It was only a subject of regret 
to US that a building, which would so much add to the i^auty 
of the place, i& hidden entffely from the principal approach to the 
settlenient by dosely planted trees. The fort on the hill, com- 
manding the town, \& approached by a drawbridge thrown over a dry 
inoat that surrounds the works. The plan is square, with bastions at 
each comer. It was built from the remnants of the immense fort 
whidi protected Malacca, the stones having been brought in ships from 
that place during its brief occupation by the Dutch prior to 1834. 
Alter paying our respects to the Resident and his Assistant, we 
tallied forth to view the Chinese and native part of the town. In 
proceeding, we passed the chapel, a small building, nearly a fac- 
simile in miniature of the Protestant church of Malacca, whose style 
is tbat which used to prevail in Holland and some parts of England 
200 years ago. The Chinese town is built on each side of a simi- 
clrealar street, and presents a considerable contrast to the European. 
The same attention does not seem to be bestowed on the cleanliness 
of Ihe thoroughfares as in Singapore, the drains being full of filth, 
with the usual accompaniments of swine, ducks and geese luxori- 
«ting to their hearts' content. It had been generally reported 


hat the Chinese of Rhio were more respectful and less surly to 
Europeans than those of Singapore, — ^hot our observation did not 
confirm this as no difference could be noted, nor bad they the 
same idle inquisitiveness of this dass in Malacca as might have 
been expected in a small town. Gambling is allowed, and, we 
were informed, farmed out by the Government The gambling 
shops were all adjoming and open to the street They could not fail 
to excite onr curiosity, seeing how vigorous the Singapore Police are 
in rooting out the evil in the British Settlement The shops seem- 
ed generally to be but thinly attended, but there was sufficient to 
convince the observer of the ill effects whidi this propensity entails 
on the Chinese. The gamblers consisted of the debauched opium 
smokers and the leprous, whose wan countenances, lighted up now 
and then by intense anxiety as to the result of their venture, were 
only to be contrasted by the f6|^om and reckless looks of otheis. 
This picture might be thought overdrawn perhaps, were it not men- 
tioned that all Chinese are strongly addicted to this vice, so much so 
indeed that it is their ruling passion, and persons of all dasses attend 
the gambhng table. The miserable appearance of those who are seen 
therei; would mark them as ruined and the dregs of the population, 
who, useless for other employment during the day, idled until night 
brings about its usual revels, and company. There has been much 
diversity of opinion regarding the propriety of the government deriving 
a revenue from this source, and, without expressing an opinion, it 
will suffice to note the arguments on both sides. First, say the op- 
posers, government by sanctioning gambling lend their support 
and countenance in maintaining the vice, thus ruining their subjects 
for revenual purposes, — ^keeping an open door for the ruin of the 
young and unvitiated, — and causing a general demoralization of the 
people. The advocates of the farm, on the other hand, say, go- 
vernment by taxing gambling directly discountenances the vice, in 
the same way as it does by taxing opium smoking and spirit drink- 
ing, and instead of having a shut door where the addicted may pur- 
sue their vices beyond the pale of public opinion it would force 
them to attend the farmers tables openly, which those only who had 
no regard for character would do; a policy which particularly 
recommends itself in such places as Singapore and Rhio, with a 
migratory, shifting and mixed population, where, if any good is 



vfleded at one time it is lost when the places of those who may be 
aiinetiorated are supplied by others having all their native vices 
about them, and where the total suppression of gambling will 
always remain an engine for corrupting the Police. 

We took leave of Rhio at 3 P. m., and paid a visit to Pulo Pin- 
iogat, or Pioigat as Begbie has it, in the evening. Tin's island pos- 
sesses a considerable popalation, and is of some note in the Malayan 
Annals of Johore. It contains the palace of the Raj4 Miida, one of 
the officers of the former court of Johore ; and it was here that the 
r^alia attached to the sovereignty of that once powerful kingdom 
and now in possession of the Sultan of Lingin, were deposited. The 
possession of these relics was considered of much importance to 
the British interests previous to our treaty with the Dutch in 1821, 
but they fell into the hands of that nation, whose Commissioner, it 
is related by Capt Begbie, wrested these insignia of royalty from 
thdr keeper, Tliankii Putrf, in 1823 to bestow them on the chief 
who sided with them. The first object of interest that attracts the 
eye is a new fort which the Raja is building for protection against 
the ill&ndns, as we were informed by his gunner, who conducted us 
over the place, not contented until we had seen every thing, and who 
was very careful to impress on our attention its similarity to the fort 
of RhIo. It is a harmless way of spending money at all events, as it 
is flanked by a higher hill on one side and another of equal height 
on the other. Beneath the fort stands the Rajahs Palace or rather 
house, and, close adjoining, a remarkable mosque which is being 
built by a Chinese convert to Mahomedanispi, called Hdji Momen. 
The plan is said to be the same as one at Mecca. The Raja was 
biisf celebrating the nuptials of his son, and on advancing into the 
enclosed court, we found several thousands of Malays and Chinese 
assembled, creating as much sound, discord, and music, on various 
instruments, ja can be well imagined. 

la the centre of the Court hung a large bell. To the north was 
placed a balei or audience chamber, and, near the south, what was 
taken to be the bouse of the Raja. Prom the audience chamber to 
the house there extended a double line of natives dressed uniformlv 
and carrying a musket each. Others were in the Malay garb, car- 
rying spears adorned with red hair, called tombas. The balei was 
crowded with people. After the ceremonies were over, the bride* 


groom, a boy of 14 dressed richlj for a Malay, was carried od mens 
shoulders to the house, accompaniiied by the principal people attach- 
ed to the Raja. On passing he was saluted by the quasi soldiers 
a la 4nilitaire, Next came the bride enclosed in scarlet curtains 
held extended by a frame, and excluding her from view. Immediately 
followed what we inferred to be matrons of noble blood, whose 
handsome appearance, fair complexions and peculiar gait, betokea*- 
ed them to be inmates of the Rajah's harem. Then came groups of 
all sorts of ladies, young and old, black, brown and yellow, to the 
number of at least six or seven hundred. This stream of feminity 
poured from the audience chamber and filled the dwelling house, 
where no more could be seen of them. Now commenced the roar of 
cannon created by our friend the gunner on the hill. The imitation 
soldiers formed into a circle with great gravity, and, led on by 
an ugly drummer and fifer with conical glazed hats and long peaks, 
they commenced a slow march round and round. Their native 
leader was now discovered amongst the motely crew, bearing in 
his hand a staff of authority, and though bare feeted wearing a 
cap with a gold band, military frock coal, and dirty white trow- 
sers. First he heads his gallant band with staff erect and toes 
well pointed; now he breaks off into the centre to admire the 
intoxicating whirl; then advances the Panglimi pr^g taking a 
crease from under his sarrong, with which he describes a small 
concentric circle round and round, keeping time in short step /With 
his troops, until well tired of the amusement, when he stops on 
a sudden, throws up his crease in the air, catches it by the hilt 
baits his bare footed monsters, and marches them off the ground 
with great eclat. The din of gongs next commenced and* the 
screeching of Chinese wyangs, the busy hum of which was long 
heard after leaving the scene. 

These Malays all wear their creases by their sides as in iade* 
pendent states, and their women display the same shyness of 
strangers as in other Mahomedan countries, running away at your 
approach, but at the same time displaying, notwithstanding tbcir 
sham modesty, that species of coquetry so well described by Seott 
of the two maids on Waverley's approach to the House of Tolly 
Veolan. At dusk we reached the Steamer, tolerably well satisfied 
with our six hours visit to Rhio. 


Although it may appear out of place in a description of this kind 
to touch on the physical nature of the Islands and vicinity, stili, 
banng examine a eonsiderable part of them on previous occasions, 
ve will give a slight sketch hefore concluding. The Island of Bin- 
Uog has been visited on various parts between its eastern and most 
urestem points along its northern shore, as well as in the vici- 
nity of the town of Rhio, and, geologically considci-ed, it may 
be said to present a continuation of the features that prevail on 
the southern part of the Malayan Peninsula. The same iron stone 
or laterite covering is to be met with, spread over the surface 
of the country in a greater or less degree, as is seen in Malacca 
and Singapore, — ^at some places the laterite diminishing to a thin 
stratum of gravel, three or four feet "beneath the upper soil, 
and at others protruding itself and spreading out on the sur* 
face, in blocks and stones. Along the northern shores from Blanah 
Bay to Pulo Paojang the formation was observed to be of gra- 
nite, of coarse grain containing little mica. In many places the 
bWcVs are of enormous size, and rear themselves up in fantastic 
shapes out of the sea, on tlie shores, in the vicinity of Round 
Island and Pulo Panjang. On the western extremity of this latter 
Xsland an immense pyramidal rock rises out of the sea, towering 
to what we guessed to ue about 150 feet from the surface of tho 
ocean, while others we observed to have a columnar structure 
resting on a small base. Oa the Eastern point of Bintang, the rocks 
take a stratified appearance, and it is difficult to decide for want 
of sections whether they are of plutonic or sedimeritary origin. This 
rock again protudes from the bottom of the sea at a distance from 
the shore with a strike N. W. and S. £. and dip nearly perpen* 
dictilar, rising within 10 feet of the surface of tl^e water and forming 
the dangerous reef called the Poitillon*s Shoal, a cause of des- 
truction to several English ships until laid down by a Dutch maa 
of war of that name. This rock is clearly visible from the surface 
in dear and calm days. While the northern part of the Island is 
all of granite rocks, the centre where Rhlo is situated, is com- 
posed of shales of different degrees of induration, their sUrata being 
mach titled up and devoid of regularity. They appear to be 
nonfossUiferous as far as has been observed, so claim little at- 
tention from the Geologist, but they contain quarries of clay slate, 


that are used in buildings for flags to be laid in^ flooring ^c. 

The island of Bintang as noted before contains many projecting 
head lands between which are frequently deep bays and wide 
creelcs, and there being no large rivers to deposit their alluyium, 
we find that what otherwise would long ago have formed into 
valleys are still claimed by the waters of the sea. Some of those 
bays nearly divided the Island, and one we noticed on our ap- 
proach to the Harbour of Rhio, penetrated its wide surface as far 
as Large Bintang hill, whose wooded slopes rose abruptly from 
the edge of the waters. The surface of the country is general- 
ly low, and can seldom exceed 80 to 100 feet in height, as is 
the case with Singapore and a great part of the territory of Johore, 
and those elevations that become conspicuous are isolated. The 
highest of those is Large Bintang Ifill, about 1200 feet in height 

The soil as far as observed was found to be poor, being a 
reddish clay immixed with vegetable matter, and unOt for any 
general cultivation excepting Gambier and Pepper. The produc- 
tion of these articles of conunerce we were informed has been 
considerably curtailed, owing to the plants and vines being worn 
out in the older cultivated dutricts ; and the Chinese who are the 
cultivators have consequently in great numbers abandoned the soil 
for fresh locations in Battam and Johore. 


tj P. BUEBKfiB, Set. Bat. Soe. ; tlMtrlaniU Indian Utd. Service. 


ToUl,.... ' 30113 162701 t05i»Mli)373989,29 8B7llia95l5in 
Grand Toiai, n,G42,M5 

' Transiiled for this Journal ttom the Tijdichrifl voor Neerlanit Iniit. 


The precccding table has been compiled from the newest census 
of the different residencies, to which access has been Icindly given 
In the course of my journey through Java in 1846. Most of the 
lists contain the numbers of the census of 1815. That of the 
Residency o! Bage'en only is for 1813. The accuracy of the 
nuR>bcrs is jiidged differently by the local authorities cf Ac dif- 
ferent residencies. Generally it may be considered that in none of 
the residencies are the numbers staled loo high. In many they 
arc certainly too low. The population of the Residency of Ba- 
gelen, no census of which has been taken during the last three 
years, may certainly now be reckoned to amount to 700,00(). 
There does not exist any regular statement of the census of the 
Residency of SurakarCa, but it may be foretbld, that the improvements 
in the internal government of this populous residency planned and 
already partly put in operation, will speedily admit of a census^ 
the result of which will probably be a figure of more than 800,000 
souls. This I know respecting one of the greatest residencies of Java, 
that an exact nominal census of some districts gave a number near- 
ly one half higher than the figure of the negligent reckoning of 
the year before. We may confidently believe that at present the 
true number of the popuKition of Jbva exceed? 10,000,000. — 
About 30 years ago the number, according to Raffles, was scarcely 
4,605,270, and thus not one half of the present. It is scarcely 
necessary to mention here, that the inhabitants of the Western 
residencies of Java are for the greater part Sundanese, those of 
middle Java proper Javanese, those of the £astern residencies for 
the greater part MaJurese. The miHtary are partly Eurepean, 
partly Africans, partly Javanese, Madurese and Bugis. In the 
residencies of Balavia, Samarang, Bagelen, Djocjocarta, Bladioen 
and Surabaya are the strongest garrisons. In the assistant re- 
tidencies of Tagal, Pekalongan, Japara and Rembang, there are 
DO troops. The particular statements of the population of the 
different residencies will be mserted in following numbers of the 




SarthqiiakeB In Java. 

Earthquake at Banjoemas. 
Ox the evening of Saturday the 20th of Marth, about \ past 
7 o'cloclr, a brief but rather strong shakirg of the earth was 
feft at the capita] of the residency of Banjiimas. It was re- 
marked that on the same day, particularly in the afternoon, un- 
usnally large columns of smoke ascended from the crater of Slamat 
(on the mount Tagal.)* 

Earthquake in the district ofModjo redjo. 
On the 21st March and 3d April, violent hurricanes accon>« 
panied by heavy rains and light earthquake shocks, occasioned 
damage in the district of Modjo-redjo, division Modjo-lerto. A 
immber of largo trees iiere torn out of the ground, and more 
^^ a hundred houses, pondoppos, and paddy-granaries were 
blown over. Two men were wounded by trees falling, and one 
of tbem died in consequencc-j* 

The Tin Kines of Malacca. 

Extract of a Iftttcr from T. Neubronneh, Esq., to the Editor. 

Thk constantly increasing productiveness of the Malacca Tin 
Mines renders them a matter of considerable interest. Many of 
the principal miners have retired with competencies to their native 
country (China). There are now about 50 mines, and some 
bave been opened near the abode of the Jakiins, who, instead 
of shewing any hostile feelings, have been of essential service to 
the miners by guiding them through the impervious jungle to the 
streams and places where it is supposed the metal will be found 
in aboDdancc. It i$ much ta be regretted that so much specie 
is annually uken out of the settlement by the Chinese for trans- 
mission to their families in China. They are, after all, in one sense, 
noprofitable colonists; and I am glad to observe that a spirit of 

* Javasche Courant, Stst March 184r. 
f ib.ZUt April 184r, 


emulation is beginning to shew itself amongst the Malays, as a 
company of them, I hear, have been formed to work the mines. 

Outta Percha. 

Dr. d'Almeioa has sent us the following memorandum, with 
reference to the mention made of him in connection with thb pro- 
duct, ante^p. 22. 

Dr. d' Almeida left Singapore for Calcutta in the latter end of 
November 1812, — arrived at Calcutta in the end of December of 
the same year, — left Calcutta in the middle of January 1843 by 
the Steamer ^^ .Hindoo8tan'\ and arrived at Southampton about 
the end of March. A few days before leaving Singapore he 
bought from the natives some whips made of the Gutta Percbu, 
some of the prepared substance, and some of it in its primitive 
state ; this specimen being presented for the first time for sale at 
Singapore. During Dr. d'AImeida's passage to England, he gave 
a piece of this specimen to Mr. Charles Camie, then a passen- 
ger in the same Steamer, who, although a resident of Singapore, 
was unacquainted with this product In London Dr. d*A. ^^^ 
a portion of the specimens to Mr. W. C. Crane to be analyzed; and, 
about the end of April 1843, presented the remainder to the 
Royal Asiatic Society. A letter of acknowledgment from the Se- 
cretary was transmitted to Dr. d'Almeida, which he received at 
Southampton in the beginning of May of the above year on his 
return from Paris. The same substance was shown in London to 
Mr. A. A. Lackersteen before it was delivered to the Royal Asi- 
tic Society. 

Specimens of Coal from Xiabuan, Volo Chinninf 

Borneo^ and Formosa* 

Wk are indebted to the Hon^Ie T. CHURCH, Esq., Resident 
Councillor at Singapore, for some specimens of coal frem the above 
localities procured from T. W. Rimell, Esq. Asst Surgeon, H. M. 
S. Royalist. As we shall shortly have to recur to the subject, in tak- 
ing a general view of the coal of the Archipelago,we here merely note 
some of the appearances presented on a first partial exavaintiUon. 

1. A specimen from the N. E. point of Ldbuan, where the 
beds dip at an angle of about 23** to the N. E. and have con- 
sequently the general range of the Southern Asiatic Peninsulas N^- 


— SE. Dr. Rimell states that these beds can easily be worked and 
are sitoated about 450 yards from the sea side. We may mention 
that the H. C. S. Nemesis^ Capt. Wallage, on her last voyage from 
Borneo to Singapore, when she did such good service against a fleet of 
Undn Pirates, used L4bnan eoal, which burned remarkably well ; 
and was considered, Mr. Brooke mentioned to us, to resemble can- 
nel coal. 

Principal fracture, imperfectly foliated fibrous; lustre, glimmer- 
ing resinous like that of cannel coal; numerous minute, mostly 
round, pyritous specs adhering. €ross fracture, large, imperfect 
cottchoidal; lustre resinous, remarkably splendent, scmi-;netallic; 
In some places thin layers or zones, irregular in size and distributioD, 
nearly perpendicular to principal fracture, — ^fracture in plane of 
zone irregular, uneven, dull, — cross fracture uneven, lustre duller 
than body of specimen. 

Moderately hard and tough. 

Small fragments bum slowly in weak flame of spirit lamp with a 
large ycUowish and yellowish white flame, no jets, occasional slight 
decrepitalioo, intumescence slight; removed from lamp flicker and 
die out quickly. 

% grains gave 19. 75 grs. of charcoal or cinder, which, on 
indoeration in platinum foil until every particle of carbonaceous 
matter disappeared, left . 40 gr. of a reddish yellow or dull 
orange ash — the reddish tinge being probably derived from the 
iron in the pyrites 

Volatile matter 40. 15. 
Charcoal, .... 58. 64. 


A second fragment of 43 grs. gave 25 grs. or 58 per Cent, 
of charcoal (including ash.) 

Powder, blackish brown. 

Specific gravity 1. 28. 

2. A specimen from P<ilo Chirmin, at the entrance of Bruni ri- 
yer. Structure more compact and uniform than No. 1. and fraaure 
ID an directions larger and more even. Regular cleavage planes, 


fine fibrous woody stmctore. Lustre dull resinous approaching 
that of some varielies of lignite. 

Bums like No. 1. 

3L 50 grs. gave 17 grs. of charcoal CiQcIudingash)=s49. 02 
per cent ; another fragment of 18. grs. gave 8. 75 grs. of charcoal 
=48. 61 per cent 

Powder, brown. 

Spec grav. 1. 28. 

3. Specimen from mainland of Borneo about 20 miles from 
Labuan. Intermediate between 1 and 2 but approaching nearer 
to 2 in fracture, and lustre. 

Bums more readily and with a larger flame tban 1 and 2. 
Spec grav. 1. 28. 

4. Specimen from the N. Point of the island of Formosa, where 
the coal can casDy be worked and shipped, and is put on board 
vessels calling at Kelong at 5 per ton, by the inhabitants. 

Structure very irregular in comparison with 1, 2, and 3. uneven, 
devoid of compactness in the mass, readily broken' in ail directions 
and somewhat crumbling, in some places smooth and in others 
finelv fibrous. Lustre duller than 2. 

Bums more readily, aud rapidly, and with a larger flame than 
1, 2, and 3, with bright but nol strong jets and int'imescence. 

31 grs. gave . 83 = 2 74 per cent, of ash, grey with a very 
slight brownish tinge. 13. 23 grs. gave 7. 75 of charcoal Qor^ 
eluding ash) or 50. 8 per cent. 

Powder, brown, gives a streak on paper. 

Spec grav. 1. 27. 

5. Specimen of sandstone between two laminoe of coal, abun- 
dantly seen on the N. E. Point of Labuan. 

%* N. fi. The above arc merely given as results from frag- 
ments of single specimens, and not as the average characters of 
the coal in the different localities. 

Rock speclmetiP from Palo Kadda^ Polo Ziankawl 
and the BKainland between Sidali and Jank« 


The kindness of Captain Congalton, Commander of the H. C. 
5. Hooghly^ has supplied us with some fine specimens of rocks from 


Pdlo Liddi, Mo Laiik4wi and the mainland between Kid&h, and 
Jonkceylon, where the Hooghfy recently proceeded in search of 
GoaL As a gentleman who, amongst his many other distingaished 
rcseardies, has done good seryice to Geology, and whom we may 
congratulate onr readers on being able to nomber amongst our 
ablest coadjoCors, — ^Lieutenant Colonel Low, — ^is zealously inyesti- 
gating the Geology of that portion of the Peninsula, we abstain from 
making any remarks on these rocks for the present. 

Oold froni Pankallang Bokit, aadOoldand Tin 
from Ctongong on the Johore lUwera 

We lately received some specunens of Gold from H. H. SULTAM 
Kldd. ISKAUBBii Shah, and some others, with specimens of Tin, 
from the Hon'ble T. Church Esq., which had been furnished by H. 
H. the Tamunoono of Johore. They are all of excellent quality and 
from Limbongans or pits which have been recently opened. The first 
is from a Lim^Mngan made in the allorial soil at the foot of a hill and 
near a sooali stream at Pankallang Bukit, which is about 4 hours 
(Malayan reckoning) inland from Tiinjong G4ding, a Point between 
the months of the riyers Mu&r and Kisskng in the north of Johore; 
the list are from Gongong on the Johore Hirer in the south of 
that kingdom, and are fresh proofs how widely spread these va- 
luable metals are throughout the country. 

Case of Foisoniog; by IKEashroomSa 

As cases of this kind seldom occur, they are interesting from their 
novelty, and as the Mushroom is in common use by many na- 
tives, and even Europeans, the narration of a recent occurrence 
of the kind may not be without use. On Saturday the 18th. ult., 
two persons, a Bugis man and a Balinese woman, partook of a 
stew composed of Mushrooms which had been gathered in the 
morning by a Cafire woman who makes a practice of doing so. 
The Malay name of the Mushroom in question is Chand&wan 
lilin. It of a bright sulphur colour, becoming paler and more 
vralery round the edge of the cap, which is smooth, turned 
down, and of a waxy-hue. It is about one inch long, in its 
long diameter, ovoid in its shape, and nodulose in its upper 
surface, but smooth. Cells parallel, lamlns of three different 
sixes. Stem about one inch and a half long, smooth, no veU. 
Hab: attached to trees^ taste mushroom like, but not bitter or 
astringent. According to London's description, it approaches the 


class agariciiue, div. Pileati; bat iU iodividoal cbaracters belong 
to none of the species described by hun. About 12 o'clock 
noon the meal was taken, and about one both wore seized with a 
pain in the head* (The man in the back part of the head). Then 
giddiness came on, and when they attempted to walk, they tottered 
and fell groaning and moaning and talking incoherently. The 
woman who eat fewer of the Moshrooms had an indioation to 
Tomit but coold not, and although she groaned and moaned much 
when ID, yet OD her recovery she did not recollect any thing of 
what had happened daring that time althoagh she had been conti- 
janally raving ci green hills and mountains fioJling while at tunes she 
would be pathetic. The man who was strong, stout, and masca- 
lar in appearance, when-seen abont 8 P. M. or 7 hours after having 
been attacked, was found to have his pulse natural, though smaD, 
akin cool and moist, eyes red and suffused. He complained of great 
weakness, and when he attempted to rise fell, all tlie time being in- 
coherent At one time he talked of his business, then complained 
of great wf»kness, with a sensation of pain in the stomach and beat 
in the gullet. He had no pain in any other part at the time, though 
be said he was giddy and his head heavy, nor was he convulsed. He 
was given 60 grains of Sulphate of Zinc and 2 grains of Tartar 
Emetic for a dose, which produced profuse vomiting, after whicb^ 
he had brandy and water hot, under which treatment he rapidly 
convalesced and only complained of slight fever for a day or two 
following, — perhaps to be attributed tothe brandy and water. The 
female had a strong Emetic administered to her but without effect, 
and without any thing else than a dose of sugar and water (the 
Malayan prescription in such cases) she recovered, and, next day 
found herself only weak, with head rather confused, and a total 
loss of memory as, to what had passed. 

In this case of poisoning two or three things may be remarked, ist 
the acrid narcotic effects of the fungi, and the celerity in the appear- 
ance of the symptoms. 2d. The deadening effect on the stomach of 
the female by which the effects of the emetic were counteracted, — 
3rd. The fact that by stewing the poisonous properties arenot dissipa- 
ted, while if they had been boiled and the water thrown away, accord- 
ing to the Malays no bad effects would have ensued; and, lastly, that 
altho* intensely yellow in colour ye^ were they mistaken for edible ones 
of a white tint, those of the former colour being known to be poisonous. 








By Lieut Colonel Low, G. M. R. A. S. A M. A. S. C. 

I SUBMIT my imperfect notes to the public io the hope that 
Ibey may pro?e of some ntility to any scientiOc and more practised 
geologists than myself who may wish to examine the Island. I can- 
not here avoid adverting to an observation made by one of the 
greatest geologists of the day. Sir. R. Murchison, while adverting to 
a paper on the geology of Pinang by the late Dr. Ward, and to 
which he was, I suppose, led by that writer. He remarks, ^^Althongh 
we may regret that the Malayan Archipelago offers no other than pri- 
mary rocVs, here and there covered with their disintegrated ma- 
terials, we must hold up as highly worthy of imitation that good 
spirit which prompted the Resident, Mr. Kenneth Murchison, to 
take all the means at his disposal to obtain for us this amount of 
natural knowledge, — as it is obvious that similar efforts on the part 
of the chief officers in any distant colonies would prove of inappre- 
ciable value.''* I think it probable that it will hereafter appear 
that the above restriction has been overhastily made, and that little 
has yet been done by English Geologists in the countries lying East 

* Address by R.T. Murchison, Esq., to the anniversary meeting of the 
GeoL doc. 15th. Feby. 1883, page n. 



of Bengal, althoogh I believe the Dutch has been honorably pro- 
minent within the scope of their authority and role. 

Singapore Island consists of a number of low hills and ridges with 
narrow and rather swampy flats interveoing. In several places the 
sea face is elevated, but the greater portion of the drcomference is 
fringed by a pretty deep belt of fnangrove forest 

With the exception of Biikit Timkb, which is a granite forma- 
tion, the whole Island, as far as I have been able to discover, is 
composed of sandstones. Biikit Tim^h has an elevation of about 
530 feet. It lies to the westward and is removed about 2} miles 
from the centre of the Island. If this mass of granite was forced 
upward through the overlying strata of sandstone, they would natu- 
rally be found reclining against it. But I was not able to discover 
this result of internal action 

If there be no inclined strata of this description, the sandstones 
may have been deposited subsequently to the eruption of the gra* 
nite, and then been heaved up into their present indlned position. 

The soil overlying this granite is rather a meagre one, owing, I 
suppose, to this rocic being neither very porphyritic nor micaceous^ 
— differing in these respects, from the granite of Prince of Wales* 
Island. Its quartz and fdspar are pretty closely blended, and on 
this account it is less liable to decomposition than the granite of 
the latter Island. Generally, the felspar and quartz, where not be- 
ing decomposed, are both either white or of a lightish grey colour, 
and the mica, which is rather abundant, is black and lameller. 

In several places on the ascent of the hill, this rode has the ap- 
pearance of being stratified^ — and perhaps it may be in, or approx- 
mating to, that transition state which may exist betwixt the new 
granite, and its cognate primary rocks, gneiss and sienite. 

Where this appearenee of stratification was observed by me, the 

rock was very compact and of a greenish colour, and oecasionaHy 
approached to quartz rock. 

I examined this granite of Bdkit Tim&h carefully, although not 
chemicaUy^ and found it to contain 18 per cent of Silica or quartz 
— the remainder, according to the common average existing in gra- 
nite, may perhaps be taken at 62 of felspar and 50 of mica. 


Adrertiag to (he nature of these two last ingredients, the overlying 
loil of Bukit Timah most probably consists of aboi^t. 

Silex 56 

Alum ilia 51. 

Lime 1. 90 

Potash 10.20 

Iron 2. 90 
I do not iadude vegetable matter. The specimens of Biikit Timah 
graoile are, 

1. Quarti and felspar in excess — mica hardly discernible* 

2. Do. Do. very quartzose. 

3. lerj light grey colored, — quartz and felspar redundant,—^ 
small specs of black mica. 

4. Still slighter coloured and with paucity of mica. 

5. Coarse grained and quartzose. 

6. Veins of a light coloured and hard quartzose rock^ tinged 
yellowish red by oxide of iron. Brown iron' GIms betwixt the 
deavmges, — these last being cross, that is across the vein. 

7. The stratum above and next to the rock, where examined, 
was angular quartzose gravel and red clay. 

8. Granite with pretty equal proportion of its three ingredients. 
On the right of the southern Bukit Tim&h road, and close 

to it, just where it surmounts Scott's Hill, stands or lies a detached 
block of dark, and rather compact, granite resembling the darkest 
iranite of Biikit Tim&h. 

This last hill is about 5 miles distant from Bukit Tim&h, and a long 
and almost level vallay stretches the whole way betwixt the latter 
and the i^ing ground on the top of which the block lies. I could 
Cod no indication that this block is connected with any primary rock 
beneath, — all round, and apparently, below, being sandstones and 
days. ' If, therefore, it be quite isolated, but not in situ it may 
perhaps be a proof that the sandstone strata were formed, or, at 
least, tliat they were elevated to their present position, subsequently 
to the protrusion of the Bdkit Tim&h granite through the crust of 
the earth. I did not trace, however, any appearance of diluvial 
action upon iL Some detached but smaller fragments of granite 
were lying on the rising ground close to the opposite side of the 
road on Scott's Iliil. 


The specimens of these granites on both hills shew 

1. Dark bhnsh quarttose granite, the mica hardly fisible, Ihe 
quarti being white, 

2. Grey granite, about two thirds of the mass lameUer whitish 

3. Dark bluish granite, dose grained and quartzose, fracture of 
the quartz lamellar. 

4. Very dark and compact granite, looking extemaiy a good 
deal like basalt. 

5. Granite on Scott's Hill, very quartzose and coarse grained, 
rest of a dark colour. 

But, as I shall have again to notice, the general features of the 
sandstone strata induce me to believe that any upheaving force to 
which they may have been sufajiected, must have been exerted at in- 
tervals, and have been of varying intensity. 

I found a coal black stratum at the foot of Bukit Tfmih, in the 
alluvial ordetrital level, of a substance which, if I may be allowed the 
expression, I will call an anthracitical compact clay. When expos- 
ed*to a red head in a crucible and exposed to the air, and the carbo- 
naceous inflamable substances had thus been dissipated, the elay 
was found to ^ave lost about three fifths of its weight, and the re- 
siduum was a bbcuit of white felspar or a light brown earth. 


In so far my observations has extended, these strata are not 
overlaid by any other rocks ; while it woyld be impossible without 
boring deeply for doing which we have ll^ facilities in this country, 
to ascertain on what stratum they re&t. Without the gbage there- 
fore which would be supplied were other stratiGed rocks associated 
with them, I shall only hazzard an opinion, founded on their general 
aspect, that they do not belong to the /a/e^/ sandstone formation. The 
total absence of organic remains, at least in so far as my experience 
has gone, and also of the usual concomitants of the fossiliferous ind 
carboniferous series, would be in favour of this supposition. Do^s 
this sandstone belong to the group which lies immediately under the 
oolitic? I should be inclined to think that it does, were it fossili- 

There is one difficulty however. How does it happen that hard 



md crystalline saodstooes ihoald be soelosetotlie ttufaee, and by 
whal presitire, in the absence of other strata, were they consolida- 
ted? The days which overiie them coold hardly ba?e afforded 
ssSdent pressiire. 

The force which filled these sandstones, seems, as I haye already 
obserred, to ha?e been oneqoal. Thus at the Go?emment Hill, — 
where a deep section of 40 to IM) feet was ibade doring the con- 
stftmioa of a road past Its south end, diese strata, which I jodge 
to hawe been from 12 to 15 feet thick each, appear to have been 
suddenly and violently disrupted, for large and very acute angled 
masses of what I suppose to have formed the lowest .strata, have 
been pushed to the surface, and lie imbedded nnconformably in the 
days which were disturbed at the same time. Some of these blocks, 
indeed dniost all of them, had to be blasted with gunpowder be- 
fore they could be rendered manageable for the purposes of build- 
ing. The effects of similar disruption may be seen on ^Prinsep's 
Hill." These very uregular shaped and acute an^ed blocks are of 
u reddidi, of a brown, or of a grey sandstone. 

The days consist of red iron day, and its shades, white feUp«- 
tbic day, purple and yellow ochry and grey days, bluish and green- 
ish, and state coloured, days, and days sbriated with various tints 
resembling decomposed granite tii at/tt, before it has become con- 
verted by exposure into laierite. Where not so broken op, these 
days exhibited the common appearances of stratification, and have 
become somewhat indurated. These clayey strata, where the force 
has been even considerable, have, owing to their flexibility, been 
only bent instead of being broken to pieces. They afford therefore 
good indices of the volcanic or upheaving force which has been ap- 
plied in different places. 

The annexed sketch fig. 1. exhibits a section of the hill at the tank 
on the right of the road passing up the slope of Oxiey's Hill beyond 
Government Hill to the west. The angle of elevation is about 
10^ to 23'', the dip about N. E. 
No. 1. Reddish soil, upper stratum 2 ft. 

2. Ferruginous gravelly red soil with clay, . 1 to 10 ft 

3. Yellowish, brownish and red sandstone, 

coarse and soft, •••«.••• lft.6in 

4. Lamellar variegated and indurated days 


and Modstone, soft, very whitish, green- 
ish, yellowish Ac.,. i It 6 in^ 

5. More indurated 4b waving reddish, green- 
ish, yellowish, brown and white days, 2 to 2j^ ft verf 

6. Shades of blue and brown days, i^ to 2 ft. 

7. Greenish soft sandstone, , i^ ft. 

Behind the Institution there was a hillock about 40 to 50 feet 

high, but which, since the period when I examined it has beea 
quarried and carried off for building. It well exemplified the 
effects of the upheaving force alluded to. It lay on a flat sandy 
level and was composed of large acute angled masses of red and 
grey sandstone, mixed with| or supported by, white and red dsy 
The softer sandstones seem both at ^^ Oxley's Hill" and at Tin- 
jong Pagar to abut against the sandy strata now superior to them. 
Thus there will have been two contrary forces exerted, one up- 
ward, the other horizontal. 

What I have termed red sandstone forms but a fraction of the 
whole series of strata, and its colour is neither intense nor uni- 
form, passing into lake, dark brown and very light brown tints. 
According to Captain Franklin, the new red sandstones of Bundle- 
Lhond indudes the laterite which is found reposing on the first 
rock or red marie. I shall have perhaps occasion hereafter to re- 
vert to this account, as I at present incline to the belief that an 
extensive formation which X have traced to the north of Pinang, 
bears a dose analogy in point of position to the New Red sandstone. 
The exposed blucks lose in time their external colour, which 
changes to a whitish or a light yellow tints, — ^such prevading to se- 
veral lines or even an inch in thickness, — owing I suppose to some 
chemical combination with oxygen of the iron contained in the mass. 

The very dark colored stratum rapidly decomposes into a yellow 
clay; although, when fresh from the quarry, it is applicable lo 

The blocks do not seperate into lamellar fragments, but into 
unequal ones, — the harder sort yielding with difficulty to the ham- 
mer and requiring gunpowder to break them op» — thus resem- 
bling old transition sandstone. 

Frequent rounded masses of a white or grey sandstone, and of 


a more crystallioe texture than the blocks themselves, lie imbedded 
in the latter ; and ia several of the large blocks I have fouod, after 
they have beeo split, nodules of the size of a two pound shot, an4 
nearly as spherical, of black iron stone, slightly glimmering, not 
magnetic and reluctantly yielding to the knife. 

That the slightly reddish crystalUne sandstone is very durable 
may be inferred from the fact that there was a rock of it, bear- 
ing an ancient inscription, extent on the narrow point on the left 
of Che entrance to the Singapore river, but which was demolish- 
ed sewal years ago in clearing the spot for some building. The 
inscription, fragments of which I possess was only legible in a few 
places, the character appertaining to the Peninsula of India, and pro- 
bably it may be that described in the Malayan annals in these terms 
^R&]& SAran of Amdan Nag&r4 after conquering the state of Jo- 
bore with his Kling troops [Kling is the term applied to the people 
of Coromandel] proceed to Tamsak. When he returned to bis 
country of Kling or Bejaneegar^ he left a stone monument of his 
victories on which was an inscription in the language of Hindoostan. 
Tarn Sak is also called Singhfipiir&"* This was about A. D. 1201 
Singapora, observes Mr. Crawfurd, was first settled in A. D. 1160 
by Sri Sura Bawind. 

All of the sandstone seems more less impregnated with iron, 
but I could not discover by the usual tests any lime in them. 

^th respect to these spherical nodules I am alluding to the 
fractured strata before described in which alone I found them. ^ 

The stratification of the clays may be well observed dose to the 
tank on the S. face or end of Dr. Oxiey's ground. 

A very instructive display of the strata of sandstones which have 
been forced over on their edge, — and thus now rest vertically — 
may be found, when the tide is at an ebb, below the rather bluff 
points stretching along the sea beach to the east of the town 
just beyond ^^ Guthrie's Hill.'' These here from a rough and 
extensive platform. I did not observe, if I recollect aright, the 
hard red sandstone. The variety of the colours of the strata is 
here very distinctly defined. Their cleavage too appeared gene- 
rally to be transversed to the stratification. 

* Leyden*8 TrinslatioD, Annal 1st and 2d. 


1 have not obaenred any iqHkaved tabular sandstone formatioD 
resembling that so oomroon in India. 

Tbe order of tbe abore vertical strata passing upwards was 
originally, and, reckoning tbem laterally, now is, as (ollaws. 

1. Tbe massive crystalline red sandstone assumed to be tb« 

2. Clay. 

3. Tben tbe layers of otber sandstones varying in tbickness 
from one to four feet, witb day intervening, 

4. Strata of day. 

Lastly, soil produced by tbe decomposition of thae strata, and 
mixed witb vegetable matter wbere tbese are not laid bare bj 
tbe sea. 

Ta wbatever group tbis sandstone formation may be assigned, it 
is still plain that it exbibiCs none of tbe strata assodated witb coal be- 
yond itself, — ^no eiample of tbe fos^yiferous or carboniferous strata. 
If coal existed bere, itsbould, unless very deeply seated crop out 
along witb tbe otber vertical strata. But the usual European geo* 
gical tests of tbe presence of coal appear to be often absent in tbeae 
Eastern countries. Tbe coal measures of Borneo may be prolonga- 
tions of tbe sandstone formation we are describing. Ibave net seen 
any professedly sdentiflc description of them. But horn replies 
which I was favoured with to written queries given by me to Captain 
If an, IL N. L and Captain Congalton, Com. of the H. C. Steamer 
Haoffhfyy and from specimens kindly procured by them, I gan- 
tber that it is assodated at Pulo Cbirmin, which is about 200 
feet high, witb a ferruginous sandstone, and that a mass of red 
sand and clay overlies the coaL 

At Puto Kang Arang, again, from the spedmen received from 
Captain Han, tbe stratum immediately overlying the ooal^ which is 
common coal, is a soft white sandstone : next, according to Cap- 
tain Congalton*s spedmen, is a grey shale, but, as far as the 
'specimen would determine, not fossiliferous; next a slaty, bitumin- 
ous coal with sulpburet, I believe, of iron betwixt tbe lamine ; 
then a glistening light bituminous coal rather iridescent. The 
slaty coal exhibits tbe iron pyrites either in thin fibns or in cu- 
bical pieces. Tbe strata, as far as I can gather, are horizontal 
or nearly so. Above the sandstone lay earthy The Borneo- skty 


coal appears to be cominoa coal, burning with a good deal o£ 
not very bright flame, and leaving a brownish earthy residuum. 

On looking at the specimens already described after a lapse of 
about ^ve years I fmd the surface and the interstices betwixt the 
lamioad covered by copious groups of crystals of Alum. It does 
not ignite very quickly. Specimens of the accompanying strata 
shew yellowish clayey sandstone tinged by iron of a brownish 
colour; whitish sandstone; a fawn colored erirth; and a bluish white 
clay; none of which exhibit, under a strong glass, any remains of 
plants or flshest 

I have been exploring, during the past ten years, for coal along 
the coast to the north of Pinang, and have latety ascertained two 
localities where I think the fields are promising. I have speci-^ 
mens also brought to me by my people from other localities. An 
excursion as a passenger, which by the obliging permission of the 
Hon^ble the Governer of the Straits, Lieut. Colonel Butterworth, I 
made in the H. G. S. Hooghly last May, was too short to enable 
me to do so much towards a minute description of the coal field of this 
section of the Continent and its Islands, as I wished ; but this may 
be accomplished hereafter. If the Singapore sandstone strata were 
to lie betwixt the lias and the coal measures, it might be inferred 
that the red variety is the new red sandstone. Mr. T. I^ay desoribeg 
the same coal, I believe. He observes that it lies at an angle of 
45^ and is 6 feet broad, covered by powdered sandstone, hills or 
ridges of soft sandstone forced up into ridges by volcanic action. 
He supposes that the hard red sandstone which crops out was the 
original rock. 

The variety of soil in Singapore which is often found within 
tbe area of twenty or thirty yards is very apt to puzzle the agri- 
colturist who has not adverted to the cropping out of the sandstone;!. 

The reddish coloured sort does not yield a red, but a whitish, 
a yellowish, or a grey, soil. 

The white kind gives a light coloured sandy soU. The yellow 
produces a brownish one, while the blue and variegated clayish 
strata afford a great deal of red' soil. 

I believe that it has been conndered that the new red sandstone 
yields by decomposition a very fertile soil. I have not, however, 
been able to find in the Island any red soil directly derived from 



^at rod. There are a few scattered patches^ it is tnie, of red o^ 
reddish soil, h\i( thej appear to belong ta the days. 

1 find, after a careful ciatniDation of seven of these sandstone strata* 
and an cqnal number of thefar respectively superincumbent soils, that 
ihey all conUiin very nearly the same relative average proportion of 
silez, or 48 per eenfiim ;' — thus evincing that nothing else cooled 
have intervened bdwixt 0ie' outcroppitig sfrata and' the soil, now 
overlying them, which could have formed that' soil. The maxtmaor 
of silex is 87, and (be* minimum' 5 per cenf. The average of three' 
of the most crystalline wa$ 78 per cent., and of three of the other' 
most distinct strata 19 per cent. There is a" great absence of quartz 
veins in all of these sandstone' stra&i of the Island, but they become* 
more common upon the islets lying off the harbour. T have observ-* 
ed, however, on splitting large blocks, diat some of the fragments* 
had been cemented', as it were, by a solution of very fine white' 
silica, a few lines only in thickness. 

The vertical sfrata^ above^ described seem fo have been throwa' 
into their present position by a difTereot force from that whicfar 
heaved up the €rOvemment* Hill, — for these have not been dis- 
rupted; and although the force' which tilted tliem over must 
have been great, they have maintained their parallelism, and doubt- 
Icss their original direction, for the dip appears to have beeiF 
aboot E. and W., varying to S.E. and N.W. 

The plain upon which the suburbs and part of the town of 
Singapore stand is chiefly composed of deep beds of sand, — 
sometimes white, occasionally bluish or reddish; averaging (rotn: 
90 to 93 per cent of silica. The rest is aluminous. This sandy 
tract and some others lying along the seashore have doubtless been* 
farmed by a retreating sea, since its salid is mfxed^ with recent' 
shells and sea mud.- 

The vallies have a' peaty superstratum, which varies in thick- 
ness from half a foot to a foot, or a little more: Delow this lies 
generally a* bed of cold day, and below this a stratum of arena- 
ceous clay. But near to &e sea thils last is exchanged for mud. 
This peaty earth* k generally blacker Aan the' peat of cdlder la- 
titudes, where, as fiir as seems fo have yet been (Sscovered, per-- 
fect peat can alone be formed. It fe also lighter*, sinee its rege-^ 
M)lc matter has not been su£kiently decomposed. It also wants 


'Coherence beiog very friab'c. It seems however to aid in pre- 
serving the stems of iroes wkich lie imbedded in it, but to a li-* 
mited extent only. 
When burned in contact v/ilh the atmosphere the jesult was 

Carbon, ••.... 43. \ This specimen so exa«- 

Silex and other earths, . .. 2> 75 /mined was from the swam- 
Vcry magnetic Jb minute >py flat at the base of tho 

grains of protoxide of iron, .. 25 V western slope of Mount 
Loss, J. . . . . S4. JSopbia. 

Sir H. Davy shewed ih^ty in general, peat is found to contaia 
irom 60 to 99 parts of inflammable or destructible matter, the 
xesidaum being simUai' ^o the cpmponeats of the substratutn, witb 
^me oxide oX iroQ. 


Although ithe ironsione of the Island is most commonly found 
in detached masses, yet there are thm strata of it also. These 
iast occur chiefly amongst the upper sandstone and clay layers. 

I am inclined to believe that these masses in most instances are 
concretionary, but I have in several localities found them in situ, 
^either in thin strata of irregular thickness, or forming a sort of dyke 
cutlfflg vertically Ihrough the clays. This vertical appearance may 
he deceptive, for the clays may have been similarly inclined at first, 
but decomposmg and mining afterwards, may have left the harder 
ironstone by itself^ 

This ironstone, which has been eaHed by some laterltc, has not 
I believe been analyzed. It has been considered I understand to 
contain Manganese, which is probable enough, since Umber, an ore 
of iron, contains that substanes.. Jt exists from the size of coarsa 
sand, and smooth small pebbles, up to rounded masses of ten or 
ivrtl^c feet in diameter. Jt has a black or dark clove brown aspect 
externally ; sometimes it is sconated ; and X have found it botr^'oidal, 
and this st the depth of six feet from the surface of the ground. 

Internally it is .cellular like «9titcs-=^the c^JIs containing the same 
substance as the mass but in a pulverulent state, and of a reddish 
jellow colour. Jt varies in density, and where hardest docs noi 

«zjc.i«iiCAi. rK.iT?mzs 4w srccAF^&c 

'u He gfi:i* 1 s Tilt mcB-tj: b Ifce ■»% bot, when 
I'L. fnmm if Ttarirac Tm «o«ar. ne povdcr is a dark 
bf-iw!x «atlii. It rat-nrit^ i r «j«l Hf jt luf v^rv ■» §«€! « ironstone 
ffiucpl !▼ 3ie ji ^le Ifr-iv Pnr-nr-. l^iiiXsscria. ia 1825. But 
joii.fiA :3e <5cil Mta. zn*-^ n v^m.-^ :fif9« inxistotte masses lie 

I !u^« 5.aaii znaa ic ai;mT ■fca'arfy oxidaious iron 

s a CRiii hai u :fn5 nii ^rr: ipoa Bokil Jalutong, 
v^Kft s a siU aviHncDir ai sk k yi- i ^ a ice WcOesirT, Pmang; and 
R caer^r Ael 3v rst* Mili^s to luke iroo. Bat it 
3I1C iMm^ nsL ^^»«'^ ^ P*^?^ S^ ^y-ibl^ of woiidag iL 
nt ik;c<^ ic siiLpocrc i€ dbe r<;a da; aii4 coas^omentes rare- 
]▼ dCKiSi sx ^«i. riK arvwe Mb.? aiboai Ikrte feet, and they 
very sci^oa cxkal a any ^«a botiry ow a {''caicr surfoce than 
fv«r XT^s. ft«ii v^ere :fte rxxstLHie 4dcs not appear su- 
[7, A v;J F<^ psMTLl? be<t>icred below, at the depth 
grvea, prs^^iei :^ HKiBBOeaft sod be of a reddish hue. 
It is Best C3iH2Lja aC tbe nSmucics of !lie ridges, aad on their 
B their k w sijpes avl in their hoSows. In the latter 
k B thickest ia tx c«stre« 6=ax off towards tbo edges, but of- 
tea tombatiiif abnspUT at ibs crcdtest thkiaess. 

Where the iroo^tooe slrataa rff^'^nf a large pottioo of the me- 
tal il is very steril, t>at vbere the oiide of iron is not in excess 
the soil there beoMMs the wMt fertOe whkh the island possesses, 
akhovgh the fanit is very coafiocd. 

Captain Fraocklia notices that the amygdaloidal iron clay at Bartia 
io India is steril and bare in sone places, and apparently higblf 
productive in olbers.* 

It appears oecasionally as if running in a saperfidal vein, but this 
lecBs to be merely owing to its superior hardness to the vertical 
strata which were in contact with it, and which have been disin- 
tegrated. The red iron ores chieOy belong to the secondary forma- 
tion, those of a dark brown or black colour chiefly but not exda- 
fively to primitive ones.-!- To this last class the one we are des* 
mbing bears a dose affinity* 
The specimens before me are 

• Page 70. 

I Phillips MiBerals p. 47. 


1. Very dark and glimmering, cemented by brown pulverulent 

2. The darkest coloured, contains ^a good deal of quartz as 
may be observed by a miscroscope. 

3. Small quartz grains connected by a ferruginous clay. 

4. Hematites, reddish brown, slightly glimmering. 

5« Brown coloured, mixed with blackish and very red, with 
whitish grains of quartz. 

6. Mixtures of all these. 

This scorious ironstone has been termed laterite by some en- 
quirers, and in a few places it and its conglomerates a good deal 
resemble in external appearance, and partly in their internal struc- 
tore, the original type, — the laterite first described by Dr. Buchanan, 
from its likeness to a brick. He found it on the Peninsula of 
India, and particularly I believe on its western coast, Malabar. 

I have seen extensive beds of it at Cannanore on that coast, 
and it there materially difiers from this Singapore stone, and that 
also of a similar nature found at Malacca. The Indian laterite, if 
we are to be guided by that observers description, ought to bo 
deemed the true one. It is much lighter and more uniform in 
colour than the Singapore or Straits kinds. It is much softer than 
these when in situ, being dug out in small blocks and shaped like 
large bricks by a knife or hatchet or even a sharp piece of wood. 
It contains, Dr. Buchanan observed, ^ some lime." The quan- 
tity of lime will doubtless correspond to that contained in 
the felspar of the underlying granite. But it becomes equally 
hard by exposure to the weather. It is also internally more cel- 
lular and reticalated. I will not pronounce positively, after the 
lapse of many years, that the Cannanore laterite reposes in situ 
00 granite, but 1 believe it does ; and that it has been the result 
of the gradual decay of tlie latter. 

Dr. Buchanan, observes that tlie laterite appears to be the ar- 
gilla lapid<ea of Wallerius, has no appearance of stmtiGcation, lies 
over granite in masses, is full of cavities and pores, contains much 
iron in the form of red and yellow ochres, can be cut with a 
trowell or large knife when in the quarry, becomes hard like brick 
hy exposure, does not ever contain it is said any vegetable exuviae. 
ll is called in Tamul ^ Stria kulla'' or brick stone^ but its proper 


name would be latcritc from latcrtlus. The laterile of Malabar 
x^ontaios some Ijmc.* 

Captain Franklin observes, ^ ihat the grankc at Ileraporc is 
/capped by heaps of ferruginous conglooiera^, 'which last is con-*- 
fleeted with a stratum of iron ore, and on this last the new re<t 
sandstone reposes/' -{* 

These two last slraU were produced of course subsequently 
to the protrusion of the granite and tho conversion of its outer 
portion into the conglomerate, if this bst be not meant to inipl/ 
.a breccia containing fragments of other rocks than the granite. 

This condition or assigned origin vould be quite suiMcient to 
stamp it with a distinctive and uniform character. Wherf^ tho 
Singapore ironstone is the result of deposits in water of the de* 
J^ris of primary rocks. In this state in Malabar it looks origi- 
nally like a gritty clay, mottled red and white. The Native of 
Malabar build their houses wijlli this substance. The iron it eon-;- 
lains becoming further x)sydized by exposure acts as a cement, 
and helps to change the mass from its original greyish colour Iq 
A dark brown or reddisb brown, while the contraction of the clay 
in drying produces the injiernal cavities alluded to. The stratum of 
;clay or decomposed granite vbich lies nearest to the parent ruck 
/on the Pinang hills much resembles externally this Malabar late- 
Xite, but it scarcely hardens on exposure. The Malacca rock of 
-which the old Dutch fort was ])ailt, approaches much nearer thaa 
Ihat of Singapore to the Malabar laterite. 

I have traced this latcritic formation up to the latitude of Junk^ 
ce\lon, and I suspect that it cx^ts in a more or less perfect sLit« 
0long the whole of the western coast of tiie Qay of Bengal wbero 
that is backed by granitic mountains,- and perhaps where it is so by 
4>ther primary rocks. When the granite is highly micaceous and 
felspathic, its decomposition may, I think, be expected to alTord a 
perfect laterile. 

When the Singapore laterijLic ironstone oceqrs as a substratum, it 
}>ears marks in its dark brown colour and \is imbedded pebbles, 
/)f baring been once a surfa/ce one. This stone' is more continuous-- 
)y and extensively distributed on the smaU hjUs and undulatign^ jn 

* Af^Res. vol. III. p. 440 

^ .Geological Acct. of a Part of India/ p. 75, 

^toho^iCAh ttArtnts or ^lyaxpont. 97 

fhe vkiDity of the Town and along (he road to New Flarbocir, incite 
ding the Government hill, than in any other locality on the Island,- 
"^hile the ochry eal'fhs and clays predominate in the interior. The' 
%hite or porcelain days are found [and I believe of good qaa- 
lity for the arts^ in beds, in various spots and sometimes close to^ 
Ihe iron days. 

There is af sOrf of soap sfone lOoUng substance, streaked red^ 
ivhite, and greenish, which is found in thhi layers or massive amongsC 
the clays. It i» rather greasy to the touch, and has occasionally 
a fibrous texture. 


Beiog desirouss of comparing the strata: already described witLr 
(hose of several small islands lying off Singapore, I go< into dt 
sampan on the ist Oct. 1841, and rowed round several of them, 
fkot, however, without having been pretty well drenched with salt 
water, for these. boats ship water when the sea is scarcely ruiEed. 
I had, however, to repeat my visits, one day being insul&cient for' 
my purpose. 


This litOe island is entirdy composed of sandstone and cl^. IC 
is about 60 yards in diameter and is surrounded by coral beds, and! 
H is about 50 feet high. 

There are hwe distinct strata visible, (fig. 3.) indined at an angles 
of about 30^ to 40°, and the dip is to the S£. 
!fo. 1. liVhitish and reddish, 
red, 2 feck 
yellow, 3 feet. 
8 feet. 












red, 3 feet. 

Light red and brown soil. 
A vein was her^ noticed of hematitic ironstone, and a v^rv farg^ 
block of ferruginous conglomerate lie» unconnected at the base of the' 
aafiiral section of the Island, b is mterscctcd by veins of quartz. 


The sandstone strata here dip as at Pulo Timmukul bu( fhey 
iiaive been elevated to an angle of about 53^ 


At the sea level I observed a hard stratum having a sienitic as* 
pect. At the cast point of this island numerous small veins of 
quartz occur in the sandstone, and occasionally well defined quartz 

The stratification is as follows — passing upwar^s^ 
No. 1. White sandstone, 16 feet. 
„ 2. Reddish and whitish, 17 feet 
^ 3. Purplish and very argillaceous, 7 feet. 
^ 4. Yellowish red, 40 feet 
This island was decked with a tree named by the Malays Susup^ 
having a bright scarlet flower. 


This island is about 2^ miles long with a maximum height of 
about 308 feet. The name implies ^ Dead back*' owing to the 
steril soil on its southern face. 

The strata here shew themselves prominently some way up the 
hill. (fig. 4.) I did not ascend, being obliged to return before 


This small island is from 15 to 20 feet high. The strata of 
sandstone incline at an angle of about 60o, towards the North or 
N. easterly. '^ 

They are whitish, yellowish, and green, 4 to 6 feet thick, with 
thin layers betwixt them of reddish and yellowish sandstone. There 
are several small caves in the lower part of the face of the rocks. 
The strata have been much disturbed. 


So called from its fancied likeness to the Indian pea* The sand- 
stone strata are here vertical^ their line of direction being abo«t 
NW. and SE. But at the east end of the Island there is a slight 
inclination, the inclination being to the N£. 


. I found here a quartzose schist. 



There is on this island a hard, grey, and very quartzose stratifi* 
ed rock. The quartz i^hite and lamellar, general colour, bluuih, 
white, contains ^ecs of black mica. 


This sandstone rock stands conspicuously off a point of Singa* 
pore island 'which flanks the inner harbour or passage. 

The strata of this point are highly inclined, and in some in- 
stances almost vertical. They are all waved. The direction of 
their vertical line appeared to be NW. and S£. 


(fig. 5.) 

feet, inches. 

Xo. i. Yellow and red, • 8 ^ 

^ 2. Porpllsh and white or mixed, • , 7 

^ 3. Red, purple and whitish, 8 



^ 4. Thin stratum of red lateriiic iron ore, . • ^ 8 

„ 5. Purple, 20 ^ 

„ 6. Do 20 ^ 

Total 63 8 
Some^in quartz veins are found in these strata. 

SKCTiox 2nd. 

(fijj. 6.) 

No. 1. White sandstone, • • 7 feet. 

jy 2. Yellowish and red do. • . 8 ^ 

jy 3. Purple and white mixed, • . 7 ^ ' 
jy 4. Purple and whitish yellow — 

distorted stratum, • 7 ^ 

yy 3. Purple strata, 50 ^ 

Total, 79 „ 
Proceeding near to the mouth of the Johore river, 1 examined 
two small islands or rather rocks, called Pulo Hantu ^' Ghost Is- 


Here are the first indications of (what I sappose to be) the 
secondary strata. The rock is a hard stale considerably fractured. 
This rock dips to the southward at an angle of about 25^ 
The strata were a quartzose bluish grey compact slate, bare- 
ly yielding to the knife; a darker cotoured sort #id harder; a 
grey quartzose and sgli harder slate, blue; a- compact schist not 
yielding to the knife ; a very hard lighter coloured and more mas- 
sive schist, and lastly a dark blue compact stratum, quartzose and 
ferruginous, fracturing cubically. 

Prtmnce fFettesley, Ut July, 1847. 



Ths district of Karang Bollong is situated in the residency of 
Bageleo, division Ambal, on the soatherly sea coast between the 
rivers Chinching goloog aod Djetis, both of Avhicb have their en-* 
boachore in the sea. 

The first is crossed at the post named Sowook, and this is 
often attended with danger; because, when the sea is rough, it 
nuis in a bay in the river, which capsises small boats, fgetekj 
and occasions the loss of life from time to time. Having crossed we 
arrive at the foot of the hill Bollong, and from this we are carried 
farther in chairs. On the top of this hill, which is about 250 to 
300 feet above the level of the sea, we have a most beautiful view 
orer the south promontaries, the Ocean, and to the west over a for- 
tiflcatioo. Descendmg thence we come to the village of Karang Bol- 
long where tfie residence of the Overseer is situated. 

This bouse is built of stone and covered with allang allang. It 
has a verandah in front and behind, and is provided with six rooms, 
besides a stone godown covered with tiles to keep the birds nests, 
and having convenient out offices of bambus. From the front ve- 
randah we have a view of the south promontary, Karang, called 
Kdda, on the east mount Klotto, on the north the mountain Pange- 
rangan, and on the west the mountain Koboronbo. On the sum-^ 
mil of the mountain Kdlibelet lies in the form of a triangle the for- 
tification named Karang Bollong, which is furnished with two 6 
poanders, and has a garrison of one serjeant, five European and 
thirty native soldiers. 

Before the bouse of the overseer on a knoll there is a barobu cu- 
pola from which we have a view to the east, through a cleft, of the 
ocean, while the view to the westward embraces the village of 
Karang Bollong. 

At Djeladrie situated in the yieinity of Karrang Bollong there are 
ponds into which the flow of the sea bring fishes. These fishponds 
bowever, are dependent on the more or less favorable state of the 
weather, because it has happened that the fish have escaped from 

" Translated (br this Journal from the Tijdschrift voor Neerfands Indie^ 


the overflow of the water. Once or twice in tbe year the fish are 
sold to tbe popalation of the district of Kanng BoUong, and from the 
proceeds the sluices of masonry and cleansing of the ponds are pro- 
vided for. The sorplus b divided between the people of the 
villages of Sdwook and Djeladne who keep the watch. 

Generally speaking the place may be considered healthfal. The 
thermometer (Fahrenheit) is found, as a mean, in the morning at 
6 o*clock from rO"" to 74'', at noon from SS"" to 85% and in tbe 
evening at 6 o'clock from 77^ to 79^. 

Tbe population of the district Karang Bollong consists of iOOO 
able bodied men, who are free from all state-service and contri- 
butions, excepting the maintenance of tbe roads. They find their 
livelihood by gathering birds nests, in the cultivat'on of sawa and 
tagal* fields and in fishing. The women on their part keep them- 
selves busy in weaving cloths, which are everywhere in good 
demand, and are much sought, as I have heard, in the capitals 
of the residencies Surakarta and Djokjokarta, 

It is generally known that Rarrang Bollong furnishes annually 
an important produce of birds nests, but it is less known in what 
manner the collection is made and with how much danger to 
life it is attended. For this reason I have deemed it not inap- 
propriate to give a description of it here as exact as possible, com- 
mencing from the time when the collection begins. 

The gathering of the birds nests takes place three times a year 
under the name of Uduan kesongo, tellor and kapah The first 
begins in the end of April, the second, in the middle of August, 
and the third, in December. The yearly produco is commonly 
between 50 and 60 piculs. 

When the time for the gathering approaches the heads come 
together with the persons they employ, before the residence of 
the overseer, who then, in the presence of the Wedons, Mantre 
and the writer, fixes the amount destined for the procuring of buf- 
faloes, he-goats, rattans, bambus, and torches, as well as the distri- 
bution of opium, incense and atal. 

After all this has been done, a servant is sent to the Goa No- 
gosarie accompanied by the head men of this cliff. The Goa 

'^ Tegaff dry rice cultivation equivalent to tbe Malay fknah. 


Nogosarie is the most accessible, provided the sea is not loo rough. 
Six nests are then ordinarily collected to be compared with the sam- 
ple of the previous year and to judge if the collection can take place 
or not. 

If the bead men consider that the nests are fit to be collected, the 
people then send for the Wayang and Toppeng, and the overseer 
makes farther regulations with the head men of the cliff, for what 
is necessary for offerings and feasts. 

According to old custom, a Thursday is always chosen to make a 
beginning with the preparation of what is needed for the feast, so 
that on this day the people occupy themselves with cleaning the 
Ballang, — the cliff which is situated at the mouth of the river 
Tjintjiog Guling. 

Tbe next morning (Friday) the buffaloes are killed. Two hours 
afterwards they take some pieces of flesh, tongue, entrails, 4:c., 
from the slaughtered animals, and place them on small bowls 
woven of bambus called Sadjen. Thoy are then offered to Bol- 
loQg Watu Tumpaog and near the watch houses of the cliffs at 
Dabar, Gedee, Wale, and Nogosarie; while at the cliff of Medjeng- 
Uek a be-goat is offered wilh incense. This festival must, by 
old custom, always take place on a Friday, which by the natives 
U called Ngaderan. In the afternoon of the same day a Wayang 
is performed in the Bollong, generally a piece of seven acts : while 
the necessary flowers, fruits, ointments, siri, pinang Ac, and what is 
further reqm'red for the offerings are prepared by the Takan hem* 
bang. All these materials are placed on the before mentioned 
bambu bowls, and, in the evening at i past 5 o'clock, are brought 
by a servant into the Bollong near the Seroot tree. The origin 
of this trot is ascribed to a Javanese named Kiai who is buried 
there, and above whose grave the tree has risen; and now the su- 
perstition of the natives declares that the tree has sprung from the 
navel of the dead. They likewise make offering on the burial 
place, at the waringin tree, and in the room, the pantry, kitchen and 
other places in the dwelling of the overseer. 

After the wayang-players have returned from the Bollong, the 
bed placed near the entrance of the godown, known under the 
general appellation of devils-bed or bed of Nyai Rati) Kidul (whicU 
bas existed from time immemorial) is put in order by the Tukang 


Gedong and ornamented with some silk and other cloths. Nobody 
but this woman is allowed to do this. Efery Thursday dariog the 
lime of the coUectlon this bed is cleaned and offerings arc made 
10 it. 

After everythinj; has been made ready the small lamps are lighted 
and the small bambo bowls with flowers, frait, 4:c., are placed with 
particular marks of honour by the Tdkan Gedong before the bed on a 
small couch made for the purpose. At the same time she says in high 
Javanese, as if addressing some distinguished person ^By order 
of Mijnheer (meaning the overseer) I here bring wherewithal for 
you alone to eat.'* After this speech the Tukan Gedong hersdf 
answers ^ Yes, mother Tukan Gedong, say to father mijnheer (tho 
officer) that I return my thanks for the food which he has sent me/' 

After this ceremony is finished the Tdkang Gedong remains 
sittmg on the bed, and further asks Nyai Ratu Kidul (who is sop* 
posed to be present in the bed) ^ if it be agreeable to her that the 
birds nests should be collected and if it shall take pla^e without mis- 
chance", which request b ordinarily answered with ^ yes'* (ingifj. 
During this time the wayang is kept up till the next morning. 

The following morning (Saturday) the heads of the cliffs Da- 
har and Gcdie go, with the persons whom they have employed, to 
their goas, with the ladders which have been prepared some days be- 
fore, and accompanied by the Gedeks and Sentonos for each cliff in 
order to make further preparations for a commencement; while dur- 
ing all the day the toppeng play is maintained. 

The cliffs Walo and Nogosarie are visited eight days later, and 
Medjiengklek two days after that. I have enquired what could 
be the reason for visiting these cliffs latest but no explanation could 
be given to me. In the evening, the toppeng- play being finished, 
the so called Rarang Bollong feast begins, on which occasiofi the gami- 
lang and two or three dancing girls make themselves heard. At the 
first seven acts the dancing girls turn their beads towards the birds 
nest warehouse in honour of Nyai Ratu Kidul, and it is a ge- 
neral custom in the district of Rarang Bollong wherever a feast 
is given to dedicate the first seven songs to the honour of Nyai Rata 
Kidul. So soon as the wedons, mantre, writer, the head of the 
cliffs with their people, and some heads of the dessas, are met, they 
sit down on a mat in a circle to dine. The writer places himself at 


ihe head of this table and proposes different toasts to the success ef 
tbe approacfaing coUectioD. After the guests have satisfied then^ 
sdves <^iuni is offered to every person present The company 
eojoy themsehes some with dancmg to the music of the Gamelang, 
some with opium smoking, while others occupy themselves with 
chewing saree, and this continues till midnight, when the fieast 

After this feast (on Sunday morning) the head men take their de- 
partore for their rocks, and, if the sea is not too rough, the 
ladders are joined in order to reach the entrance of the holes 
that they may collect six birds nests, which, from prudence, are again* 
CMnpared with the musters. The harvest then is arranged. But 
if it should be found that tbe nests are not yet ready to be ga- 
thered, further preparations are stopped in order that the swallows- 
may not be disturbed. If it is found that the nests are of the proper 
balk, the work is continued by making stages and ladders and 
fastening them to the rocks into which tbe collectors have to des- 
cend. All thes*e operations being completed in five or bIl days^ 
tbe inhabitants of the nearest dessa go to the cliffs Dahar and Gedee 
with the men belonging to these clifls, accompanied by gandeks 
and sontonas who carry with them the requisite bags to contain 
tbe nests which may be gathered. 

The number of collectors for the first day is limited to 80 or 90 
persmis for each of the two cliffs, and this number afterwards dimi« 
aisbes as the nests are gathered. — When the bags are filled they are 
brought to the godown under the direction of a Guru. On arriving, 
there, a sedeka is given, consisting of red and white bubor, and this 
feast is regulated by the collectors of the day for each cliff. Al- 
ter the priest has spoken his benediction over it and the dishes htv% 
been eaten, the nests are weighed and stored in the godown on a: 
flooring of plank made for thenu 

The work of the remaining clifls WoUo Medjiengklek and Na- 
gosarie is nearly the same, but the collection at the first two places 
is made by the people employed without any payment on ac- 
count of the smalhiess of the produce. With respect to the last, sixty 
or seventy persons are ordinarily employed, and 57 to 60 rupees cop- 
per is paid for each collection to the head men. The sum is divided 
amongst the bekeb and the people. On account of these cliffs being 


situated at about fire miles distance over very diflicolt roads, the 
birds nests are kept and watched till the nest morning in a bam- 
ba house, called ktmgsie made near the watch house of the cliff. 
They are afterwards brought to the godowns for which each bearer 
receives 6 cents, a sogo of opium of ^ sikar weight.* 

The collection of the nests necessarily depends altogether on (be 
state of the sea. On the top of the mountain Kuda a flagstalf 
has been erected for this reason, and when a white fliig is hoisted 
it is a signal that the sea is calm and that the holes can be ap- 
proached, but if a black flag be shewn it is a signal that the sea i$ 
loo rough. Each coUection from all the holes is finished in tweoty 
to twenty four days. The principal birds nest cliffs are those which 
I have described above, and they extend from the east to the west 
along the Karrang Bollong south cape. Between these, tliere are 
some smaller chffs the produce of whidi is of little or no import- 

The coUection of the nests is attended with much dtfikoKy and 
sometimes even with danger to life, because the apertures are st- 
tuated at the foot of the rocks, and are consequently on a level with 
the surface of the sea, so that the water washes in and out of some 
of the holes. Hcpce when the sea b somewhat jougb it is impos- 
sible to reach the apertures, much less to enter them. In order to 
form a just idea of the dangerous work which most be performed 
by the collectors I will try to give an exact description of it. 

To enter the cliffs you descend one precipice of two hundred 
feet, neariy perpendicular, by means of one, two or three rattan 
ladders (according to the greater or less height) which are 5 
inches broad and each 77 feet long. The lateral or principal 
ropes are composed of wild rattans twisted together to a thick- 
ness of two inches, and having wooden steps two inches thick 
and thirteen inches distant from each other. The upper end of 
the ladder is well fastened to a strong tree by black ropes and 
the bwcr end is placed on one of the rocks. 

In order to reach one of the holes, they make use of two rat- 
tans each one hundred and eight feet long; but in some cliffs bam- 
bus are used 12 to 18 feet long which are placed one above the 

* A Sikar Is a half cent or tho 2 hundredth part of a niDce or goddca 


Other— that they may steady themselves by holding the upper irhen 
walking along the ander. The entrance of the caves is aboot 18 
feet broad, more or less, and 30 high. The interior is f^om 60 
to 114 feet broad and from 420 to 480 high. The bottom of 
most of the cares is washed for about one quarter of its length 
by sea-water, tiirce, four or more feet in depth. The whole of the 
interior appears to consist of limestone. In the caves are stages 
made of barnbus which arc boand fast with ropes to the walls of 
the rocks on which the collectors stand. It often happens, in con- 
sequence, that tlio cliffs on which the ropes of the stage are fast* 
coed become loosened and the whole stage is precipitated, which 
sometiiBies occasions a loss of life. Most of the nests are taken 
fron the wail by the hand, and those which are on the roof, 
by an iron hook fastened to a long bambu. 

The swallow named lawetj has a compressed head, which, 
however, with its thick and ronnded feathers appears large in ttom-^ 
parison with the body. The beak is broad and wide with a black 
awl-shaped small point bent downwards. The eyes are black and 
torerably large, and the tongue arrow-shaped. The throat is very 
short as well as the bones of the wings and feet. The feet consist of 
four toes of which three are in front and one behind. All the toes 
have blacV, curved, sharp, and tolerably long claws, so that the 
bird can every where lay fast hold of the rocks and cliffs. The 
tail is almost as long as the whole body. AYhcn the throat, the 
im^ and the head are spread out, the bird has a circular appear- 
ance. The colour is greyish black inclining a little to green. 
On the back near the tail to the belly the blackish passes into 
moQsecoloar. The breast is bluish. . 

Besides thes9, some wild species called lintt^e iahsbii some 
holes. These are somewhat smaller, and have a white breast. In 
other respects they agree completely with the laweL The nests 
which they make are constructed of grass stalks. They are, how- 
ever, of the same form, and are as artfully made as the otliers, 
bat are without the least value. The residence of these swal- 
lows Hniye in the caves, contributes greatly to the injury of the 
holes, for which reason they are desti*oyed as much as possible 
at each gathering. 

On the waUs of the rocks, the birds build their pests in horizontal 



layers dose to each other. They place them at different heights frov 
SO to 300 feet) as they find room, and leave no boles or suit- 
able spaces open, provided they are clean and dry ; for when the 
walls prove damp they forsadce (heir nests. When the sta aU 
tains a higb level, which is usually aecompanied by a strong surf 
beating against the cliffs^ a percolation ot water is caused which 
is, in the highest degree, prejudicial. 

In the mornings at break of day the birds fly out with a great 
noise to seek their food, to the neighbouring places in the east moo- 
soon or dry season, but in the west Bionsoon or rainy seasoo, 
they do not go for. They return to their caves about 4 o^dock 
in the afternoon. They feed upon different kinds of bloodless io- 
sccts^ hovering above the stagnant waters^ for whidv their wide 
open beak is very useful. 

Their greatest enemies are the birds lilang and alap^dap, 
whQ pull the young swallows out of the holes and seize mmy ai 
they fly out of the caves. 

They form the nests, by vomiting the strongest andbesf fragments 
of the food which tbey have eaten. 

When the nests have been all plucked, the entrances arc clos- 
ed with hambu fences, the doors are sealed, and the rattan ladden 
are brought back to the store house. 

The nests in the store house are, some days afterwards, weighed^ 
and packed in hampers (geboka^ each 25 catties), made very light 
with cross ropes, and sealed with the stamp of the overseer^ 
Pieces of paper are placed on each hamper, with: the Bumbcr and 
ihe nett weight of the nests written- on it. 

All this having been done, the hampers are surrounded with cocosi- 
nnt leaves, prepared in the manner of kadjang mats. Every two 
hampers are then made fast to a piece of bambu (pikol-an> provided 
with two props, in order that, when resting on- the way, the hamper 
nay not touch the ground. They are besides covered with pi* 
nang bark so that when it rains the water can run off« Finally they 
are all sent to Surakarta in order that they may be there sorted. 

The evening before the birds nests are sent off another feast 
is given, and on the following morning, all the coolies depart with 
their hampers for Surakarta amidst the playing of the gamelaog and 
#houts of hurrah. 




By the Right Reverend DR. Le Fevre, 

SUhop of Isauropolis and Vicar Apostolic of Lower 

Cochin China. 

^Continued from p. $6, J 


Tbc Government of Cochin China is the most pure despotism 
nrhich is to be found. For the rest, it is an imitation of that of 
China. The power of the king is absolute, and without restric-* 
tion. He can make all laws which appear proper to him, for he 
is the sole legislative authority. He cannot, however, entirely abro- 
gite the ancient laws, on account of the respect which he believes 
himself bound to shew to the memory of the kings his ances- 
tors^ and because these laws have acquired a sacred character ac- 
cording to the opinion generally received by the nation, and against 
which the most absolute power could not struggle; but he is able 
in many circumstances to mould Ihera to his laws, and to elude 
(hem in a thousand ways without expunging them from the code. 
The lives and the properties of his subjects are in his hands and 
^t his disposal; severe punishments are all inflicted in his name, 
and never without his consent If the case is capital by law, 
which often happens for it is excessively severe, the judges have 
nothing to do, but to institute the process and pronounce the legal 
punishment, but the king usually mitigates it, in order to manifest 
that be only acts to shew clemency and moderate the rigour of 
law. He thinks by this to escape the odium which attaches to 
the condemnation to death. The power of conferring rank and 
dignities is also reserved for the king, as also of displacing the man- 
darins and disgracing them. In a word he has the same authority 
over the subjects of his empire that a father of a family has over his 
children. The people are taught not to raise their looks towards the 
throne, except with sentiments of fear and veneration, and to re- 
gard all the blessings of life as emanations of his goodness. Every 
year he offers a solemn sacrifice to heaven for the prosperity of his 
reign. In times of calamity and in difficult cireumstances he fasts^ 


prays, and sacrifices to afcrt the plagues of heaven; or he causes 
all these things to be done by his mandarins. 

This powerful monarch is sarrouoded by a crowd of eunuchs, 
and passes the most part of his leisure with the women of the 
palace* One only has the rank of wife; but she does not bear 
that of Queen or Empress. The number of concubines is unlimited. 
These women are cloistered for oyer within the walls of the resi- 
dence of the king. On his death they are shut up in another pa- 
lace, where they must preserve their chastity. 

The kings wears clothes of a yellow colour, ornamented with em- 
broideries of Qgurcs of the dragon. The robes of the mandarins 
are blue or violet, sometimes enriched with embroidery of gold. 
AVhen they march in the train of the king on the occasion of some 
great ceremony, their robes of silk, their religious silence, the order 
and the decorum which they observe, offer an imposing spectacle. 

We find two classess of Mandarins; the lettered mandarios and 
the military mandarins. The military mandarins are usually men 
without education; bodily strength and a certain aptitude for the 
manual labours, to which the soldiers are applied, form often the 
whole of their merit Their pay is also very small, at least un- 
til they arrive at high grades. The lettered mandarins are di- 
vided into nine orders: the ninth, which is lowest, is that of se- 
cretaries employed by government; those of tlie eighth, are also a 
kmd of secretaries or writers, principally employed in the prepara- 
tion of the calendar; they only adapt the Chinese calendar to the 
use of the Anamites, for they are not at all so learned as to be able 
to construct one themselves. The mandarins of the 7th and 6th 
orders, are the officers of justice who commence causes, and write 
down the depositions of witnesses and of the accused. The heads 
of arrondissement are of the 5th order, the sub-prefects and the 
judges are of the 4th ; most of the prefects of each province are 
of the 3rd; the ministers of the king are of the 2d.; there are 
only one or two great mandarins of the 1st. order, who are ap- 
pomted to the council of the king. 

For the administration of the affairs of Government, there are sit 
departments or ministers, who are called Luc bo: The 1st (b6 hij 
is charged with pointing out the mandarins fitted to fill vacant places, 
9nd examining the merits of candidates. The second, {b6 h6J is 


> liind of minister of finances charged with all that concerns tlie 
royal treasure and%N^ imposts. The 3rd, b6 le^ directs and pre- 
sides over ceremotliies according to ancient customs. The 4th, 
M Imh^ regulates military affairs, like our minister of war. The 
5t^ b6 hinhy takes cognizance of and punishes capital crimes. The 
6tb, bS cdng^ is our minister of public works, but he has wider 
functions. There is no minister for foreign affairs. For tlie ma- 
rine, they have only a superintendent. The mandarins who preside 
in these different departments are far from having the same power as 
our ministers in Europe. They are obliged to report to the king all 
vulters belonging to their office, even Uie most minute; and Uiej 
most conform in all things to his advice, or rather to his orders. 

The power of all the officers of Government is so restrained 
and so limited, that they are always in uneasiness and dread of 
heing foand in fault, and of losing their places. The duration 
of their administration in the same post, does not go beyond three 
<tr four years. They cannot exercise any important f«nctions in 
the qoarter where their parents reside. They cannot take a wife 
nor bay lands in the country submitted to their jurisdiction. If their 
father «r mother happens to die they obtain leave of absence for at 
least ux months, in order to fulfil the duties which a son owes to his 
deceased parents. Any one can aecuse the mandarins l>efore a great 
tribunal erected for this purpose and called Tarn phap; justice is 
there done in all the complaints brought against them: thus a ma* 
gistrate has every right to felicitate himself, if he goes out ofoflice 
without being accused. 

The Cochin Chinese have nearly the same laws, and the same 
mode of punishment as the Chinese. They understand military tac- 
tics better than the Chinese, and have beat them many times. They 
have even some knowledge of European tactics which French 
officers taught them formerly. They have no cavalry, but they 
have elephants and a very well appointed artillery. At present they 
make muskets better, according to their taste, than those they can 
buy from Europeans. The soldiers only wear their uniforms when 
they form the cortege of the king or of great mandarins. This uni- 
form consists merely of a frock ornamented with red or blue bands. 
The Cochin Chinese soldiers in spite of their cowardice, are however| 
I think a little less faint-hearted than the Chincbe. 

112 BXTAfLs RESPECTivo cocnTN cnn^A, 

' For the rest, the identity of the usages of these two people,— m 
superstitious ceremonies, the worship of aneieMrs, laws, govern- 
nent, Ac, shews that they have had a common origin ; which is con- 
firmed by historical traditions. According to these traditions Tong- 
kiog was colonized by an Emperor of China, named Hoangt^, 
about 200 years before the Christian era, and, after haying sn- 
dergone many revolutions, it became an independent kingdom. 
Hany Chinese at the present time come and settle in Cochin Chi- 
na, but io smaller numbers than id other countries adjacent to China. 
These are the only strangers who are admitted into the country. 
They are more laborious and more ingenious than the Cochin Chi- 
nese; hence they easily make their fortunes amongst them. 


The Anamite language is monosyllabic. It is evidently derived 
from the Chinese. The written language has not merely some af- 
fioity to the Chinese character, but it borrows it in whole or in 
in paK. However, these two languages have become so different, 
that persons of the two nations cannot understand each other in 
speaking or in readings All those who are in circumstances at all 
easy, or who aspire to dignities, devote themselves to the study of 
Chinese characters, which they pronounce in the Cochin Chinese 
manner. This study is necessary, because these characters are the 
only ones employed In^most books, and in all official letters. There 
are general examinations in which those who obtain the first places are 
elevated to the dignities reserved for the lettered mandarins. This 
is a powerful stimulus to the ardour of the students. They are 
able in writing these characters (and it is the only means) to make 
fhemselves understood by the learned Chinese. Thus the learned 
language in Cochin Chinese is nothing else than the Chinese langu- 
age. The only difference consists in the pronunciation. The vul- 
gar language was only from the first a dialect, which they never 
wrote; but in the end the Cochin Chinese, having acquired an im- 
posing nationalKy, the common language became of importance, and 
they sought the means of writing it. They had recourse to Chinese 
letters, the only ones they knew. Sometimes they have only taken 
Ibe pronounciation of the Chinese character and have attached to it 
a totally different signification: thus, they have written {ZT^^ ^^^ 


ihey proDOonced cha^ and which signifies father; but in Chinese the 
same character cha signifies to put (me$elf%nt9 a pasaian. On th« 
other bandy they have united many characters of which one signifies 

the sense, and the other the pronunciation. Thus they write i^fjjli^ 

mi^gfthe mouth. The first character y^ means the sense, the 

mouthy and the second YJTJ minh indicates the pronunciation. 

Thtf manner of writing the vulgar language has nVgenerally adopt* 
ed form. Many persons write the same word differently, and 
many characters are purely arbitrary. There are needed to fix ths 
orthography of this vulgar language learned books written in it; 
hot these are as yet wanting. There have only been written in 
this Unguage our books of religion; many comedies and some 
poems; the learned men not being fond of reading works writ- 
ten in such a patois. They find that this writing does not ex- 
press the thoughts clearly. We have adopted a plan of writing this 
language with our European letters, as has been done for the Malay 
language : we have succeeded in representing the sound of words 
very exactly. This mudi facilitates our study of the language. This 
language is not confined to the limits of Cochin China and Tong- 
king, but is very commonly spoken and understood in Ciampa, 
Camboja, at Siam and in Laos. >ye find the sound of all our 
letters in this language, except the letter Z, and the letter P at the 
commencement of words; but they have therph and the p finat 
as in the word bap. If they have not exactly our letter F, they 
have the ph^ which has nearly the same sound. 

In this language, as in aU others, they have proper names, and com*- 
men names, oden in order to form a substantive they add the 
word att, which signifies thing, to the adjective or verb : thus lanh 
means good; 9u lanh signifies goodness. The adjective is ordina- 
nly pat after the substantive : e. g. nha means a house, and t6t 
means fine; they thus say nha tdt^ a fine house. The comparative 
is formed by joining the word hon; thus tSt hon means better; for 
the superlative they add lam or rdt; e. g. tdt lam^ rdt tdt si^ 
nify very fine. 

Tlus language has not exactly gender, number or case; they 
can express them, however, by means of some auxiliary words. 
Thus to express the difference of sexes thev use for the human 


Species, the word iraij for masculine; and the word^at for fe- 
minine : for animals the word dt$c indicates the male, the word ctu 
the female, c. g. bo due, an ox, bo cat a cow; for winged ani- 
mals, they employ the words trdnff and maty ga trdnff a cock, 
ga mai^ a hen. Before the names of living things tbey ordioanly 
put the word con (boy or girl) : thus tbey say, eon trai^ a boj ; con 
gai a girl; con irau^ a bufTaloe; con ca^ a fish. They aFso fre- 
quently use the Arord eai before the names of roanimate tbioss; 
thus they will say eai gM a seat; eai nka a house. Tbey ttsn- 
ally place the word e&y^ tree, before all the names of trees, and (ho 
word trai^ fruit, before all the names of fruits. 

To mark the plural, they add some word before the 9id>stan- 
ttve as eJmngy nhung, eac, ph6 Ac. — ^We, £hung tdi; Afl those 
who, nkimg ke ; Messieurs, ph6 6ng^ Ac. 

The nominative always precedes the verb active. When two sub- 
stantives follow one another, the second is in the genitive. The dative 
is ordinarily marked by the word eho placed before the sabstaotive, 
e. g. to do something to some one, lam 9u gi eho oL The accusative 
generally follows the verb active, sometimes also it precedes it,— 
there is no fixed rule. The vocative is expressed by putting before 
substantive (be particles 6, a, or in exfvessing the tiQe of the 
person whom they name: — O my God, 6 chua tA. The abla- 
tive is denoted by some prepositions, as bang boi. 

The personal pronouns are, t6ij rndg, no; me, tbon, Urn; 
and in the plural, chung tdiy ehung bay, ckung n6, we, you, 
they* It is to be observed, however, that scarcely any bul inferi- 
or persons use the word t6i^ iae; the king uses the word /(!b*m, 
and others who are superiors in dignity use (he words ; /oo, to, 
mtfk Mdy, toi, they do not address except to inferiors ; if tbey 
speak to an equal, they will call him anA, brother; to a superior 
they wiU say dng^ sir, or they will employ another titular word. 
They also rarely say no, of the third person ; this would be a (erni 
of contempt, unless tbey were very much superior in rankf tbey 
will say rather this Mr. (Monsieur); ngnoi dg this person, or as 
well anh dy this brother. 

Personal pronouns placed after substantives become possessive 
pronouns; nha t6i, my bouse. The demonstrative pronou&s ve 
ndy, and dy^ this, that. 



Tbey only di^nguish three ^tenses ia the verbs^ 4be present, tbt 
preterite, an^ the future. Thus mSn^ means to love; t6i nUn^ 
sipiifies I love; M da mSuj I have lo?ed, they thus for m the pre*** 
terke by adding dM* Tbey add se ior the future:: t4i ie mSn I wif 
<or shall love. 

The Anamite language being monosyllabic, it fellows that there 
ds small variety in the sound of words, and that the same word 
hai often « gresit number of signiGcalions. *The difference 6t 
'Sense then is made evident by the difference of tone. Thus the 
word ma can have at least six different significations, according as ft 
is differently pronounced^ for they can pronounce it in six differeift 
tones which we indicate by marks, ikfa pronounced in a full tone^ 
recto tono, signifies phantom 4 if the tone is descending, raa signi^ 
ties but; if 4betone is grave or heavy, ma signifies to gild'; if the 
tone is falling, ma means a horse; in the interrogating tone ma 
means a tomb ; in the sharp tone md signiOes the cheek. We can 
represent these tones 1^ musical notes. The full tone answers ve^ 
ry well to sol from below; the descending tone to mi from b^- 
low; the heavy tone to ui^ from below; the falling tone to /a; the 
interrogating tone to si natural; and the sharp tone to ui from 
above. We can write these tones in the two following manners. 



Ma m^ 













Ha mk iBft ma tna ma 

The tone varies a liltle in the different provinces. There is 
^Iso some difference between the pronunciation of Tong king and 
tliat of Cochin China, but this difference is not so essential that 
we cannot understand them well. Only some words used in the 
northern provinces are not used in those of the south and vice 


The Cochin Chinese are generally much addicted to religious 
practices. The Pagans have absolutely the same religion as Uie 


Chinese. The learned men honor Confucias and have a sort of 
natural religion which they do not observe. The religion ofFo, 
i^hich they call Ph4t, is the raost generally followed by the peo- 
ple. The christian religion was first preached in this counUry by 
Franciscan and Jesuit friars, about the middle of the 17th cen- 
tury. They found among the Cochin Chinese an admirable dis- 
position to embrace the christian religion. With the good sense 
^ith which they generally arc gifted, they easily understood the 
Tanity of idols and the solid proofs upon which our Holy Reli- 
gion is established. Thus these first missionaries baptised many 
neophytes and founded numerous churches. But soon it was seen 
that something was wanting to their rising church. There were 
neitlier first Pastor at the head of the flock, nor native clergy to 
fill the room of European missionaries, when these were taken off 
by death or condemned to silence by persecution. It was then that 
in Paris the congregation called ^^Les Mission Etrang^rcs '* was, un- 
der the auspices of the head of the Church, formed to supply 
Bishops to govern these new churches and provide them with evan- 
gelical labourers. Having reached these countries, our first Bishops, 
Vicars apostolic, formed establishments to teach and exercise to the 
funclions of the sacred ministry a few students whom they judged 
sufficiently able. They and tlieir successors have thus worked in 
spreading Christianity in Cochin China and Tong King for the 
space of about ISO years. They have succeeded in forming a na* 
tional clergy who are of great assistance, especially during the 
persecutions, when £uropean Missionaries cannot show them- 

We have iu Cochin China proper 40 Priests and a great number 
of Catechists and Ecclesiastical students. The Mission of Tong King 
is divided into t fo parts, one of which is entrusted to the Missiona- 
ries of our congregation. It has 80 Native Priests and innumerable 
Catechists. The other administered by Spanish Dominicans is Jess 
Icnown to me ; yet I am aware that it possesses a great many Priests 
full of zeal. 

The number of Christians in Cochin China proper amounts to 
80,000 ; in the occidental Mission of Tong King to 180,000, and ia 
the oriental one to nearly the same number. Tims in the whole King- 
dom there are at lea^t UOjOQO Christians, ^ince ihe beginning Qi 

Details abspecting cochiv china. U7 

Uie last PerseciHiony however violent it has been, the number of 
Christians has not diminished : it has even increased in many places^ 
We hope that the blood of martyrs, which has lately watered this 
coanlry, will be a ^^new seed of Christians." Hence we have at this 
Tery time the consolation to see Pagans coming in crowds to rcceivo 
the iostractions which wc give them secretly. The Church of Christ 
has been formed in Europe in the midst of Persecution; the ways 
of Providence are at all times the same; thus it is formed in these 
Countries in spite of the persecutions of the Princes of the world^ 
that every one may say: " There is the finger of God." 


In 1583 Father Bartholomew Ruiz, a Spanish Franciscan, reached 
Cochin China with seven other friars at ^^Fai Fo" close to Touron : 
he was welcomed and the holy sacrifice of the mass was there 
offered op with great solemnity. They wanted nothing more but 
the permission of the King to remain in the country : which seemed 
to be without difficulty. But contrary winds prevented these friars 
from reaching the capital ; they were driven by a hurricane to the 
Island of Hai Nam and returned to Manila. Father Ruiz went, 
back to Cochin China at the beginning of 1584 and called on the 
King who gave him leave to remain in the country. 

The Chronicles of the order say that he wrought many miracles 
and converted many proselytes; but he was soon caught and 
brought to Hacoa by the Portuguese, who even at that early time 
imagined they had alone the right to send Missionaries to the 
East Indies, in virtue of what they call ^^Real Patroado" or Royal 

It was about the year 1615 that Portuguese Jesuits and Spanish 
Franciscans* went in numbers to preach the gospel in Cochin China^ 
and from this time only dales the establishment of the Chrbtian 
religion m that country. 

In 1638 two French Priests, the Revd. Messrs. de la Mothe 
Lambert and Pallu were appointed Bishops, Vicars Apostolic, the 
ooc for Cochin China and the other for Tong King. The former 
left France in 1660 vii overland and reached Siam in 1662, 
from whence he sent one of his Missionaries, the Revd. M. Chev- 
rcoil, to Cochia Clyna: this gentleman was aoon succeeded by 


another, the Revdi Bf. Rainqaetr lastly ia 1671 Ifgr De La Ifotfie 
Kambert went himself tor exerdse his zed iiy his Uissioo. 

The Rerd. M; Deydier is the first French Ifissionarf who reachetf 
Tong King in 1666. Since thaH time down ta oar days, there have 
Been in Cochin China 16Kshops and 80 FVeneh Ifissionaries, and 
in Tong King 17 Bishops and 47 French Mbsionaies, all mem- 
bers of the Society called ^^Les Ussions Etrang6res." Their unnn 
ferrupted labom-s have raised these HSssions ta the fiourishiDg state- 
in which they are today.^ 




JSiskop of htmrap&Rs and Vicar Apoitolic of Lower Coddn China 


Ov the 23rd of Msy, 1846, the Revd. M. Dudos and myself bade 

adieo to our oonfir^r^ at Singapore, and sailed for Cochin China ov 

board a large hool whidi I had tw9 years previously caused to her 

built. The crew were an christians. TheNakodahornayigatxM'of the 

boat called Gfim, aged idbont 32 years,, was a nnn bold and ready to» 

undertake erery thing, even at the risk of his life, forthe service of tlie* 

aoiasron. He bad six hands on board ; I had besides three students,. 

who had been sent to our college at Pula Finang f a large quantity of 

fitores and a smn of money, tlie amount of the aims from the assodo- 

ef the Phipagadon of the Faith. The voyage was rather a dangerous 

<«€, owing to our light boat ; we bad a few strDng' squalls and were 

punoed, for four days, by a Chinese Junk, wfaidt seemed to be man* 

ned by Pirates. The Cochin Chinese boats lay doser to the windr 

than the Chinese Junks^ and this \s what saved us. On the 6th. June, 

we were off the Cape of St. James called Con gio, A contrary wind 

innevented us from entering (Ms port during the night of the 6th. — 

we spent the 7tli. day in keeping off and on dose to the port, and the 

night being ODme^ we run the risk of passing the Custom House. Cir- 

cuBtttances were myt fiivoroble : the wind was still contrary; the tide 

was low and our way was protracted : yet we had passed the Custom 

House and tixiught ourselves out of dai^per, when we saw a boat at 

andior on the right ode of the river. She was, as we suspected, a 

Custom House boat on watch ; we tried to avoid her by going to the 

opposite side r but she saw us through the light of the moon, which 

then shone brigfaHy, and pursued us by pulling after us in a snudl 

boat, whidi soon overtook us» Five soldiers, who acted as Custons 

House officers, came on board, M. Dudos^ and mysdf were shut up 

So the bottom of the boat* The light was ordered Mid the boat vbit- 

ed. It was soonimown by the sails and the masta that the boat had 

come from £Rngapore, and the Nakoddt was obliged to admowledge 

what be oould not deny. *^This boat comes from l^ngapore," sdd 

the Custom House Officers ; ''acknowledge also that she has on board 

^ C%»iefe"»«-this is a way of speaking to ^;nify '' Opium", because 


the Chinese usually import It into Cochin China, and almost all the 
Cochin Chinese boats, which gfo to Singapore, retuin loaded whh th€ 
dru*^. W% feared not to he aiTested on account of this fraudulent 
trade ; but we were oiu^elyes *^ contraband'*, and, looking' for opium, 
they finally foimd our hiding place. In spite of the night and our 
Testmentsi in every thing like tliose of the coimtry, we were easily 
known as Europeans, so easily that I have always believed that infor- 
mation of our coming had been given to the Custom House by the 
Nakodah of the Chinese Junk, which reached this port two days be- 
fore, and also was coming from Singfapore, as I have learnt since. 
The * Custom House officers said that they watched tlie port more 
strictly than usual for two days and ^ited all the boats, which pass- 
ed by, because the king had lately published a decree to this etfect. 
Afterwards they also gave as a reason that some Chinese haidng a law 
suit on account of opium, which tiiey had succeeded in pasnng, tfaey 
were afraid lest they should be blamed for not having been more cau- 
tious ; but I think that they hid from us the true reason. Be this as 
it may— our capture was effected : wliich divine ProWdence had or- 
dered or permitted ; but being caught, we had to submit to all the 
consequences thereof. Our people tried to redeem us with money. 
After some difficulty the band of soldiers received a few silver bars 
and consented to withdraw. We were a little hopeful and contmued 
our way stiU slowly, the wind being contrary and the tide not serving* 
At day break the fatal boat reappeared; the five men came up again 
and returned our money, saying that they could not settle an affiur of 
this importance, and that we should go to the head of the Custom House 
and settle with lum ; that they themselves beipg simple soldiers dared 
not and could not take upon themselves the responsibility vnth which 
they would be loaded, in case it should be known that they had let us 
]>a8s. A large amount of money was offered them, but withmit suc- 
cess. They declared that they would not leave our boat until they 
had brought us to the Custom House. It appears that they had aK 
ready informed the head of " the Custom House" of all t^e partiru- 
lafs, and that he had sent them in search of us with orders to bring 
us without delay. He was a man lately raised to the office of Cap- 
tain and put in charge of this Custom House : he was timorous and 
feared above all to lose his situation, should he act too lemently towards 
us. We had only to expect severity from him. He called our Pilot, 
loaded him with a Cangue, came to visit a portion of our baggage, 
and refused every offer we made him. He ordered lus soldiers to 
k^ep us securdy, wlule he despatched the news of our arreat Uy the 


|rreat J^Iuidaiin of the Province. We trere distant from him two 
days' journey by the river : we were ourselves soon sent to the capi- 
tal of this Produce, called '* Gia dinh". It is the most considerable 
Province of this portion known under the name of Lower Cochin 
China or '* Dong Noi". Here is tlie town of Lai Gou, formerly 
built a little in the European style ; but it was destroyed when taken 
by the rebels in 1835 : it has been rebuilt, but most wretchedly. It 
seems that the great Mandarin of the Province was not an enemy to 
the christian religion, and that our arrest caitsed him more grief than 
pleasure. He had often been at Singapore and Batavia, and seen 
tiiere the Europeans living in a grand style and conceived a high idea of 
them. He was one of those Pilates of whom Cochin China is fiill : 
when missionaries are delivered over to them, they judge and con* 
demn them, whilst at the same time acknowledging and proclainodng 
their innocence. They always have in their minds : ''If thou wilt let 
him go, thou are not the friend of Cscsar." As to the kbig, he is a 
Pharaoh who fears lest cluistiaiis multiply themselves in his kingdom, 
and that in case of war with European powers, they join his enemies. 
In consequence he doen not spare them his vexations. In regard to 
missionaries he says : if we leave them quiet and free, all will go af- 
ter them and embrace their religion; then the Europeans will come 
and take possession of our country, as they have done in other places. 
*^ £t venient Ronumi et toUent nostnun locum et gentem." Ming 
Menli added as Caiphas ; it is better to put them to death than to see 
all the nation perish : *' Expedit ut unus homo moriatur et non tota 
gens pereat." His son and successor, more timorous, fears lest tlie 
death of a missionary, being known to the Princes of Europe, may 
hasten his ruin ; he does not then put them to death ; but he vents 
lus anger upon his subjects, who introduce them into the country or 
conceal them. He still lets tlie severe edicts issued against Europeans 
mhsas^ and he would that people should think tlrnt he mitigates them 
only through an effort of liis royal clemency. These brief observa- 
tions will be of some use ui explauiing the conduct of the Mandarins 
and of the Idng on our trial. I continue my narration. 

I must say to the praise of the great Mandarin of '' Gi& dinh" that 
he treated us as leniently as he could. As soon as he learnt tliat our 
boat was arrested, he sent his Secretrarics to take in writing our de- 
chrationa to dispatch them to the king. This spared us the trouble 
of appearing before his tribunal and of being obliged to answer a mul* 
titude of intricate questions and of suffering the tortures these ques* 
tions usually draw after them. We declared that we came from Sin- 

122 NAmmATiTB ov the micnr mKvo. lb fivek. 

)Cap«re ta f reach tlie tnie Re&gioii, tliit we had reaMn to befieva 
that it was no mere prahibited in Cochin China, aa it was allowed in 
Chin by a public Edict of the Emperor, and thb Edict had lieeii sent 
by him to the king of Cochin China, wlio is his TasBaL We nid 
what we liked : the whole was written without ififficalty and the dis- 
patch was forwarded to the capitaL We were brought with our bi^- 
gage, in the midst of a multitade of curious persons, to the house 
destined for Mandarins when travelling. The Pilot and die crew of 
our boat were pot in another prison ; we could nerer communicate 
with them. No one was allowed to approach us, and tiie christians 
cspedaDy were strictly prohibited, — then a great fear was spread 
among them : they had reasons to fear the Tcxation of the Manda^ 
rins, being suspected to have called us to them. Often spies hare 
been sent to examine whether some movement was discovered among 
them ; but this had no ill consequences : nothing could be made out 
that might compromise any one. We feared above all for the Revd. 
Af • M iche, who had retired to ^' Lai Thien" in the same Province : 
he had some sudden fears, but I think that he is left more quiet since 
sny departure. 

On the 21st of June the Revd. M. Duclos was attacked by a fe- 
ver which soon caused alarm. I had few European medidnes ; I 
Ind then re^Sourse to those of the country. The great Mandarin, 
who always seemed to take an interest in us, gave orders that medi« 
cines of all descriptions I might require, should be supplied. He 
would not allow the Physicians of the country to attend on my *' con- 
frere." In vain i observed that I was not acquainted with medi- 
cines, especially Chinese ; I was obliged to act as if I had been. I 
only used a few plauts of which I knew the virtue and efl&cacy in si- 
inilar complaints. But the Revd. M. Dudos' complauit was of a 
nature not to yield even to the best remedies. To the dysentary was 
fioon added a sort of brain fever and I saw that there was no hope. 
I then warned him to prepare himself for the great passage from life 
to eternity ; which warning he received with joy. All his life had 
been a preparation for death, and he could not meet a better c^por- 
timtty to appear before God than the moment in which he was a pri- 
soner for the faith. He joined me in reciting the prayers of the dying 
and gave up his soul to God on the 17th July. One may easily 
conceive how painful it was to me to see ray companion in captivity 
taken away from me, he who had been my fellow student in the Uni- 
versity, and who promised to be an indefatigable labourer for the mis- 
juon of Cochui China, to which he liad devoted all his affections* 


But God has disposed otherwise : let his Holy name be blessed for 

The ma^iiiceiit monument King Gia Long ordered to be erected 
for the Right Revd. Dr. Pigneaux, Bishop of Adran, stall exists, though 
now there b no watch over it as formerly : it is not far from the 
Town of Sid Gon. I asked that my friend should be interred in the 
inside of this Monimient. The great mandarin granted my request. 
The services which were formerly rendered by a Frenchman to King 
*' Gia Long" were remembered with pleasure. It was indeed a strik- 
ing contrast to see the grandson of this Prince sentencing to the 
chain two otiier Frenchman animated with the same spirit as Mgr. d' 
Adran. Several mandarins mourned it ; for the King's edict had just 
arrived and it appeared that M. Duclos and myself were to be brought 
to the C!4)ital fettered with chsuns by the neck*, and judged according to 
the laws. I then hastened to render the last duties to my "confrere*' 
and they allowed me liberty enough to effect this. I adorned the 
corpse With all the sacerdotal vestments, and It was placed in a beau- 
^l coCRn and borne to the grave by a band of soldiers. 

As soon as tlie Revd. M. Dudos' funeral was over, they thouglit 
of forging irons for me and sending me by boat to tiie Ci^itaL with 
all my baggage. I left Sai Gon on the 20th. July, being led by two 
Captains and a band of soldiers. Our voyage, which lasted fifteen days, 
was fflgnalizcd by no extraordinary event. I was not inhumaly treat- 
ed by my conductors. Tlie European has something that commands 
respect from the people of this country. They generally excuse 
themselves for being compelled to execute the orders of the King in 
what is disagreeable to us. 

On the 6th. August I wtis led to tlie Tribunal of the Tortures. 
Up to this moment I Imd avoided to make myself known as the man 
who had been formerly brought before the law, then sentenced and 
repreived in the preceding year. I feared a little the moment when 
I would be obliged to appear before my former judges and be infattibly 
recognized. True, on my arrival several persons cried out ; ** He is 
the man we saw last year^' — others doubted about it : for, having 
cropped my beard, my features appeared different. To let them 
remain in perplexity, I -gave them only evasive answers. "Think 
well about it," said I, " all the Europeans are like each other more 
or less : those who are not accustomed to see them, may easily eon- 
found them. Tf you all say that I am he who appeared here last, in 
*" vain would I deny it, you would not believe me : exanune and de- 
" cidc the question.''— In the preceduig year, I had only declared 


toy christian name ; and tliia year I ^ve my surname : this was a 
new diffirulty wliich they coald not solve. ITicy insisted on my con- 
fessing^ the truth, and to excite me with more efficacy to do so, they 
promised to release me^ All these reasons had little effect on me : the 
JMandarins were to order that all the persons who had seen roe of- 
tene:$t and my former compaiuons in captivity shoidd be sent for, to 
ajicertaui whether they could recognize me. Being unwilling to ex- 
cite uselessly too great a commotion, I clearly acknowledged that X 
was tlie man of last year, and that I would unreluctontly mibmit to 
the penalfy reserved for those taken again in the same ^It. The 
king was soon informed of this fact. IFe fell into a violent passion 
on heariBg* it -^ " What does he come to do here ?" he cried : '* let 
him be asked whether lie has parents at Sai Gon whom he comes ta 
visit and let his head be cut off." This was said at the first more- 
inent ; for on the following day he gave his orders in writing, and he 
let it be understood that his intention was that I should not be put 
to deadly yet tlie Mandarins were ordered to meet in a solemn audi- 
ence to address me a few questions. The first and the most often 
repeated was this : ** why, after having been last year reprieved by 
*^ the long from the penalty of death, have you still dared to come to* 
this country ?" I then remembered the answer formerly given by 
the Apostles, when after having been arrested by the Jews, it was 
told them : had we not forbidden you to preach tliis religion ? *' Tbe 
Xiord of Heaven," siud I to them, '* commands to preach the true Re- 
ligion In all the countries of the world : wherefore in spite of menV 
prohibition, I was bound in consdence to come back to teach it, — 
*' besides," I added, "I had reasons to believe that it wamo more pro- 
liibited liere* It was indeed formerly prohibited, when it was be- 
lieved that the ministers of relig^oQ plucked out the eyes of tiie dy- 
ing persons and many other simihir calumnies ; but now the tnith 
is known, — ^no one gives any more credit to all the infamous reports 
spread against the missionaries. Thus in China the public exer- 
*^ CISC of the christian religion has been allowed, and the Emperor's 
*' intention H that it should be likewise aDowed in all the comitri<> 
'* tributary to Cluna; having sent them the Edict relating thereto : it 
*' is astonishing that here you do not conform to it." The Manda- 
rins interrupted me saying : *^ Why did you not go to China suice 
you knew that the Catliolic religion was allowed there ?" " I M 
a special affection for the christians and even the pagans of tlii» 
*< kingdoni, knowing their language and customs, and besides I had s 
^ special mission for this country." " Has some one obDged yoa to 






**come back?" ** No : I have come through my own will." •' Doe<5 
the kin|f of France send you ?" "No : he only aflows me to go whi- 
ther I like." " Has he been informed that you had heen released 
last year ?" Yes : hecause one of his vessels has come to claim me 
** — I have heard say that he rejoiced -on account of my happy 
** release." " Does he know that you have come back ?" " Not 
"yet: bnt he shall know it." " How?" " My aiTCst will become. 
" public, the Journals will mention it, and all the people in Europe 
**will know it." *' Let him be tied up by the sticks," swd the 
** great Mandarin, in n tone rather timorous: thi*ee sticks were 
brought in, one to tie up both hands togetlier, and the others to 
fie both feet separately. It is in this way that all the criminals are 
tied up when they are wider exammation and the lashings of the 
bamboo. I was thus tied and prostrated to the ground ready to re- 
reive the lashing. A soldier held in his hands the bamboo, while 
tlte interrogation was continued. "You are going to Sai Goni 
to which village and to which house are you going?" " I had no 
determined post : having reached christian villages, I would have 
stopped in the house whose owner woukl have consented to harbour 
rae." Who has g^ven you the mOney which you carry along with 
you ?" ** The christians of Europe who send alms to relieve the 
misery of liie christians of these countries ; for religion teaches thus 
to exercise charity towards eveiy one, and to consider all men of all 
countries as brethren whom we ought to love and relieve." " You 
'* do not then fear lest you may be put to death ?" " I would fear to 
'* suffer deatii as a malefactor ; but to die for the sake of the tnie re- 
*' ligion, this is rather to be looked for than to be feared." " But sec 
" the evil yon cause : the Pilot of your boat will be put to death : all 
*' the crew will likewise suffer death." " Let those who put them to 
^ death assume the responsibility thereof. I come hither only with 
**" the view to do good : is it I that shall sign their sentence or cut off 
** their heads ?" They came again to the first question: " With what 
" view have you come back again ?" " I have already told it to you : 
*' I do not undei'stand why you are reiterating these questions." I 
then raised my head to look at the Mandarins^ faces, and read in their 
^yes that they suspected me to have come to excite some rebeUiou 
among the chrbtians and perluips to prepare the way for an army of 
Europeans. Then I loudly said^ " I have not come liitlier to make 
" a war or exeit^ the people to an insurrection : I have neither the 
^ will nor the power to do so. I have studied religion from my in- 
'* fancy, and during all my life I have been occupied with religious af- 



** fairs : I know nothing else, and am not aGquainted with worldly af- 
*^ fiidrs, — surely if you had known me better you would not have had 
such strange tlwughts about me." Tliis reason appeared to sa^y 
them, and they said one to onother : *' He has come to teach reli- 
gion." They ordered we to be loosened and seated at a respectable 
ditance, while they continued putting many questions, but less im- 
portant and urgent. I cannot remember them all : true they are al- 
most similar to those mentioned above ; — fatigued by so many ques- 
tions, I felt quite weak and begged leave to withdraw. Then the 
Mandarins went to take my answers to the king who was, it appears, 
satisfied ndth them. I have never been ill treated since. 

In the fear lest a European vessel should soon come to ask my 
release and tliat of the men of my boat, the Ring ordered that my 
cause should be terminated witliin fifteen days : otherwise it would 
liave lasted at least three months. After having heard and examined 
superficially my depositions, they hastened to pass the sentence. It 
was excessively severe, and yet in accordance with the laws of tlie 
Country. We were all to have our heads cut off without any delay. 
The King confirmed it only wiUi regard to the pilot : but as to me 
and the crew we were reprieved imtil further orders, tliat is we 
were not to be put to death. According to the sentence issued by the 
Mandarins, all that belonged or was thought to belong to me, was to 
be confiscated for the Royal Treasury, but the King dared not admit 
such a clause. He knew well that he would be, on some future day, 
obliged to return every thing willingly .or by force : he then ordered 
that all my property should be carefully kept, and that ten doUars 
should be given me monthly, out of my own money, for my food and 
other expences : which was duly executed until my departure for 

We owe tills caution and royal clemency to the Captains of the 
French Navy, who have come to Touron to clum the Missionaries 
who had been incarcerated, and espedally to Admiral Cedlle, by 
whom they were sent. 

£v» (T IsauropolU Fic^ Apas. de la Cock. Occident 




A WORK recently appeared in Holland under the title of ** Coup 
d^Oeil General sur les Possessions Neerlandsdses dans 1* Inde Archi« 
pelagique," and as the drcumstances under which it has been written, 
no less than its own merits, giye it an unusual claim to attention, we 
shall lajr tiie more important portions of its contents before our rea- 
ders. It may be received as containing that view of the policy pur- 
sued by Holland in her eastern empire which her government is de- 
sirous of impressing on the world. The author (M. Temminck, Di- 
rector of the Royal Museum of Natural History at Leyden and a 
distinguished naturalist) states in his preface that a large proportion 
of the facts contained in the work have been derived from offidal 
documents, to wliich he had recdved access from the Minister of Co- 
lonies ; and from the manner in which he alludes to the strictures of 
the English, German and French presses on the colonial policy of 
tiie Netherlands, and particulariy to what he terms the diatribes of 
Raffles, Crawfurd and the Singapore newspapers, there can be little 
doubt that the Coup d'Oeil has been compiled with the concurrence 
of tiie government, and is intended as a vindication of tiiat policy. 
What confirms the surmise is the fact that the book was advertized in 
May last in the Javiuche Courant (the only newspaper that is pub- 
lished in Netherlands India, and, it is hardly necessary to add, an 
offidal one) and' the attention of the public dh-ectcd to it, by the Ge- 
neral Secretary to Government. 

Although we are very far from approving of many of the features 
of the policy which M. Temnunck seeks to justify, we deem it just 
not to mar the effect of his vindication by any running comment. 

The first chapter is a precis of tiie modem history of Java. As a 
connderable portion of the facts contiuncd in it are already before 
the English reader, in the works of Sir S. Raffles and Mr. Crawfurd, 
we shall pass at once to the more novel and interesting contents of 
chapter 2nd. 


After numerous essays, more or less happily combined the one 
than the other, our government lias been convinced that a nation can- 
not hope to be truly prosperous and powerful, unless her inferior 
trhsses are happy, and have enough of work and the means of provid* 

128 rzyiMisciCs generai:< view of the dutch 

lag for their chief wants ; for, on the fulfilment of these conditions 
depends the duration of its greatness ; in short that the empire of Hol- 
land could not be solidly maintained in its vast possessions, without 
the attachment which the nadve population bear towards their Euro- 
pean masters. So, we now see goveniraent adopt a system of culture* 
and a manner of levying direct and indirect, taxes, as appropriate to the 
state of dvilization in which the Javanese are found, to their customs 
or hadhat^ * and to the wants of the population, as all these essays 
successively ttied have been able to indicate. The surest means of 
firmly establishing our power in these beautiful countries, formerly 
exposed to so many murderous wars, and a most revolting despotism, 
is to render tlie population more active, less given up to that m- 
dolence, the result of the slavish condition in whicli the native chiefs 
formerly held them ; above all to increase their well being by agri- 
cultural industry, while respecting their customs, and muntaining 
their usages. By adopting these rules of conduct as the basis of its 
administrative system hi the Indian Archipelago, government will see 
prosperity extending every where throughout its wide dominions, and 
the wellbelng of many millions of iidiabitaiits will be to it a pledge 
iif their fidelity. 

And, in what other maimer and by uiiat otlier means, can a small 
European state, which scarcely reckons three millions of inhabitants, 
nourish the hope of excrdsing its predominant influence, and succeed 
in firmly establishing its power, over this immense eastern population, 
t)f which the entire amount of aU the ishmds covered by its flag pro- 
bably reaches to twenty five millions of souls, and where the number 
of the inhabitants of the metropolitan countiy alone, the blands of Java 

* Hadhaty according to the Javanese proDaneiation, is a word of Arabic 
t^rigin, adat, which signifies, usage, custom, institution : See S. Muller^ 
JBijdragen tot de kennis van Sumatra p. 1 14. We preserve in this work 
the original ortliograpby^ generally employed in ofliciat documents. The 
Badhat or adat are the unwritten laws which the Javanese possess by tra- 
dition. They are the customs of their ancestors, transmitted from father 
to son, or ratlier the old regulations of sovereigns which have acqaired the 
force oflaw, and which like every thing that is ancient, inspire the highest 
veneration in the people. All that has reference to the ceremonial of the 
Courts of Surakarta and DJokJokarta is regulated by the adat. These an- 
cient costoms are observed with the same punctuality, and followed with 
the same rigour, at the Court as in the meanest village. Adat holds the 
{)lace of faadamental law with the Javanese ; not to conform to it is to fail 
towards that which is the most sacred, and the most generally revered* 
M. de Steurs tells us, relative to this veneration or the Javanese for his 
adaty that a Malay manuscript contains these remarkable words, whitb, 
says he, every Kuropean functionary should have unceasingly present in hia 
memory : if he does not know our adat, he shall be a horror to uf* 

poaszssiossi in the i.noiav archipalago. 129 

and Madura amounts, accx)rding to the most recent census, to more 
tlian nine millions of persons. 

The pag^es which follow will serve to give a clear idea, a simimary 
expos^, of the mstitutions ui vigour In Netherlands India : thoy mil 
be accompanied by the indication of the principal results obtained by 
the new 8)'8tem of cultures. 

The islands of Java and Madura are divided at present into 22 pro- 
vinces or prefectures, known under the names of Reside nciks. 

[See Dr. Bleeker's Contributions to the Statistics of the Popula- 
tion of Java p. J 5 ante, where the names of the Residencies are ^v- 
en ,with the latest census, that for 1845, shewing a population of 
9,542,045 ; being an increase on that for 1838, given by M. Tern* 
mindc, of 1,438,965.] 

We find that the census for 1824 was only 6,368,090 souls ; that 
of 1832 amounted to 7,323,982 ; in 1834 we find 7,51 1,100 ; and in 
1837 the number was 7,981,284 souls. No more recent census 
than that of 1838 (8,103,080 souls) has yet been made. [See the 
table of that of 1845, ante p. 75, shewing the population of each 
Residency, and the numbers of each Race.] 

The population of the town of Batavia, in 1832, was neai-iy 
118,000, and is divided as follows : 

Europeans, 2,800 

Chinese, 25,000 

Natives, 80,000 

Moors and Arabs, 1,000 

Slaves, 9,500 

Batavia, the ancient Jakati*a, upon the banks of the large river of 
Tjiliwung, has always been and continues to be the capital of all the 
possessions of the state. I would not have made special mention of 
it in this work, considering the many good descriptions, published hi 
many languages, of this town and its environs, if I had not to rectify 
the error conmiitted by some French authors, who attribute to Go- 
vernor-General Daendels tlie ruin and the abandonment of this town. 
The fact is, that tfiis abandonment had already commenced before Ms 
time, three fourtlis of the Europeans having quitted the walls of the 
town, to fix themselves in the suburbs, which daily increased and thus 
formed a new town. A part of the officials and of the garrison were 
however obliged to remain in the old town, because the citadel, sitn- 
ated on the south shore of the Sea, was the seat of the central adnii- 
uistration. It was there that the place appropriated for meetings of 
the Council of the Indies was always found, as well as many offices 


and some public institution?, which rendered the preservation of the 
old town necessary. These obstacles were removed by Greneral 
Daendels, who caused the old citadel and the greater part of the edi- 
fices it contained to be demolished, and new public buildings to be 
erected in the extensive suburbs, which now stretch in a radius of bro 
leagues from the old town ; this determined the abandonment of the 
latter as a place of residence. We only now find there the Go- 
vernment and commercial warehouses. A long street contains all 
the oommerdal establishments, such as the bank, and the bonded 
warehouse, the exchange, &c. From 9 in the morning until 4 m 
the afternoon, this street is animated by the presence of a conadera- 
ble crowd, who come to make their purchases and sales. Later, eve- 
ry one returns to his house in the suburbs, and the most profound 
solitude succeeds to the bustling scene of the forenoon. 

Thanks to the sanatory improvements begun by General Daendels, 
neglected by the English, but actively renewed under the administra- 
tion of Baron Van der Capellen, and of his successors, the town of 
Batara, or rather the immense village, which it is usual to call town, 
now ei\)oys a salubrious ur ; in its purified environs the servants of 
the English company come to seek health after a long sojourn in Bri- 
tish India. 

The roads of Batavia are as safe as they are beautiful ; they are 
strewed with a great number of small islands ; the principal is On- 
rust, where are situated the dock yards of the marine ; the others bear 
the names of some towns of Netherlands. 

I do not make special mention of the statistics nor of the chief 
places of the other 21 residencies of the island of Java ; many French 
works may be consulted on tUHe matters. The notices given by M. 
de Baldi in his abridgment of geography, edition of 1844, offer on 
these heads a very exact precis, which he obtained in substance from 
our Minister of Colonies. 

The interior administration of each of the provinces lias preserved, 
as much as could be done, the forms established by the ancient Java- 
nese Sovereigns. 

The villages (^desa^ more coxrectly dhdso) are administered by a 
chief, assisted by a municipal council, composed of the oldest and 
more respectable of the inhalxtants.^ The commune has the power 
of electing its chief, subject to the approbation of the superior autho- 
rity. Tiie chiefs of communes fPetinggi or Bckel) are m direct 
connexion with the cliicfs of arrondUscnient (DheinangJ, la mose 
parts of the island, a certain number of villages form a division of the 


itrrMdiuememij and in this case the communicadons take place thro* 
the chief of the piindpal village, who then takes the title of Panna- 
toes or centurion. This mode is, however, entirely^ spontaneous on 
the part of the natives ; it is tolerated but not authorized by govern- 

A deCem^nate number of ddefe of arrondissement (Dhemang), are 
Adject to a regent or superiOT chief (jidhipaHJ^ who is the highest 
of the Javanese adnunistradve lilerarchy. The territory over which 
the authority of a regent extends is knoMm under the offidal name of 
ref^ency (KabupatinJ, and the regents bear the titles of Pangerttn; 
AihipaU or Toemenggoengy according to the importance of thdr func-* 
tkms, or according to the services which they have rendered ; the title 
of PgHgenm or Prince is g^ven to a regent of high birth. The re- 
gent 18 excluded from all participation in the financial administration ; 
hut he is the mainspring in all that has relation to the cultures, to the 
{Mliea as well administrative as judicial, and generally in all that can 
reUte to the well bdng of the natives, whom he is charged to repre- 
sent with the government. 

ITie regencies fKabupatAnJ are formed, almost without exception^' 
of the territorial divisions formerly prevailing hi the countty. The 
nonunation to regendes, although revocable (the government reserv- 
ing to itself the right of changing and suspending) is almost without 
exception nearly hereditary. This custom is followed with the dou- 
ble end of attaching the Javanese aristocracy to government, and to^ 
distob as little as posdble the order established hi the Merardiy con- 
Becrated by the adai* In this important diarge, the son, if he ha» 
the requiate capacity and qualities, usually sucxseeds to the fother« 
In definilt of male duldren a fit chmce is made amongst the other 
members of the family ; and it is only in default of a collateral who iff 
competent diat an indiridual belonging to another fiBonily is investecf 
with the vacant regen<^. 

Several of these r^peneies, usually three or four, form a province^ 
* prefecture, or as it is called in Java, a Reiidenee^ placed under the^ 
authority of a European prefect beving the title of Rendent, in 
whose hands all the powers are united. He is asnsted by a secreta- 
ry, and some European officers. He is represented by Assistant Re- 
sidents in localities at a distance from the chief place ; these last are 
nnder the orders of European comptroilers ; all act in concert with 
the Javanese dnefe without shackling the action of tlie native autho* 
rilies as it is established by the government according to adat ; see^ 



lag that the principal tendency is to preserve intact the national in'-> 
stituCions of th^ Javanese. According to this mode the organizatioiF 
of the commune, rarely requires European intervention^ The interii- 
or adittinistration of the village (demj^ the subdivi^oti of the lan^ 
tax fpadje^) and of the personal services required in the puhtie ser- 
vice, arc exclusively confided to these munidpfd aut^rittes. The Eu- 
ropean authority oidy takes cogninnee ki case of complaint or oppo« 
mtion. The chief of the village is at the same time the rec«iver of the 
lancT tax ; he pays his receipts into the hands of Javanese collectore 
who make their returns to the treasury of the province. The tribu- 
nals are, as far as they can be, composed of Javanese, so that th« 
principal interests of the native population are confided to themselves ; 
the European authority only interferes mthra moderating and direct- 
ing pcwer. 

This organization, as simple as efficacrous, is in every point in liar* 
mony with the manners and the institutions of the Javanese, whidr 
renders all recourse to force unnecessary, and which insures the per* 
feet acdon of all the regulations of finance, police and justiceir 

In the provinces of Batavia, Buitenzorg, and Krawang, where the 
public lands have been sold to private persons, the hierarchy above 
described has been obliged" ttr be modified. The Javanese aristocracy 
and the municipal institutions have there disappeared under the irri* 
sistible influence of the interest of the great proprietors, the fiscid 
tendency of wliom is not, Hk&that of government, mo^ed-by politi- 
cal conaderations^ of a high ainr. The great proprietor, and' there is 
found amongst them those who possess the* lands of forty thousand- 
Javanese inhabitants, consider the municipal organisation, sudi as the 
government respects, an obstacle ta the fiill use of tiie resources of his- 
territorial possessions and of the profit winch he can draw fWim an off* 
limited management. He admits no- one- intermediately between him 
and his cidtivators. Under such an administration, the villages have 
become simple collections of cultivators no longer enjoying the privi- 
leges of Javanese villages; the village heads have become Hie hired 
servants of the landlord ; the regents or chieft of the district, wliere* 
they have been retained, have descended to the rank of salaried' oiver* 
seers stripped of all prestige. lYi fine the hierarchical chain which links 
tlie two extremities of the primitive Javanese society has disappear* 
ed, and a new state of things has succeeded to it, of whidi tJie good 
result Is very problematical : in as much as the application on a very 
krge sc;jile of the system of selling the kinds of tiie state to Eun^^eauft 


vill undoubtedly excite a genei-al discontent amongst the immense 
JaTiuefle populatioii, above all amongst those classes wJio are at pre- 
sent the most firm supporters of power, and the most devoted auxili- 
aries of the European authonty. 

The institutions and the adats do not in any manner admit of in« 
dividual property in the soiL Each commune possesses, since ancient 
limes, certain portions of ground over which it exercises recognis- 
ed nghts. The members of the commune enjoy these lands by a usu- 
fntctoary title according to the ancient usages of the country ; they pay 
!br thdr use in the produce of the cultivation or in money. The ar- 
tifidal irrigation of those which are destined for the cuitivalion of rice 
by Smeah, having required the nnited efforts of all the inhabitants of 
the village, these lands are considered as common property, certain 
rif^ts ef tiie first clearers excepted. Those rights which are trans- 
■lisffible have a certain determined selling value, and the enjoyment 
i!i subjected to important conditions. The labours for the service, 
whether for the village or the state, foil exclusively upon the posses- 
sors of riee fields which are of a nature to be artificially irrigated. 
When the other inhabitaBts of the village take a part In these la- 
bsurs, wluch is always the case, tliis co-operation is the result of a 
stipulited arrangement according to the custom followed in each lo- 
caht)'. If, for example, a coffee plantation must be established by the 
commune, the tenants of the sawah rice fields are those upon whom 
aoeording to the adat^ fall the obligation of the labours ; but when 
the other inhabitants of the village take a part in them, they are in- 
demdified by the former- 

The privileg<^ of communes and the rights of clearers do not pre- 
vent the sovereign from acting as master of the soil ; if he desires to 
appropriate a part-of the lands of a village, even those which are 
cleared lands, ia order to turn them to some purpose of public utili- 
tj, no one has the right of opposing liim. It is nevei-theless custo- 
mary, and the usage is sanctioned by the adat without which it would 
never be known, that in such case the sovereign grants an indemnity, 
of which the amount is equivalent to the necessary expenses of new 

Under the rule of the native sovereigns the irrigated lands were 
distributed into ijatjak,* literally parcels. The taxes, the public 
f«rvices and the corv^es, rested upon the tenant or the chief of the 

^ The substantive tjatjah is derived from the verb naljah^ to cut iQ, 
jiieres. The average number of a ijatjah is calculated at 2r2 persons. 


parceL Wlien the prince wished to spediy tiie nesouroes of a 
proTinoe, he menttoned the number of tjaijah whidi it ood« 

In the oonne of time the tenants of the regifltered parcels, or as 
they we termed, the duefr of the tjaijah^ sedng thw smaJl domain 
extend itself insenidbly and to augment ttkt number of indindoals 
placed in dependence upon tiiem, t^e reciprocal reladons and rights 
MBomed fixed and legal forms, modified according to local circum* 
stances. Hiese individuals who depended on a tja^ah into which 
they were admitted asosted in cultivating the lands belonging to the 
family, and they were bound to render to the chief a portion, often 
the haH, of the produce ; finally they performed the coro^ with wliich 
the chief of the fiunUy was diarged. 

Notwithstanding tiie moctifications which the progress of agricul- 
tural industry has been able to bring to these primitive institotions, 
and in spite of the very natural tendency of the dependants to free 
themselves from the ties to which 1^^ are subjected, and to aim 
themselves at becoming chiefs of tjatjah, tliia organization of the Ja- 
vanese society is generally maintained and exerdses even at the pre- 
Beot time a pr^ndenUing influence upon tlie relations which esast 
between individuals. 

These details, whidi we could not properly lengthen intfaout de- 
"l^artlng from the design adopted for this work, serve to malce appa- 
rent that it would be very impolitic, and even dangerous for the king*a 
government in India to put itself in direct connection with each of its 

The indiriduaUty of conununes is found to be the only efficadons 
method of counteracting this inconvenience, and the sole means whidi 
we are pemdtted to take not to shock the national prejudices, so 
firmly rooted in the mind of this numerous population. It is also the 
great motive which has served as the frmdamental basis of the system 
at present adopted, and which is found actually in vigour. 

The amount of the land tax is consequentiy fixed by the conununes. 
The amount is not the result of an operation founded on an exact register 
lof lands, but rather of an agreement voluntarily conduded between the 
agent of the treasury and the elders of the commune. This manner of 
aBncfifling the tax is witiiout doubt prejudicial to the king's treasuiy, but 
lie is prudently satisfied with that which he can obtain without too 
much affecting the independence of the viilaj[^e administration, persua* 
ded that this is the national institution t9 which the entire popula* 


• — 
tjoB tttaekes the greatest value. If the State interferes it is through 

^ judicial power ; but it would not wish to act except in cases of 

ddict, consequently in a manner in some sort negative. Let us make 

it our wish that the government of tlie Icing will be led to avert for % 

bng time from these flourishiiig countries a middling revennal spirit, 

and that $he local authorities will never be induced to abandon the 

wise fine oi conduct, followed until now in the financial organiaatioiiy 

and adopted for our possesions in the Indian Archipelago. 

We now demand of the detractors of our colomal institutions, if 
th^ can advance, witli any foundation, that sudi a system of land tax 
merits the name of vexatious ? Is it just to assert tliat tlie Java« 
nese is a slave ; that he labours under the yoke of the oorv^ ; finally 
that he is allowed no part in the direction of the public affiurs ? 

No^ the land tax is not vexatious, but it would run the risk of be* 
coming so, if it had been judged proper to maintain the oipuuzation 
eetablished diuing the English occujiation, and according to the 
principles adopted by Sur Stamford Raffles, who originated the 
regulation of llth February 1814 ; an ordinance, which, wliile lavish* 
log merited eulogiums on the village organization, positively eiy<Nned 
on the officers the introducdon of land registration, and personal as** 
sessment. lliis system caUed ryot-war wttlemeni in Hindoostan, 
there mercilessly exercises its disastrous effects ; in Java it would 
have led infallibly to tlie subverdon of the national institutions, in 
order to repLsce tliem by the system of levelling and pressure 
which is a merited reproach to the English in many parts of the con** 
tment of India; in order to be convinced of this trudi we have only 
to read the claaaiffal work of M. Barchou de Penhoen : L'/ikfe sous la 
domination angUme* 

No, the Javanese is not a slave ; he does not labour under the yoke 
of the eorv^. On the contraiy he disposes freely of lus person. He 
is in no manner bound to the soil. He changes his readence at plea* 
sure ; but, when by being inscribed as a member of a village, whether 
by his birth or as the consequence of choice, he attaches himself to a 
tjatjaky he becomes subject to customs which regulate the village or 
the fanuly. If he b possessed of fields of irrigated rice (iowahjf he 
is under an obligation to conform to the conditions under which tiiese 
fields have been originally cleared or acquired under an onerous title. 
These conditions cany with them the obligation of taking part in the 
labours ordunedby the government ; he is not, in conforming to them, 
more subjected to the yoke of the corvee, than is a subject of a con* 

136 tkmminck'b oenbiial vlew of the dbtch 

stitutionftl State in Europe, m submittbg to the military service re- 
quired by the law. 

No, it is not just to say that the Javanese does not obtain any share 
in the direction of public affiairs. The internal organization, established 
by his former soverrigus havte been preserved to him in « manner intact. 
The uninterrupted hierarchy of Javanese functionaries descends from 
superior chief or regent fAdhipaHJ, to chief of the village {Petmggi 
erBekelJf and this last with the tjatjah and the eiders, enjoy a liber- 
ty of acfion wUch we vainly seek for in countries better endswed in 
reUUion to puWc liberies. We shall be able to judge of this more 
comffletely when mention shall be made of the jndidal insdtu^ns. 

We now pass to the superior direction of our possessions in India. 
It is confided to a Governor General, Lieutenant of the King*; 
he is furnished with very extensive powers, and b inverted with 
the command in chief of the army and marine, in all parts of the 
Netherlands possessions. He alone decides on the measures to be 
taken ; for experience has shewn that interests so important and so 
varied as those of which he ought to take cognizance, demand the 
most perfect unity of will and action. At his dde is placed the 
Council of the Indies (Road van Indi'dJ composed of a vice-presi- 
dent and four members nominated by the kinpr. The Governor Ge- 
neral is required to consult tiiis assembly in all important eases. The 
4itle of laws and regulations ought to mention that this formality has 
been observed. In certun cases the Governor. General is required 
to communicate to the Government of the king the dissentient advice 
df the Council of the Indies. The Governor General is in direct 
correspondence with the residents of provinces and the governors of 
the great dependencies. These great dependencies are Sumatra, Bor- 
neo and Celebes ; "^ in these three principal Islands as well as in Am- 
boyna, there are Governors charged with special interests, and under 
the orders of whom the Residents exercise thrir functions. All these 
functionaries are, in their quality of Lieutenant of the Governor Ge- 
neral, invested with the necessary powers to act in all urgent cases 
which arise, and which cannot adnut 5f the delay of a reference. 
Wlien the Idng judges it convenient to name a Lieutenant Crovemor, 
he has the precedenee of the members of council. The king can also 
delegate powers to one or more Commissaries-General, but these 
cases are extraordinary. 

* M. Temminck of course alludes to the Dutch possessions in these great 
Islands.— Ed. 


We have already mentioned the judicial or^nizatioii. Some ad« 
ditional details will not he deemed superfluous. 

The action of the judieial order is independent of the admimstrai* 
live power» saving the restrictions suggested by necessity to prevent 
the mdigenous aristocracy from being disqureted by too severe an ap- 
pHcalion of the forms of European procedure, which would be 
oonti%ry, according to their maxims, to the exceptional state hi which 
they stall find themselves m the social order of the -Javanese. 

A high court sitting at Batavia clothed with the functions of a 
court of appeal and cassation, after the coivts of justice established 
in the prindpal towns, takes cognizance as weH in dvil a? in crimb- 
ntd matters of the interests of the European popuiadon. These 
courts are guided in thdr decisions by the Colonial statutes and by 
the andent Dutch laws, based upon the civil law. At this moment 
the finishing touch is being put to a labour having for its object the 
replacemtot of this superannuated and incongruous legislation by 
the modified codes in operation in the kingdcxn of the Low Couii« 
tries, always maintaing in dvil mstters the authority of the spedai 
laws appertaining to each locality. 

The indigenous inhabitants are subject to tribunals composed en<» 
firely of nadves, but presided over, in the cases indicated hereafter, 
by European funtionaries. These tribunals are the district tribunal 
(Districts raadj, the tribunal of the regent (B^genVs raadj, presided 
over by the Javanese Regent^ the provindal tribunal (Land raadj, 
preaded over by the European prefect or his dd^pate tlie Sub-Ren^ 
dent, finally the tribunal of circuit (Tlegt hank van OmmegangJ, 
composed of Javanese assessors and a Eiiropeaii jndge, who is c(m* 
tinuaOy on toiu*, for the purpose of presiding at these assizes. This 
last tribunal only entertains criminal causes which are above the com* 
petency of the provincial tribunal. All these tribunals judge accord--^ 
to the local laws, whether Mahomedan or other, — ^mutilations and cruel 
executions being proscribed. A Mahomedan priest (ptmgkufuj i» 
present in order to enlighten the judges upon the sense of articles of 
the Koran and its commentators. The ministerial functions are eon-^ 
fided to a Javanese officer named Djaksa. 

The Supreme Court dtting at Batavia is charged with the revision 
of the sentences pronounced by the provincial and circuit courts, in- 
order that by this means an uniform aud equitable jurisprudence may 
^ insured. 

In the three principal towns of Java^ as at Amboyna, Banda^ Ua«^ 


cassar, and Ternate, there are Chambers of Orphans wUdi have 
agents in the other residendes comprised mider their joiisdiclion. 
7he college charge themselves with the admintstradon of all eststcB 
from which they have not been expressly exduded by wiO, but they 
do not occupy themselves with hisolvent estates, for wludi there is a 
epedal functionaiy under die name of Sequestrator. It remains to 
speak of some other powers establi^ed under the authority sf tiie 
Governor General* We shall limit these detidls to a very suodnt 

The finances with all thdr ramifications are confided in each pro- 
i^noe to the Resident^ who places a certain niunber of European 
controllers in order to verify the accounts of tlie Javanese coDec- 
tors. The secretary of the province disduuges the functions of 
treasurer* The general direction is exercised under the authority of 
the Governor General by a Director General of finances offidally 
cdiai||ied with the administration of the public treasury, and by tiuee 
diroetors of whom one is for the Ways, Means and Domains, another 
for the Material service, and the third for Cultures. * lliese func- 
tionaries form, under tJie preridency of the director general, a ooundl 

* As the exact natare of the fiucUons with which theBirectors are cloth-' 
ed dbes not appear from the text, we shall give an explanation of them taken 
from the Ahnanae en NaamregUur voor Ifedurlandi IndiB for this year. 

The general direction over the domains, goods, monies, receipts and ex* 
pendffure of Netherlands India is (sabJect!to the surveillance of the Head of 
the Government) entmsted to the Director General of Finances f IMnwfeiir 
Gmtraai der Finaneien,J 

This chief fonctionary (Uoofd-Ambtenaar) with the Director of Means 
and Domains Cde Directeur der Middeim en BomeinenJ^ the Director of 
Produce and Civil Warehouses f da Direeteur der Frodueten en CMele 
Ha§euiijnenJ, and the Director of the Cnltnres C^ Dire€tewr van CuUwee) 
form Jointly the Council of the General direction of Finances d^c. ^itaatf 
den Generate Directie van finance). 

Each of them is entrusted with partieolar duties} amongst the principal 
ftinctions of the Director General are 

a. The General snperintendauce of goods, monies, receipts said ex* 

0. The management of the Government Treasury in general. 

c. The keeping of the general books. 

d. The preparation of the budget of receipts and expenees, and the aiH 

nual Government account, 
a. The coin. 


To this direction belongs principally. 

a. The management of the import and export duties in general* 

b. Commerce and Navigation. 

e. The Farms, 
4. The Imposts* 


m whidi an iflldfs of a l^eii^tAl inteirest are treated of, whUgtthe spe- 
cial matters of each bimbliiii rotftaiA dev^ved on tke ifirecfeor, without 
f^qdbing a prftlimlBary t^re&te to the eoiuieik 

Hie director of ctdtures has imder his orders many inspectors 
irho have the duty, indepehd^tly of some others, of feriiying npon 
tile spot the orig^ or the accidental causes of unikvoraMe resuUs to 
oM or oi^ef coltitfe, wMch the ^omparaHre estlniaites serve to esta- 
in ft proiflnee of in a district: he ought fbr this end to put 

e. The Auction BepartmeDt.'^' 
/. The Sumps. 

^. The duties on Successions and Transfers. 

*• The general management of the Tin mines. Birds nests, ,and Salt, 

until their delivery into the Head Depots. 

<. The sale of Government lands In general. 

A. The MoUge. 


To this direction belong principally, 

«• The management of the produce of the lands. 

h* The providing the necessary goods and provisions by distribution 

from the godowns, or through farms and contracts. 
«• The coUecttng and selling of goods and produce. 
A The superintendence of the lading and chartering of vessels. 
«. The administration and the sale of the Salt delivered into the Chief 

f • The superintendence of all Government irater works, civHhuildings, 

timber yards, and wood saw mills. 
g. The superintendence of the construction^odowtt [civil and mililary 

arsenal at Surabaya.3 ^i 

Ik. The managenient of the Post office. 
•• The governtnent printing office. 
Ir. The trade to Japan. 

bihegtior of ccLTunBg. 
To fhb appertains, 
«. Bjce culture. 
ft. The land revenue, as 

Uncultivated estates. 
Duties on professions. 
Gardens and Nipa forests. 
«• The Coffee cultivation, spices, pepper, nopal, manufacture and pre- 
paration of sugar, indigo, cochineal, silk, tea, tobacco, cinnamon, 
and other products adapted to the £aropesn market. 
•41. Forests. 

.«. The selling and granting of grounds or lands; so far as this comes in- 
to connection with the cultures. 

f . The breeding of cattle and the improvement of the breed of horses. 

• No publicauction can take place in Java or the othcrDutch possessions 
^ave through the auctioneer appointed by Government. At Batavia, Ba- 
marang and Surabaya there are seperate departments for aueUons. 

140 ntfltfIlf€K*^ 0£N^IAL VIBW OF THK i^VTM 

in communioUion vith the Resldenty and toooooert with him 
the moflt i4ppro|ni«te meaiu of pfovidii^ a remedy. 

A Chamber of Aocovnte ntting at Batavia b charged with afl the 
detaile of controL The aoeoimlli^ parties hs?e the power of appeal- 
ing from its deduona to a commiedon named for thu purpoae hf 
the Qofenot General. 

The eolonial treaauiy pronides in a generous manner fn* the »e- 
ceedties of pabUc worship. The affain of the r^nrmed Chnroih and 
the Ludierans are confided to Connstories, those of the CafliolioB are 
regulated by a Vicar apostolic. 

These denominadons of religion are represented in Java and in all 
the other dominions of &ke stale by ecderiastics, whose number is m 
proportion to that of the laics of each reU^ous commnnitj. Batsfiay 
Samarang and Surabaya have reformed and catholic churdies. Mis- 
sionaries are sent where their presence is deemed necessaiy, as to 
Borneo, Sumatra, Temate, Banda» Timor, Celebes, in the sane 
way as to the Moluccas where a great portion of the natires have 
since the 17th. century embraced Christianity. AH the pastonrof 
different religions are remunemted in a manner completely eq[aa], and 
truly liberal. ReUg^ous toleration appears to be a ^ of heafen 
foUen to the lot of this terrestial paradise. The central commiarion 
of benevolence, the widows funds, agriculture, the bible sodety, and 
ihat of nusnons are so many institutions of public utility with which 
these beautiful regions hare been endowed. 

In the residency of Madion there is, at Tegalsari, a college for Ja- 
vanese priests. The pilgrimage to Mecca, which veiy few amoiqist 
^em can undertake, gives them the rq^ht of assuming the generally 
c^yveted and often usurped title of Hadji. The Mahometan priests 
are maintuned by the communes through means of the tithe fpitrak) 
of the agricultural produce. When the great mosques require re* 
pairs exceeding the means of the indigenous population, the govern* 
ment provides for them by gifts of materials. 

It occupies itself solicitously witli primary instruction, and schools 
established on the footing of our prorindal institutions in Europe. 
The primary government sdiool at Weltevreden leaves nothing tabe 
desired. The same may be said of those of Samarang, SuHLbayi, 
Ckisse, Macassar, Amboyna, and Banda ; Malay schools exist in the 
Moluccas, at Timor &c. The superior direction of instruction is oon* 
fided to a central commission established at Batavia. The buildings 
and the books are furnished by government. The tutors are paid by 


k, a&d BO one can teach pnbHcly without un^ergoiiig a prdiminarj 
fiaminatioD and having attained his degree In Europe. 
' Tbe chief of the medical serrioe of tiie army is at the same time 
chvged with the cml setrioe* He corresponds for this purpose with 
the kcal eoaunissiotts and authorities. An inspector of vaccina- 
tion is jdoied witli him. In aU the residencies are found naliTe vac- 
dnatony mostly Mahomedan priests sahuied for tins purpose; Hiis 
meamir e haa produced the most happy results. Tht government al* 
80 enfeertttns at its own cost » number of doctors, suigeons and medi« 
ones, propo rti oned to the wants 4>f the European population. In the 
residenipiefl of the faiterior, in place of doctors, the officer of health 
of the army is charged wHb the foUAment of these iftodioos. 

The sciences are represented at Batavia by a learned Society de« 
voted to the' enco u ragement of sdences and arts.* Since the resto* 
radon of the isbnds of tiie Arcbipebgo to the sway of the Nether* 
hnds, we have been more especiaUy occupied inth travels of discove- 
ry in the the islands hitherto but little known. Many naturalists 
have worthity acqmtted themselves. A sdentific commisdon is now 
organized there. It has for its object researches in the three king<» 
doms of nature. One of its members is diarged widi the materials 
and nccoonts. The Governor General regulates its labours. 

The ndMtary marine b at present composed in times of peace, and 
anee the colonial marine has ceased to exist, of a fixed number of 
IrigateS) corvettes, steam vessels of great and small rise, brigs, doc, 
detached fipom the licad quarters in Europe, and forming part of the 
royal marine. Accord];iig to the system at present in force vessels 
are to be relieved after being three years on the station. For the 
transport service and the police of the coasts the local authorities 
have at thdr disposal, a certain number of schooners commanded by 
Europeans, and of gun boats commanded by natives, ndther of them 
having military rank^ The prindpal establishments of the marine 
are at Batavia (where there is at present under construction a basin 
in the isle of On-rust) and at Surabaya which private enterprise is 
soon about to provide with a flootiog dock. 

The army, although forming a branch of that of Europe, is sqia-* 
rated from it by circumstances. Our national army being prindpa!- 

* Bataviaasch Gcnootschap van Kansten on Wetenschappen. This So- 
ciety reckons a great number of members amongst the European savants 
of aU countries. It possesses a precious collsction of archeology, and its 
cares are directed to the conservation of the ancient monuments erected in 
l^rsi by the ancient sectaries ofDrahinism and Budbism. 


ly eoB^Mned of comci i pto, who, aooor^^ te fiindamental law, are 
not bound to serte In Ind^ it has been ne/ommry to have reooune 
to TQlimtaiy reeraitnient The offloere sre Tolmteers who refiust 
to quit thefar coipe to pa^i into service in Hw cokncdes, or aspirants 
vpedtXfy trained for this sepvice at th« uiKlafy atadftiy of Brfsds 
or 8ub-Kiffioer8 who iMve served with cBsiMietion in the cokmies. To 
dbtmn the rank of officer in the army of India an irreproaehahineoB- 
dact is indispensible. The old praotfee of sendhi^ only ihevsilMa 
of the Netlierlands army no longer extete. Ffon meHves of eeono* 
my the reeraits are forwarded in isridted detaohmentB. The traa- 
8{K>rt of corps organized In Europe <m)y. talMS phMse^ in tknenof war. 

The aony of Indn is oompoeed of r^fuiar and irregular troops. 
The first are Enropeans or Natives. SoMie l»aStaliions of infintry, as 
weft as a. regiment of csrafay, are exdnnvely of Emn^ieans. 1%b 
ether battslions have two companies of Europeans to four of natives* 
Tlie regidar army in time of peace is composed of fifteen iMltalions 
•f infimtsy, of a very numerous general dep&b sewing to keq» fiil^ 
supplied aU the detached ganisons> of a regim«it of cavalry, and of 
n battalion of sappers. 

The hrregnlar army is composed of moveaUe columns which aaay 
Princes sre bound to hold in readiness to march at the order of Go* 
vemment ; of a oorps of mareehanssee f^Jong $fkar^ iewer of vic- 
toryX and of local nulitin (hariaanj who are oonunanded hf native 
^finers and who hnve European instructors. To complete diis view 
of the defenave means the burgher goardB fsckuUerifen) dessnre 
honorable mention. At aM pkoes where a nnmeroiis body of Euro* 
peaos B found, it has been deemed proper to oigamse them fof sri*^ 
Iitary duties. When tiie war called tiie Five years broke out m I82S 
the town of Batavia alone promptly furnished two Ikattslions of ia- 
f entry, a squadron ei cavalry, and a company of aitittery. 

The native troops are principally furnished by 1^ Holuceas, Ce^ 
lebes and Madura ; the cohorts of €lil(^, Temate, and Tidore can 
also^ be put in requisition. An experiment tried on a great se^ 
Arom 1837 to 1841 for enrolling Africans in our possessions en the 
coast of Guinea has not answered ta the hc^ies whioh had been con- 
ceived respecting it. 

Before terminating this portion of our work we will pay a just tri* 
bute of euloglum and acknowledgement to the intrepidity and patienes 
of this brave aimy of the land and sea, which has known how to main- 
lain by \t» perseverance the national power in the Indian Ardupela- 


go, ud caoMs to reviT€ amongfBft us the remembrance of the nume* 
reva Aiploto ^nd the important diaeovertea which rendered our 
foftMteia illiialrious when grided hy the same tricolor which shall 
aerfoto eondueC ow j<mag Mlow dtizena to yietorjr, if fte serrice 
and the honour of the country shall some day again require their aid. 

BbI Iflt us return ta the object for which these conq[nest8 and dis- 
aeverias, ancient as wdOi as modem, liaTe been undertaken. Ttiis 
na %as been noting ebe tlian simply to develope more and more in 
tbsse Astaat countries the means adapted to augment the resourced 
of the eommeree of tlie motlier country ; to produce and consume 
are tiie p itte elp a l feeullies wUeh she labours to flavour. Bom of the 
wonbof peace tiiesetwoauidHaries of eommeree can only bear fruits 
under this proteothig i^. 

It is consequently the reign of peace which she strires to maintain 
and to establish upon a solid basis. To consolidate the empire of thef 
laws and to restrain diat of the arbitrary ; to govern the native popu« 
latiOBB according to their institutions ; to respect the prejudices anii 
tiie usages of these peoples but half civilized^ when their customs are 
not found in direct opposi^on to hnmoveahle and natural laws ; to 
pretoet them agidnst the invasion of Ihe privileged race, — the Euro- 
peans, — these are the principal means wliiefa a prudent and enlight- 
ed govermnent wffi endeavour to put in practice. 

But to arrive at this, it is necessary to Icnow exactly and by a pro- 
found study, the languages, the written and oral laws, the traditions, 
tbe n%iou8 dogmas, the mamiers and the usages, in short the wholie 
social system of a nation, abore all when it affects the interests of a 
people whose ancestors have formed part of a social state orgsnizecf 
upon a respectable and solid footing. To dictate laws to the Java* 
nese, it is necessary before all that the Government should be perfectly 
instructed upon aU that relates to the history of the country, and that 
the delegates of power in India to whom it confides the execution of 
its dcagns, should be able to execute its orders with a discernment 
and a knowledge which study and practice can alone furnish. 

Under the Government of the Company of the Indies it was very 
generally the usage to depend with respect to the knowledge acquired 
by their servants, on the influence of a sojoivn in the Archipelago 
more or less prolonged. Special measures destined to ensure sys- 
temalacally the co-operation of employes enlightened by the sciences 
and formed by the study of the andent and modem history of the 
Jaranese, were not deemed strictly necessary under an administra* 


tion eminently commerdaL But when to this goremment, wbich 
sunk on all sidee, soooeeded another adminiiitrative rc|^me, indepen- 
dent of views more Bpedally commtfreial, it felt the neeeasily of oi- 
suiiqg talttitB and good name in the agents destined for the serviee 
of the new power in India. 

Hie leyy of regular imposts having lieen substltatad for thesjslem 
of contracts and oonlai^fentSy and the European power b^i^ plaoed 
In direet contact with its Anatic subjeefei, the neoesntgr wa» espai- 
•need of studying the idioms in use in eveiy locality and of knowing 
fundamentally the manners and customs of the inhahttaiti^ and faaJly 
of penetrating Into all the details of the ancienft and modem lustoiy 
of thor social institutaoDSy which remained covered until then by a 
vdl which very few of the servants of the Company had tried to raise. 

the need which the new authority felt to surround itself with-in- 
etmcted and laborious men, gave birth to the idea of not grantmg 
places to any save those who had a recognized capadty, resaltmg 
fromobUgatory studies, made dther before or after the nomination of 
the indindual and before or after his departure for India. FinsUy 
they took the very judidous detemunation of creatang a special sdiool 
for those who were desirous of devoting themselves to the dvil ser- 
vice in India ; in 1842 a chair for the teaching of the Javanese hui- 
guage and its dialects, as also for the Malay language, was erected 
in the royal academy established, a few years ago, at Ddft. Venaos 
wiU not in future be able to obtain an employment of the first or 
second dass without having gone through a course of studies and 
submitted to examination at this school. Government antidpstes 
salutary result-s from this measure. 

fto be cotUinnedJ 





By Lieut. Colonel James Low, 

JML* A* S* C* X C» M* R« A* S« 

It is not my intention at present to enter into any geolcuffoil des-- 
eription of the Coal flidds which have been discovered to the North- 
ward of this Island, as a more complete examination of them than 
drcamstances have as yet permitted remains to be made. But a 
few brief notices in the mean time may prove acceptable to those 
who view with intense gratification every additional discovery of a 
mineral, which, while it irresistably impels commerce over the whole 
globe, invests it also with a halo of romance, for, ugly as a steamer 
may perhaps be thought to be when viewed physically, its moral 
grandeur and mighty perspective influence, must deeply impress 
every reflective mind. 

About ten years ago specimens of Coal were brought to me by 
natives from the vicinity of Trang, one of the lower provinces of 
Siam. As steamers did not then ply through the Straits, and I was 
for several years absent from the Island, I did not then examine 
the localities. On my return, however, I again prosecuted the en- 
quiry; and, after obtaining several specimens, was preparing to sail 
in my pleasure boat to the nortfward, when I found the H. C. 
Steamer Hooghly was bound ou a similar errand as myself. By 
the obliging permission of the Honble the Governor, Lt. Col. But-. 
terworth, I took my passage in this vessel. The coal which was 
the chief object of the excursion was that which has been examined, 
in Calcutta at the Government Mint by Dr. O^Shaughnessy. Our 
guide having proved false, we were obliged to return without hav* 
ing attained that ol^ect. But we visited the Tcftna Coal deposit, 
and several other localities, where I have every reasons to suppose^ 
from the nature of the strata, that Coal will be yet found. I proceed 
now, but briefly, to describe the coal of which I have specimens. 
I hope hereaf^r to see a chemical analysis of them by the able As- 
sayest abovemcntioned,— specimens baring been sent by mc to the 


Ilonble the Governor. Tama, not Gurbie, is the proper name of 
the Deposit above mentienecL 

This coal is that sort above described as having been chemicaliy 
analysed. My belief is that the specimens of it which were origio- 
aUy obtained by the Honbto Mr. GarHng, Resident Councillor at Pi< 
nang, and by myself, were got at a place called Siingei K^uoiag 
about sixteen miles above Trang ; because I foel convinced, — after 
my personal examination of the strata there, and the fact that this 
was the spot indicated by the informant but on other information 
than his own, although we could not hit it exactly, — that coal of 
some kind does there exist. Besides the locality where thcr'coal 
was lately got by the Government Gun boat is only about twelve 
miles to the southward of S. Kamitiiing, or about nearly east of 
' PuJk> Mutfard or ^' Pearl Island." 

Dr. O'Shaughnessy's public Report has been kindly communicated 
to me by the Honble^the Governor. [As Dr. O'Shaughnessy's letter 
appears at length, post p. Colonel Low*s extract is omitted.] 

This coal appears to me to be still superior: if one can judge 
from an imperfect examination : to No 1, or any coal hitherto disco- 
vered in this quarter. But it will be tested I hope in Calcutta by 
the same able hand. I obtained this after my return in the Stea- 
mer, in June last. From observations made while on an excursion 
to Purlls last year, I felt persuaded that coal field$ lay nearer to 
Penang than those of Tama and Trang. An expert native in my 
service, who has been long under training, was despatched to that 
locality and also to Stengel K^miining. Stormy weather prevented 
his reaching the latter place, but I have been gratified by getting 
from him on his return, specimens of this coal (No 2) found by 
(rim at the Pulo Tigd Islands, lying off Purlir on the €oast oi 
Kcddah. Like those of the other coals as yet discovered the strata 
are covered by the sea at high water. 

Although I consider this to he cannel coal in most of its pro- 
perties, yet it approaches to fet in the darkness of its colour. Its 
cross fracture seems flat conchoidaf, and ft is rather imttle. It con- 

DiseoviEftY or c«al» I47 

taifis a great deal e/ ioflaninable and bituminous matter^— the hi- 
tamea hobbling out and giving a jet of flame* It bnrna with a 
bright yellowish flame, emitting moeh black smoke and decrepi- 
Utiog a litUe doting the process of ooosoming. It leaves a dark 
eoloored light cinder, forming but a small part of the original hoik. 
In this feslduom there is a good deal of oxide of iron, which I 
attribnte to the silrery looking flbn of what may be solphoret of 
iroD, which is interpersed, but apparently sparingly, throughout the 
mass. Thb film is mixed with about perhaps one half its bulk 
of alomine. There does not appear to be much sulphur in this 
eoal, if one may judge by the weak fumes of that substance dis«- 
engaged during combustion. 

Although Ibis ooal lies about thirty miles further south than the 
Tiiog coast coal [or S. Kamdning rather] above noticed, I am strongs 
ly tempted to consider them as belonging to the same coal fields 

Cannel coal, observes Mr. PbOlips in his Mineralogy, is usually 
found in the upper beds of the coal deposits in England faj. But 
it remains to be shewn that the analogy holds good in these far 
separated regions. Even should such an analogy exist, it is not 
likely to be soon proved, because the cost of raising the, perhaps 
very deeply lyings substrata of common coal, would prevent its 
being worked at reasonable cost^ It is even doubtful whether this 
last remark may not be found applicable to some of the outcrop- 
ping coals already discovered, because much wfll depend on the 
position of the strata and other circumstances. 

JVff 3. 

I obtained specimens of this ooal many years ago, and I be- 
lieve the person who gave it to me is dead, — at any rate 
he is not to be found, and I have unluckily forgotten the exact 
locality, although sufficiently aware that it was procured some- 
ivhere in the vicinitf of the T4m4 or Tr&ng coals. 

I made a few experiments with this coal in a Chinese forge 
at my residence. It seems to me in some respects to partake 
of the properties of a slaty anthracite. It is rather diificuU to 
ignite, but when once ignited, it gives out a very considerable 

(Vij p. 278. 


14ft BlftCOVKAT or COAL^ 

degree of heat, more than that of common charcoal apparendj , 
and without mudi smell of sidphnr. It bmvs with a slight wfait- 
iih flame, being in this particalar unlike an Anthracite. It leaves 
a rather earthy cinder or coke containiog iron, an oxide I sn|^ 
pose. From the external aspect of this coal I should be in- 
clmed to think, that it may have been taken from the upper 
•tratum or covering of either the K&m6ning or Tring coaL 

This is a coat with a dull fracture and slightly glimmering. 
The man who brought it has gone to sea, but I hope on his 
return to be informed of the locality, which I could not discover, 
as he sent, and did not bring, the specimen. But I have little 
doubt of its having been got in the vicinity of Trtog, Tim& or 
Gurbie. This coal has not a very promising external aspect, having 
a very anthracitic appearance. It nevertheless contains much in- 
flammable matter. But bituminous matter does not ooze or IhiIh 
ble out of it during combustion as in No. 2. 

This is from T6m& coal deposit first called the Gurbie coal de* 
posit, because lying in a district of that name, beyond or north 
of Tr&ng. It was first visited by Captain Congalton in the Hooghly 
By order of the IIon*bIe the Governor. 

The present specimens were taken by myself from the stratum 
on the second trip of the Steamer to T&m&. Externally this coal 
looks a good deal like charcoal, but it has a duller colour. It 
h rather too compact for a brown coal or Itgnile. Its fradore 
is also more conchoidal than the geoeralitj of lignites. Its dull dark 
or black colour might cause it to be takea for an anthracite. But 
when exposed to the heat of a charcoal fire with Chinese bellows^ 
it Ignited slowly, and consumed with a whitislv flame, leaving a 
good deal of cartliy coke. It appears to contain a good deal of 
inflammable matter, for it continued for some time to give out 
flame ofter being removed from the fice^ 

Tbis specimen has been taten out «f a heap IcA in the Govern- 

BiscoVKiiT or coAXu 149 

ment Godown by Capt. Gongalton after his first excursion to Gurbie 
or Timi, I mention it because it might be mistaken for another 
eoal, owing to its rather glimmering resinous lustre. But under the 
same degree of heat it exhibits nothing to distinguish it from No. S. 

This is the last coal which has been brought It was found 
by the Government Gunboatmen, led by Siamese, close, as far 
as I can judge or in the bay north of Tanjong Bumbeng on the 
Coast of Tr&ng, betwixt Tr&ng and K&mtining. 

Hie specimen I have of it is too small for examination. It seems 
to be a voy valuable Cannel coal with rather a duller external co- 
lour and fracture than No. 3. 

I was informed of this deposit on my return in the Steamer^ 
and then it was too late to take advantage of it. The bed of coal it 
seems underlies a rode of some kind about half a foot in thick- 
ness,— dark coloured slate or shale I suspect from the description 
of my informant.* 

I have intimations of various other coal fields which I hope to be 
able to visit also, at the earliest opportunity after the rains. 

J. LOW. 

Lt. Col. 

"* Some remaiks on the coal of Ihis locality will be found in a subsequoaC 



^,Aii6 *1^ ^y ^p ^j^ ^jy Ji^ 

CWj) isJ^ tt,^«-^ fc*;^ *sij«u» \j\a^ SM 

tJXf ^y /tfa ^/ ^\ U^ ^Ir- 4>*-^' 

i«Sji k^b j5»j Xrf J?**'** by* i'^'* t^i* 

VjI ^1; *^15 ^^ jjJ*: 1,V; J i)\Si f\^\i 




BiscoTery of Coal in £f gor and Xedah on the Vfeut 
CoHBt of the Malay 7enin6nlaa 

In the beginniog of March last we received from the Hon^bte 
Colonel Batterworth, C B*, a specimen of coal said to have been 
found in Jimkceylon. The extreme interest of this discovery ia« 
dnced m at once to forward a fragment in a letter by the overland 
mail to Prqfessor Ansted. The July mail brooght us some remarks 
. by Professor Ansted on this coal, which he considered of so much 
iaportaace as to bring it to the notice of the East India Com- 
pany and the Geological Society, We have since received the July 
Domber of the Journal of the Asiatic Society containing Dr. O^Shangh- 
nessy's report on a specimen which Colonel Butterworth -had for- 
warded to the Bengal Government The great importance of the 
discovery both in an economical and a scientific poiot of view, 
(for in the latter it promises with the associated calcareous beds to fur- 
nish a long sought key to unlock the history of the sedimentary rocks 
of the Peninsula,) induce us to lay before the readers of the Journal 
an account of the progress Uiat has hitherto been made in tracing the 
coal. Colonel Low's obliging and prompt compliance with our request 
that he would describe the result of his recent enquiries (which 
have been rewarded by the ascertainment of coal in a new loca- 
lity and one much nearer to Pinang*) enables us to refer to his 
paper for several details which are omitted here. 

The external characters of the ceal first discovered differ from 
those of all the specimens of common coal, both English and Asiatic, 
which we possess* Although Dr. O^Sbaughnessy has shewn it to be 
identical in compositioni' with some species of cannel coal, it, at least 
our specimen, is also decidedly different in these respects, from a 
speaokea of English cannel coal with which we have compared it. 
Its Instre 13 duU in comparison with it, as with all our other speci- 
mens ; in some directions it is resinous and faintly shining, but de-^ 

* See ante p. 140. 
t We mean in the proportion of voUtiio matter to charcoal, for it has not 
yet been chemically analyzed. 

152 Kl»CEtLASmV0 K0TICC5 Ac* 

void of that brilliancy which all the other varieties posses in a great* 
cr or less degree, and which particularly distinguishes the Labaan 
coal;'*' in other directions it is of a dull yelret black hue. One 
of its marked peculiarities is its compactness, flrmness, and fine, dose, 
fibrous a tructure which exactly resembles that \>f a piece of fioe 
grained wood. The fibres in some places are concentricaUy curred. 
The fracture in some directions bears a perfect resemblance to that 
of black sealing wax. In others it is like ebony. In cleavage faces 
it has a beautiful polish. It bums with a large bright flame, at first 
with decrepitation, and throughout with brilliant jets, and intume- 
scence, caking very much. A scoria with metallic lustre remains. 
This when broken is seen to be finely vesicular, and possessing a 
bright giiistening pitchy lustre. The fragments from the centre when 
again heated give a little white flame with an occasional slight jet. 

Volatfle matter, •••••• 46. 746. 

Charcoal, 53. 071. 

Ash, 1. 183. 

Sp. gr. i. 245. 
\Viien i\e cursorily exammed this coal previous to sending it to Pro- 
fessor Ansted, it seemed externally to be intermediate between fignite 
and canncl coal, (which graduate into each other, so that, in some 
systems of mineralogy, lignite is merely mentioned as a variety 
of cannel coaO but much nearer to the former. On re-examioation 
and comparison with several varieties of coal, we observe (hat, while 
it differs very markedly from all these, its fracture presents the 
very same appearances which we find on breaking a small spe- 
cimen of jet. Cnder the microscope this resemblance in structure, 
colour and lustre is preserved. The Jnnkceylon, or rather Lfgor, 
coal, however, is much more highly bituminized, as the lignite burns 
with a smaller quantity of flame and without jets. 

In nature the different kinds of coal pass into each other by 
many gradations. Several are often found in the same bed; aod 
even those which mineralogically bear the same name, frequent- 
ly, in specimens from different localities and even from the same lo- 
cality, exhibit a want of agreement in the proportions of their ingre- 
dients. Thus different specimens of cannel coal which have been ex- 

* 3cc p. 79 QfiU. 

ammed in Eogland have yidded residts shewing a range of yariable* 
sess in the qaantity of volatile matter of at least 10 per cent Che* 
laical analyses have also shewn considerable variety. 

Some time ago we received from the honorable Mr. Church m 
specimen of eoal from Rettie on the South East Coast of Sama« 
tn wbicfa had been presented to him by the Sultan of Liogt* 
Has ooal bears a close resemblance externally to that from Junk- 
cejIoD, and differs from all our other specimens. It is foliated, 
and its fracture in the direction of the folic is minutely rough 
approaching to earthy, being coarser than that of the Junkceylon spe- 
cimen. Its fracture is large conchoidal, smooth, and glistenmg, but 
duller than the other. It bums with a large flame, and with slight 
decrepitation and jets, which are not so brilliant as those of the 
lankoejlon coal. It possesses slight intumescence. It appears to 
be a good open burning coal. 

Volatile matter, 51. 43. 
Charcoal, .... 48. 57. 
Ash, not determined. 

Sp. gr. 1. 23. 

Extract of a letter from the Editor to Projessor Anstted, 
dated 6ih. March^ I847. 

Bot my purpose in now addressing you is to announce a disco-^ 
very as important in its geological as in its economical bearings* 
In July 1845 our zealous Governor, the Hon'ble Colonel Butter- 
irorth, dispatched one of the government steamers to examine a place 
called Gurbie on the west coast of the Peninsula near Junkceylon 
vhere he had been informed some traces of coal existed* Captain 
CoDgalton, the Commander of the Steamer, proceeded up the ri- 
ver Gurbie without finding any coal, and then proeeeded to Temah 
which lies en the coast about three miles to the westward of the 
mouth of the Gurbie. Here he found a low dtff which consisted 
lit of a horizontal layer, visible only at low water, of a black rock 
baTing some resemblanQe to coal and varying in thickness from 9 to 
2 inches; 2d of a series of calcareous layers overfying the car^ 
bonaceous one, each a few inches, and the whole 7 or 8 feet in thick- 
ness; and Srd. an upper bed of earth about 11 feet in depth. The 


calcareoDS stratum has t lM»e composed of a little fine day mixed 
with « considerable proportion of commmated shells, and imbeddiag 
shells 10 great abundaiice. Most of these are slightly derectire, hot 
many are entire. The ieterior of some of the shells is filled with 
a stdMtance sioular to that of which the base is formed, but a consi- 
derable number are filled with crystalliialions. The whole formi 
a compact heavy rock. The black rock was found to be incombus- 
tible in a furnace. Captain Gongalton says that the layer extend- 
ed about 300 yards, and was bounded on both its east and west 
sides by ^ Iron Stone''. What this was I cannot say. Masses or 
great slabs of the calcar ous rock lay on the beach. On my return 
from Malacca, Colonel Butterworth shewed me a piece of rock 
whidi he had received a few days previously from the Hon'ble Mr. 
Gariittg, Resident Councillor at Pioang. I send a spedmeo. It ap« 
pears to be a fine specimen of bituminii^ed wood or jet. It bams 
with a clear flame, occasionally greenish, and with a slight decrepi- 
tation. One portion has a beautiful lustre and high polish. The 
fracture shews a fine velvet black or brownish-^black. It was found 
by a Pinang Siamese on the southern coast of the island of Junk- 
ceylon, C^ell known for its tin) near the bank of a river, and two 
or three hundred feet from its mouth. The man, having heard some- 
thing about coal, tried whether he could cook his food with it, and 
finding that it answered well, brought away 4 or 5 coyans [each 
coyan wdgh 45 piculs, the picul weighs 133^ 1^) He offer- 
ed to import it into Pinang at the rate of ^ 12. per coyao, 
but afterwards raised his demand to S' 150 for an 8 coyan boat- 
load. He said he had found a layer of it three feet in thickness 
close under the surface. Could you ascertain the quality of this 
coal and oblige me with a memorandum of its comparative value? 
This could probably be easily obtained at the Museum of Econo- 
mic Geology. Colonel Butterworth is very desirous of offering 
every facility and assisUnce to geological and other researches, and it 
would interest him to know the relative value of the first coal 
that has been discovered in the Peninsula. 

Extraet qf a letter from Professor Ansted to the Edit or ^ 
dated, London, \7th May 1847. 
To begin with the subject of the coal, I am enabled to inform 


70a Ihat it will in all probability prove admirably adapted for every 
purpose to which coal is economically applied. It gives off much 
gas and some tar and other liquid products of combustion found in 
bitomioous coal. It contains scarcely any water, an exceedingly 
smafl proportion of earthy matter, (not more than 1. 33 per cent-), 
and its heating power is probably very considerable. This I have 
not indeed yet had determinedvaccnrately, as the analy&is for coal 
to determine its economic value is by no means so simple or easy a 
matter as you perhaps suppose. 

It would no doubt coke well, and it might I believe be used 
to great advantage both for steam purposes and for smelting, be- 
sides ordinary household {purposes. It contains no sulphur. 

<No. 31.) 

Pnym the Governor of P. W, Island Singapore and Maiuccay 
To C. Bjsadon , Esq.y Under-Secretary to the Government of Ben* 
galy Fort Willianu Dated^ Singaporey 27th February, 1847. 

BiR,— My letter under date the 26th July 1845, No. 124, will have 
made the Hon^ble the Deputy Governor of Bengal acquainted with 
my belief that Coal was to be found in the vtdnity of Penang, and 
although I failed at that time, in discovering the mineral, yet I did 
not relax my inquiries, and I am now enabled to report veiy satis- 
fiwtorily, on the subject. v 

On the recent return of the Honlile East India Company's Stea^ 
mer Hooghly from the Northern end of the Straits, after conveying 
tlie Hon'ble Recorder, and Court Establishment to Penang-, Captain 
Congalton brought me a specimen of Coal which had been deposited 
by some person at the Harbour Master's Office ; search had been 
made for the party without avaH, and I apprehended that I should 
be again baffled, when I was favored with a letter, regarding the said 
Coal, by the Resident Councillor at Penang, a copy of which I beg 
to enclose. 

The Hon'ble the Depnty Governor will observe that the Coal now 
discovered, (a specimen of which I beg to forward for the purpose of 
being tested,) is found on the Southern Coast of the Island of Jimk 
Ceylon, which is not far from the River Gurbic, on the Malayan Pe- 
mnsala, where my former search was made, and if we may judge 



from the seam noticed by Kong Kiyon, who brought in die Coil, 
there must be a krge quantity avaikble. 

I do not think that Kong Kiyon is competent to enter into the 
engagement proposed by the Resident Councillor at Penang, or thit 
we should be justified in making any agreement with him to supply 
the mineral from the territory of our Ally, the King of Siam, with- 
out previously ascertuning how far he may be cognizant of such a 
proceeding ; neither would the price demanded, viz .7 dollars per ton, 
justafy me in laying in any quantity whilst that of ascertained good 
quality can be purchased for 6 dollars per ton. 

I have however ventured to authorize Mr. Garling, to commisnon 
from Kong Kiyon two or three coyans of the Coal, and on delivery, 
to present him with 25 dollars from Government in addition to the 
price of the Coal, for having made the discovery known to the autho- 
rities, and with a view of indudng others to come forward with any 
information likely to develope the resources of these settlements, and 
the adjacent native states, which I trust will meet with the approral 
of the Honl>le the Deputy Governor of Bengal. 

The Junks from Cliina and Cochin China are now daily making 
their appearance, and I am averse to withdrawing the Steamer from 
tlie vidnity of Point Romania for any lengthened period, or I would 
have furnished a more fiill report on the subject of this Coal, but I 
hope to proceed on my annual tour early in May, or as soon as it 
shall be ascertained, by the change of the monsoon, that the whole of 
the Junks of the season have arrived, when I shall send the Hooghly 
to Junk Ceylon, and do myself the honor of reporting the result. 

1 have the honor to be, &c. 


Singapore, 27 Ih Februartf, 184/ 

(No. 161 of 1847.) 

From fJie Resident Conncillor Prince of Wales Island, 
To the Hon^ble tlie Governor, Sfc. Sfc. Sfc. 

Sir, — Captain Congalton, in command of the Hon'blc Campauy's 
Steamer Hooghly, will have shown to you a muster of Coal brought 
to Penang just about the time the Steamer reached this port. He 
procured the muster from Mr. Gottlieb, the Harbour Master, but no 
particulars could be obtained, as the man who brought the samph* 


could not be found. Mr. Gotttieb having^ at last succeeded in trac- 
ing the man, sent bim to my office, and I have now the honor of gijr 
bg you the result of my inquiries. The man's name is Kong Kiyon, 
a Siamese by community, but bom in Penang. By his statement, 
the Sample was found on the river bank mingled with the mud, close 
upon the jungle, and about 2 or 3 hundred feet from the mouth of 
the river, on the Southern Coast of the Island of Junk Ceylon. There 
are rocks on the coast — Kong Kiyon went there to collect Ratans — 
any persons may there go in the jungles and collect what they please ; 
some time since he brought a piece of this mineral to Penang, but it 
was considered as useless. Having been spoken to on the subject, im- 
mediately he came upon this Coal as stated, he set to cooking his 
rice with it, and finding it answer the purpose well, he ventured to 
bring away about 4 or 5 coyans of it. Tlie boat has now gone away 
aiid he has now left but one. small piece, which he promised to bring 
to my office. 

He discovered a stratum about 3 feet in thickness close imder the 
sar6ue but of its length and breadth he knows nothing. Why the 
people do not use it for culinary purpose he knows not, but supposes 
that they may know nothing about it. There are no inhabitants in 
the vicinity of the Coal, and he entertains no difficulty in bringing 
away any quantity. 

Kong Kiyon told Mr. Gottlieb that he would engage to bring the 
Coal at the rate of <^12 per coyans of 45 Peculs. He has thought 
better of it. He tells me that, after consulting his comrades, he 
would not engage under ^150 for an 8 coyans boat load, being up- 
wards of 50 per cent, beyond his offer to Mr. Grottiieb. But Kong 
Kiyon says, that for ^^S^ldO per load of an 8 coyang boat, he will en- 
ter into a bond with secutities to supply the mineral always, provided 
a small advance of cash be made to him, as he has no fund of his 

Mr. Gottlieb brought one piece burnt. It had the appearance and 
smell of a common cinder, only it was very light in weight. Captain 
Congalton spoke well of it after trisd. 
I shall await your instructions in this matter. 

I have, &e. 


1{i*fihlent Councilor, 
P. n\ hhn^y th€ \3th February, 1847. 


I5th, — P. S. The specimen of Cool not hayings yet come to hanif, 
1 shall no longec detain this letter. 

S. Garling, 
Rendent Councillor^ 

(No, 200.) 

Copy of this letter and of its enclosure, together with the sped-^ 
men of Coal otherwise received, forwarded to the Mint Master o£ 
Calcutta, for the purpose therein mentioned. 

By order of the Hon'Ule the Deputy Governor of Bengal. 

C. Bbadon, 
Under Secretary to the Governor of Bengali 
Fort WiUiavi, 7th Apnl, 1847. 

(No 456 of 184(>.47.) 

From Lieut.'Col, W. N. Forbes, Mint MMter, 
To C. Bbadon, Esq, Under Secretary to the Government ofBengaL 

Sir, — I hare the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
No. 290, dated the 7th April 1847» £Drwarding a copy of a letter 
and enclosure from the Groyemor of P. W. Island, Singapore and 
Malacca, together with the specimen of Coal which accompanied 
them, and in reply to state that, as the spedmen suj^ed was in- 
sufficient for experiments conducted in the Steam Engine, or other 
mint furnaces, I requested Dr. W B. O'Shaugfanessy, Chemical Ex- 
aminer to Government to examine it in detail, and I have now the 
pleasure of transmitting in original his very satisfiactory report on its^ 
assays and analysis. 

I have, &c. 


Mint Master, 
Calcutta Mint, the 20M Apnl, 1847- 

(No. 26.) 

From Dr, W. B. O' Siiauohnbssy, Chemical Examiner to Govern^ 


To Lieut,'CoL W. N. Forbbs, Mint Matter. 

Dated, Chemical Examiner's Office, Fort WUliam, dOth April, 1847- 

Sir,—- In reply to your letter of the 14th uist, requesting me to 



funush a report on a specimen of Coal received from the Govern- 
niAot of Bengal, I have -the honor to send you the accompanying 
memorandum of the results of its analysis, which shows that this 
Coal b by far the most valuable hitherto found in this or adjacent 

The coal ia identical with the '< Cannel" or ''Wigan" kind. . It is 
free from sulphur, colces well and yields such an abundance of gase-^ 
our inflammable matter as to be of the utmost value for generating 
steam or manu&cturing gas. The proportion of ash is moreover 
very small. The discovery of this kind of coal pronuses moreover 
to prove of additional importance in as much as it is generally found 
to accompany deposits of the richest and best ordinaxy coldng coal. 

3. The documents sent with your letter are herewith returned. 

I have, &c 

W. B. 0'ShAUOHN£88Y, 

Chemical Examiner* 

Memorandum of composition of specimen (^ Coal from Junk Cey* 
km, compared with that of English Cannel Coal. 


Specific gra- 

In 100 Parts. 1 

Volatile mat- 



Junk Ceylon Coal, .. . 
English Cannel Coal,.. 

1. 25 

1. 27t 




W. B. O'Shaughnbssy, 

Chemical Ejcaminer^ 

Calcutta, 30th Ajtrily 1847. 

* Jhr. ITtomsan — Brande's Manual, pp. 9, 83. 

t ^^fr/AiVr.— Traite des Essais, Vol. 1, pp. 328, 336 and 330. 

(No. 469). 

Erom the Under Secretary to the Government of Bengal 

To the Oovemor of Prince of JVales^ Island, Singapore and Malacca, 

Dated Eort WilUam, the 19<A May, 1847. 

Sir, — I am directed to transmit for your information copy of a 
kttcr from the Mint Master of Calcutta, No, 456, dated the 30th 


ultimo, with the Chemical Examiner's Report which accompanied it, 
on the spedmen of Coal received with your letter No. 31 » dated the 
27th Fehruary hut. 

2. You inll observe that the quantity forwarded by you was not 
sufficient for such experiments as are conducted in the Steam Engine 
and Mint Furnaces, and you are therefore requested to procure a 
larger supply of the same description of Coal. It is very dearable 
too that the locality in which it is found should be more accurately 
ascertuned and described, and the Deputy Governor feels assured 
that you will use every effort to obtain the fullest particulars on this 
point as well as every other connected with this important subject. 

I have, &c. 
A. R. YouNO, 
Ihider-Secretary to the Government of Bengal 
FoH miliamy the I9th May, 1847. 

We are indebted to the honorable the Governor for the in- 
formation embodied in the following account of the steps which 
he took on his recent annual visit to Pinang to ascertain Ihe lo* 
cality where the coal had been found, and of the results. So 
soon as the steamer Hooghly was disposable for this service, Cap- 
tain Gongalton was directed to proceed to the place that might be 
indicated by the Siamese who had discovered the coal, and bring 
away a considerable quantity. The Siamese, however, was either 
unwilling to sell bis secret for a small gratuity, or, as appears more 
probable from the sequel, was trafficking on the discovery of another 
with which he had made himself but imperfectly acquainted. After 
leading the Steamer far to the northward, and pointing out a spot 
which on examination was found to be devoid of coal, the man pre- 
tended sickness, and neither bribes, promises nor threats could induce 
him to shew the place where the coal had been found, — ^for the best 
of reasons as it afterwards appeared : he did not himself know where 
it was. 

After the return of the Steamer from her fruitless search, Colonel 
Butterworth personally examined the man, when he admitted that 
a friend was acquainted with the locality, and promised to bring him. 
Subsequently he declared that his friend was nol to, be found, 


bot as he had inadvertently disclosed his name, Colonel Batterworth 
caused a search to be made for him in Province Wellesley. The 
real possessor of the secret was now found, and, ail hesitation to 
point out the locality being removed by a present of fifty dollars, 
he was sent in one of the Government Gun boats for the purpose on 
the 24th July last. The Gun boat arrived on the 28th at the spot 
indicated by the Siamese as the locality of the coal bed, where she 
anchored in 2^ fathoms of water and about ^ of a mile from the 
shore. The party landed on a small sandy beach having rocks 
00 either side, and on walking about 200 feet from the shore they 
came upon the coal^ of which several picuis were brought away. 
The commander of the Gun boat reported that the surface layer was 
red, composed of mingled sand and shells, and from 2 to 6 inches 
in thickness. This rested on a layer of sand, beneath which, and 
ifl contact with the coal, was a thin layer of blue clay. He was 
led to think that the coal extends from the beach to a small hill or 
elevation which stretches for about iOOO feet in a N.-S. direc- 
tion along the shore at a distance varying from 50 to 200 feet. The 
position could not be ascertained by observation, but the place indi- 
cated on Horsbnrgh's chart by the Commander of the Gun boat as 
the locality of the coal deposit is (according to Captain Gottlieb, the 
Harbour Master at Pinang, from whose letter to the Resident Coun- 
cillor we derive these details) in latitude 7° 41' N. and longi- 
fade 99^ 15' E., the southern point of Pulo Lontar bearing SW. 
by S., P. Telebon SS£. and Tanjong Gallon N£. by N. 

A quantity of this coal was tried in the Hooghly during her last 
voyage from Pinang to Singapore, and Captain Congalton inform us 
that it burned well. 

Some fine specimens which have been presented (o us by the 
hon'ble the Governor, and a bag full of others for which we are 
indebted to Captain Congalton, enable us to add a few remarks 
on this coal. 

In its external appearance, fracture, texture, polish on the sides 
of cleavage planes transverse to the grain, unusual abundance of 
inflammable gas, and mode of burning, it so completely resembles 
the specimen first noticed above, that, whether found in the same 
locality with it or not, we can have no hesitation in pronouncing 
both to be identical. ThQ first is rather more bright in its lu»lrc, 


has a finer graia, and perhaps a finer polish, but some specimens 
of (he new coal in Colonel Bntterworth's possession are almost, 
if not qaite^ equal to it in those respects. The aspect is so en-i 
tirely that oC jet, that, although it is of little consequence whether 
it be denominated cannel coal or lignite, we consider the most ap- 
propriate mineralogical name would be highly bituminous jet. The 
larger portion of the contents of Captain Congalton's bag, however, 
is not this lignite, but a compact, hard, blackish (sometimes brown- 
ish black) stony snbstance, saceharoid in texture, consisting of fine* 
ly granular quartz and carbonaceous matter intimately blended, 
some of which may be termed an exceedingly siliceous or impure 
anthracite or pseudo anthracite, although in most of the specunens 
we can hardl j determine by the eye whether it is the original hgnite 
or wood plulonically converted into proper anthracite with a great 
excess of silex, or sedimentary sand and carbon intermixed which has 
filled the hollows and interstices of the wood prior to the ncla- 
morpbism of the whole. 

In one very fine specimen, for which we have to thank Colo* 
nel Butterworth, the texture of the wood is completely prcscrv- 
-ed, and its external aspect is exactly that of a piece of half de- 
';cayed wood. The cross fracture exhibits the fine layers of the 
wood in the most distinct manner. Some are siliceous, varying 
in color from greyish, reddish, and yeHowish, to greyish black, 
and others, in less abundance, alternating with these are a fine 
black jet. At one place grey layers of the former regularly al* 
ternate with jet which at first is pure but gradually loses its com- 
pact texture and resinous lustre, becoming of a dull black and then 
more and more siliceous, granular and greyish, till it can scarcely 
l)e distingnished fiiom the investing grey layers. At one spot aH 
%race b lost, the whole merging into an uniform lapidified base re- 
sembling that of the otlier specimens. In these the siliceous rock 
4s found often columnar, resembling in shape and surface a por- 
tion of a trunk or branch of a tree, — very often with a thin en- 
wrapping layer of lignite adhering to it, and frequently also with 
"seams and irregular veins of lignite intersecting or penetrating it. 
The larger pieces of lignite are sometimes intersected or penetra- 
ted in the same manner by the anthracite. 

But the most interesting specimens are those in which the gradual 


passage of the lignite into the carbonaceous silex can be distinctly 
traced* The lignite first becomes harder, with a somewhat doll as-- 
peet; miniite granules of silex then appear, and continue to in- 
crease in number until they break up the base as it were, and 
gradaaliy occupy the whole of it and form the saccharoid rocV. 
Under the microsoope) with a power of 450, the duU hue is 
seen to be caused by very minute crystals of quartz, each of 
which is isolated and closely invested by the Jet* The com-^ 
BMm siliceous rode is also seen to consist of microscopic siliceous 
crystals of .watery and yellowish hues, with more or less of car- 
bon disseminated amongst them, the blackish hue which some 
spednens hare, and the blending of both colours into one uni- 
form hue in others, arising from the lighter colored crystals be- 
ing imperc^ytible to the eye. 

In a few specimens we see alternate layers of lignite,— com- 
pact or very finely granular, black, lapidified, layers, — layers re- 
sembling greyish carbonaceous tondstone, — and layers having com- 
pletely the aspect of brownish and brownish black decayed crum- 
bling wood save that while some parts have the proper dull hue 
the rest has a glistering lustre. The two latter when exammed 
by the naked eye appear as if sedimentary sand had been depo- 
rted between layers of vegetable matter, in the one case ; and in 
the other, had penetrated into the interstices of the decayed wood. 
The microscope however shews the minute glistering granules to b^i 
regular six sided prisms with pyramidal extremities and so iso- 
lated, in many instances, as to leave no doubt that they have crys- 
tallised in situ. 

The specific gravity of the most siliceous rock is 3. 58. On 

' This is a very fine instance of that process by which new minerals are 
introduced into the heart of other mintraI»^ithout any apparent channel. 
In many cases where most of the elements of the new mineral exist in the 
mairii the process may have been merely a chemical one, but in others, 
where new elements are found, electricity has probably been the instra- 
ment of the change. In the present ease the silex is imbedded in a lignite 
having a very minnte proportion of ash, and although the silicious matter 
toay have been introduced in a gaseous or liquid state and then crystaii^od, 
an equal balk of the eart>onaceous base appears to have been re moved for 
each crystal of silex that was formed. Unless we admit the doctrine of 
isomeric transmutation of elemenU, which (notwithstanding Dr.S. Brown's 
experiments which he supposed to prove the conversion ot carbon into si/i- 
eon «re ) is generally rejected by chemists, we must believe that electrical 
agency replaced the carbon by silex. 

164 »fSCEt.T.A!nB01III WOTICU Ac? 

exposing a piece of 2. 22 grs. to tbe flame of the Mowpipe 
for some time it retained its dark coloar, bat lost . 08 gr. or 
aboot 2. 7 per ceoL It exhibits no trace of fime or irooi and ap- 
pears to be almost poresOica deriving its cctoir from a small por- 
tion of carbon. The more carbonaceous portions may be term- 
ed a highly siliceous anthradte, for although proper anthradte con- 
tains about twice as much carbon as silica there is no defined li- 
Biit at which the name ceases to be applicable. Mr. Lyell and 
Dr. Percy retain the name for a specimen of Worcester anthra- 
dte which on analysis by the latter yielded only 28 per cent of car- 
bon to 68 per cent of ash. 

In sereral fragments iron pyrites are abundant, oc cuiiiug cither 
in large aggregations or in films, or veins, and occastonaDy m tayen 
alternating with layers of jet In one specimen, where the woody 
structure is so well preserved that the fibres stand out as we often see 
them to do in pieces of wood from marshes, some portions are lig- 
nite, and others have a peculiar dull ^temng golden lustre, which 
is found to arise from the larger fibres having been converted into 
pyrites. Under a microscope this presents a beautifid appearance, 
the metallic fibres being thickly interspersed amongst the untrans- 
snuted ones, or traversing the black carbonaceous ground like gold 
threads on velvet Portions of the siliceous cores are often pyritous, 
and in one or two spedmens the siliceous granules are rqilaced 
by pyritous granules, although isolated dark siliceous spots or veins 
and tliin films of jet occur in the granular base of pyrites and carix>ir. 

The successive steps of the transforming process as exhibited in 
these and Colond Butterworth's specimen bear a striking resem* 
blance to the gradations which are sometimes seen in the silidfying 
process which the sedimentary rocks of the southern portion of the 
peninsula (as well as the northern) have in many places under- 
gone. Just as we see the thin layers and films of lignite preserved 
in the completely petrified base, so in the cliSs of Cape Rachado 
yft see minute films of the original micaceous dayey rock occoring 
in the heart of the quartz into which it has been converted. Nu- 
merous analogous instances everywhere present themsdves, and af- 
ford the clearest indications of the gradual and often gentle action* 

* Sach it must have been in the case of the partial conversion of the Li- 
|or Jet into a siliceous and pyriioas rock, because a vtolcpt andpoweiAil ac^ 


ly which the plutoDic silkifying and ferrugiQating exhalations have 
aceonpiisbed their far pervading and wonderfol transformations. 

In the mode in which the pyrites are generally disseminated, this 
toal bears a considerable resemblance to a mass which we found in 
the sandstone and shale strata of PearFs Hill, Singapore, in June 
1819, and which, with the assistance promptly and effectiyely grant- 
lo us by the honorable the Resident GonndHor, we traced to its 
tcrmioation a few months ago. Some of it was proper anthracite, 
and along with it was some imperfect plumbago and plumbaginous 
anthracite, and a little mineral charcoal. But much was highly sili<^ 
ceous, and altboagh the fibres are in general more separated and 
distinct than in the Lfgor specimens there are compact granular por- 
tions indistinguishable from some of the latter. Even these how- 
erer are shewn by the microscope to differ from the Ligor rock in 
not being regularly crystallized, retauiing their granular appear- 
ance under a power of 22,500. When bruised to a very fiat 
powder the carbonaceous and siliceous particles arc seen with this 
power to be quite separated. 

We at present allude to this, the only trace of ancient carbonace- 
ous rock that has yet been found in Singapore, for the purpose of 
introdttcinQpa reflection that occured to us at the time. We found 
in it a striking confirmation of the all pervading plutonic action 
which the Malay Peninsula has undergone, or of which, we should 
rather say, it is the product, and of which we meet with evidences 
in every one of the numberless elevations with which the surface of 
the southern portion, more particularly, is rough; but wc ap- 
prehended that if any extensive deposit of coal should ever be dis- 
covered it might be so much affected by the same agency as to bo 
deteriorated for economical purposes. The few sedimentary hills of 
the Peninsula' which we have examined in a latitude so far north 
as Pinang were identical in (heir vestiges of plutonic disturbance and 
alteration with those of the southern or Johore tracts, although less 
strongly narked; and specimens of rodu recently received from 
the islands north of Pinang bear out the opinion which wc ex- 
pressed elsewhere some time ago, that the Peninsula is a portion 

lion, sach as great beat caused by the proximity of molten granitic fluid, 
would have expelled the ?olaflflc higrcdicnts from the whole of each speci- 

166 MISCSLl4ANfiOUS NOTlCKfll 4c. 

of a region Ibe rocVs of /which have been more or less transformed, 
siiicified, ferraginated or iroomasked, in the progress of the plutonic 
devclopement which elevated and moulded it. There may however 
be considerable tracts, as there are small tracts in every district, which 
Jiave escaped the stronger attacju of the subterranean powers, aad 
should coal beds occur in such, the lesser plutonic influence whiek 
bas been exerted on than may have been advantageous instead of 
the reverse. 

The surface layer broken through to reach the coal and s«d to con- 
tain shells, is a conglomeritic sand, partially ironmasked. The speci- 
mens which wefaave seen contain no shells, but some fresh barnacles 
and other shells adhere to its upper and under surfaces, which hive, 
other marks of having been taken from a spot within the range of the 
tide. A portion of a ferruginous vein varying in thickness, and ac^ 
companied by a lateral ramification and reticulation of thin veins, 
pervades a slab about 2 feet square, and from 6 inches to i inch 
thick, in the possession of Colonel Butlerworth. It is in every 
respect similar to one of the common forms of ironmasked rock ia 
and near Singapore; — the base in the course of the veins being 
merely impregnated and coloured of reddish-brown and blackish co- 
lours by hydrous oxide of iron, although there are spots wtere Uie rock 
is completely disguised. On the under side there are small portions 
of the vein where the hydrated peroxide is represented by iron 
pyrites thickly disseminated amongst the sand and pebbles of the 
base; and the appearances at one spot where the passage of the 
latter into the former is distinctly seen leave little doubt that the 
decomposition of the pyrites has produced the hydrated peroxide. 

We have observed similar phenomena in ferruginous dykes in tba 
granite of Pulo Besar near Malacca, as well as at other places, and 
both instances, when we consider the facility with which the bi- 
sulphurct of iron decomposes, lend colour to the surmise that the 
ferruginous exhalations with which the Peninsula has been so largely 
penetrated may have more frequently been accompanied by sul- 
phur, and originally condensed in the form of pyrites, than the ge- 
neral absence of this mineral in the ironmasked rocks seems to 

In the Ligor rock the pyritous nests are separated from the 
brownish black iionmaskcd lock by a narrow irregular band of dull 

MI8C£LlAM0ra M0TIC18 Jtc^ l&f 

browniA red and reddish brown eobnrs. Minute pyrites and specs 
of similar reddish hues are also seen scattered in the dark part oC 
the rock in several places. 

The same gradations from a light dull rust coloured, to a blacks 
isb shiaing, ore of iron, produced by the slow and increasing 
bydfons peroxidation of the iron of the decomposed fqrrites, are 
ohaerrable in speeimeos from Pulo B^sar. 

Similar phenomena may be remarked in the fermginoos granito 
of Polo MalUiog, a small islet off the N. £. coast of Pulo Pom- 
pong or Bittern Island (in the Archipelago on the south side of 
the Straits of Sipgapore) accompanied by a dyke of hydrated per*^ 
oxide of iron. 

Although shells were not found in the layers overlying the coal 
visited by the Gunboat, they exist in abundance in the calcareous 
beds associated with the imperfect coal of T4m&h. Slabs taken 
from these have an earthy base cooaistiog of a tough indurat- 
ed limestone with a specific gravity of 2. 5. The shells im- 
bedded are mostly filled with crystallized carbonate of lime having 
a specific gravity of about 2. 9. All the shells appear to be fresh 
water species, as the paucity of species and multitude of indivi- 
duals might lead us to conjecture. Dr. Traill has detected at least 
three species ; one of which is a longitudinally furrowed Mclania 
and another apparently a Pahidina. The largest and most com- 
mon shell belongs to the same Family and bears a considerable 
resemblance In the general form of the shell to some figured spe- 
cies of Trochus and Pleurotoma, but the apertures are not well 
preserved. Dr. Traill, however, seems inclined to think it is also 
a Paludina. 

It will be seen from the preceding details that the information 
hitherto obtained is so fragmcntai7 and meagre as to serve only to 
excite our curiosity, without enabling us to draw any conclusion 
respecting the probability of the existence of deposits of workable 
coal. Even at the places where carbonaceous rocks have been 
found we are without any accurate description of the thickness, dip, 
strike and apparent extent of the layers, or of the nature and posi- 
tion of the associated rocks; and, in fact, are entirely wanting in 
all those data necessary to hazard even a surmise as to the valuo 
of the deposits, and the propriety of incurring the trouble of enter- 


ing into any negociations with the Siamese aatfaorities on Uie sain 
ject, or the expense of boring, shoald the dip of the beds render a 
•urface survey insufBdent. 

Sarthqiiakes and amption in Temate.* 

On the 21st December last three shocks of an earthquake were 
felt in Temate, the Qrst two of which were very heavy and aceon- 
panied by a thundering noise. 

On the 7th of February following the inhabitants of thb isknd 
were again disturbed by an eruption of the mountain which lasted 
about half an hour. The obscure light prevented any other phe- 
nomena of this eruption bong noticed save the thundering noise 
with which it was attended and the column of ashes which it 
ejected dH>ve the douds. The lava stream flowed to the north 
of the mountain without causmg any damage. 

OUier two earthquake shocks were subsequently experienced at 
Temate ; while, finally, on the 8th of April last about half past 3 
o'clock a severe earthquake took place which was felt in a direction 
from north to south and lasted some seconds without however oc- 
casioning any injury to buildings. 

Falling in of a BBonntain in Timor.^ 

In the month of Uarch last a sinking of the mountain Nimbe- 
nok (which is three days distance from Kupang) took place, in 
consequence of which many houses with their contents were des- 
troyed by the great stones that rolled down« Fortunately no men 
were killed. 

Correspond ence« 

Wb have received several communications with reference to our 
first number. Of these none has afforded us more gratification than 
a letter written by Dr. Munnich, one of the Editors of the Naiwtr 
en Geneeshmdig Archie/ voor Neerlands hidie^ on the part of him- 
self and his cx>-editor8, Drs. Bosch, Fromm, Bleeker, Muller and 
Heijmann, and accompanied by a complete set of the Archief, as well 
as a copy of Dr. Munnich's eloquent and philosophical ^* Popular 
Discourses on the Human Body and Life." Wc cannot deny our* 

* From the Javatcht Ctmrant for August i84T* 


selves the pleasure of makiiig a short extract from Dr. Moniiich's 
letter. It will he percdved from it that the publication of the Ar* 
chief has been suspended for the present. We enncerely hope, for the 
interests of sdenoe, tiiat a woric so important in itself, and so bono- 
nbk to Netherlands India, wJl speedily be oontuiued. 

** We regret however to observe, that, some difficulties lately arisen, 
iniependent of the editors, have obliged us to relinquish temporarily 
our labour ; nevertheless we hope that the obstacle we have encoun- 
tered wiD soon be removed, and that, in a short space of time, we 
shall be enabled to resume the task, commenced with sufficient zeal, 
hot at the same time attended with unexpected troubles, which as 
yet we have not been able to surmount. In that case we shall give 
oorselves the pleasure of forwarding to you r^fularly the numbers 
of our new senes. 

^ We trust your undertaldng, of whose object we cannot speak too 
lugfaly, win meet with the success and encouragement it so much 
deaerres. We scarely need to add how much we feel concerned in 
yoor efforts to extend the spread of science and dvilizalion among the 
popnktion of ttua vast and still so imperfectly Imown part of the globe ; 
^-^deed, science is not bound to any country or nation ; its interest 
is eommon to all, and, on this consideration we take the liberty of 
Kqoes&ig you to forward to us by the first opportunity convenient 
to you a few numbers of your prospectus, trusting to find by a regular 
<3reidatiin here, or in some other part of our possessions, subscri- 
bers to your journal.'* 









The Indian Archipelago possesses an extraordinary abundance 
and variety of materials for elucidating the most interesting and 
the most intricate questions in ethnol6gy. A complete account of 
the different rices by tvhich it is inhabited would furnish results 
applicable lo the inyestigation of the connection of r^ces in every 
other region of the world. It would, in fact, enable us to con- 
struct a science of ethnology, by the principles of which, based 
^ they would be in the unchangeble physical and moral nature 
of man, ive might traverse in greater certainty those human pro- 
Tinces where a deeper darkness hides the traces of eaiTly history. 
Wfthout such a general science, the investigation of the origin 
and relations of particular groups of human families, must con- 
tinue to be attended With many liabilities to error, tn many cases 
it is so difficult to decide whether certain characteristics in Ian- 

* It is not the ohject of this paper to give any general accoiitit of the Hu- 
man Races in the Archipelago and their respective origens and relations, 
bat simply to offer some observations on the nature and scope of the enqui- 
ries into which ive shaU be led in considering particular races, on the spirit 
in which ve think they should be conducted, and on Uic inlrin&ic interest of 
the languages of even the rudest tribes. 

VOL. I. NO. IV. Y 


gnage or manners are original or derivative, that nothing but a 
large accumulation of marked points of resemblance can enable 
us to draw a conclusion respecting the. connection of two races; 
and this conclusion must, therefore, be postponed long beyond the 
limit at which, if we were in possession of a body of ethnological 
laws, certainty, or as much certainty as the subject admitted, would 
be attained. It is true that, as in all other sciences in which 
man^s free agency is the most important element, approumafire 
rules only can, in many cases,' be expected. But every well based 
approximation becomes a yaloable practical principle in suggest- 
ing and directing enquiries, and b a stepping stone to wider and 
deeper generalizations. 

Much more has been done to systematize the physical than the 
moral facts of Ethnography. It may indeed be doubtful whether ma- 
terials have anywhere been accumulated sufficiently full and exact 
to warrant an analysis of the latter, and whether any attempt to 
do so in a rigid manner would not lead to a stflted and dogma- 
tic mode of yiewing a subject in itself so pre-emioently expan- 
aive, irrepressible and mobile. 

A review of the facts that would enter into a complete accoanC 
of the inhabitants of the Archipelago might, if made with a con- 
stant reference to the principles of human nature, enable us reduce 
to a distinct and palpable form our conception of the limit up to 
which separate isolated communities, left to the mere operation of 
similar external circumstances, have parallel psychological deve- 
lopments so long as their developments last. The correct definition 
of this limit, with such strictness as the subject admits of, most be 
the basis of this department of ethnology. One of the first prob* 
lems therefore which is presented to us, is to ^hew, from the survey 
of a sufficiently extensive field, how far the common attributes of 
man tend to originate similar ideas, habits, and usages, and how far 
to develope these in the same mode. It is only when we have 
determined this that we can take our stand upon its solution, and 
confidently distribute the facts observed in any region into such as 
are wholly referable to those attributes, and are to be rejected for 
comparative purposes, and such as He beyond the limit of parallel 
developement, and are the true materials for all reconstruction of 
history from living records. It is in this field^ where nece^ity and 


reason have released man from their Inflexible bonds, and giren him 
over to the capricious and protean power of accident, fancy, and 
Uste, that ve must find the evidence which ti^dition has lost* All 
that lies without it belongs to the common history of man. It is here 
that we shall find the particular history of races. 

A more radical and comprehensive divbion would be into pure- 
ly psychological and ethnic facts, — the former being stripped of 
any peculiar form or colouring, common to all men and all nations, 
and those with which the moral philosopher concerns himself,— and 
the latter heing those which, although often the same as the former, 
are invested with a peculiar intrinsic force, or manner of mantfesta-* 
lion, by the character of each people. 

It b because Man b essentially, even in his lowest or normal 
state, a shadow of the Divinity, and a mirror of all nature, capable oC 
an infinite perception and reflection of the sensible, that he creates 
a langnage as spontaneously, variously and luxuriantly as the earth 
arrays itself in vegetation. Hence, to the developement of language 
great general mental and moral advancement is not requbite. A 
fine sensuous or perceptive organization, unaccompanied by any ex- 
ertion of the inventive scientific faculty in acquiring an increasing 
power of adapting physical forces to human purposes, is capable 
of evolvmg, or wiU necessarily evolve, a language as varied as exter- 
nal phenomena, tho sensible action of these on the race who possess 
such organixation, and the action and reaction of their nature. But 
although the possession of a rich language by a rude tribe b no 
evidence of derivation from a higher civilization, the inflexions of 
which the voice b capable are so numerous, and the particular sounds 
which Duy be adopted into the langnage of a tribe must be so much 
a matter of accident or peculbr organbation, that the language it- 
self may present the most important materiab for ethnographical 
researches. It b true that the flexibility of the voice, as it so easfly 
created one language, may as easily create another, and that, in some 
cases, the preservatives of a bnguage may be so deficient as to allow 
of its undergoing successive changes, ending in an obliterjtion of the 
original form. But thb case, although it has sometimes happened, 
must be rare. The force of habit and imitation form a grand coun- 
terpoise to the fertility* of human creativeness, and, while circum- 
sUnces remain the same^ man remains imprboned in the network 


which he has woven around himself. The person of the savage^ 
and the mind of the civilized, man must first wander far into new 
realms of action or thought, before he can loosen the ties of a lan- 
guage once produced. 

Every language contains within itself the eridence of its own imme- 
diate origin and progress; and it can hardly admit of a doubt that 
when the same minute, patient and reflective observation and analysis 
that have constructed a science such as chemistry, botany or zoology, 
are applied by numerous labourers, as they already are by a few, 
to language, the power of reading that evidence will be acquired. 

A comparison of usages and habits may often throw light on eth- 
nological questions even when the aflinities of language are wantiog, 
and where these exist, may come in to fill op those blanks which 
their deficiencies have left Habits and customs are soraetees 
more deeply rooted than language, and survive unimpaired many 
changes in it; although the reverse also happens. They are more 
immediately connected with the mind and less subject to physical ac- 
cident ; while, on the other hand, they are more easily changed thro* 
foreign influences, or the self-agency of the race. If a nuniber of 
families of the same undrilized nomadic race were scattered about, 
in distant localities, in a region similar in its general physical geogra- 
pby, they would perhaps retain their original unity of customs longer 
than their original unity of language. But there are sudi remarka- 
ble instances of persistency both in language and in customs that we 
can hardly yet form any opinion on this point Races, the diaractet 
of which has once been formed, and which remain in a torpid mental 
condition, may change both in language and customs witlmut under- 
going much or any radical transformation. But irhile isolation and 
dispersion would give free scope to the operation of those organic 
causes which produce differences in pronunciation Ac and mental 
torpidity would disable the race from resisting tbehr it^nence^ 
the same torpidity would cause an adherence to customs independent 
of organic influences. If such a race, in possession of some simple 
arts and customs, such as the mode of procuring fire by the friction 
of one stick worked rapidly up and down in a hole made through 
another, the use of the siimpitan, and some practice connected with 
religion— such as drcumcision, filing the teeth, or making large opening 
in the ears, — gave ofl" families who were scattered through wide forests^ 


and constantly split and subdivided at every generation, instead of 
uniting into settled communities, these arts and customs, being inde- 
pendent of external influences and placed by their nature beyond the 
reach of forgetfulbiess, would not readily be obliterated. On the 
other hand, every defect and peculiarity in the physical and moral or- 
ganization of an individual would exercise an influence on language. 
A single pair who were sluggish in mind, taciturn, and defective in 
memory, might occasion the loss, in one of the divergent lines, of 
many words, and when the ideas of which these had been the ex- 
pression dawned on the more vivaceous minds of some of their oflf- 
spring, they would invent words anew. In communities there is a 
general social prototype on which every person is formed. This great 
fixed life-mould imprints its shape on every fresh member born into 
the community, and gives a sameness of direction to the wild and lu- 
xuriant growthin which nature indulges when free from such res- 
traint But even in communities we see great differences in the 
cwnmand of words possessed by individuals, and in every family, ex- 
dnding the classes which are educated to a similar stage, we see the 
abundance, style and matter of conversation to be influenced, more or 
less, by the idiosyncracies and habits of the parents. How many 
thousands of uneducated families are there in England, which, if tran- 
sported to the jungles of Borneo, would carry with them the use of 
but an insignificant fraction of the English language, and even that 
little would be changed or ultimately lost if their social were sup- 
planted by a nomadic disposition. 

A nation pourtrays its existing condition better in its manners, ha- 
bits and customs than in its language. The expressions which were 
once a literal reflex of the former may remain, but, with reference to 
the present, they may have become entirely figurative. It is true that 
habits also lose much of their primitive signiGcance, but it cannot be 
so generaUy and entirely forgotten as that of words so often is. 

A dose comparison of the customs and manners of the differ- 
ent races of the Archipelago prombes not only to be highly in- 
teresting in itself, but will certainly tend to clear up many of the 
doubts, and dispel much of the darkness, which hang over their 
early and unwritten history. This comparison cannot be made 
without a fuU and minute account of the characteristics of each 
race. Traits which the general traveller, or the writer who merely 


seeks to eotertain his readers for the moment, woold pass over as 
trifling or suppress from motires of delicacy, cannot, irith any 
safety, be omitted if it is desired to advance science* While no 
man who has such an object would describe the vicious prarien* 
cies of passion, he will not consider that he deserves censure by 
describing as facts what nature allows to exist without oCTence to 
modesty, however different the habits of his own nation may be. 
Whatever the observer finds as a general diaracterictic of a people 
ought to be noted, because it is impossible to say w hidi facU art 
the most important for purposes of comparison. A fact which bis 
own knowledge or taste wonki lead him to reject, may be one 
which, in itself or in connection with others, is a record of thnei 
antecedent to those in whkh the more striking peculiarities origina- 
ted or received their existing shape, and the true value of ^hich 
may remain undetected until a careful investigation of tome other 
country discovers the presence of similar records, and opens up 
chapters of the past which tradition has forgotten, but which may 
thus be better authenticated than those which rest on tradition. 
Every one who has interested himself in comparing any people 
with which he has the means of being personally acquainted, with 
an account of others apparently rdated to them, must have fre- 
quently experienced a keen disappointment when, after detecting 
traces of a remarkable resemblance in traits of character or habits 
prombing to lead to imp(nlant inferences, the chain of analogy has 
suddenly dropped from his hands, from the writer of the acooont 
dismissing the subject as undeserving of further remark. Books 
of travel in little known countries, which shouki be a record of 
every thing which the traveller can observe, are too frequently a 
simple reflex of what interests himself or what be think jnay amuse 
the general reader. 

The same necessity for a combination of minuteness and exact- 
ness of observation on which wc have insisted, is enforced by high- 
er considerations. There is no fact in itself mean or miworthy 
of notice. To say that a thing is common or mean is too often to 
say that our perception of it has become so dimmed from familiarity 
that we have lost the knowledge of its proper import and com- 
parative value in the general scheme of thmgs. If all aUowed their 
minds to be enslaved by cOBtom, neither poetry nor philosophy 

mm nooiAN ABcnmLActo* 177 

could exist To view a fact as nndersenring of attention is to di- 
Torce it from its union with the living whole, and place it in a re« 
gioD, unknown to being, where things may exist from and to them- 
seltes. If we would seek to look upon truth face to face, we must 
cultivate a spirit of ohservation which no details can exhaust, and 
for which nothing is too minute so long as it may be the subject 
of discriminatbn. Devoid of this spirit, we shall every where 
stop short at half truths, satisfied that we have mastered the 
subject of our research. But this is an attitude which it is not 
^en to man to assume in relation to any thing in which na- 
ture plays a part He never has reached, and it is to be hoped ne- 
ver will reach, ia any direction, that point at which the spirit of 
being says,— thitherto shalt thou come but no farther. Every 
man may advance as far as his own organization and the science 
of his day will carry him, and new and beautiful ideas are sure 
to reward his toil; but unless the pride of knowledge weds him 
to a delusion, he is never left to the cheerless reflection that he 
has reached the bounds of science. On the contrary, he feels that he 
stands on the brink of a measureless unknown, from the depths 
ef which gleams of still grander truths flash through the inner 
darkness of his being, and connect him with the infinite. Thelie are 
facts which it is well to bear in mind whatever subject we may 
seek to investigate, but it is particularly necessary to do so when en« 
gaged in ethnic enquiries, because there is a strong tendency in our 
habits, sympathies and antipathies to obscure oar vision. 

All ethnography is in its nature more or less comparative. It is 
impossible to reconstruct the history of a race by limiting our views 
to the race itself. To a certain extent we may grope our way back 
to its normal condition, particularly through the medium of language, 
— and when our glottological discrimination becomes finer we may 
be able to do so in a strictly scientific manner, — but in races lop- 
pings do not long leave a scar or grafts retain their foreign aspect 
The If ound heals over. The graft, striking its fibres into the sys- 
tem and vivified by its life, loses much of its native colour and as- 
simQates to that of the body of which it now forms a part. Eve- 
ry race is full at all times of the elements of change, and al- 
though at the epoch when, we observe it, universal immobility may 
»eem (o have paralysed its vital expansiveness, we cannot be sure 


that in former times it may not hare repeatedly been excited to a 
partial activity, impressibility and inventiveness in different directions. 
Hence the absolute necessity of attending carefully to the condition 
of the surromiding nations, soiar as light is attainable, at every suc- 
cessive stage to which our researches carry us back. In the Archi* 
pelago we can never free our researches from Continental elements. 
The history of the nations along the southern borders of Asia has in 
every era exercised some influence on the Archipelago ; and we may 
be sufficiently impressed with the dtificnlty and importance of the in- 
ternational influences of the Archipelago itself, when we consider that 
while some writers have derived Malayan civilization from an original 
source in Henan^aban, others have referred it to Java, and others to 
Celebes, while two of the ablest, — ^Mr. Marsden and Mr. Crawfurd, 
—-have busied themselves in endeavouring to exhume a great nation 
whose civilization preceded the Javanese, the Malayan and tho 
Bugis, and impressed itself, more or less, not only in the Ar- 
chipelago but over all Polynesia.* 

The preceding remarks have chiefly related to the grand psy* 
chological elements of comparative ethnography, — language in it* 
self and as an exponent of the character and condition of races, 
-—and the other modes by which their life manifests itself sensi- 
bly. To attempt to assign a respective value to these various 
modes would lead us into too extensive a field. In the sdieme 
of desiderata annexed to the first number this Journal, many of 

* Since this paper was written the writer has received a letter from Mr. 
Crawftird, dated in June last, in which he mentions that he bad Just coin pleu 
^d an essay *' on the races and languages of the Archipelago and Pacific Is- 
land/' and which, we observe, was read to the British Association at its last 
meeting at Oiford. ** The theory of Af arsden " says Mr. Crawford ^ adopted 
by Humboldt and others of one original language prevailing from Madagas- 
car to Easter Island among all the nations not negro, and the Identity in 
race of the brown-oomplexioned men within the limits in^piestion, is whol- 
ly groundless, and a main object of my essay is to refute it. In a dictionary 
of the Madagascar of 8000 words, the number of Malay andJavanose words 
is only 140;^in one of the New Zealand 0^4560 words, 108;— in a French 
one of the Marquesas and Omaii of 3000 words, about 70 ;—^nd in a Spa- 
nish Dictionary of the Tagala of the Philippines of 9000 words about SO(K 
These facts are of themselves almost refutation snflicient, to say notbios 
ofthe different phonetic character and grammatical structure of all the lan~ 
guages. Over the whole vast field under examination there are but two 
wide-spread languages that can be said to have dialects— the Malay and 
the Polynesian, the latter being essentially the same tongue in New Zealand, 
theFrjendly, the Society, the Navigators and the Sandwich Islaiids, but in 
no others.** 

these wore eiram^atod, togvsdier with th6 principal physical ele^ 
menls of tte knowledge and comparison of races. A glance at 
that scheme may satisfy e?ery resident in this part' of the world 
that he has the means of making vahiable contrihtitions to know** 
ledge, and that it Is only by the union of the information wfaidr 
diffierent mdividoris hare fafoorable opportnnities of acitttiring, that 
any approach to an aeewaCe and complete body of bets, eren ire* 
lating to a single raoe, can be made. 

To those irho, convmced thiit the highest doty of life is the 
iflAdlecloal andrdigioas cnltivation of ttiemsdves and thehr Mlow men, 
do not fed dtemsdres txdie^ to a keen interest in the Archipelago' 
by Us economic^ or scientific possessions, who may be indiffer- 
ent to many of those relations whidi giro it an importance to Eu« 
rope, and who may be disposed to view its faibabitants as too re- 
mote from thdr sympathies and from tba sphere of their duties, to 
merit attitetion, they have other aspects which rise in value the more 
they are considered, and which all may admit to be the most im- 

A part from all ethnological aims, the consideration of any na- 
tion or comnranily remotdy rdated to our own must afford deep in- 
terest and instniction. If the highest natural study of mankind is 
man, as k certainly is, because be is the highest and most compter 
manifestttien which flie Ddty has given of His bemg to our percept 
tions, the boman race which we find inhabiting any region must ber 
a ndMer and more Instmetive study than its natdral phenomena, 
however Aboundhig in outward beauty or sdentiilc interest We 
see maa^s Oatnre, whidi we had painfoHy endeavoured to understand 
and to extricate from the folds of sdf love, habit and prejudice, at once 
stripped bare, and rearrayed in a vesture as proper to it as that of our 
own habits but widely different, so different indeed that at first we 
are lillle disposed to reoognice our^lves in the new dress. When* 
we surmount this repugnance, the peculiarities which had repelled us 
beeome a language which enables us at once to understand the na-' 
tore of Its possessors and our own. Traits which in themselves we 
might have viewed with indifferenee or contempt or dislike, when 
reeognised as flowing from or reflecting that andent inner natin^ of 
man out of which grew Adam^s life and grows our own, arc felt to he 
worthy of our entire attention. Nor need wc always be sustain-* 


cd in our obsenratioQ of them by a Vtm sense of this their deeper 
import It is only needed that we look upon them through the 
eympathies of our common homanity, to find in them much ta 
excite and interest oor whole natore* As m the physical world we 
delight to discover beneath the most diversified phenomeQa, the same 
wonderful forces, so we may experience a hi^ piensure in detecting 
under new forms^ and pursuing tbroagh all their varieties of manifes- 
tation, the same passions, tastes, aqd necessities, which hare giyea to 
life its peculiar character amongst ourselves ; in beholdiog all the ia- 
gredients in the draught of existence mingled as in our ,0|vii lot, bvt 
in slightly varying proportions and in a slightly ditferent.oup. For, 
after all, we agree Car more than we differ. The most passive, tem- 
perament cannot exclude, the most active, oannot escape, the constant 
action of the comtnon conditions of our being. In the sum of 
life these have so greatly preponderating a away, that a reflective 
old man probably draws the same philosophy of existence from 
bis experience, whether be happens to be a Hottentot or a French* 
man. Life is far more broadly and deeply coloured by the percep- 
tions of the senses, and the action of those desires and feeliogs which 
operate in the same way under all formsof existence, than by all the 
refinements which civilization can give. When we look upon some 
half or wholly naked people as dark in their minds as in their persons, 
to judge from the absence of all arts, we are ready to conclude that 
they are in every respect at an infinite distance from ourselves, and 
in fact are as near the orang utan as they are remote from us. 
But these people have a possession, which unfortunately casual 
observation cannot discover, but which, when known, leads to a 
totally different conclusion. They have a language, which is an 
image of our own, and is the same great record of sensation, 
thought and feeling. It is an undesigned and unimpeachable 
witness, that, with them human life in all its main ingredients, — 
those which make up the burden of its experience, — is the same 
as with us. No fact appears at first so extraordinary and con- 
tradictory, as that a race which displays no invention and no 
science, and wants many of the lowest arts, should have a har- 
monious and finely organized language of many thousands of words. 
The contradiction, however, lies in our own ignorance and pre- 
judice, and the fact, when considered with all that it implies, li- 


lenllr speaks ToUimes against tbe habits in which we too often 
indolge, of Tiewiog stich races, not from tbe basis of a common 
bamanityi but from the pinnacle of our own advantages. Bat 
their manners, habits, and customs are as capable as their lan- 
guage of being translated into ours, and in such translatioo all 
may find interest; while, if a deep sense of the brotherhood of 
man, and of the duty of those who have received more light of any 
kind to hasten |o impart it to those who sit in darkness, should 
breed in us a loi^png to excite. and fertilize their sUgnant existence, 
we shall, soon learn that,^ without beiilg able to impress them 
Ibrougfa the medium of their habits as of their language, we can 
nerer reach the spring from which all change, must flow, and 
which never dries np„ but is only choked by what it has broughc 
from the d^ths of human nature to the surface of life ; as indeed it 
is apt to be in every nation^ and with every man. If we are warmed 
and incited by a true spirit, our own gain is great. It is the 
highest end of dvilixation to bring us ba^ to that open aed im- 
pressible disposition of our nature, which every race must have 
possessed while its language was fresh and growing; Nothing so 
powerfully ^ists m disenthralling the mind from the trammels of l«n- 
jnage as the study of another language, when we view it not 
merely as an acquisition to be made by an effort of the memory 
for the purpose of communication, but as.thp most noble and spirit- 
ual of an human creations; as the immediate growth and outcome 
of all the inner powers of our nature; as the grand record of the 
early and truly poetical life of man, when the fresh and vivid 
impressions of existence possessed all the mind, and wrought within 
it strongly, till it could contain them no longer, and they were ho* 
died forth in sound. If we seek the language of any island or 
mountain group of the Archipelago as the most complex, subUe, 
and beautiful production which nature there presents, and full of 
mysteries provoking thought and veiling deepest truth, we shall 
be .rewarded by feeling our own nature quickened and expanded 
in the pursuit, and hfe becoming at once more intimately and 
wonderfully related to the shews of the external world, and more 
closely and immediately resting on the spiritual being in which we 
and they exist. The fresh breath of nature, moving in the language, 
^ill awaken a living motion Sn our own, and that which lay stiiF 

182 RBMAKM w TM If imaLOcnr Ac* 

and dead betwMO os and so moch of realty irfll as of old fkm 
like nuisic, expressiire and aaggestife; deinile in its straiii, wltile 
revealiDg, not hidmg^ the inlnite Mlneas lAMk natnre }et bolds 
for man. 

Ov knowledge of the langnages of the Afdu^elago is so ptr- 
tial and incomplete^ that the efforts of all wbo dokre that its 
eiisffog condition and past history shooM be understood, ooght, 
in fkt first instance, to be zesloasiy directed to the acqnisitioe of 
4»pioas Yoeabuiaries. Even of the languages of Hm leadfaig races 
*we are, afler a long period of dose interconrse urith then, most 
disciMUUy ignorant We are not even in possession of more 
than a half probably of the Malay, while of the aborigioal lanugos 
of the Malay Peninsula, ^at is of the ant^Malayaii tribes, we 
bate only a few speeunens. We shall merely gneis it the hirtorj 
ef the AreMpelago, until the dialects of these and afi ibe oflier 
tribes itahabiting it, have been collected and conit>aired. II is great- 
ly to be regretted that some of those wlio conkl co-opisnle in Ihe 
most effeetoal manner in this work, do not appear to besaftcieotly 
^pressed with the paramount importance of ibe languages eC the 
Archipelago, and the advantage of m^g public evtfry freib acqaisi- 
tion. Several works, indnding a translation of the New Testamot, 
bate l>een printed in one of the Dyak dialects, of widdh we are not- 
^thstanding without vocabulary, dictionary, or graooner. 



The priiK^ rerenues of our pogaeaBMB in ttm ladlni Arcliipc- 
Ugo an derived fimm die undennentkmed aDuroes, m. 

Hie aipitstioii of the Chines^, /. 41,725 

ne tax on the kUling oxen, buffaloes and sheep, . . 315,966 

«» .19 9f hog;s,.« 156,132 

„ on the consumption of fish,.. '.. 179,546 

Arm of the fisheries, , 155,388 

Tui cm the consumption of arrack, 293,882 

n 9f pahnawne, ., 13,244 

n »» ind^enous tobaccp, . . 120,000 

Baiar <0iaitDet) dutteSf .,,, 3,044,974 

Telto, , 81,C©0 

Fam of the small isles in the baj, ...« 7,812 

n n Birds Nest (Salangww), 70,904 

Pawnbrokers offices, , 334,866 

2nd. Territorial Taxes. 

Land tax of the Javanese communes, /. 10,047,121 

Fanning of the felling of wood, 36,560 

Impost on the fisheries, \^ 192,331 

Tythe, 97,741 

Land tax on European properties, 314,957 

3n. Various Rbcbipts, . 

Tax on imports e«l eiqioriB /•5,17i,lQO 

5 per cent addi^nal for maritime works, • . 256,775 

IVxes on eonsumplioii, 70,332 

„ tobwxo,.../ .16,090 

„ the port and anchorage. 9^,215 

timber, * .J .. ,317.434 

„ SQceesBon, ,. .•*••'•.... , • . w55,02i 

„ tnmscriptioB, ., 178|625 

„ private baaara, , 6,098 

„ pissage, 20,000 

G«|ntatM>n of Skves, 24,76$ 


Continu^^fromp, 144. 




Taxes on horses and camag^es^ MJX5 

IVibutes of the nalife prinoes, 39,445 

Taxes on public anctkmsy 290,143 

;, on the Chfaiese games Pho and Topho,. . . . 445,220 

The Govemmeat primiBg, 58,000 

Posts, horses, and letters, 218,732 

Monopoly of opium, 9,560,ld5 

Sale of birds nests (Salangane), 221,250 

„ timber for construction, &e., . . . . 505,700 

Monopoly of Salt, 4,609,1N)8 

Sale of Rice, 516,525 

PidmSugar,.. 90,620 

Gunnybags, 167,860 

„ Gold and gold dust, 50,900 

Tm, 3,000,000 

different articles, 115,900 

These different figures, irhich are extracted from tiie aeooonCs of 
1843, do not comprise the proceeds of the colonial commodities sold 
in Europe. We enter on this subject into some general delB&. 

The expences presented for 1845, as well for India as in the mo- 
ther country, are as follows, 

lat. Government /. 482,000.-^2d. Department of Justice /. 
506,252.-— 3d. Superior and inferior colleges/. 282,020. — 4th. Ge- 
neral admtiustratron and Police f. 3,460,610. — 5th. Agriculture, 
pujblic worsliip, arts and sdences/. 500,706. — 7th. Finances and 
cultures/. 38,317)112: into thb amount enter: a, chai^ges for die 
despatching of products destined for the mother countiy / 902,533; 
— *6, interest and repayment of the arrears of India (at a rest of cipi- 
tal of/. 2,656,317-51)/ 400,000;— «, rent and repayment of the 
loan of 1836/ 137,685;— <^ interest and rfnmbm-sement of the debt 
of Solo/. 81,082; — e, interest and repayment of the ddit accord* 
ing to the laws of 24th. April 1836, 11th. Mareh 1837 and 27fh. 
March and 22d December 1838,/ 9,800,000;-^, rents and rehn- 
bursement of the obligations of the Indies 4)^ per cent/ 2,850 ;— ^, 
interest and rrimbursement of the debt of the HmuieinuMisckepiJ 
[Tradmg Company] / 2,500,000.r-8th. Department of war /. 
8,643,834.— 9th. Department of the marine/ 1,642,154.— 10th. 
Pensions and benevolent establishments/ 995,172. — 11th. Ex- 
pences of different Icinds / 2,535,367.-^1 2th. Unforseen current 
expences / 500,060. — 13th. Extraordinary expences and public 
calamities/ 500,000.--* I4th. Expences for Sumatra/ 2,640,921. 

^Tbe total of the expeooes for admbiatratiaiis iunotnits tfaui tc^ 
/ 75,494^285. 

From the moment that the finances of India were aUe to pkee al 
the dlqiKieal of the central European Goveniment a conmderable an- 
noal surphiSy it become necessary to iralue tiie problem: intokai 
ah<^ ctM tku e»cei8f composed of a monejf e^ifchmvehf eoUmial ^ 
jtapertmd copper^ be eomjeiUentljf irantmited to Hi deHinatien'^ 

The system called dea euUureif Introdoced in 1832 by the Gover- 
nor General yan den Bosch, is destined to render this transmission 
possible. The excess serves in die first place, to furnish advances to 
the contractors as well natives as Europeans, advances for whidi the 
Goreniment demands no interest. In a country where cafntal lo 
scarce and interest very high, otdinanly at 9 per cent, fMllities of 
this nature are of immense advantage. These wise measoras, and 
this onusual diunter estedness on the part of a Grovemment, produce 
the most happy fruits. They are the source of a rtamarkable deve- 
lopement of agricultural industry in tiie possessions of the State. 
The returns of these advances are made in commoditaes reserved by 
the government, and it is only then that the annual excess exists in « 
form that permits it to be sent to Europe. ^ 

In no other intertropical coun^ has any thing nmilar been esta- 
blished. The promptitude of the results obtained is prindpally due to 
system of administrati^m introduced into these colonies. Witiiout 
the concurrence of former Javanese institutions, which have been 
prudently maintained and extended, it would have been impossible 
(to give an example) for the undertaker of a sugar manufiustoiy, to 
obtam the certitude that, during the continuance of his contract the 
ndghbouring popubition would be in a dtuation to cultivate, at a rea- 
sonable rate, the quantity of canes necessary for the uninterrupted 
vorldng of liis mill. Deprive him of this assurance, and the enter* 
prize would be wholly a hazardous speculation, in which no prudent 
man would risk his capitaL Tliese indispensable guarantees can be 
given by the government, of wludi the proof is fomished by what fol* 

We come to i^eak succintiy of the riUage organization of Java : 
a few lines will suffice to |^ve a clear and and plain idea of it, and to- 
make the utility of this organization appr eeiated in its apptication to 
cultures which it is intended to estabUsh. 

Acoordiog to the ancient usages of the country, adaij the sover- 
eign has the right of exacting from each ijatjah a contribution in 
money or in produce, or an eqmyaieut quantity of labour ; the go- 


196 TiKimira*« OBiimuL viiw or yn mmn 

▼enmenl whieh flueoeedttl to tUs rl§|lit eM diM exact if, in-siidi or 
such locality, where the land Uaes were paid in sugar cane or m all 
other agriaiMural (Nnodiiee, 

The aetiial oiiganintion of the teftileiial faipoat has glfen fairili 
to the posBibiU^ of potting thk exietion in perfeet hannony with 
the amount due by tti» eentribntora. The price of labonr ban; 
known, it has been eaay te determine the number of worlcmeB to be 
fumiahed by the flDage to fi«e it heat Um Itt ; or Tather, to retarn 
to Uie e3ca«ple befbre given, it was equa% euy to fix Che eoLtent of 
land whieh the inUage sbonld plant with rattoonsi before obtaining by 
it a flindbr result. Bat, fpon the moment that the rate of this la- 
bour goes b^ond fte ?alne of llie debt extgnie^ tiie ^9^h obfum 
an acquired right to the equfralent of thk surphis of the labour.. 

lluis, Gofemment is able to give to the proprietors of sugar nn- 
nufibctoiies the certainty that the qnantitf of eanes, required to feed 
tlmr cstabHshaaent, wiH be regriarly activated by the surrounding 
vilhges* To obtafai this end, notiwig was needed sa^e the smgie 
manUestalkm oftlMdcrireef Gov e r n m e n t in this respect, foHowed 
by an estimate serving to establish the basie of the (odeutetioa, of 
which the result is, that the tJ^t^tA finds hknsdf free from bis land 
tax from the dme tfant be iias l^niahed a quantify equivalent to the 
labour represented by the plantations of canes. 

Let us now pass in remw tiie state of the new ciidtares so largdy 
encouraged by Govermnent and which have been amdiorated m s 
nmarkaUe manner. B«t let us first cast a glance on the state in 
which these cdtures were before and in 1890 and that whidi* thfy 
produesdin 1840 ahraye in the hope of increasing prosperity wbidi 
tlie results Imve net disappointed. 

By the recapituhMion ftiniished in Utie remarks on the modem Ids' 
tory of Java, we see the company of lAe Indies pass sooeessively frtnn 
the condition of simple trwBng to dotnlnkm by means of exclonve 
oommeroe ; led, in order to maintain this system of monopoly, to 
make war, to conqner pravinees» and to beeome finely sovereign of a 
vast extent of country. 

If this Company alter iMwing cenqnered vast provinces had known 
to phme itself at the height of the duties which sovereignty imposes 
it would hftfs iMCD necessary to have dMBged its system of adnthris' 
trataon and to cease to oppress its subordinates in order to entich it- 
self at their expence. ttia but too true that k cared very fiCtie ifbr the 
people subject to its auth^ity, and it even appears that it never 
Icnew how to reap all the benefit torn its commerce that a wise 

ind pradent admunslratioil would have enfiired throui^ lai^e tnd 
more Ifibcnd newv. It is erea prored that Hg system wat not 
bued on a plan regnkted in a stable maimer ; It fimmied for a 
time such and saeh a eultnre, tobeaiMndonedprompdy whentiiere- 
Temie did not answer to ks expeetatioDS ; the price of a product 
rinag, it interdictBd exportation, and abandoned Its rigkt firom the 
momeat the profits no longer appeared to it soffidendy eon^derable; 
bat, aUiough more eonstant in the presemtion of the monopoly of 
fpiees, it is not probable that Ihey have ever taken into aecomt 
the mun which the culture cost ihem.* 

Ilie lands which it possessed did not yield neariy ao.mnch as the 
Mjatf of the soil permitted, becsuae tiiey occupied themaelvcs with 
fMt interests only onder the care of employees whom they hid not 
the talent of choosing well, and aiio were in iiaste to enrich thttn* 
sehes at the expense of those appointing them, who aflowed them 
only a small salary. They trusted, for the produce of tliese lands, 
toeoatracts with Javanese regents; these contraots as well as the oon- 
tingents wanting controul, Ihmished to the un&ithM employee the 
means of committiog prevarication and frauds, and tAie Javanese 
saw himaelf sob^eeted to many vexations. 

Borne by the concurrence of uoforeseen cineumstanoes to a sorer- 
^gnty of wliich it could not discharge the duties nor support the 
duurges, oppressed with debts, and accumuiaiing defidt npon deftdt^ 
it saw itself reduced to borrow eadi year the mesnsof ^atributmgto 
its ihare-holders a seaibfamee of profit. 

In this staae of crisis, the urgency was fek of sendfaig eommisslon* 
era to India in order to judge npon the spot of tihe stale of aflldrs. 
The delegates named for this purpose em^Midced in 1701. After a 
sojourn of three years in Java, these commisaonm retur ned and ^n 
the 4th June 1705, submitted thdr report to jthe company which 
gave informadoa of the real state in whidi they found the affiurs of 
the Society ; it then taw it confirmed by its ^ents that the conomerco 
was nearly annihilated, that the financial resfurees were eahanaM* 
and tliat in pfaice of bdng productive of advantage, the Indbn pos- 
sessions were a heavy expeuce ; it saw itself at this time orttwbalme^ 
with a debt oL84 millions of 4orins, ^ whish 67 miUions had bf m 
advanced by the Dutch nation. 

The States-G^eral of the Umt^.I'xoviaces haviqg acqnbed from 

.» >. 

^ We shall give some details respecting these coltares in the artids on 
the geographical group of Bands vol. 2. [not yet published.] 



1790, tbe conviction duit the Comply was dfstitate of Ae means to 
put a f«» on its iftte ; the sapprcMon of the ctorter granted to 

this association was suhmitted for deCbenlion hy the Government; 
nevertheless it only took place in 1798 under the rule of the BaUYi. 

an repubUc which annuUed the grant given in 1602 to this Com- 
pany; the State took upon itself the adnumitration oi all the inter- 
tropical possesnons; the immense debt wilh which it found itadf 
overwhehned paved to the charge of Government; in the couwe of 
a score of years the Company cost thfc country more than 100 millions. 
At the termination of the decline of the Company wid when it 
came to abandon its power, Marsbal Daendels saw himself charged, 
in Ae name of the new monarchical Government estabMshed m Hdl- 
land, with orgamaang the possesions of the State in India. He en- 
tered upon this adnuniatration under the most unfavourable auspices, 
as may be learned from (he preds wMch we have given of the mo- 
dem history of Java. 

Under the perhaps very absolute but, for the test honest and firm 
administration of this Governor General, which dates from 1808 to 
1811, we do not remark any amelioration in the finances, but a rapid 
progress took place in tiiedvil and military institutions; he ertabUsh- 
ed our power upon a solid baas, and caused to be executed ma- 
ny works of public itfility ; but the vexatious drcomstanoes of lus 
pontion, during the tong struggle against the English supremacy up- 
on th^seas, rendered it imposable for him to reaEse the hopes he 
had concdived for the re-establishment of the finances and the aug- 
mentation of the territorial revenues <rf Java. The financial resoks 
cif these three years offsred a very considerable frffther defidt, as b 
ihewn by tbe IbUowing table 




Thesxpsnees a- 



f. t,682,407. 86 f. 5,014,797. 11 
„ 8,446,40a. 98 y, 2,724,786, 67 

f. 7.101,781. 76 
„ 8,654,878.07 

The deficit Is, . . I A 86,094. 38 f. 2,290,010. 44 f. 8,547,808. 09 


irttimnt xedmidog the great qoantiljF Of paper which he pot into ^^ 
euhtioo, as well as the sale of many considaraUe propertiesy a fliea- 
Bui« to which he was obfiged to have recourse to meet oonsideriUe 


When England made henelf mistress of Java the first care of her 
govenmiaat was to mfvodttce there a ntew system based jspmk the an<> 
dexd JftTanese usages of the times of the Hindoo sovereigns ; thej 
were harmonised to the ordmanees in foree m English India. They 
gnmted to the vilhige due& the right of dividuig the hud tax ; the 
intervention of tiie regent of tiie itistrict in finaadal matten ceased 
to exist, and the land tax was paid according to survey. This tax 
was levied at a haff'^ at two flfttisor at athirdofthecropaccoidingto 
the teti% of the hmds. As a proof that this system called la»d 
reni, and ienemetU tcuf^ did not answer to its design, it caused a loss 
ef more Aan 21 millions of francs, during the three yean of tiie oc- 
eapsHon of Java by die Engiish, as the subjoined table shews. 


Eipenees^.. ..Bs. 
Receipts,,.. .. „ 

1812 10 1813. 

1813 to 1814. 


9,107,700. 71 
5,399,745. 42 

8,061,831. 35 
6,889,624. 04 

8,707,955. 20 i 2,171^707. 81 

1814 to 1815. 

9,092,418. 60 
7,520,960. 95 

1,571,487. 65 

When the isUmd of Java and the other possessions in these seas 
retomed, by the treaty of the Idth August 1814, under the power of 
the Netherlands, three Commissioners were sent to India. The Ba- 
ron van der Capellen nominated Governor General formed part ot 
this new commission, charged iKdth the re-organization of all parts 
of &e administration. 

The territorial tax introduced by the English was fdr the present 
retained, later it was mo<tified. We imme(tiateiy discovered an ex- 
treme confufflon in the direction of finances, so that it was found ne- 
ceuaiy at the beginning of 18 18, to establish a new period of admi- 
mstration, and to make concessions upon the arrears of the three 
yean preceding. In place of collecting the tax from each rate-payer» 
we contracted with the chiefs of desa^ by stipulating the sums for 
whidi they should be accountable to the treasury. We continued to 
follow this qrstem of collectaon until 1830. 

In order to have an opportunity of jud^g with precision and in 
an equitable manner, of the value of lands, the resident of each pror 
idnce as the delegate of Government, and the ^^Uage chiefs with the 
elders representing the rate-payers, were charged to[make the assess* 
ment, and to pass a decision in the I)uteh and Malay languages, after 
which each chief of desa^ assisted by the elderS; proceeded to divide 


tin fields and superintend the cullifatloD and gathenBg of tbe ^- 
fcrent cultures. A diMxmiitof S^per cent«qKmtiieiMei|il8 iened 
tt indeniiiff the respaBi&le clief. Theta^payenhadtheoptioiof 
paffing the tax hi moeey or id prednctf, aoeordnf to a frud me. 
The native waa left the free diipaail of hh penon and Us Uov; 
Wt the rights of the ngCBt (AUdptAi) hod to be sacrifioed» uA the 
dnef of the rilh^ (T'tf^iiif ^> Iduid himadf m di^ with 

the gorenoneiit.* 

1 ivould depart Terj much from titecoodsenesB adopted as the bads 
of tins work, if 1 should enter bOo delrils upon the dUfereat ealtves 
which hare been suooesdvely triedf, and if it was neoeasary to giva 
an account of the difficulties which were raised by the natives agvast 
the plaiia and dispoations more in harmony with their well being and 
fiberty which it was proposed to favor. It ou^rht, however, to be men- 
tioned, that by the new regfolalions the Javanese aristocrasy found 
themselves lessened ; that the measures taken with liberal views dash« 
ed with certain interests ; that they were not foonded on the sodent 
customs of the country, while they were contrary in certam pointB to 
tlie mdat, always held in veneration by the natfves of all dasKs; so 
Ihat the Government quickly saw Uiat its new measures £d not an- 
swer to the ends which it had flattered itself of attuning. 

The fall of the colonial mercliandize in the European markets ; the 
uncertain state of the finances ; the heavy loans which it was neces- 
sary to contract ; the war against Dhipo Negoro and many other 
causes, served to increase the debt in a frightful manner ; the inlet' 
est payable amounting to more than three milliona qfjlorins. It 
was then, in regard to the state of the finances, as in the time when 
the old Company of the Indies were under the necessity of abdicating 
their power. 

The trade although completely free, dragged on painfixlly ahd ex- 
perienced miscarriage after miscarriage ; many mercantile bouses in 
the principal towns liquidated tlielr affairs with losses of 20 and 3^ 
per cent ; some found themselves insolvent. The magazines of Go- 
vernment were encumbered \rith colonial produce ; t^e imports of arti- 
cles which India required from Europe were not made regularly ; the 
atate derived not a single benefit from its possessions, and ship ow- 

* It is said that Java and its dependencies reckons 16,000 of these chiefs 
ef villages ; I have not been able to verify this calculation, I Judge it below 
theettactive noaiher. 

t See Van Hogendorp, ^ Coup-d'Oeil sur V isle de Java, Cap. 6. Of eul" 
tures already estabtUhedf and of thos9 which could 6s introduced or tX" 
tended in /avo« 


Ben sded their veas^ at a loss, or in the ttneeftabty of returns al-« 
ways of less value in our markets. In tiiis state of crisity reeouraa 
was had to a nev privUegied eommerdal aaaoeiatioii» and te oompa- 
ny, cifled the HakdehnaaiUehapp^^ was created in 1884. 

libcnl theories, and pfaihuithropy nay, in entaui points of vieir 
ui our days, eondemn llie eatahlishment of a prinleged socielgr. The 
resuhs are these, Hbef serve as an evident proof of the reaourees wtidx 
the G overnment can dispose in favor of the woridng and indastrious 
ebsMB of society, and to spread prosperity in the ooontry by means of 
the reaourees which it has the disposal of. Its utility will be re- 
cognized by those who take apart in manufaetunng industry, and the 
uB]yrgydioed merdumt, who places lumself above the oommon sphere 
will become corniced that a small state could not chose a measure 
more efficacioas for portecdnif its exportation trade, more appropri- 
ate to maintain its iniiaence in its transmaridme posseadons, and 
able, at need, to serve as a counterpmse to the mvasion of oolossial 

We learn the following from the Court de Hogendorp reladve to 
the fRlUify of Java, and to the resources wludi it offSers.* 

** The soil of Java does not present any producfai which are exdu- 
eively proper to it ; but such is its happy fecundity, such is the good- 

ness of its clhnate, that all the productions which Pkvvidence has 
granted to other coantrfes situated between tlie tn^ics, can be trans- 
pUmted there and cultivated with suoeess. Iflto imperfeet know- 
ledge and lindted means of tiie Javanese have only until now per- 
mitted them to cultivaite rice, coffee, tobacco, sir^, katchaog, nuuae 
and a litde cotton, we may reasonably hope that a gentle and enliglit- 
ened persuasion, will easily lead them also to cuMvate pepper, gam- 
bter, oardamums, and the many kinds of tobacco and cotton on pro- 
coring for this purpose seeds from Virginia and Brazil ; wliilst the 
culture and the manufiM;tore of indigo, sugar, the extensive culture 
of cotton, coffee, tobacco, the manufacture of potass, of rum, &c., 
may furnish to European industry powerful means of augmenting 
products smted to exterior comm^ce and immense sources of riches 
and prosperity.'' 

We fivdier add what the same author tell us, "That m 1830, we 
coohi calculate that only two ninths of Java were cultivated, and 
that the other seven ninths sdll presented a vast field for unprove- 
nienta ;" which Ihis judksious observer is of ophuon " should be in- 

'^ C^p^Omi mr Tt/s d9 Jw9j published at Brussels in 18aO« 


frodttoed with disoernmenty and without huitbg or shaekliiig the gys^ 
t€m of duties followed in thb country*'' 

In the domibs oeded to piivite penou hy nfey partirobgly m 
those of a hurge extent, it was calcolated in 18290, that tiie micnhiTft' 
ted lands were in proportion to those already put under cuUmtioD u 
7 to 1, and in tlie domains where remarkable Improfements had been 
introduced tids prq>oflion did not eioeed 7 to 3. 

We perceive by the ^ew given of the state of the finances before 
1890 that the different systems under which our Indian posseBsoiis 
have been mercantildy managed, could not fnftiish in the long ran 
sa assured ben^t to tlie Government. The sjfstem adofMad Bnoe 
that time has given Urtik to the hope that tiiis e^qieetatioa msy bo 
realiied, and tiiat the state may count upon sure revenues which the 
agricultural industiy will annuaify furnish to the chief treasury ; witb- 
out doubt a very remarkable result, periu^ umque in the histoiy of 
ifistant possessions which have not been ooUmiaed* 

The system of monopoly of the Company ; that of tiie coiYfcs un- 
der Marshal Daendeis ; the registration laws of the ryid war syitem 
of the English ; those, mitigated and more liberal, introduced after the 
English occupation ; the strict economy put in practise by the Com- 
missloner General Du Bus, — ^have not answeredto the expectation of 
the European Government 

General van den Bosch, who was clothed with the authority in 
1830, deemed it necessary to administer the interests of Govemment} 
in a different manner from that followed by his predecessors. Hie 
best means of attaining this end appeared to him to be to draw ail 
tiie advantages posdble from the astonishing fertility of the soii bj 
means of agriculture, to make use of the balance of means for tbe 
support of the treasury of the mother country and to bring the new 
plans into luuty with the old customs or adai of the Javanese- 
Some details are necessary to enable the reader to be able to judge 
of the basis on which this new organization rests, which has reoeiv* 
ed the name* of the system of culture* 

The dvil administration of the Javanese under the Matarm em- 
jure, posribly already under that of Maji^Mihit, admitted of the lands 
belonging to a desa being dirided in an unSquid mannei' amongst the 
inhabitant. A part of them are excluded from all prosperily and are 
dependant on the proprietor who has the right of disposing of thdr 
services in exchange for the cession of a portion of ground which is 
furnished to them to provide for their wants. When the subordinate 
is not required for agricultural work, he must pay to his chief or to 


bis ijaijah the half of the hanrest ; if he performs woric he is exempt 
from this tax. 

Hie old aorerdgns of Jaya were masters of the whole aoil, at least 
to the extent of the recognized right by wludi they had the power of 
levying on the cultivated land a tax oonnstang of a part of the 
crop, or ihqr could exact personal service. Nevertheless the pro- 
prietor had the power of fredng himself from this tax by restoring 
the land to the commune, the latter appropriating to itself the profit 
under the burden of the charges. The tax as well as the forced la- 
bour were regulated by adat^ and consisted as regarded th^ prince in 
the 5th part of the crop, or in labour calculated at the rate of 60 
days work per annum. During the English occupation they acted 
contrary to. the adat, by exacting the halfy twofifthi, or one third of 
the crop^ inetead of one fifth. 

Indolence b the supreme happiness of the Javanese, while he partakes 
with an men in the desire to augment his enjoyments at the expense of 
the labour which he believes obligatory upon him. Accor^g to this 
basis, it is established as a principle that a desa is freed from the land 
tax by refinquialung the fifth part of the rice fields for the cultivation 
of a product in demand for the European Maricets ; that the desa 
should enjoy one part of the benefit whenever it is proved by estimate 
that the produce of the cultivation brings more that the amount of 
the land tax due by the village ; that in case of faihire of the crop the 
loss should be borne by the Government, provided the careUssness 
or launeas of the cultivators were not the cause of this loss of the 

Seeing that it is not sufficient to simply raise crops of these com* 
moditiea with the view to obtain a mass of produce for the European 
market but that this must be done with the necessary care, it was 
indjupensible to take means for satisfymg all the exigendes of the 
tnde. In order to arrive at this, capital was neceasaty as well 
as knowledge and care in matters of cultivationr. The ca|rital and 
the industry of Europeans and Chinese were so strongly bound hf 
interest to these undertakings, that by thdr concurrence we were in a 
condition to obtain a careful manipulation of the principal artides. 

In order not to overburden a part of the native population with a 
too heavy corv6e, care was taken to distribute the labour (for exam- 
ple in the cultivation of the sugar cane) so that one part of the inha« 
bitenta of the de$a were charged with bringing the cane to maturity ; 
another had the reaping, and a third were charged with the transport ; 
finally, whenever necessary, a fotnth fulfilled the labour of manu£Mture» 

194 TsimnrcK's oeniral vdew er ths dvtcs 

and only in the locaiitieB where the iporkmen were not in soffidenti^ 
grtal numbers, the last were pud a fixed quantify of rioe and adt, 
over and ahoye the r eafii i iikin of tho In. As tbe Javneee pre fe rr e d 
to work under the im mediatr wnrveahnee of Ma camtr y m ep, thisfii- 
vor was granted Co lum. All the care which the cuhnre, tlw harrat 
and the manufiMstnre demanded were entmated to die ?igihnce of the 
tluropean heads. In the districts idiere the enhhation off the sngir 
cane had existed for a lengtii off time, pennisBum waa given to the Ja- 
vanese to manafe their own groundy under the ohiigation of payiag 
the tax with vdnch the rioe fidds were charged ; in liie loealitiM 
where the rice fieldB are not mach extended, the right of drainfaag the 
soil in the higher districts was aeoorded to the popolalion. 

The difficidties which were raised by the Javanese of the provinces 
of tlie interior to the application of thb system were speedily ra* 
moved by the simplicity of the means pat in operation. After hay- 
ing set Bfut the fifidi part of the rioe fields of the desa, or after hav- 
ing chosen elevated soil fit for the culture, the work was distributed 
amongst the popnlation in the following manner* In order to exe* 
cute the necessary work on an extent of soil of one bouw* the de$a 
was obliged to furnish four men, two of whom were obliged to woik 
alternately for a weeJc or a monlii according to the arrangement made. 
I1ie working men liad as superintendents Cynese caled mwtdoor 
(literally master servant) who were under the surveillance of the 
chief of the villsge. 

A part of the popuhition employed in these labours Is entrusted with 
them until the produce is perfectly ripe ; then they are free from aH 
other work ; all the other employments are regulated on the same 
footing. The manufacture is ordinarily entrusted to free workmen ; 
if there are none, the labour is performed in the manner we have 
just mentioned. 

We finish these details by the application of tl^ system to the cal- 
tivatkm of sugar, already taken as an example in the foregoiiq;' pages. 

Hie produce of a bttkit planted with eugar oane may be stated it 
a minimum of 15 piciil6.t Consequently an establisliment which 
fumiAes 6000 piculs of sugar requires an extent of 400 bahm of 

* In Javanese, bahu. This measure is equal to 71 acres or square decs- 
metres; four bahui make the dJung.—X picul Is the weight of 125 Ib.s 
(Dutch), and 27 piculs form the koyan. This last aaeasure contains more 
or less piculs according to the different articles and localities : but a koyaa 
office Is always of 27 piculs. 

t The bahu planted with cane» ordinarily famishes from SO to 21 picols 
of sugar I aiiaough ^ouietiues, ibougta rardi, it produces as much as 2a. 


hnd, on which 400 men require to he employed duly; from which 
It rendtB that 1600 persons who poeiess 2000 bakui of rice fielda 
are exempted from tile bad tu» 

A nan cotB firom 500 to ahoot 550 canes, of whfeh 2000 to 2200 
ve wfieient to fiindrii a picnl of sngar, in wldch way 4 men are re^ 
quind to cut the quantity of canes necessary for a pioul of sugar. 
Conridering that the mill is only at worlc for 10 months in the year, 
the produce of one day is calculated at 20 piculs, which ocevqiiies 80 
cane entters, so that 320 persons reonve exemption from tiie tax hy 
thb bbour. For the transport of the canes to the mil! 140 loads- 
are redconed, each of 320 canes. A cart (pedati or keter) makes 
orduuuil^ two trips a day which makes the number of carts belonff- 
to the ertsblishmcnt 70 ; each cart is accompanied hy one man which 
nikee 280 persons exempt from die tax. There are 40 others re- 
qvred for cutting the wood used in the furnaces, and when the ma- 
sofiMtarer fro-m want of fr^ee workmen is obliged to employ the in- 
hahitants of tine destf, he requires 50 men.daily ; thus more than 200 
nni are freed from the tax."^ 


For the field works,, 

..' 1,600 men 

„ cutting tiie canes. 

320 „ 

„ the transport of the canes. 

280 ,. 

„ cutting wood &c. 

40 ,. 

2240 „ 

The manufacturer employing workmen fur- 
nbhed by the village, ' . . 200 


Total,. . 2,440 men 

<»f wMch only 610 are employed daily. 
Hie 2240 men ei\joy the remission of the tax calculated at/. 7}» 

' I mention in this view the condiliens stipulated by the first oontrsels 
with the sugar manufaeittrers. Shioe 1884 these contracts have undergone 
some modifications owing to the improvement of the apparatus and to the 
fhdlitv with which the nanufhctnrer now procures free labourers ; the taste 
for agiicultoral labours comes more and more into fiivor amongst the Java- 
nese. The old carts, pedati, are also of a better constmctioo. Ibeyare 
now made of iron, 

c 2 

196 mmminck's ffiNUAii viMw or ths pman 

wkksb maked /. 18,300. Thejr mfty be r8quir«d 300 days in the 
year; but il may be tJist tbe -nun requirw repair or is tlxqpped by 
other causes, so that we may calculate en 350 ev 360 wariong days 
liuchinato 65 dqra i^ork per liead» cakailatod at the ordinary price 
ofmanual labour in Jara, 12 Dutchcente per dsy* This advantage is 
not the only one which the Javanese employed on a au^ estate en- 
joys. First, he is fireed from the taxs and presenres the fuU enjoy- 
ment of the crc^ of Ids lioe fields. If he b owner, possessing for 
instance four bahiu office fields* he has the power of employing at 
the establishmcnty one of the four workmen (galiding ImwangJ who 
are at liis service, the three others remaining employed qn the work 
of his fields, he grants to them as wages the half of the produce of 
the four bahus; while the workman employed in the eetablishmeot 
receives the other half* The owner in this way saves } of the land 
tax which he owes for his rice fields. 

FinaUyy it is proved thaik the new lyalfcem pemits the Javanese to 
^leeiite less work wlule enjoying the same benefiits ; but frrai laliour 
equal to that which he is obliged to expend in Us liee fiekis, his pro* 
fit is considerably augmented. 

Some fear has been entertained diat by the em{rfoymeot of the 
fifth part of the rice fields for the more predoos cuMvation, that of 
rice would suffer and that this produce would become less abundant. 
The results prove clearly that the cultivation of tlds grain is not 
dimiidiAing, that the export b stOf considerable, and even increases 

The calculation establbhed and the balance struck of all the ex- 
penses, it results that the picul of sugar costs to the manufiaoturer 
/. 7* 50: the government pay for it/. 8. 50 or/. 9 co^fiper. We 
have already mentioned the advances without interest made to these 
establbhments, but with security for the cajutal, which ought to be 
returned in two or at most three years, by means of the deliveries of 
sugar. The Trading Com{Nmy (Handelmaatschapi^) recdves this 
produce, with all the other articles of whidi the culture b reserved, 
in the warehouses established for thb purpose in different parts of 
the Island, where they are placed under the snrveiUance of its 
agents, who take charge o€ the londbig of the vessels ehvteTBd by 
die Company ; the constant and regular navigation of these vesseb 
affords « sure gun to the owners. The nierohandiae on its nrmal 
hr Europe b sold by public auction in the two princtpal ports and 
at two fixed times in the year. 

In Uie pages destined to place befbfe the eye^i of the readers some 
results obtuned by the different cultures, it will be necessary for me 
to enter into a paart of Khe details wliich are presented by the offidal 
statements and reports nu|de to Goyemment on the stale of the cq1« 
tnres in 1840 and 1841. 

We place fet the head thi^ of rice, a nntritiois ffoduflt which for a 
Yerj great nlunber of yearn has served as the piindpaifbod * not only 
In Jafa but also in the other Sunda Islands. Jata i^ thfe granary 
of plenty for all the Archipelago ; and the Company occupies itsdf 
In tfala culture ^h sdioitude, well persuaded ^at a scardty of rice 
nugHt be fatal t& its poa^er. Ordinances to encourage and to inereaae 
this branch of agriculture, hate been' promulgated at different times 
by an authority called to watch orer the physical well being of many 
nllfions 0f {nhaUtaats. 

We now state that the pvoAoea of this culture has aUn^f been on 
the increase, while at the same time others more valued In commerce 
have been established at the expence of the rice fields^f ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
fife proof of tida. . ^ 

Taking asthe basis of compaifaanthe landtaK (todwiMrtalii aa k'ls 
for establishing a jucfl: riew) we find that in 1918 the sutn total of the 
tax upon lands Brought in 2 millions of florins to the treasury ; from 
1820 to 1830 it was raised to 5 millions, in 1840 to 8 miiliaoa; aiyd 
In tbe'lable of revenues ibr 1845 the land taa of the Jafaaese com- 
munes amotoited to more than 10 milfionSb As an evident; proof that 
the culture of rice, of which it would be difficult to £x the quant% 
produced annually, iacreases considerably, we may meution that the 
exportation In 1840 was 1^488,350 pkwls ef 135 fts. 

The foregoing exportation does not comprehend the crops In the 
provinces of Batavia, of Buitenzorg, of Soerakarta and of 1^6lgA* 
karta. neprodnch oftkete two katprotmees do not Jbrm mtf 
part ofthejigures of the fMfwing' ttAUs. 

* In the time of the Company the lavaaese popuUtioa stilt resorted for 
fM>d to maize, or to roots the use of which wad stiH less conducive to heatth. 

t The rice Is eolUvtated in Java la three maaatrs prineipidly, Itie ueae 
9isawah is given to the rice fields wbith can be inigat^d arUecially; .ti§ior 
or tagatj are elevated but level grounds, and gagah or ladang are cleared 
forest grounds. The two last only give one crop; a second crop may be 
ablainedtramtliaMroalkwhifihUieQ most commoRty jcoosists of ka^ang 
from which aii is citractcd| in &ap<u or fiac cotton, and in Mbi$ a kind n 



Numher of lUflideiicieB in which rioe is 
cuitifitocly .^ 

f 9 of cHfltiiclB) 
,, of dews or vIDageSy 
Araoont of tile pmnilation who teke a piirt 

in Hf witlioat dslinclion of OMte^ 
Number of taadBM &&». , 

yy of finidBes whodefoletfaeniiel?e8 

to the eoltivitiofiy . 
ff of men bound to oWgitory ser- 

Cleared grounds in 6dhM of 71 

Upon tiue extent the popobtion had col* 
ufBieci lor uie gofernmenCi ni Munct oi 
71 deeuietretf 

Extent of lieMi which the popidalaon had 
cahhated on theur owp account 

ID MMtff fcc* . . 

„ of ItndifaiMkrwin M^Kt&c,.. 
PSrodnce in ploab of ftelda enlthated bjr 
the population on iti ownaceounty 
^ Merage of a eoAtit 
OroBi amoont of the land tn of 1840, >!• 
Extent of rice fields newlj ciilti?ated in 
hnhm of 71 decametres, . . I 

In 1840. 












In 1841. 








8,602,402 /1. 9,030,761 
10,328 I 13,561 

I suppress here and in the other offidal tables of cultures, seme 
observations as well as different indications purely administrs^ 
and I take firom the oomparadve resuha, the following details. 

Ist Hist the nomba of individuals who are Fohmtuily emploj- 
ed in the works has increased by 152,665 ; the number of the frmi* 
Bes or ifatjahj by 8,833, and that the number of men destined to 
the forced work has increased by 1,979 individuals ; while the nrna- 
her of tbt fanulies who employ themselTes inagrieultttrehnB de ci t si 
ed 4333. This last number had presenteda too great increase from 
1839 to 1840. 

2ndly. That in genera] in 1841 a space of 70,007 hakiu more 
were dr^ed than m the year 1840. That the population cul^vsted 
on their own account 95,077 more, and the CrOTemment reserved for 


Itself 3,905 laBB Hmh iq 1840. The groonds io fallow oiler an ex- 
tent kaa by 21,165 ftoAiff .than in 1840. 

Mltf. JhBt in the 18 reaidendes tiie total produoe of the crop 
has fhrniflhed an bcreaae of 3^79295 picnls of paddy, and that the 
avenge produce of a haha hna exceeded by a } pical Hie produce of 

4di]^. That the gross amount of the land tax has produced 
/U 528,359 more than m 1840. 

Thia oomparatnre summary shows tiuit the cultnre of the rice in* 
creHes yearly, and that the average produce of the fields is continu- 
sDy Inereasing. These results have been obtamed by die attention 
paid to tfie proper irrigation of the soil fit for this culture ; and to 
the hydnufic works which the Government executes on its own ac» 
eoimt, in the parts of the isbmd where rice fidds can be estabBshed, 
and wliere they are required to feed a population whose number 
18 slin increaang yearly. 

The offidal tables wluch present the results obtained by the other 
ndtures appear here under the form of extracts; the most remarka- 
ble details wiD be pointed out : 


Readendes in wUch this produce has been 

cultivated m 1840 and 1841,. . 
Number of fiuniHes destined for tiie labour, 
Trees wMdi hare yidded a crop, . 
Trees whidi produced the average quanti* 

ty of a picol of 125 fbs Dutch,. 
Qoantity ^coffee furnished to the godoTTns 

m pusuls, 
Traes aecoiding to the reckoning made in 

the montii of March 1841 and 1842,. . 1336,922,460 329396,936 






The comparative result of this table shews that in the year 1841 
^ coffee has been gathered from 19,000,000 trees more than the 
nnmber in 1840, and that the crop has increased by 171,000 picub, 

2nd. Hiat in Hke montih of March 1842, there were above 7 mii- 

* The increase of tbe produce has been much more remarkable from 
18919 to 1840; this produce is, for the whole crop pieols 2,653,855, and. 
wd the av^ragiB produce per babu presents a difference of tiro pinils. 

200 "ttnlttlNCR'S 


IRans ksB of coffee trees tiitn in 1840. This ^Binimition is meHf 
kiominal, sedng that these trees hftvtt served to repltce iihose which hf 
Iheh* sBuH produeey hute to be sttppfessed in the low huids of the 
ResideiK^ ctf otufen. On the eontnury the loci'eise of trees phnfeM 
from 1880 to 1640 UBOonts to yerf itaarlf the same mnnber of 7 

9rd. Tint in the season of 1842 there was pUuoted nearly 80 mil- 
bona of plants ; of whieh 12 millions are to serre to replace the old 
trees, and 8 milfions are desdned to extend tlib eidtare. It is cal- 
vubted that tiiis island will very soon be In a conditiun to produce i 
mflfion of picals or 125 miffions of fbn. (Dutdi) of CoAse. PKrioas 
to 1830 Java scarcely exported as moeh as 40 miffions of fts* 



Residencies in which sugar has to be pro- 
duced,. . 

Number of sugar manufaoturies, •» 

Families employed in sugar plantations,. . 

Extent of fields in which the cane has to 
be calculated in bakus of 71 decametres, 

Quantity of sugar obtained in piculs, 

Extent of new plantations for the crop of 
1842 in hahui 

Average quantity in piculs, of sugar ob- 
tain per bahu^. . 








The results obtained in these two years have generally been very 
unsatisfiu^iy for tlus braneh of culture* Heavy and cvtABOXfos 
lalns, the imperfeelion of mills and of mechanics are the cnaes. Tbe 
canes grow better and produce more abundantly in tlie Eastern ptfts 
of the Island, than in the other reddendes. 

It is a very general opinion that this braneh of agricdlturalkdiistTy 
will be able to furnish, for the island of Java only, an export of * 
million of piculs of Sugar ; already the calculated produce for the 
year 1842 amounts to 856 thousand piculs of the quantity antidpfl- 
ted. The improvement of machines and processes, the new con* 
tracts established with the cultivators, and th^ iiare.wbich is be^to^^ 
to obtain the most perfect qualities, will serve to ghe a considerable 
development to this culture. 


Tiie %vaib^ of the Ja?t nigir improves more and morie, iriille at 
&e ■Hettme the <{aaiitity produced iacreaaes* eonnderabfy. In 
1836 tlKBr salts Ivf auotioa which took place In Ewope, anmuited to 
313,058 iHflHte; in thi» qiuratity there was 35 per cent of brown gu- 
|:v, 20 per cent yellow, 28 per cent gray, and only 17 per cent 
white. The htest sale made in 1844 afforded a quantity of 732,440 
picols, of whidi the qualities are divided into 16. 5 per cent brown 
sugar, 18. 2 per cent yellow, 11.4 per cent {pray, and 53. 9 white/ 
From this result it is seen that the quantity sold is doubled, while at 
the same time the quafity Ias readied a remarkable perfection. 

CutTURB OP Indigo. 

Readendes in which this culture is intro- 

Number of 

FknSks occupied with this culture. 

Extent of Mds wii c i e tiie cutting has been 
made in hahus of 71 decametres, 

Quantity of hahMi planted before the ga- 

Qoaotity of Indigo crop in ibs. . . 
„ average of fbs per btxhu,. 








The extent of fields destined for the crop of 1842 is 37^70 
bahuB, and the laneimt of the crop is cokailated by approxknation at 

In order la the success} of this culture in Java it is neceslMuy to 
chose the best ground. Experience proves that the indigo pbuits, 
traosplantod from elevated grounds to the rice fields, thriire better 
and give more edenriiig matter than those fiiraish whidi'are direody 
obtained liren the seed. 

The grounds in the rendendes of Chei^boi^ Bagicn, and Maition 
Ivnish tiie beet resutesb The new regnbtionB regarding tlib callare 
will cQBtribute to its detdopenent and to the improvemeiut of the 

The culture df indigo ww introdueed into Janra In die time of tho 
Company; it ms ao wach negketed Airing tlie adndidstration of 
Qoivemor Daendefa that the exportaiMm ceased. Thb culture haa 
vevired since that time, so that in 1823, the exportation was doso 



apon 17 tiKNuand liB ; in the year 1896 H had risen to 46 tboaond 
lbs. The abore taUe proves liiat in 1840 oioro than firo odlfioni of 
fba of in^go were prodneed in Java ; an evident proof of the ravrii* 
able progress whieh has taken place in tids bnudi of indttiby. 



Residendes in wliich dnnamon is cultiirated 

Number of establishments, 

of families devoted to this, culture, 
of paid budjani^ 

Extent of ground occupied by the cultiysp 
tion in iathusoijl decametres. . 

Cinnamon trees of whidi the baric can be 

taken,. . 
Youi^ trees in the parks, . 
For renewing. 










Total,. . . 

Cimiamon crop^ in fts, . 
refuse „ 




VfCflf 1 ,iAfO 








The number of trees whidi it b proposed to peel in 1842 is taken 
at 1,824,599, and the crop is reckoned at 108|905 fto. 

In the resideney of Bantam, 4 trees suffice to produce a fbaim- 
namon, whilst in the other residemdes 11 trees must gencndly be 
stripped to Itmiish the same quantity; in 1839, one ft could scsrce- 
ly be obtafaied from 13 trees. 

lUs cultivation increases eadi year, and ^ttt quality of the pro<lu<» 
improves, whilst the expenoes diminish. However, the GovernmeDt 
has judged it proper not to extend it, although the soil of Jan »p- 
pears favorable to this eidture. 

We shall omit the detaifo regaiding the cultures wMdi have not ob- 
tained a large extension, or whidi are confined to experimenlB mors 
or less fiivourable, such as cochineal, the dove, pepper, tobsooo, tei} 
silk, cotton &a ; some remarks will suffice to give an idea of them. 

The cochmeal plant was mtroduoed into Java in 1830; noce which 
time this shrub, ulhabited by the insect which funuahes the codasx^^ 
has been euhivated. Experiments on a brge scale have only been 



nade m a few ftddearies wkero they liava sucoMdad perfisctlj. It 
is eonfiikBtlr eipecled that the reakbiMsiag of Japam and lOnawang 
wm fwuah b 1846» aaoh from 18 to Sa thouaaaMi Ite. of coc^^ 
Ihaaa leaidenciea* aa well aa thoae of Bantami Cheriboa, and Sama-* 
rang, are deagnad for this culture which requires much care and 

It afipaava that the elo¥e doea not thrive on the 3oil of Java; the 
planfaliona of wUeh trial has been made have not succeeded although 
thcgr were Erected by skilled persons brought from Anoboyna, and 
althoHgk tbe pkees thqr made choice of did not differ remarkably, 
aft to ground and rtimate, from those of the Moluccas. 

Pepper is cnltmted ia two reaideaci^; the culture of this creepejr 
16 not now so much sought in Jajva, as.k was in the thne of the Com- 
piny ; it has been repbeed by culturea more profitable, and which 
rei|iure less care; tbe previnDe of Bantsoai has alwi^s furnished 
and still eontittttes to produoe the most pepper. 

Tbe culture of tobacco b a very profitable article for the labourers, 
sedng tliat the produce is obtabed from grounds which have already 
given a first csop. The qualities of Java tobacco are more and more 
prised in the European markets ; the preparation and assortment are 
not yet all that could be desired, but they have progressed in this 
bnmch, md the eootracts made with the new adventurers assure tiiem 
of a eoosiderable benefit. But, before the Javanese tobaccos can 
find an assured openix^ in the European markets, it is necessary 
that the cultivators should make use of seeds from the Havannah or 
Manila. The residencies of Rembang, Sourabaya, Samarang, Cheri« 
bon, and Tagal present districts suited for this culture ; it has bee^ 
carried on with sucoess for a good many years in tlie lesidencies of 
Preangcr, Pakakmgan and Kedu, but only for the consumption of 
the interior and of the Archipelago. 

In 1828 the first experiment in the cultivation of tea was made in 
the garden of the Chateau of Bnitenzoi^ where 800 plants of an as- 
toniahiiig viguor served as an encouragement to undertake this culture ; 
considerable plantations were made in many parts of the island. The 
first trials did not answer to the expectation as for as* regards tlu? 
quality of this artwle, the astringent taste and feeble aroma of wliicli 
caused the conjecture that tlie preparation of the leaf and its final 
mampnlation are not exactly according to the process used in China. 
At present tea is cultivated in thirteen residencies ; but the principal 
establishmeBt where the final manipulation is made, and where the 
assorting and pacluiig takes pbice, is in the neighboivhood of Batavia. 

o 2 

The teas whidi Java now furdahea feaify to the maritels ofDiemo^ 
ther eoantry maj be stated at firom '20(> to 300 ttiouttuiA ilk Ne- 
yertheless we learn thM GrbVenfmekit totends Id alMnJon thb edtort 
to tlie industry of private persons. Holder 1!he guanmeee of efiMlfl 

Mr« Jacobson inspector of tea culture In Java, has pidlMed d 
Batavia a work in ihtet Volames, upofi tlie mode ^tSMftt&ag^ 
plant, upon the ckioice of gn/aol^ tad 'the best ^iirdtM^fonhepre* 
paratlon and manipulfltion o^ f^e lewtfes. This book, die Mt «f im- 
ny years of experience and care gir<M"to this objetft, is welcomed 
with a lively interest by the ciiltiTAtors Who derotie theiiiseHes to thb 
lM*aneh of industry. If, by means of care, and at llie eftd of ttnj ex- 
periments the Grovemment succeed In conftrring ontheishndof Jm 
this important branch of eommeroe, she may hope to tf\Mn briHiaofi 
results, above aH at a time when the vidtories gahied bf Englaiul 
over the Chinese, may be looked upon as t^e fbrenmners of poOdcd 
and mercantile changes which it is impos^ble to pre-judge, Iwt from 
which the Island of Java may perhaps be called to draw a Iirge har-< 
vest, and which, at all events, open to this country a new source of 
prosperity and riches. 

When Arabia enjoyed the exclusive monopoly of coffee it touM 
not be foreseen, that one day the Island bf Javi would fmi^ 
to the ^consumption of this article, from 125 to 130 miffions of iin 
per annum. If the culture of tea sueceeds in Java, aecbrcBiig to the 
expectation which inay be formed, the teat in cae^ which our trade 
brings yearly to China will then flow'for the greatest part towartis 
the possessions of the state. 

The rearing of silk worms in Java dates from the beginmng of ^^ 
1 8th century. After having furnished satisfactory results ihiB bnseli 
of industry has latterly been neglected ; it has been tried to * revive it 
from its depression, but the experiment has not answered to the bopi: 
4U>nceived. Some trials having failed, the Government seems to iB' 
tend to abandon this undertaldng, which oflbrs better ehance ef «ic- 
cess in the hands of private persons. 

Two lands of cotton grow in Java. That trhich is produced by the 
bfty tree Bombax pentdndrum^ called in Malay Kapok is coarse 
and cannot be employed in manufacturing cloth. The cotton shrub 
Gossipyium herbaceum or the Kapas of the Mialay is a light and fin«* 
down which is used in the arts, and which has been long cidtinted 
by Europeans in Java. This last culture has experienced impn»^*<'' 
nient, and the export of it is very considerable. 

MiwrMSfoss- IK sac iwian abchifelago. . 305 

We |HMi oier jn Al«^ce,|lie.oultmies which wer9 Iqiowii to tte Ja- 
▼aaeae before Aa.«prbral of die Sutqpeaas, or vhich they numged 
whhaot the Inttorvealiq^ i^f di93i. It remwns for me tx> mentum the 
cettiBK of tke nHqfred fop^flK ud the rtvei ecopamy. 

Inordcr 4o.pii^fi8feQp.ta,,the devutatioa fonneriy oammitted in 
the eiteiMhre f^ieafeB which ^ffL ocfver a part of the ishmd, the Go- 
TenmiiBthaa adopted mea0«re$,for.the praper and r^g^iJar management 
of.theve forestB» yWhioh at present amount to the. nuadMr of 7^9 
ind oooi^ a vevy epottderabk surfaee in 13 of the 22 reeidenciea qi 
Java aad MadiJira^ ,, Theee forests are for the most part composed of 
Djatieor teak worlf (T$ctona grandUJ a hard, wood possessiag the 
qoalitiea ^ the European oak» and wliieh is employed in the eon- 
strH6tl«n<^balldii|g|s«nd in ship building. . The yearly export i» oen- 

For aome timi^ the Ooyemment has made trial of two agricultoral 
establishmenfp unhBr the form of pemtentiary institutions. Theee 
model &rms are established in the least populous districts of Kr»- 
wsngaadBeaokie ; the firstof these establbhments contained in 1841, 
43 condemned persoQB, and the seooi4 54. The end which is this trial is 'to encourage to work ▼agranta and vaga* 
bonds, and to furnish to the country an induslarious population after 
tbci expiry of tb^ir period of detention ; in this last point of view the 
reodt has not answered the aim, seeing that the greater mmkber of 
the liberated perBops go ebewher^ immediately on the expiration of 
thdr term of punishment. The condemned cultiyate in these esta* 
biyhments rioe, cofl^ cochineal and indigo. 

Thebreedingof cattle receiyeseyery year a contt4erable develop* 
meat, above all since the slaughter of h u italoes has been prohiUted, 
this ammal being of a recogxuzed utility for field labour ; the number 
of catde and horses in 1840 was as foHowiT: 

Buffidoes, 1,215,825 

Oxen Bullocks,.. 378,455 

Horses, 255,197 

Tht census of 1842 states them to be as follows : 

Buffaloes,. ..... 1 ,324,633 '' 

Bullocks, 431,357 ' '' 

Hones, 291,578 

* This augmentation is owing not oiily to the catde bom in the coun- 
.try, but also to the considerable importation which is made from 
9her islands of the Archipelago, 


In 1S40 it WW proposed to Government to mtroduee tlw ssb miid 
cftinel into JavA, ig bewts of Imrdeii. In eooMqueiiee af fids atrial 
has jost been made to natnndbe the Camel in Mm IdaaL Th/tse 
useful animals were bitm|fht from Teneriife« Tbey liare been kept in 
f he residency of Samarang, and their number m 1841 amoonted to 8 
males, 29 females and 11 young, of whidi 7 ^iv^re nudes and 4liBaialeB. 

The Camel does not seem to be adapted t» Hie diraate of Jsfa, 
and there is a doubt if it can render much service to agrienltiire 
particularly ss s means of transport. On level ground the nsle can 
only carry 4 piculs and the female 3, Java befing covered willi moun- 
tains for three fourths of its surtee, Ihey will not be able to bear 
such a weight, all Hiese Camels hove suceesrively perished. 

The model stud established at Tjanjor under t2ie Government of 
the Baron van der Capeilan has not furnished encouraging ressHs ; 
the number of 390 horses which were there in 18A has sustdned a 
loss of 3fi ; it is brought according the census of 1841 to 16 stallions 
104 mares, and 75 colts. 

* This stud, established with the inten^on* of improving the breed of 
Yiatire horses, still leaves nmch to be ii4shed for in its evgaiuMtion 
smd the choice of horses. It is asserted that the oountiy md the 
soil where it is established are not suitable ; it is also nid that fbt 
administration is defeclave and that it wants funds. An establish- 
nicnt of tins Innd deserves to fix the attention of G overnmen t , whick 
i^ertainlr will bus}' itself with it for the benefit of tiie army and agri- 

The two tables of the export of produce of tiie wiide Ardilpehgo 
In 1836 and 1836, serve to shew the remarkable increase which has 
taken place since the introduction of the s}*stem of cultin*es. 


Mace,. . 

Javanese cloths, 
Raw Cotton, . . 
Rice, . . 

• t 

Exports in 1826. 

Dutch florins. 
340,049 piculs of 125 fts, . . 6,719,945 

• • 

556 „ 


541 „ 


2,237 „ 


4,480 „ 




939 „ 


23 „ 


5,895 coynns of 3,375 fts, 



Birds ttests, •• 
iaifm tolNu:co, . . 


Saddand Sapanwool 

fibony wood, .. 

fioffido hides . . 



Oil, .. 

13300 pieult 

154400 fti 
19,795 piculs 

• • 

Coflee* •/ 

Tin, .. 
Mace, . 
Nutmegs, . . 

Bufido hides,. . 


Difoo^ artides. 


Gold, diistand wrought. 


Sapan wood, . . 



Raw Cotton, . . 



Copper nt e nsi i s. 

Different cloths. 

Copper articles, 

Spieci &c, . . 


Mother 6'Pearl, 

Round Pepper, 

Long Pepper, . , 

75,344 in No. 
1,828 piculs 
76 „ 

Expoars in 1836. 

489,078 piculs 
509,514 „ 
36,438 Goyans 
47,739 picids 
991 „ 
2,185 „ 
5,022 „ 
109/)98 in No. 

942 piculs 
3,321 piculs 
19,822 piculs 
237 piculs 

1,304 piculs 











































208' TKHMnrCK^s osmaiAv vtsw of ths dihpck 






2,641 ooyans and 17i pieok 158»405 

The table wliich follows serves to shew the export of lihe principai 
prc^etions which took pUuse' in 1841 Mid 1843 from tlie harbours 
of Java and Madura. 


. 40,968 

Tortoise shell,^ 




Dniga for dyeing. 

IKrd nests, • 

Salt, . . • • 



• « 

In 1841. 

In 1843. 

... * . 

676,212 pis 


Coffee, . . 

961,466 ^, 

1,018,102 „ 

Sugar, . . 

1,031,094 „ 

»?9,769 „ 

NutoiegSr • . 

5,125 „ 

2,133 „ 

Mace, . . 

1,171 „ 


Cloves, . . 

7,610 „ 

2,027 „ 

'Tin^ ' .. 

48,339 „ 

45,7M „ 

liidigo, .. 

1,827,386 fts 


Cinnamon, • . . 

. 362 pis 

1,441 pb 


20,978 ibs 

63,111 ftg 

• • 

Raw Silk, 

5 pis 


*Pepper. . . 

13,245 „ 

'23,083 „ 

Java Tea, 

1,408 „ 

365,975 „ 


474,150 lbs 

710,850 fts 

Indian Rubber, 


155 pb 

The tables of the Import and export of the trade and the naviga- 
tion give the following results for the years 1835 and 1842. The/ 
serve to shew the prog^ressive increase whldi took pWe in some 
years in these two branch«*s of the national well bdng. The genersl 
movement of the imports and exports may serve to demonstrate 
their importance. , 

Imports into Java akd Madura in 1835. ' - 

Tlie value of the imports excluding those made on account of the 
Oovenunent, has been. 

In Merchandize, . . / 1^^554,416 
In Specie .. '2,311,389 

Total 17,865,8ai 

' ... ■ - ' ' » 


They wore firom the foUowuig* places, ns i 

From Europe iumI America, value .. / 8,291«956 

Western India and Bengal . . lfil7,2\S ' 

China, Manila and Siam .. . 1,139,126 

Empire of Japan 1,221,368 

Indian ' Archipeli^o . . 3,884,748 





Sum total in merchandize / 15,554,416 


The importB took phioe from the Mowing 






Netlierlands,. . / 4,059,661 

• • 



England, .. ' 3,255,603 




France, , . 396,754 

. 160,650 



Hambuii^,.. 74,181 




Sweden, . . 18,506 

• « 



America, . , 242,074 




Cape of Good Hope, 11,501 

• « 



Manrittufl, .. 1,196 




British In(fia, 170,935 

• • 



Siam, . . 71,820 

• • 



Cochin Cliina, * 10,467^ 




CMna and Macao, 383,142 




Manila, . . 77,941 




Japan, . . . 1,221,368 

■ • 



New Holland, . 2,729 




Indian ArchipeUigo, 5,556,478 



Total, .. 15,454,416 



These imports took place by 2,082 vessels of an aggregate burden 
of 96,752 tons, and sailing uniler the foDowii^ flags. 

Vessels. Tons. 
From the ports of Europe under Dutch colours, 135 30,570^ 

M „ Indian Archipelago, . . 1,738 379533 


Total under Dutch flag. 



Under British flag, 



„ French „ 



„ Swedish „ 





t, Hamburgh „ 



424 J 

„ Portuguese „ 



), Americfin „ 

» • 

• « 



QIO VKimiBCK'a tosBiUL viBW or turn aercv 

From OldenlwiY 


• • 

Different Asiatic flags. 











Total, Vessels 2fiS2 tons 96,752 

The imports nader certiicates of Netherlands origin form a total 
amount of/ 2^020^080. 

To the imports bj pnvftte persona of /179S65,805 

add those on account of the Government, 2,987.025 

Total Imports, / 20,852,830 

Exports from Java and Madura in 1835. 

The yahie of the exports exchiding those made on account of the 

Government amounted. 

In Merchandise Co/ 32,158,030 

„ Specie, . . 336,437 


This export took place to the following countries viz. 


^ Merchandise. 










• • 




• » 




•' m 




m * 






Cape of Good Hope, 


• • 




• • 


Bengal, Coromandel, 

and Malabar, 37,486 









■ m 


China and Macao, 




Cochin China,. . 


• . 




• • 




• • 


New Holland, . . 


» . 


The Indian Archipelaj 









MNMUSioMS ts rm nmiAM ASCHirsKuiaa. 


The above mentkined export consuted of pr^diioe) 

Of Jftva and Madura, value, 

Westero parts of India and* Bengal, . • 

Sim, Cochin China and Manila, 


Europe and America, 

/ 30,571.259 





Total, /32,158,030 

These exports took place by 2,700 vessels, of an .aggregate bur* 
den (tf 126,061 tons, and sidling under the following flags viz : 

Vessels* Tons. 
Under Dutch flag bound for the ports of this 
country, or to foreign ports, .. .. 166 41,753^ 

Under Dutch flag bound to the ports of the 
Indian ArehipeUiga 2,283 48,660^ 


* • 

under Dutch flag 2,449 


Under British fli«, 



„ French , . „ 




„ Swedish „ 



„ Hambofg, „ 



„ Portuguese*, 




„ American „ 



„ Oldeabuig „ 



„ Siamese „ 



„ Chinese „ 



„ Different Asiatic flags, . 





ital, 2,700 


To the ezporte by private persons of • • / 32,494,467 

aid those on. account of the Government iir its 


• • 


Total Exports, /34,1 14,961 

In the amount o/thc exports those of the three bonded warehouses 
^ire not included, amounting toy 906,933* 

P 2 


Imports iirro Jata awd Madura in 1843. 
The whole privite ImportB of Java and Madura, amounted to 

Merchaiidiae, .. /21,980,71» 

Gold and Siher Spede, 570J596 

Total, / 22^1,388 

The Impoiti conasted in Products : 
Of Europe and America, valued at . . 
Of the West of India and Bengal, 
Of China, Manila and Siam, 
Of the Japanese Empire, 
Of the Eastern Archipelago, 

/ 12,103,340 





Sum total in Merchanfize, / 21,980,792 

The Imports took plaoe firom the following Countries ; vis. 

Merchandize. Specie. ToCaL 

Tnm NeCheriands, . . . 

r 0,947,607 



Enj^and, .. 


• • 






Belghim . . ^ 


m • 




• m 


Denmark . . 




Hamburg . . 






• • 


America . . 




Caiw of Good Hope . . 


• • 






Ckidun China 




Bengal, die CoMt of Coro* 

mandel and Mabtaur 


• • 


Mauridus or Ide of France 




China and Uaeao. 






• • 




■ • 




• . 


Ne«r Holland 




Eaaton Arciiipelago 

7.751,359 348,007 


Tot«l / 21,980,798 570,596 83,551,388 


These Imports luiTe taken place 



I^ ,• / 



























































Sundry Aaata 

ic do • • 




i f 


Tbe whole Imports finom Netheriand which brought Certificate of 
Netheriands origin amounted to/5,009,296. 

There was in^xirted on account of GoYemment in Spede, Goods 
and Produce to the value of/ 9,819,599 not comprehending those of 
the Japanese empire which have been brought under the private im-> 

To the Government Goods amounting to / 9,819,599 
Add die Prirate ditto ditto 22,551,388 

Total imports/ 32,370,987 

eittpt diat which is deponted in entrepot and therefore cannot be 
ooDiridered as imported* 

EzponTB OF Java ahd Blinviu in 1843. 

Th whole private Export has amounted to 

In MerehandhM, / 58,159,237 
Spede» 833,599 

Total / 58,992,836 


The same took place lo the following' Coutttries : — 

. Merchandise. 

To Netherlands . 

Bremen * . 


€^^>e of Good Hope. . 
Manritius or Isle of France 
Persian Gulf 


















Bengal, Coromandel, & Mdiabar 9,594 

• • 

China and Macao 

Cochin China 

gi» — 

Manila. . 

Japan . . 

New HoUand 

Eastern Archipelago 










• • 





















Total / 58,159,237 833,599 58,992,836 

.' The Exports conshtted in produce :•«- 
Of Java and Madura, . . 
Of the West of India and Bengal, . . 
Of Slam, Cochin China, Mamh and Macao, 
Of Japanese Empire, . . 
Of Europe and America, 






Total as above / 58,159,237 

The Export ihrooghlhvEntrepotay not indvded in die ahovetaUe 
amounted to 

Out of Bond at Batavia .. / 1,739,904 

do at Samaranif . . 45,454 

do atSofurabaya .. 302,558 

Total, / 2,087,916 


The Exports todc place 

Under NdHieriftiidB 




























Cockin Chinese do 

Sundry Asiatic do 


/ 47,422,822 








• • 

Total / 58,992,836 

The Government Goods and Spede Exported from 

Jara amounted to . . • • / 

The PHvate Exports . • 


Value of whole Exports / 60,848,872 

The Government Goods sent to Ji^Nm are not comprehended in 
the above mentioned/ 1,356,036 ; the same bting, as above stated, 
included in the private exports. 

It is here to be noticed that the Government stores required for 
^ Out-ports of Netherhmds India are mostly supplied by contract, 
^ the goods sent there are included in the private eiqport. 



Cnder Netherlands Flag, from all Fhoes, 
except the Eastern Arehipelago, of which 
161 from Netherhmds, 

I^rom the Eastern Archipelago, Including 
Native Craft, . . 



• • 

202 Meaflg. 55,585 
1,165 „ 40,3711 


216 nmuNCE's emxEAL viww ow tbm dutot 





Under English 






































































Sundry Aidaitie 


• • 














Sailed trom Java and Madora. 

Under Dutch flag to Netherlands & Fordgn 
Ports of which 186 Ships to Netherfaunds, 206 
Do. Dutch (Netherhmds In& and ami- 
larly priirileged ressels included) to natire 
ports (those of Mendly princes in the Ar-> 
cbipekgo induded) .. .. 1,288 „ 

Under English 





















. 60,6I8i 


Total 1,494 
















































Undor CUncBe do Amtagg. 357i 

„ CoeUn Chiiiefle do .. 1 „ 150 

„ ffiameu do .. 14 » 442 

,, Simdiy AmtiN! do .. 80 „ 1,056 

Total 1,750 „ 131,673 

III order to render complete tlus review we finish it widi the com- 
monicitaon made by H. £• the Colonial minister to the 8nd. chamber 
of the States*6eneral, concermng the financaal wttun of the posses- 
aons of the State for the year 1844, to which we sabjob the abstract 
of Ihe state of the Import and Export trade for fhe year 1843 and 

It IS shewn by these docaments that the total receipts for Nether* 
lands India are Yahied at the sum of/81,784,671 ; hi this amount 
the fiums i^ipear for a sum of/ 14,7719018 ; the hmd contributiona 
and the territorial revenues/ 11,135,313 ; the different contributions 
and recdptB/6,799,428; the trade and the cnkmes/ 44,525,522. 
In tius last amouit are included the returns for Ihe auctions in Hdl- 
land, which are valued in dependance, according to the average of 
the last prices of the auctions, at/ 32,924,770 ; different extraordi- 
nary receipts/ 574,564, and the revenues of Sumatra/ 2,640,491. 

There has been actually received m India . . /49,194^603 

The difference in loss between the receipts and 
the expenses in specie, wluch ought to be covered by 
the auction of the merchandize amounts to . . 15,776,829 

The amount of the produce consigned to Holland 
remains at .. 16,813,239 

Total receipts 81,784,671 

The expenses are estimated as follows : 

a. Colomal admimstration . . . . / 75,494,285 

h. Pkyments on account of third parlies . . 1,701,264 

f. Difference under date 3l8t Dec. 1843, in the 

administnlive Ga{dtal fixed at/ 12,500,000 

of wliich two fifths in silver and tiuree fifths 

in cqiper . • 4,589,122 

Total expenses / 81,784,671 

218 vsMiiiNCK'8 aEsisBAL VIEW ov VHK nmt& 

The real expenses in India are as follows : 

Administration .- « • • / 59,806,536 

Payments ott aceount of third parties. . . • 57d»774 

Difference of the Adminislratiye capital in 1843 . . 4,589,122 

Total of real expenses. . .. / 64,971,432 

The real receipts in India amount to 49,194,603 

The deficit in money of the admistration in India, 
which ou^ht to oorered by the produce of the 
merchandize, amounts to . . • « • • 15,776f629 

Total receipts in Europe .. / 33,980,427 

The expenses are estimated at • . 16,813,23$ 

So that there remuns. . . « 16,107,18^ 

Deduct the amount ofthe deficit in India amount- . . 
ing in silver to . . • - / 79^32,639 

In copper/ 8,774,090 wluch makes 
in silver • . . . • 7»286,825 

/ 14^319.464 

Consequently the supposed profit of India for the 

year 1844 b .. . .• / 1,847,724 

However, according to later correctiona, the supposed profit unonnts 

Although the offidal reports on the trade of Java and Madura for 
the year 1844 are not yet published, we give below some details which 
have been communicated by the Staats-Courantj and also subjoin a 
comparative statement of tne importations by private persons during 
the years 1843 and 1844. 

Tlie general imports in Merchandiae and Spepie which have been 
made in 1844 

amount to .. .. / 36,479,663 

Those ip 1843 amounted to 32,370,987 

Those of 1844 exceed those of 1843 by . . / 4,108,676 



Thert has b«eii imported on pri- 
vate aocount in 1844 . . / 25,342,343 
and in 1843 22^1,388 

Bflii^ an increase of / 2,790,953 
In 1844 there was imported by 

the Goyemment . . / 11,137,320 
In 1843 .. 9,818,599 

Being an increase of / l,317»72l 

T«tal, / 4,108,076 


The general exports in Merchandize and Specie 
Mug 1844, amounted to . . / 27,617,505 

Those of 1843 were onl? 26,714,413 

Thus additional in 1844 / 903,098 


YBARS 1843 and 1844. 















. • 






• • 


. . 
















• • 












• • 






. . 

















CloUi and thread 

• • 

. . 

• • 





• . 






• • 

» . 


Birds Nests, .. 

• . 

• • 



Biflfereot articles, 

. . 

• . 



BaUioQ in Gold and SUyer, 

• • 

• • 
Total, — 





F 2 

220 temhinck's ge^wial view of fHB tmcA 

In which nuumer the ezportB of 1844 exceed thoM of 1843 hf 
/903,093. There u an increase on the exports of eoffiD^ inffigo, 
tobacco, tripaog, different artides and biilHon, wMle there k a de- 
creaae on the arrack, doth and thread, pepper, sugar and tin. 

Hie exports, produce, merchandize and specie made on aeooont of 
the Government which are not included in the aboTe oompsnSiTe 
statement amounted to 

Hercfaandixe and BnlUoo, 




Addiog the surplus on the private eiports. 



f 10,189,617 

It follows that the exporto of 1844 exceeded those of 1848 byl ^11,614,836 

^__ . - ^ --- -^ - - - . — ■ ■ — — . 

In 1843 the exports amounted to/ 60,347,878 while tiie imports 
only amounted to/32,370,987« which constitute a surplus of exporta 
of about 88 millions of Guilders. 

The same took plaee iu (lie year 1844 when the exports amounted 
to/71»963,708 and the imports to /36,479,663, the oqwrts thus 
exeee&ig the imports by 35^^ millions of Guilders. 

The private exports during the year 1843 amounted to/86,7H, 
413 and the imports to/ 22,821,861, thus the exports exceeded the 
Imports by/ 3,808,552 ; in 1844 thb proportion diminished because 
the exports amounted to/27,617,506 and the imports /23,342,343 
to that the imports were only/ 2,275,169 smaller than the exporti. 

We see from these tables that the agricultural industry, the trade aod 
Hie narigation have taken a devebpment unknown before the inbtH 
ducdon of the new system of cultures in 1830. Since this memora- 
ble period the single ishmd of Java produces more artades fit for 
exportation than all the other possesdons pufr together. It b im- 
possible to form an idea of the increase which these cultures mxf 
suoeessively offer through the new clearings which take place, for the 
extent of uncultivated grounds is still very considerable in this islsod. 
The climate there unites all tiie advantages which tiie tropic and thf 
temperate zones afford, and the soil of an inexhaustable fertility of- 
fers all the guarantees for an increasing prosperity. Agriculture 
win never want arms in this country, aedng that die privfiteged dum 
reckon it a merit to cultivate the soil, that the im2(iI grants to the esi- 
tivator a distingmshed rank in Society^ and that the priiicw aad tte 

nobi% to rmder tiieinsdves popular often lend a hand to the la* 
boun of the fields. 

In the meanftiine the Metn^Hs enjoyB the fruits of tJus agricultu- 
nd industiy. It is really the most fertile source of trade, it furnishes 
couridorable development to the naingatiqn and stron^y influences 
tiie well hwag ef all the working classes. The eoasdng trade in 
the irchipebgo, tins important branch of public prosperity in the 
posBearions of the State, and which the Oorermnent ought to encour- 
age by ail the means at her disposal, has received a no less remark- 
able expansion nnee 1830; witness the increasing e]|K>rt which takes 
phee m the different parts of her dominions. The Javanese nation 
Mb also there a guarantee for the nudntenance of its well being, 
and it advances insenably towards a degree of dvilization wMeh it 
oottld never have reached under the influence of its old rulers. The 
Jannese, formerly so careless, commences to awaken from his apathy; 
miffioDS of hands devote themselves to agriculture, the native heing 
penoaded that t^ is the source of the prosperity which he enjoys un- 
der a mild, just and protecting Government. The Javanese van- 
<pused and Rearmed but freed from despotism have submitted them- 
sdves to the Netherlands, more in consequence of good treatment, of 
eqoi^ and of justice, than from the terror which its power inspires ; 
they have ceased to be olgects of fear, and they now peaceably labour 
their fields. 

Holland already enjoys in her finances the fruits of the wise mea- 
sures adopted by the govevemment which rules her old and more 
recent possesaons. From the Metropolis of the Archipelago, oi^ga- 
nized on a respectable fooling, she extends her power succesdvely to 
the other islands covered by her 1kg. The great and beautiful Su- 
matra feete already (as we shall see in the sequal of this work) thesa- 
htaiy effects of the system followed in Java. Celebes furnishes abun- 
dant products, and the dviUzation of the native population modifies 
itself in proportion as our power extends over them. 

By persevering thus in the ways of wisdom, eqmty and philanthro- 
phy the Government will see its trade progressively mcrease, its naviga- 
tion extend, and its profito augmmt ; and its dominions in India may 
one day effieacbuidy assist the metropolis in Europe in the event of a 
financfad crias. The resulte at which we have arrived would permit 
us for the future to dispense in our colonies with slaves, seeing that 
in Java more than six millions of cultivators work on ascount of the 
Government which has now realized and put in practice the only 
means of stopping completely the shameful slave trade, which the 


most powerfol maritime mdions have not yet saooeeded in pattuig ad 
end to. 

The island of Java and all the other parts of this hurge Archipda- 
go have enjoyed, rince 1890, a peace and tranquility which no nnistef 
sign appears to threaten. A handful of Europeans dispersed m 
the prindpal establishments as civil agents of the government, i 
European Army far from numerous, forming scarcely the staff, aod 
serving only as a frame work to the phalanxes of the natives, two or 
tiiree fi^gates, a more condderable number of steamers of differait 
sixed and some small saiUng men of war, are means suffidently pow* 
erful to maintun this order, and to ensure to the authorises the ex- 
erase of thdr functions in the centre of an insular population of more 
than twenty nullions of inhabitants. 

However weak these means may appear they are deemed soffideot 
at a time wheu the peace of Europe seems insured for a length of 
time. For the rest the insular position of our establishments in the 
centre of the great Ocean, protects them against revolutions in mass, 
and secures them from invasions to which the continental establish- 
ments are exposed. The last war agunst Dhipo Negoro shewed what 
immense use the government can derive from its native troops con- 
ducted by experienced European chiefs. Even in the event of a ni- 
Htime attack, which could be only made by a power of the first raik« 
the islands of the Archipelafiro would not at this day offer so easf t 
conquest. In effect since the organization established in aU the 
branches of the administration, supported by the meansofdefenft 
which the interior parts of those islands now present, and also \/j 
the resistance which the towns are capable of opposing, by (he o^ 
fanizat'on of their civic guards, the enemy, however formidable wtj 
be the force at his command in these seas, could not flatter hnsself 
with a certain conquest 

Let us not doubt that the Javanese nation will renudn subject ib^ 
fnithfa! to us, as long as the Government shall continue to keep it- 
self within the limits of the power which it has fixed aocordhigtothr 
adat, or Javanese rode. In order to miuntain tliis tranquiffi^i ^ 
ought to abstain from introducing' into this country the tonnealin^ 
fiscal system, and it is necessary above all to preserve intact the ^aten 
of the rural institutions. The full liberty of culture whieh these 
people have adopted ought to be guaranteed to them. We ot^^ ^ 
avoid the employment of means contrary to thdr prejudices: and 
which have for thdr purpose a hasty reform of their social and rdi* 
gious institutions ; these they will modify themselves slowly and ift- 


seiunbly by the daily contact which they hare with our- Europern d* 
Tilixation. More than two centuries of a moderate, protecting, and 
persuasive power, rarely hostile or absolute, have served to make it 
ippreciated by the Javanese nation, which in no manner regrets the 
authority of its native despots, under winch revolts and murderous 
wan marked, in traces of blood, the epoch of a succession to the 
throne ; whilst the jealousy and the hatreds of the princes and the 
nobles of the court, often kindled the torch of discord and impeUed 
the population to acts of unheard of cruelty. 

The fate of these large and flourishing possessions depends hence- 
forth, more than is thought, on the choice of the men destined to go- 
vern and to exerdse offices which bring them in contact with the 
natives. In order that our social institutions should there find fiivor 
and offer useful results, it b our duty as well as our interest,' to pre- 
sent to this industrious and agricultural people the manners and the 
virtues of dnlized nations and to vdl from their eyes the vides vdth 
which this civilization is sullied. 



li^Qt <jAifu t>iO\ ijiJ;^» ^ift ^A» 

< 1 1: 



The Editor reacts that, from the haste with which IJhis mumhcr of 
the Journal has be«n printed and tfa^ longest article written, it con- 
tains numerous errata, A Hst wiU be furnished with the Supple- 

Is pubtishing facts respecting the habits and peealiarities of the 
Uollosca, it ig dii&cak i» a?eid going over old ground, as there 
has been, of late years, much additional information contributed 
by Toyagers and trarellers ; among whom none excel the French 
Naturalists in the patience and minuteness of their anatomical in?es- 
tigations. The following remarks therefore^ are not brought for- 
ward as new, though they may have their use, as affording addi^ 
lional testimony to fads or theories already advanced by others. 

1 am far from considering the annexed cataloguey a complete list 
of the shells of Singapore; they are only such as have hitherto fallen 
under my personal observation. My conchological researches have 
been, for the most part, solitary, and it is natural to suppose that the 
combined efforts, of several individuals in a pursuit of this nature 
would have produced more accurate and satisfactory results. It is 

VOL. I. V. 2 


right, however, to mention that I received valuable aid from Lieul. 
Col. Watson of Madras, during bis short residence in the Straits^ 
particularly io discovering the localities of the land shells, maoj of 
"which I had previously overlooked. 

It was formerly customary for writers on conchology to endeav- 
our to defend the science from the charge of frivolity, and such indeed 
might seem to be necessary when the pursuit, as the term implied, 
consisted merely in collecting and arranging the shelly coverings of 
testaceous animals, without any reference to tlieir living inbabitanls, 
"whose interesting habits, and minute anatomical structure, have in 
these latter days claimed the attention of Naturalists. But from tbe 
time that these collateral studies were copiprised, choncbology was 
entitled to be called a science, replete with proofs of Almighty intelli- 
gence, and well fitted to raise the mind of the creature to the Creator 
by the contemplation of the wonderful skill and beauty of His works- 
It is generally admitted that conchology has thrown much h^t 
en tbe mpjt recent dispoveries of the Geologist. By the help of orga- 
nic remains and principally fossil shells, he can read as in an ancient 
book, the early history of the worM. In the words of I>r. Buck- 
land : ^ The study of Organic Remains indeed forms tbe peculiar 
^ feature and basis of modem Geology, and is the main cause of 
^ the progress this science has made, since the commencement of 
<^ the present century." 

Ancient philosophers have in all ages, turned their attention to tiie 
subject of conchology : the learned Aristotle 300 years before (he 
Christian era formed the three divisions of Univalve, Bivalve and 
Jdultivalve shells. Tbe elder Pliny who wrote at an early pedod 
of the Christian era, includes this branch of science in his volamioons 
-work on natural history which is still extant. The system of Lin- 
noeuis, founded principally upon the exterior form of the shell, was 
the first generally recognised by nattiralists in Great Britain ; some 
of bis 'distinguishing terms are still retained and many of the gene- 
ric names are unaltered ; but the system of Lamarck based, for the 
most part,' on the conformation of the soft parts, or anatomical 
structure of the animal, was afterwards more tmiversally emplojed, 
bur Continental neighbours taking the lead in adopting his classifica« 
Cuvier makes tbe MoUusca one of his four great divisions of tbe 


mimai Idngdma^ and acknowledges in part the systems of Linnflfeu^^ 
Laourck, Bbinville and! other -later authors. At the present titte, 
the rascarcbes of modern natilralists hare added greatty to the num* 
her of ezistiDg genera and speeies^ and increased - our knowledge 
of their habits, looaUties, Ac, .while a few late writers hate so al-^ 
tered established Systems, by snbstitnting n^ families, genera and 
species, according to their indiTidoal experience that it is certainly 
imposstble to give speeifie names to many specimens, so as to be 
understood by all readers. I have therefore, to avoid cbnfosion en« 
tirely embraced Lamardc^s System, merely adding. (he names of 
sadi shells as were noC known in his time, or such genera as arb 
acknowledged new, by the common consent of naturalists. . 

The shdis of Singapore. are found in three principal localitiea; ui 
the sea, io fresh water,, and on the: land; the sea shells, as might bo 
antidpated, are most numerous; the. list of fresh water shells is scanty^ 
as there are here na natural ahetl^ of water, no river entirely of fresh 
water, nor even a running stream deserving the name of a rivulet^ 
so that, 9^ the exception of sprmgs, the only water that has not 
a brackish taint, is that which accumulate in artificial drains, some 
of them of considerable extent, and ioterseettag' the country in vari-* 
ous directions. A considerable number of shells which are commons 
ly described as inhabiting fresh, are found here in brackish water^i 
aed several of them in places that are overflowed by the sea alt high 
tides; indeed the- only kind I have hitherto found exdusivoiy in fresh 
water is a species of Planofbis which I shall presently describe. 

The land shells of this place are not numerous so far as caa be a$-- 
ctftained: 1 have not. met with more than 23 species, though 
doubtless others might be added, were their loqilities more easy of 
access. Several kinds of Helix and Gyclostoma appear to inhabit the 
depths of the forest, from whence it is abnost impossible to procure 
them, the jungle, being,* for the most part, guarded by an inter- 
woven m^ss of brushwood and prickly shrubs; several species have 
only been discovered, after the ground has been dearod by burning 
the trees and thus disdosing the half calcined remeins of the shells. 

It cannot fail to strike any one who punues thestody of condio- 
logy in this neighbourhood, that there Is a remarkable paodty of 
the larger and more gaily coloured shelb, which does not seem easi* 
ly acoounled for ; the coast is extensive and varied, and is, apparent- 

228 mmakks On tffONCitoLOfiY anh mAVAcmnjoat* 

|y well adapted to the hatriti of life tif MonoBCoiis mauis ; there are 
IHineroas abellered bays and inleli, wUh laigci traeU of levd sand, 
and 10 other ptaoes, ahelvhig rodca dotted in p«f wifii « Tariatj of 
Aifak It may, howorer^ ho qnesliooed ivfaether the goologicti 
fonnatioo of the ooast is such as fovoon the giowth of shells; so far 
as 1 ean aseertso from the perasal of such reeeoC vorin as I have 
met with, natoralists are hut inqwrfecOy acfiiMOted with the pri- 
mary formatioQof the caicareoos eoTcrin§pi of these animals: it b 
known that the membrane whidi is called the Mantle of the aoinal, 
secretes a fluid more or less teoadoils, which grednaly hardens lata 
the consistence of shell, aod the manner in whkh it is depeciled, la j- 
er by layer, has been minutely described by authors, yet it is not 
known from whence the aameral sobslanoeis d^ved, or what cfaaoge 
it andergoes to convert it mto the material IbmiHig shell* It appean 
probable however, that soiuble salts, or other oondbinatioos of liaie 
«zistuig in the water, are absorbed into the body of the amaMl, and 
flrom thence by the proper docts conveyed to the surface for the for- 
mation and nourishment of the shell. Should thb be tiie case it ndght, 
casterls paribus be expected that shdls of the largest sice woald 
be found where odcareons rocks fringe the coast, and vice versa : 
here indeed an explanation of the diflkulty seems at hand, for there 
are no rocks of a calcareous nature in this neighbourhood: on the 
other hand, it b dilBcult to account for the immense extent and rapid 
growth of tho Corallines which line our coast for many miles, aod 
in the elegance of their forms, and variety of their species, abnost 
vie with our land forests. 

This description of animal vegetation, if it may be so caled, ap- 
pears also to obtain ils nourishment by absorption flrom the sea water; 
and I consider it not altogether unlikely, that this constant and active 
process maintained by the Corallines may interfere with tho growth of 
shells in then- immediate neighbourhood. One evident cause of tfia 
scarcity of many species, is, that the poorer Malays and Chhiese ow 
most kinds of shdl fish as food, and search the shores for them with 
such diligence, that they have caused a dearth of sndi as are com- 
mon in less frequented parts of the coast Among the group of 
small islands 30 or 40 miles south of SIngapwe, where a honun 
habitation is rarely seen, the general character of the shells is 
similar to those of Siogapore, but they are more abundant and of 


larger sixe, particularly the genera Hippopiu, Tridacna, Spoadylas 
and Cbama, which, especially the two latter, are mach used as food 
hy the nathres. 

Through the kindness of the Governor, Lieut CoL Botterworth, 
C. B. I had lately an opportunity of visiting these islands, and re- 
peatedly ezpliM-ed the coral reefs at low water, and thereby had the 
means of observing the habits of some of the Testacea to great ad- 
vantage; among others, the VoloU undnlata, the inhabitant of which 
B spotted with blotches of bright red on a dark ground, and rea- 
dily catches the eye, at a distance of some yards, as it moves like a 
huge snail through the coral fofiage ; the Volota melo also inhabits 
these seas inferior to the former in the markuigs of the animal, but 
mora than equal to it in the rich tmts of the shell. Of the class 
Gondiilen numerous species covered the rocks or were firmly at- 
tached to branches of coral; in particular I may mention a species 
of Ghanu fantastically brandied like coral, and in the brilliancy of its 
yeUow colour more resembling a flower than a shell. In several 
of the shaUow bays, I observed an abundance of a small species of 
lideagrina or Mother of Pearl Oyster, few of the shells were 
larger than the palm of the hand, and of a dark slate colour. I am 
infomed by those who are accustomed to trade in Mother of Pearl, 
that this kind never attafau a large size. I was at first inclined to 
doubt the accuracy of the statement, as I do not find more than two 
described species, namely the M. margaritifera, and M. albina which 
is also to be found here. What leads to the supposition of its being 
a distmct species is that the large kind has never been picked up here. 

It is worthy of remark, that among the shells of these latitudes, 
in common I believe with those of aU tropical dimates, it is rare 
to find a single species that b identical with any found in the 
north of Europe, and it is observable that the few such shells, that 
are found native here, are not of the more common kinds. On the 
contrary they are comparatively rare in both latittides. The differ- 
ence in the temperature of the seas does not seem sufficient to 
account for this diqiarity, nor does it seem probable that atmosphe- 
ric vicissitudes would much affect creatures so independent of vital 
air: whether it may be owing to the want of some particular 
food, I am unible to determine. Of the spedes found in both 
latitudes may be mentioned Chiton marginatos, Emarginula fissu- 


ra, FissureUa graeca, Area telragona, Natica casUoea, and a species 
closely resembling Trivia eoropea. 

It has been already observed that the poorer natnres have fre- 
quent recourse to shell fish as food, a few kinds however, are es- 
teemed delicacies and are frequently exposed for sdeio the mar- 
ket; of these may be enumerated Area granosa, (the shell of which 
somewhat resembles our common cockle) Corbicula regta or Cy- 
rena of Lamarck, Cerithium lineolatum of Gray, and Voliita mdo, 
though the latter is not always procurable. Among the eatable 
shell fish, the Oyster must not be omitted, though it is for the 
most part lightly esteemed by the natives, who generally prefer sudi 
kinds as have a stronger taste. A variety of Oysters may be foood 
here but all arc not eatable, two species in particular are of consider- 
able size, and excellent flavour, though found in rery different loca- 
lities. The one kind is abundant at Pedro Branca, a large rock at 
the entrance to the China Seas where they are exposed to rapid cor- 
rents and stormy wares; here they are invariably found strongly ad- 
herent to the rock by the surface ofthe lower valre. The other kind 
is procured from the mouth of the Moftr river bttween Mabcca aod 
Singapore. These being comparatively safe from the effects of storms 
and currents are never fixed to rocks but lie loose in the mod, in 
beds of considerable extent. Although Oysters are so numerous in 
both these places, it is rare to find any other qpedes of shell in their 
immediate yicioity, a circumstance that has been remarked of Oys- 
ter beds in England and other places. 

Without at all assenting to Lamarck*s theory of ^ Traosmutatioa 
of Species'' it must be allowed that the discrimination between spe- 
cies and varieties among shells is extremely perplexing, the shades 
of difference between one species and another often appear less 
than between two yarieties of the same spedcs, the marks of distinc- 
tion are often so modified by various causes, as difference in loca- 
lity, change of food. 4bc, that uniformity of colour, siie or evm 
shape, when taken separately, are no safe guides, and unfortnoateiy 
they are not always found combined. Blumenbach wisely observes 
that ^ no general rule can be laid down for determining the dis- 
tinctness of species, as there is no particular class of characters 
which can serve as a criterion." 

This variable tendency does not prevail in all shells, though 


some kinds are rery liable to it, particularly the geons Nassa, ma- 
ny species of iirluch are common here. In iUustration 6[ this 
property of change, I shall describe a species of Nassa found in 
the mud of salt swamps: it is in colour a' dark brown or black, 
aboQt an inch and a half in length, ttie outer whorl is smooth, 
those next the apex of the spire are furrowed longitudinally, and 
it possesses the usual generic mark of a prominent plait at the 
opper part of the aperture. Out of many specimens examined I 
have observed none to deviate from the above description. In the 
same localities may be found another shell quite similar to the 
other in form and colour, but not more than half its length, 
possessing however all the marks of a full grown shell, and as no 
shelb of intermediate sire are to be met with, there seems good 
reason to believe them two distinct species. The foltowing instance 
is however more remarkable in connexion with the above. I late- 
ly found at Malacca a small species of Nassa of a pale flesh cb- 
lonr, barred with brown, about a third of an inch in length, and 
little more than a grain in weight. In the same neighbourhood 
I met with another specunen, three quarters of an inch in length, 
and wdghinf between four and five grains. As in the former 
case, the two shells were exactly similar in shape and colour, 
though very different in size and weight, and as both had the 
marks of having attained their full size^ I was ready to believe 
that I bad obtained two new species; a further search however, 
pot me in possession of fifteen additional specimens, similarly mark- 
ed but all of them intermediate to the two first in size and weight; 
in fact the whole seventeen formed an almost imperceptible scale 
of gradation, sufficiently proving that they were so many varieties of 
one and the same species. I have observed several kinds of 
Nassa particularly abundant in the neighbourhood of the Fish Marr 
kets, where they may be s6en in numbers feeding on dead fish 
and other animal food. This artificial mode of subsistence is possibly 
one cause of their variable form and size as it is well known 
that domesfie animals, and others that are more or less depen- 
dent on man for their support, are very apt to produce a pro- 
geny differing more or less from the parent stock. A good 
example of the propogation of an accidental variety, must be 
familiar to my readers in the instance of a well known domestic 


animal of tbe feline genns^ which in Singapore b rarely seen 
with a perfect taiL In the nei^ibooriiood of Che Fish Markds 
may also be seen moltitodes of dead shdis of all siies^ some so 
minute as to be microscopic^ and all tenanted by Pagorii or Her- 
mit crabs, as raried in siie as the shells they inhabit, and hke 
the Nassa, bnsily engaged in devottring fragments of dead fish, which 
is their principal food. I make mention of them here as a pa- 
rallel instance of the effect of artificial life upon some of the low« 
«r animals, for these crabs are not, as might be supposed, one, 
or at most, two or three, species in different stages of growth. 
If an examination be made, it will be foond that indindnds ot 
all sizes are laden with spawn, not eicepting such as are so ni- 
DUte that their forms are not be distinguisbed by the naked eje: 
it cannot be imagined that each of these is a diffvent species, 
they are in fact an cYident instance of the alteration of a spe* 
cies into an almost infinite nomber of varieties* 

Of the rarious localities in which the Singapore shells are foond^ 
one remains to be mentioned, to describe which intelligibly I must 
briefly advert to the general form of the island Of Singapore. It 
consists of a cluster of tow undulating hills based on an ezten- 
flive plain, having a uniform level surface, in some places not 
varying above two or three feet, in an area of several square miles. 
The whole of this valley ground is but little raised above the level 
of the sea, as b shewn by the salt water penetrating for miles into 
the interior of the bland, and, at spring tides, even overflowing cal* 
tivated fields. Over some parts of thb low ground there b a layer of 
decomposed vegetable matter of variable depth, but for the most part 
the surface is sand, beneath which, at depths varying from 5 to 50 
feet, there b a dark blue plastic clay abounding in shelb, and these 
not of the kinds found in Mangrove swamps, but such as are com* 
mon in open sandy bays or straits. After a careful exaainatioD, I 
eannot pronounce any to be different from those found in the ad- 
jacent seas; tbe forms of most of them are perfect, and in a few the 
colour is preserved, but they have for the most part lost their 
hardness, being readily crushed between the fingers. The kinds most 
abundant are as follows, — Placenta placnna, Strombus incisus, S. U" 
biosus, several species of Nassa, Columbella, Trochus, Cerithianit 
llitra, Turritclla, Dentalium Aspcrgillum, Area, Yenus^ Corbula, Td« 


linafaod othorsi I am informed by Mr. Tboinsdn, Che GoverAment 
Suntfor^ that wbcrefer be has had oc(Sa»oa to make ezeavatloiii 
in the low groand of Singapore, snilar appearances present them^ 
sdres, ail the brick pits the day is of the same description 
and alio cootama shells; raoreovw that in the Kallang valley, eoink 
similar to existiiig species are to be foaod at the depth of six t&tt; 
add to this the fact that the growth of coral is yearly dimmishiog 
the depth of water in the neighbourhood^ a good egrample of which 
is seen at the entrance to New Harbour where there is a small peato- 
ed island, between which and Singapore, the coral has grown so ra^ 
pidlj that It is thought the island will in a very lew years form a 
part of Singapore V taking therafore all these dreonistances into 
consideration I conceive that the existence of shells in sach si^- 
tnations may be rationally aoconnted for on the supposition that 
most of the valley groond of Singapore was originally sea^ and 
has been altered and adapted to the use of man, chiefly, if not solely 
through the agency of coral. 

Most of the sheUa m the annexed list may be found described 
in any work of refhrence on this subject. I shall therefore mtf e- 
ly aotioe individually a few whose exterior forms, or the pecu^ 
liar habits of their inhabitants, are not, so far as I am aware^ 
very generally known. 

The Magilus antiquns has lately been found north of Penang 
in the ileighbourhood of iunk Ceylon, the natives set some value 
on them, and occasionally wear them as ornaments) die shell is sin*- 
golar and apt to be mistaken for a petrifaction, being dense in 
stivcture, diaphanous, and much like alabaster. It has been ofteot . 
figured and described by naturalists, but the animal inhabiting it 
is I believe unknown, unless described in some very recent pub- 
lication: it is supposed to be a Gasteropod, though this is rather 
doahttul, as the shell is said to be generally found imbedded in co- 
ral or madrepore: it is probable that this point might be satisfac- 
torily settled by a carefol examination of the abo? e locality. Among 
other kitereating discoveries lately m ide on that part of the coast, 
is a layer or stratum of grey limestone, of consklerable extent, com- 
posed ahnost entirely of petrifled shells. I have been fortunate enough 
to obtain a specimen for examination which contains three distinct 
ipecies, apparently fresh water shells } two of them I have nerer 

H 2 



$eeii ftcei^ here, but (he third doscly reaemblts a wauAl Ifdanta 
/comvon hero in aUgOMt ditdics, their siaei, mnnber flf vhorlt, 
and geoeral fh^M are the aaatt, and thej have bolh deep leogi* 
ftudiild strias or furrows; some of tb^ iheils were cryirtaline lod 
amber eolimred, though the material imitiag then was of a oat- 
form grey oQloiVf both sobatanoei howeYor were motMt ia ^dro* 
chloric aefid. 

Of the nomcrQas class of sheUs mhdiiting the iaterior of nadre^ 
pores, wood, and stone, there is a species allied to ^ Phd^s" wbidi 
I eaooot Gnd described in any EngUsh work, Choagh it seems to aa- 
awer the description of the Genus Joaaaanctta of M. Des Moahai 
In a work entitied.^^ Uanuel des MoOasques par M« Sander iUng'' 
ibe shell is white, rather less than a mtadcet bidl, and nearly as gis* 
feular in form, with a slight caodiform appendage at one ewl, atrialed 
obliquely and baviog accessory pieces, the consistence of the sbeH 
more resombles that of the biralve of the ^^ Teredo" than a Pfaeias 
and M. Des Moulins considers it to hold a place between these two 
genera« The specimens I bare met with were in the intador of 
rolkd masses of ^^ madrepore^^ and were evidently old, as aone cob- 
taiAed the animal alive or dead« The ^^ Lima" or the ^^ fils sheH" 
f^i which several specicfs are foand in the Straits, maoh resembles 
the Genus ^^ Pecten'- or ^ Scallop shell" which is w^U known to pos- 
sess greater power of locomotion than most Bivalves. This power is 
possessed even to a greater degree by the lima. Wbco in the wster 
its movements are graceful, the two valves being used aa fiosbf 
means of which it swims with considerable rapidity guiding itsdf 
by its numerous tentacula which are firequenUy of an orange eskmr 
and arranged not unlike the petals of a flower, the sbdl is ie sa eared 
than the Scallop, and generally white, the vah es do not entirely dose. 

The Parmaphora or Duck*s bill Limpet u found bcre^ tkoagh 
by no means a common shell, it is like a PateUa flattened and 
elongated, the anterior edge always widely notched, apex dight* 
ly reeurved, length from one to two inches, ooioor white | the 
.body of the animal is much more bulky than the sbdl, and the 
mantle is so capacious that it covers the whole shell except the 
apex, which enables it in same degree to elude search, as it appears 
more IBce a pulpy or spongy mass than a shell; when touched, 
the mantte stains the hand a dark purple colour. 


Ttoe is a species of Fknolbis or siiell alKed to JMaiiorbia foonA 
here in pools of fresh water, heki$ the only spades of Singapore 
shell Ibal is ioabd sotely itk fresbitater; tbo outer wborl is IttUe 
mora ttea a fuirCer of an inch in diameter, spitUkre of tbeshell^ . 
mere diagonal than is asual in PUtiorbis so that when the animal 
motes on a plain suifaoe the eosvex side of the shtfl is always 
oppersiofil wherels the animal of Planorbts is desctihed as canry- 
ingit^ shell erett or withthodiameterperpendicHlar; colour of tha' 
shell pale amber^ no opereuhah, aniuial nearly black, ihooth iw^ 
tleaUy deft, Ho peeoeptible nedk^ (in the animal of Flaoorfais, tfaa 
nedt is said to be dongated) eyes at the base of two blunt teft«« 
tacala in which also it differs fironi Plaoorbis which is eommoolf 
deseribed and figured as barmg tiro subulate tentacitlai the animal. 
possesses iti a considerable degree, the power of f^idiDg throagk the 
water, apparently hi search of food, with its shdl eatkdy submerged 
aod its waoeth foot in dose apposition wkh the siirftee of the water^ 
locomolMm being effected, by causing the flat part of the shell to act- 
on the water in the manner of a fin, the head of the animal bcmg 
at the same time du-ected forward so as to regolate its moremests;. 
the aoinal does noft ecetipy so much as half the shdl, and the re- 
maining ^oe fireqaenliy contains air, which the inhabitant has the 
power of expeUing af pleasure. 

The GenttS ^^Natica'' of which there are several elegant species 
in Singapore, is known from the ^ Nerita" or ^ hoof sbdP by bdog 
nmbHicaled, more rounded m form, and the iatarior not toothedy tfan 
shdl has been also described as haring no epidermis, to thid vnlB. 
however, there are marked exceptions, two of the apedes native hKre^* 
havhig a strongly adherent qndemis. 

In SwainacBi's Hdaehology there is a spades figured as an extras 
ordinary animal, much larger than the shelf it is supposed tor in- 
habit. One of the spedes found here presents the same appearance inr 
a remarkablo degree; and the phenomenon is caused in the ioW 
lowing annner; the interior of the foot of the animal, is of a« 
loose cdhilar texture, which it has the power of disteadfaig ititk 
water so as to be more (ban three times the bnlk of.tbe sheiU,. 
bnt on the approach of danger it can iiistantly reje<A the water,> 
assume its natural siae, and retreat into its shell dosing after it thee 
operculum which being of stony hardness, secures it from the attack 

d36 mewAtiKs cm toHraoLosY.AND MALAcaoLoer.: 

of ordinary foes. This medraotsm doubtless assists Ihe progress of 
tlie animal through sand in which it frequently borrows. 

The Gerithium linedatum of ^Gray^ baa been already aBodedto, 
tfiere are two sheOs of this Genus, neither of which I have sen des^ 
eribed though lobsenred oneof th«n named as above in a eoUee^ 
tion of the land and fresh water shells of Penang, made by Dr« 
Gantor, the shell so designated is about an inch am) a half in leogth, 
thin and fragile, of a brown colour, with obscure transverse bands 
of a lighter hue, aperture more rounded than is usual in the Geoos 
Cerithinm, spii^e always truncated in the full grown sheH, head and 
anterior part of the animal bright red ike coral : the other spedes 
whkh I have more particularly observed in Singapore, hu rather a 
larger shell, thmner and more fragile than the other and of a dirittf 
colour, the animal is brown or neariy black and like the formsr, the 
spire of the full grown shell is always decollarted} young specimens 
of the shell have perfect, sharp pointed spves, andttie convohrfed ex- 
tremity of the animal then entirely fills the spiral part of the shell, 
but as the antmal increases in aiae^ its posterior extremity becomes 
more blunted and gradually retreats towards the anterior part of 
the diell, and as it sucoesaiTely abandons each Cum of the spire^ it 
throws out A viscid secretion which forms a hard shelly partitton be- 
tween its new situation and the disused extremity of the spire, wbidi 
bemg deprived of its usual nourishmeut, soon becomei worn into 
holes add finally drops off: thus the shell when arrived at matoTity 
haft always the appearaanee of being unperfect. The habits of the 
animal are mixed and peculiar; sometimes it may be seen in a half 
torpid state, the operculum Qrmly dosed suspended by a gllstcsfoif 
thread, from the branch of a tree; when in motion it leaves behind it, 
a shilling trade like that of a snail; at the sides of an elongated pro- 
boscis are two tentacula, apparently short, blunt, and with eyes «/ 
their extremities: now as the Genus Gerithium b described as 
bavmg the eyts at the base, of the tentacula^ this wouki appear 
a very remarkable deviatkm, and I was disposed to conskler it as 
such until I had an opportunity of remarking the movements of the 
animal in water, where it is as often found as on land. When dosely 
observed in that element, it is seen to expand two slender, pointed, 
tentacula of so delicate a structure that when out of the water 
they are lax^ flacdd, and doubled under the protuberant efe, so 


IS to be almost invisible. The shdl has been found in running streams 
hot more commonly in the brackish water of canals or ditches. 

The very nmneroos genus of ^ C jpraa" or the ^ Cowry" shell is 
too well known to require a formal description, the largest species 
foond here is the ^ Gypraea tigris" which is prettily spotted with black, 
being shewy, it is frequently made into snuff boxes in England, 
the antmab of several have been described and flgnred by authors* 
The mantle is so large as to cover all the shell, on the back of 
which there is often a tongitudinal line which marks where its two 
folds meet: this membrane continually secretes an abundance of vis- 
dd fluid which lubricates the shell, and preserves the beautiful 
polish which has procured for them the name of porcelain shells. 
I shall only make particular mention of two kinds, the young or 
spawn of which I have been fortunate enough to obtain in their ear- 
liest stage of existence. 

The ^^ Cypnea olivacea" is the most abundant of the Singapore Cow- 
ries being found on most beaches under flat stones, it is of the size 
and much the colour of an olive except that the back is generally 
mottled with brown and the mouth somewhat yellow ; the specimen 
which I found with the young attached, was fixed in the usual man- 
ner, to the lower surface of a stone, on raising it there was found 
adhering to it, a flat circular membrape broader than the shell, trans- 
parent, and dotted with minute grey spots like grains of sand, on 
placing the substance in a glass of stA water, numbers of the 
grains dropped out of the membraneous mass to the bottom .of the 
^ass and immediately assumed rapid and lively movements, some 
revolving in a rotatory manner, others alternately rising and sinking 
in the water or sporting over its surface. On a closer examination 
these grains were seen to be in reality shells, some hundreds in 
number, nearly transparent, having no perceptible columella and ap- 
parently consbting of a single coil or whorl, aperture round, breadth 
of the shell greater than the length, so that, when on a plain sur- 
face it rested on either end like a Planorbis or Nautilus, the animal 
effected these rapid movements by the alternate contraction and expan- 
s ion of its foot which was broad and expanded and much larger than the 
shell, into which it seemed to have no power of withdrawing it. 

There is another small Cowry occasionally found on the coast, re^ 
«embling in colour the C. s^dusP*, but not more than half the size 


and icsi eyliadrical la shipe: Captain Congaltan of the H. C-. Stoanier 
^Hoof^ly" obligingly le&t me one that was lately fished pp in 
^ ten ftthom" ifater near Soitan'a Shoal to the westward of Sin- 
gapore, the shell was partially imbedded in a species of sponge, on 
detaching it from which, I found the cavity of the spongy mass fined 
with the yoQDg fry of the Cyprasa, differing however in several res- 
pects flrom that of the €• olivacea; — instead of being contauMd m one 
membraneotts envelope there were above two hundred transparent 
sactf not larger than grains of nuutard seed and each contaiotng 
about 30 shells so nunnte that they conid not be distingoidied with- 
out the aid of a miscroscope, at a moderate computation there couM 
not hav6 been less than six thonsaod young shells: the differsooe 
in siie is remarkahk as the Gypnsa oKvacea which had Che largest 
offipring is a nraeh smaller shell than Che one at present vnder con- 
sideration: in this case I had not an opportmity of studying their 
habits Ac as the animals were dead, having been many boors not of 
the water; when examined under a microseope the shape of the shell 
was found to resemble exactif that of the young C. oitvaena abore 

On various parts of the coast particularly on Goral hanlo, a 
considerable number of Echini may he observed which, (dihough 
Naturalists have separated them from the Testaeeons HoUusca} it 
may not be out of place to mention here; one species in parti- 
cular I cannot find to have been hitherto described; the shdl is 
spheroidal, flattened, not more than two inches in diameter and 
of a dark purple colour, the spines are numerous, six or eigfit 
inches long, black, very slender and sharp pointed and somewhat 
elastic; the animal is found along the edges of Coral reefs, and 
moves with tolerable rapidity by means of i€s spines, when closely 
pursued it has the faculty of darting itself forward against its 
opponent and thereby inflicting considerable injury with its sharp 
ispines, the points of which often break off and remain in the wound. 

The foregoing remarks may in some measure snfiice to shew 
what a wide field this country presents to those who have leisare 
or inclination to prosecute this branch of Natural History: should aay 
other remarkable facts connected wilh the subject come to my 
notice, I shall be happy to give publicity to them from tine to 
time in future numbers of the Journal. 



Tke Gmera arranged a» nearly a$ possible in conformity vrith LtmoreVi 


I. Qats. Annelidei. 

Genus Arenicolay 
de Sfliquariay 

S. aognina. 

Gcius Dentaliam, 

B. elephantinum. 

B. eDtate and aMiher. 

Geaus Sabellaria. 
do Terebella, 

T. eoDobilega. 

Geiras SpirorbiSy 

S. nautiloides. 

S. Carinata. 

S. tpirilltmi. 

S. laineilosa. 

Genus Serpula, 

S. decassata. 

Genas Vermilia, 

V. triooatalis. 

Genus Magilus. 

Jtf. antiquas. 

1 Species. 




11. Class. CirrMpedes, 

Genos Balanus, 8 Speoies. 

B. tiniinnabalam, and two others. 
Genus Creusia. 1 Spades. 

do AnaUfera. 1 ,, 

A. !c?is. 
Genus Otion. I ,» 

111. Class. Conchifera. 

Genus Aspergillum, 1 Species. 


Genus Fistnlana, 1 t> 

F. dava. 

Genus Teredo, 8 ^ 

T. navalis and another. 

Genus Pholas, 4 

P. orientalis. 

P. striatus and two others. 

Genus Jouannetia, 1 

do Gastrochoena, 1 

do Splen^ 8 

S. vagina. 

8. eoltellus dr sii others. 
Genus Mya, 3 

M. troneata and two others. 



Genus Anatina, 

A. bispidula. 

Genus Lutraria, I 

Genus M actra, 8 

M. apengleri dr twe others. 

Genus Crassatalla, 2 

do Amphidesmay I 
do Corbula, 8 

do Saiicavay 3 

do Petricola, 8 

do Psammobia, 2 
do Tellina, 19 

T. radiaU. 

T. virgata. 

T. apengleri. 

T. rostrate. 

T. lanceolate. 

T. lingua-ielix. 

T. lugosa. 

T. gargadia and eleven ethers. 

Genus Lucina, 8 

do Donai, 2 

do CrassinSy 8 

do Gorbicnla^ 1 

C. regie. 

Genus Cytherea, 8 

C. scripta. 

C. picta and six others. 

Genus Venus. 18 

V. squamosa. 

y. easina'.. 

y. decussate aud nine others. 

Genus Cardium, 

C. cardissa. 

C. hemlcardium. 

C. papyraeeona. 

C. unedo. 

C. flavum. 

C. exignum. 

C. bumanum. 

C. ciliare and another. 

Genus Cardita, 2 

C. caliculata and another. 

Genus Cspricardia, 2 
do Area, 18 

A. tortuosa. 

A. semitorta. 

A. tetragona. 

A. navieularis. 

A. barbaU. 

1 Spedee. 





A. cancellaria. 

▲. antlqaata- 

A. granosa Ss five others. 

Genns Nucala, 1 Species, 

do Htria, 1 

do Charoa, 8 

C. laiarus and two otbers. 

Genas Tridaeua, 8 

T. gigas. 

T. crocea* 

T. aquamosa* 

Genoa Hippopua, 2 

H. macalatus «Dd aDOtlMr. 

Genoa M ytlloa. 6 

M. biloealaria. 

M. penia and four othera. 

Genoa modiola, 8 

do Pinna, 4 

P. pectinate. 

P. flabellom. 

P. sqaamosa and another. 

Genoa Perna, 3 

P. Tolsella. 

P. ephippium. 

P. femoralis. 

Genoa MaUens, 4 

M . vulgaris. 

M. albus. 

M. vulaellatus. 

M. normalis. 

Genua Avicula. 2 

do Heleagrina, 2 

do Lima, 4 

L. squamoaa. 

L. inflate. 

L. Cragilis. 

L. lingnatula. 

Genus Pecteu, 7 n 

P. pleuronectea. 

P. ainuoaus. 

P. rastellom. 

P. flavidulus. 

P. varitts and two others. 

Genns Pllcatula, 2 y, 

P. depressa. 

P. ramosa. 

Genns Spondylus, 3 ^ 

S. gndaropus and two others. 

Genus Ostrea, 9 ^^ 

O. edulis. 

O. imbrieata. 

O. rollum. 

O. crista gain A five others* 

Genus Vulsella, 1 ^ 

V. lingulata. 

Genus Placnna. 3 y, 

P. placenta and another. 

Genus Anomia, 3 s 

A. ephippium and two others* 

ir. Oass. MoUuua, 

Genoa Hyatoa, 1 Specie^. 

do Chiton, 2 , 

do Patella, 4 „ 

do Pannopfaora» 1 ^ 

do Emarginnla, 1 « 

Genus Fiasurella, I « 

do Caljptrsa, 2 „ 

Genna Bulla, 6 « 

B. naucum. 

B. ampulla and four others. 
Genus Onchidium, 1 « 

do Helix, 7 ff 

H. tecUrormis and six others. 
Genus Pupa, 1 • 

do Bulimus, 2 « 

B. citrinus and another. 
Genus Auricula, .11 « 
A> midc. 

A. juds. 

A. m joaotis. 

A. minima. 

A. acarabaoa and aix othera. 

Genus Cjclostoma,. 2 « 

C. in volvulus and another. 
Genua Planorbia, I n 

do Lymnoa^ 1 n 

do Helania, 2 « 

do Yalvau, 2 

do Paludina, 7 

do Ampullaria, 1 

do Neritina, 2 

do Navicella, 1 „ 

do Nerita, 7 ^ 

N. peloronta. 

N. polita. 

N. versicolor, 

N. albicilla. 

N. chlorostoma. 

N. atrata and another. 

Genus Natica, 15 « 

N. mamilla 6c fourteen others. 

Genns Sigaretos, 1 « 

do Stomatia^ 1 « 

S. phjmotis. 

Genus Haliotis, 1 a 

do Tornateila, 4 « 

T. flammea. 

T. solidnia 6c two others. 

Genus Truncatella, 1 n 

do Pyramidella, 5 « 

P. terebelluro dr four others. 

Genus Scalane, 4 i 

S. lamellosa. 




S. Tarjcosa. 

S. eoronau and another. 

Genos Oelphlnola, 8 Species. 

D. lacioiata. 

D. tnrbinopsis and anotfaer 

Genoa Solarioniy 1 n 

S. perspeetivam. 

Geoas Trocfaus, IS 

T. Fotalarias. 

T. Tiridis. 

T. graoalatas. 

T. nilotlcds and nine otbers. 

Genoa Monodoata, 5 

H. labio and four others. 

Genos Tnrbo. 7 

T. cochins and six others. 

Geoos PlanaxiSy 1 

P. sulcata. 

GenoiTorritella, 1 

do Cerithiom, 29 , 

G. petrosum. 
G. aspemm. 
G. xonale. 
C. aloco. 
C. Tertagns. 
C. teleseopinm. 
C. palQstre* 
C. obtasum. 

C. nodolosnm 4s twenty others. 
Genos Triphora, 1 , 

do Plearotomay 11 
P. nodiftra. 

P. plenrotoma St nine others. 
GeoQS Torbinella, 1 

do Cancellaria 1 

do Pymla, 7 

P. rapa. 
P. ficas. 

P. elongata and fonr others. 
Genns Ranella, 3 

R. spinosa and two others. 
Genus Blarex, 6 

M. crassispina*. 
U. adostus and three others. 
Geons Pt^roceraSi 3 

P. cbiragra. 
P. larobis and another. 
Genns Strombosi 7 

S. cancellatos. 
S. aorls dianc. 
S. lohuanos. 
S. labiosQS. 




S incisns and two oiheis. 
Genus Cassidariay 1 Species, 

do Cassis 1 „ 

C. glauea. 

Genus Purpura. 9 y^ 

P. armigera 4c 8 others. 
Genus Doli urn, 1 ^ 

D. maculatnm. 

Genus Buccinum, 6 

do Nassa, 24 

do Tercbra, 3 

T. maculata. 

T. strigillata and another. 

Genus Columbellai 7 

C. rustica. 

C. fulgurans. 

C. niercatoria. 

C. hebrea and three others. 
' Genus Mitra, 14 

do YoluU, 2 

V. undulata. 

V. mclo. 

Genus Marginella, 5 „ 

do Ovula, 4 n 

O. verrucosa. 

0. triticea and two others. 

Genus Cyprssi 20 „ 

C. cicerula. 

C. quadrimacniata. 

€. moneta. 

C. urcellas. 

C. annulus. 

C. erosus. 

C. rigzag. 

C. caput-serpenlis. 

C. poraria. 

C. oltvacea. 

C. adusta. 

C. arabica. 

C. tigris and seven others. 

Genus Trivia, I ^ 

do Oliva, 2 „ 

do ConuSy 6 „ 


C. marmoreus ^ 4 others. 

Genus Nautilus, 1 ^ 

N. pompilius. 

Genus Argonanta. 1 ^ 

A. argo. 
N. B. In addition to the Shells 

above enumerated there are ten or 

twelve kinds for which I cannot find 

a place among Lam«rck*s Genera. 

I 2 



Introductory, — A paper by Dr. Bland on the rocks of Sidfli 
Point; on the east oomI of Johore, had long iBTested that locaUtf with 
a peculiar interest in my eyes, for the foesQ tree aad bnmt corals 
which he describes^ seemed to indicate its possession of pro6fs, for 
which I had sought in vain in many other places, hy which the epoch 
of what I have termed the ironmasldng of the unreduced aqueous 
rocks of the Peninsula might be determined. In De c e m be r 18461 
endeavoured to reach it by crossing from Kot£ Tingi on the Johore 
river, but tlie constant rain whioh attended my examination of the 
banks of the river, and the ignorance of the Malays who accompani- 
ed me of the precise route, prevented my succeeding. The recent 
discoveries of coal deposits in the northern division of the Peninsula 
gave a new importance to the traces of Hgneous fossils m other parts, 
and rendered it desirable tiiat every accessible locality where rocks 
are exposed should be exanuned as opportunities occurred. It was 
not until the beginning of last month (September) that I was enabled 
to viidt Sidflf. I had been invited by the honourable the Goveraorto 
examhie the coal deposits along tlie coast to the north of Plnang to 
which the Steamer Hooghly was to be deap«tched in October. It 
liappened, however, that the only few weeks *of leisure which I could 
secure for a geological excursion occured in September, and on ex- 
pressing my desire to devote them to an expkuation of the east coast 
and islands of JohcHre, — witli a view to ascertain whether they contain- 
ed any indication s of the presence of coal, — ^if any of the gunboats 
should have occasion to proceed to the eastward during that time, 
Colonel Butterworth placed one of them at my disposaL Whatever in- 
formation tttffrefore has been the fruit of the voyage is due to his de« 
rire that our great and discreditable ignorance of the geography, con* 
4i^on, and resources of a large part of the Pemnsula, in which our 
possessions in the Straits give us a strong interest, should be re- 
moved. To make the most of the opportunity, I endeavoured 
to procure Mali^ys to take a boat up the Johore. river, in order 
fhat, in returning, I might cross to it from the ooMt, and viflt 
the tribe of J&kuns who were said to live on its upper hrandbes* 
Failing in this, I abandoned the intention of returmi^ by land, bnt 
atiU cherished the hope that I should meet with the aborigines in some 
of the rivers on the eastern coast. I therefore proceeded round 
Point RomanU and along that coast to Kw^lU Sfdilf, examining it» 
geological features as we advanced. Four days were given to the 


mer of Sidflf Besar, tiie largest and only inhabited one on the east 
coast of Johore, and to the ascent of a mountain inland, from the 
sunumt of which an extensive view over eastern Johore wte obtained^ 
On Che Sfdflf no aborigines were found, but flie Makjrs informed me 
that they were numerous on the Indiu, the first hrge river on the 
coast of Pih&Dg. On leaving the Sfdflf we sailed for the group of 
Islands of which Pulo Tingf is the most remarlcable, and yrhere the 
orang Tambusd (sometimes called Sea Gypries) have a village. We 
tiext made for Pulo Paniingd (P. Pfsing of the (iharts) and having 
skirted It, proceeded to the lat^est of idl the eastern islands, P. Tio* 
min (P. Timoiui of the Charts.) Having previously obtab^d an ac- 
count of Pulo Aor and some specimens df its rocks, it did tutt seeixi 
advisabie to inCur the delily of two or thtee day^i which a visit to it 
would hlive required, and we therefore directed Oiir course towards 
the mainlaLnd, intending to touch ftt the islets which liii between it and 
Tioxn^n. Unfortunately we mad<^ no progress until late in the day^ 
and when at last a breeze Came to our iissistaiice the Ser&ng cdnsi« 
dered it necesstiry to seek an anchorage off the coast of th^ mainland. 
In the morning we found ourselves to the northward of Kwilld Indau. 
Alter landing on some islets we entered the tnd&u, which Is one of 
the largest rivers on the eastern coast. On the 21st. 1 left the gun- 
boat and proceeded up the river in my s^pun. Next day we reach- 
ed the first ktopong of the orfing Biiiud, that of the B&tin ltamb£ 
Ki}^ Above this the river divided into two branclies, the Anak In- 
dia on the nortli, and the Simrong on the south. We followed the 
Simrong until, on the morning of the 23rd., we reached th^ place 
where it is joined by a largC branch from the south cKlIed Sdngi 
Mad^. Having learned that ffom the upper part of the Simrong a 
day^s walk would bring iis to one of the princlp^al rivets cff the west 
c^oast, the Biitu Pahat oi* Rio Formosa, \^hidi 1 had partially ascend* 
ed oh my way from Malacca in February last, I resolved to cross td 
the point wbiCh I had reached froiti the Straits of Malacol, and thus 
complete a line of observation across the Peninsula, tt i&ppeared 
further th&t by ascending the Madd I would apprdach within two or 
three day's walk of the .f ohore riter, and I dctferinlned, On returning 
from Bitu Pahdt and after ascending the Anak Indau, to endeavour 
to reach Singapore by striking through the centra of Johore andl 
gaining the source of the Johore river. At Kwiilli MfLd6 I pro^ 
cured a smaO canoe, the Sinlrong having suddenly become sol 
contracted, rapid, and obstructed by fallen trees, that the s&mw 
[lau could not proceed. On the second day from Kwalla Mad< we 


Arrived at T^o, where we found the To Jumiagy the Mifaiy «fai 
governs the ^strict of the Indiu. Next morning .we reiomed 
our course, the river totally changing its character, becoming broad, 
deep, and slow, and then passing in^ a chain of small lakes. Aboie 
these it eoptracted again, and in the evening, when we arrived at 
P^Ucam, our guide did not ooosider it adrisable in the shallow state of 
the river, and without smaller canoes, to ascend to Slabin where the 
usual route to Bdtu Pah&t lies. We therefore left the eanoe and struck 
into the jungle. After two days hard walkuig, resting the first night 
in an open BinuiL hut and the next on the ground, we arrived on the 
afternoon of the 27th. at the Boko or Pau, one of the prindpil 
branches of the Batu Paluit Next day I descended to the place 
which I had reached from the western coast and where the other 
branch, the Simrong, joins the Pau and forms the B4tu Pibat. The 
time occupied in reaching the Batu Pdhat from the mouth of the In- 
diu having proved longer Uian I had been led to expect, I endeft> 
voured to procure a boat and return at once to Singapore by the 
Malacca Straits, but was unsuccessful. We therefore again turned 
our feces to the east, and by the 30th. had retraced our steps to Pan- 
lc£Uan Pdddng (between Pdkam and T^o) where the Bfntard lives. 
Here I met a Javanese who had recently crossed to the J chore from 
the Simrong, and on making further enquiries it appeared that this 
was probably a better route than that from the Mad^. The Bintari 
however made many difficulties in procuring a guide, and I was oblig- 
ed to be sadsfied with a promise that if the Mad6 was found to have 
too many obstacles, and I should return to PinkdUan Pild^, he 
would furnish me with guides. Next morning (Ist. October) we pro- 
ceeded on our way down the river, but had hardly passed the braach 
which conducts to the Johore path, when we fell in with an old man 
who cheerfully consented to act as guide to Johore, and as it was now 
necessary to abandon the intention of visiting the An^ Ind&u, or aoj 
other localities, and to reach Singapore as soon as possible, I placed 
myself under his guidance, and sent instructions to the Serang of the 
boat to return without delay. Four days walking bronght me over the 
central mountain chain of Johore, (of wliich Gunong Lulumat 
forms the principal member,) and past the source of that river, 
to Pinkillan Tinkal^ on its right bank. Here a canoe was procured 
which carried us with great rapidity down the stream nearly to Koti 
Tingi, where I had the good fortune to find the Raji Kfdif. On 
learning my anxiety to reach Singapore without delay he, with great 
kindness, offered to proceed at once in his own boat, as no other i^as 


tiwmcdintftly obtainable. We reached Pulo Tikong in the ooune of 
the night and would have arrived in Singapore early next day if the 
i6ind had not risen and obliged us to anchor. A similar cause de- » 
tcdned us for some hours at Chilngie, and it was notuntal the evening 
tJiat the month's excursion was brought to a close. Its principal re* 
&xilt has been the elucidation, to some extent, of the geology, geogra- 
phy and productions of a portion of the Penmsula previously unvisit- 
ed by any European. Amongst the most interesting ^coveries, not 
reladng to geology, were the finding of the source of the Johore river in 
aa high mountain chain nearly in the centre of the country ; the ascertun- 
ment of the courses and affluents of the Sidflf, Indiu and Rio Formosa ; 
the angular and unexpected fact that one river retaining the same name, 
S. Simrong, forms a principal branch of the Indau on the one side and of 
^le Rio Formosa on the other, so that there is thus a river communi- 
cadon between the Straits of Malacca and the China Sea ; and lastly 
the equally unexpected fact that the interior of the country visited is in- 
habited by a tribe distinct from the J&kuns, and who, as the most south- 
em of the Asiatic aboriginal tribes, as well as on many other ac- 
counts, deserve the attention of the possessors of Singapore. This 
people appears to me to have such paramount claims to the exer- 
tion of our influence on their behalf, first to free them from the op- 
pressive thraldom in which they are kept by the Malays, and then 
to ameHoriate them by Christianity and education, that I should 
not consider myself justified in delaying to communicate the impression 
made on my mind during the fortnight I was amongst them. With 
my attention directed to other things, and obliged to be almost con« 
tanually in motion, I cannot offer any thing approaching to a com- 
plete accoimt of them, and whatever confidence I may have in my ge- 
neral impres^ons and conclusions, I fear that I may have fallen into 
some mistakes, while I am certain that many tnuts necessary to a 
correct estimate of the tribe, both ethnologically and morally, can only 
be discovered by a longer sojourn amongst them under more favour- 
able drcumstances. Some apology is also due for the rough manner 
in which my remarks have been thrown together. Tliey have been 
written during indisposition brought on by the &tigue and exposure 
of the journey. I thought it better to attempt to do so under aH 
disadvantages while the impressions of my vbit were quite fresh. In 
subsequent contributaons I propose to give a geographical and geo- 
logical description of all the places which I visited, mtii a detailed 
narrative of the journey, and l^is will enable me to supply some of 
the defielencies of the present paper. 



Trb Countrt of THB BiNUA. — ^Tlus people occupy all tj^e interim 
or of Johore properly so called, or that portion of the ancieot Idngdom 
of that name oyer which the Tamiingonfi^ now exerdaes the rights of roy- 
alty. They also possess the interior of the most soutlierly portion of 
Ptiiing. The most definite description of thdr territory however is 
that they occupy the upper branches of the last or most southern sys^ 
tern of rivers in the Malay Peninsuk, that is of the rivers Johore (the 
Lingfu and ^e Siyong) Bindt, Pontf&n, Bdtu F6h&t or Rio Pormon 
(the Simp4ng K(ri, Piu, and Simrong with their numerous affluents) 
and Ind&u (the An^k Ind&fl, Simrong and Mdd^), with the country wv 
tered by them. By means of these rivers a constiUit communicatioa 
b maintained between the families of the Binu& on the two ddes of 
the Peninsula. It has already been noticed that the Ind&u and its 
branches are directly connected vdth the Bdtu P&hit and its branches 
by the Simrong. The other principal branch of the B&tu P^at, the 
ViUf is connected with the Si&bin, a branch of the Ind&u, by a path of 
only one day's journey. Paths lead from the Midi and the Simronn; 
to the lingfu, thus connecting the Jdhore with the eastern rivers^ 
while it b still more closely united to the western by its other branch, 
the S4yong, which rises in the same low hill from which the Bindt 
issues. I found no Binu& on the river Johore below the junction of 
the S&yong and Lingfu. Ihere are none on the Pul&f ; and the ab- 
original fiunilies on the Tamrao and Sakodaii which fall into the old 
Straits of Singapore, (Orano Sabimba) were recently imported 
by tlie Tamiingong from the island of Battamto the south of Singa- 
pore, for the purpose of collecting tkh&n (Gitt^ Perch&.) The 
river nomades (Biduanda Kallang or Oramo Slbtae) and the 
sea nomades (Orang Tahbusa, termed also Oramg Laut and 
Rtat Laut, people of the sea, &c«, who lurk about the estuaries 
and creeks of the Johore, Libbam, and other rivers along the 
southern coast of the Peninsula are disdnet from the Binui, and 
cut off from all conununication with them. What is remariohle, 
the Binu& have never been known on the upper part of the Sfdili 
although it has its source in the same mountains where the Johore 

* Tbis is not a very legitimate use of the word Binuft,— '* orteg Btaiu* 
liieraUy meaning the people of the coantry. It did not appear from the en- 
quiries which I made in many places, that they ever had any distinctive name. 
The Malays term them ^ or&ng ut^n'* men of the forest, ** orang darat Ittr'' 
wild men of the interior, ^c, ephithets which they consider offensive , tod 
the Malays generally address them as ^ ortog olu'* people oClhe imcrior^^^ 
rather of the upper part of the river* 


and the Mdd^ rise. On tlie north west they do not extend beyond 
the Simp6ng K(rf and P4u. About half a day's walk from the source 
of the former rises an affluent of the rive'' Mu^ called Sungtt Pfigo« 
which gives its name to a tribe found on its banks and anu»i|;st the adj»^ 
cent Mils. The Binui described the oring Pfigo as a wild race, naked, 
without houses, shunning all intercourse with the Mabys, and having 
very Uttle even with them. If this deseription be correct they are 
prohahly a seeluded and rude brandi of the Udai, or, it may be, of 
the JiUoms. Whether the Fibkog tribes immediately to the north 
of the Indiu (who are said to be veiy numerous,) are woular to the 
Binui I had no opportunity of ascertaining, but the Binu& inhabiting 
the country which I have indicated, whether they are as distinct from 
the tribes on the north east of the Peninsula as they are from those 
00 the northwest or not, undoubtedly form a separate tribe in them- 
selves ; for, while they are all mutually related, they have no connec- 
tion vrith any other tribes, and hardly any knowledge of such. Their 
language, appearance, and habits are similar. They describe them-« 
ielves as being ^* leaves of the same tree." I met witii individuate 
on the Ind4u who had relatives and acquaintances on the Lingfu, 
S^yong, Binut, and the branches of the B&tu Pah&t, and who had vi- 
sited all diese rivers : but beyond this drde thdr geographical ideas 
were afanost a total blank. 

As I shall have occasion in the sequel to compare the Binui of 
Johore in some respects with the group of aboriginal tribes inhabit* 
ipg the next system of rivers, I extract a brief account of thdr distri-< 
button from an unpublished narrative of an excursion which I made 
into Ndning and Ramb&u in February last and in wluch some inior- 
mation obtained subsequently is now embodied. 

The lof^ Gunong Bermun (which is probably nearly one hundre4 
miles to the north of the Luldmut group) with the mountains which 
adjoin it, may be conridered the central highlands of these tribes* 
In the ravines and vallies of Gunong Bermun two of the laigest ri-« 
evrs of the Peninsula, the P6h&ng and the Muiu*, with their nume- 
rous upper tributaries have their source. There also rises the Si- 
mujong which unites with the Longf. 

The upper part of these rivers and many of thehr feeders are oeeui 
pied by five tribes of aborigines differing somewhat in civilization and 
language. The Udai (who appear to be the same people who are 
known to the Binute of Johore under the name of or6ng P^) are 
found on some of the tributaries of the Mu&r, as the Sqj^et, P6r 
iungan and K&pf, and in the vidnity of Gunong Lidtog. Thif 


tribe has len approiumited to Malayan habits tiian the otiien. The 
Jakvn pardally frequent the same territory, the lower part of P&loDg« 
an, G&ppam &c., and extend northwards and north westward widun 
the British boundaries. They are found at Tidong, Ayer Chirmfn, 
Ayer Itkm^ Darat Yassin, Ulu Kiss^g and Buldt S(ng6r» The 
MiNTiRA, the largest tribe, dwell around Gunongp Bermun and the 
adjacent mountains, G. Ri88am,G. Lich^ O. Singw&ng, G. Kimu- 
nfng^, G. Kayu Lib^ and G. Garun. They possess the higher put 
of both the western and eastern streams. Thus they occupy the 
Trfang, Simplas, Gipan, Bangkong, Giding and Tdang. On the 
south they frequent the upper part of the Li&ng&t &c. Amongst the 
other streams occupied by them are the Lim&m&, Ayer M^oagb, 
Ungkap, Kunu, K&p6ytog, N6h&ch&, Sib&ngas, S&bulu, S^^og, 
Jimpul, B6yM, Tapak, Jilibu, Singf, B^rumpun, Klassa, Jin^ 
Kam6n, Tms, Bihbong, and Kliwibig. The Sakai succeed to them 
in tiie interior, frequenting the ndghbourhood of Gunong Kinfiboj. 
On tile north west the Mintir& march with the Besisi, one of the 
most numerous tribes, who occupy all the streams flowing in thst 
direction ftom Gunong Bermun and the mountains lying to the south- 
ward of it, as G. Angsf , G. Berfig& and G. D&tu. It is thii tribe 
wldeh occupies the Sungei Ujong and Lingi, the Lukut, the Sipplm^, 
«nd the lower part of the L&ng&t, with their feeders, the KfiU^, 
PQam, Tik^, Jijan, Llanar, GalMh, L&bu, Chfnch&ng, Trip, Girintul, 
lUmf, lAni, Gimru, Pin&ng &c. 

Although these five tribes, (as well as those inhabitang all the m- 
terier of the Peninsda to the north), are sometimes called Or% 
Bfami, I shall, in t^s paper, restrict that designation to the abori- 
gines of Johore, and term the next group the Bermun tribes, from 
the drenmstance of most of the streams on whldi they are fimnd 
rifling in the Bermun mountain system, reoeifing accenories from it, 
er johung rivers which have their source in its ravines. 

If the reader will refer to a map of the Peninsnla, he win remark 
that on reaching the parallel of 2^ 52' N. (which passes through 
Parodar lull on the west, and the northern part of P. Tf oman on the 
east, coast), the western shore of the MaUcca Straits is snddeidy de- 
fleeted to SE. by E., a direction which it pursues with almost imde- 
viating regularity to the extreme Point of the Pemnsnla, TanjoDg 
Bum (or Bouhis), and which causes a rapid contraction in the 
breadth of the Peninsula. This narrow extremity of the oontiDeiit, 
resting on the above parallel, (or perhaps more correctiy on a line, st 
right angles to the range of tke Peninsula, joining Parcelar hill sod 

the estuary* of the river Pah«]f,).aiid whiebmity be termed the Lands . 
End ciAm, Is the country inhnhited by the tribes noticed in this p^ier. 

With the exception of the Iiuhhnut mountain group, in which the 
lAng/tvif SidiU, Mid^ and lUhloig rise, — and which sends a less cle* . 
▼ated chain towards the place where the waters of the Simrong flew . 
on the one side to the east and on the other to the west, — ^the whole 
country of the Bmui is flat, or undulating, or slightly hilly. . It is eve- 
rywhere covered by.the most luxuriant and magniflcent forest, which . 
natunehasso abundantly provided vdth ediUe fruits and animals, that 
if the Buiu& were deprived of every other means of subsistence they 
would still have a sufficient su|^y of the necessaries of life* The 
cfimate is rainy ; and the almost constant mpisture produces towards . 
morning a degree of cold which renders a thick blanket indiiqiensable * 
to the European, and causes the Binud to crouch round thw fii^ 
The alluvial tracts, and particularly the plain of the P4u, are* at this 
time envebped in dense fogs, which are said to prevail all the year . 

A fiiUw account of the country will be given aftenravds. I have- 
liere only mentioned such particulars as are necessary to understand, 
the Gonditu>n and mode of life of the Binu^ - 

Personal APrsARAKCE of thb Binua. — In personal appeanmoer 
the Binu&bear a strong family resemblance to the Malays ; and I re« 
marked of many of them, as I had prenously done of the Besfsf, that' 
the diflTerence was scarely appreciable so long as they remained at 
rest and alent. In other words the air, manner, and expression, con* 
stitute the great distinction between them. In one or two rare in*' 
stances even this was almost wanting. The Bintfird of Boko in his 
bearing and manner so much resembled a qmet, shrewd, old Malay 
trader, that the Malays who accompanied me considered him to be 
such until his pronunciation betrayed him. The great majority how- 
ever are, at the first glance, distingidshable from Malays. THe mosit 
csonstant and obvious characteristic is the eye, which, as in the Ber- 
mun tribes, is soft, mild and with a liquid brilliancy, very different 
from the dark cloudy aspect of that of the Malay at once adapted to 
veU his real thoughts and objects and give expression to wounded 
pride and revenge. In some of the women it is eminently soft, 'lus- 
trous and confiding. I only noticed in two or three of the men that 
habitually wild expression wliich occurs more frequently among th6 
Bermun tribes. The mouth varies grea%, but in' all is open, and 
entirely devoid of the degree of firmness which generally charactcrbca 

Jt 2 

2&0 niE BINVA' OF iOHOIlk. 

that of the MaUy/ hot ^vliich is m m e H aiea wanUng in them ailso. 
In a oonnderable number the lips are tfaiek and projecting, and ibis 
is sometimes carried so far l^st they are as prominent as the nose 
wludi seems to rft on the upper Bp. The lips do not form an acute 
angle hot are often almost in a Ihie In one instance Hiej efen de- 
parted further from the Malayan standard and formed an angle great* 
er than two right angles. The forehead has a moderate slope and 
in' itself is well formed though small. But it is disproportioned t9 
the face, the middle part of which, between the posterior pnt of tiie 
lower jaw and the upper part of the dieek bones, expands hleiiiflf 
much beyond the base of the forehead. Hie nose is ahrays low and 
generally thick and lumpish, (the bridge being in^^ificant and cmb- 
ing it at a Kttle distance to appear fike a lowpyrandd) wiiereasintiie 
Malay, altho' it is frequently of the same description, it is sometimes 
seen l%her and more shapely. Several dasses of fees were weD mark- 
ed, and to convey any accurate idea ofthepr<;Ta]]ing physiognomies at 
least a dozen portruts would be necessary. Hie satme remaric, it may 
be mentioned in pasmng, appBcs to tiie Malays, and probably to most 
races, and any one may sadsfy himself of this on looldng at the por- 
trait of a Malay given in Dr. IMdianfe' Natural Ilistofy of Man. 
There are many Malays of a similar type, but it is&rfrom beiagthe 
predfnahisting one^ and it convoys an erroneous and unfovDunible ioi- 
presnon of Malayan physiognomy. Tlie safest method in works of 
the kind would be to give examples of all the most prei^ent tjfpes. 
JlkR general shape of the head and features of the Binui assimilates 
tfi the Malayan, although it is deddedly smaller; but I am not sore 
whether more examples nught not be obtained of sj^roximation to 
Bugis faces than to Malayan. I noticed many fiices which rea^' 
ed me of Bugfs^ and amongst the Mintir& and Besisf this trp^ 
also occurs. The rounded swdling fcM^head erf" the Bugis, bfywer er, 
which rises evenly from the cheek bones and gives a ^stioctive cha* 
racter to thdr physiognomy, detracts from this resembbmce, which 
appears to be caused mainly by the almost feminine fullness, smootb- 
pess, and symmetry of all the outlines, the absence of angular promi- 
nences qr depressions, and the pleasong softness and simplicity of the 
expresdon — ^all which are wanting in the Malay. It should be add- 
ed tiiat the Bugis countenance bears an hnpress of intelligence, feel' 
ing, and sometimes, if It does not belie tiiem, of a gemal sensibility and 
imaginativeness. In many cases the Bmu^ face is fat and flesh)i|.and all 
the features heavy, but in general, although full and rounded*, it h not 
faL The greatest breadth is commoiUy across the cheek boaes^ but io 

eercnl instanceg where the jaws were prominent the lower part of 
the fiice was broadest. In contrast with these others were seen with 
oval iaeesy well cut and slightly aq[mline though low noses, and neat 
china, and ^e whole fiice free from Uiat over abundance of flesh Wi^ 
which asanj. others are furnished* The outer extrenuty of the eye- 
brows was frequently directed upwards in a greater degree than I 
have obseiTed in ACalays. Viewed in profile the jawbones are seen to 
edviAoe more than in the Makys in general, so that the diin, lips and 
cxtiemsty of the nose are in one line, approaching to yertical, which 
forms an obtuse aiigle with that on whidi the nose and forehead are 
placed* The anteiiour extension of the jaws on the one hand, when 
the hee b viewed from the nde, and tlie outward projection of the 
lower jaw combined with the marked lateral eompression of the fore* 
heady on the other hand, when the face b viewed from the front, 
would appear to give to the head a pbce intermediate between the 
prognathous and losenge shaped or pyramidal forms. Phyacafly they 
may lie considered as a link between the aegro and bvown raees of the 
Archipelago. The general expression of the face denotes good he- 
tore, mildness, innocence, content, want of mental eneigy, and re* 
flectiventes, and a predbmlnence of the senses over the intellect. 
The complexion b generally simihir to that of tb» Malay, bat 
aimongst this varieties which It exhibits I noticed several w4io>wese 
much fairer than any Mabys. The hair b blade and in general 
smooth and famk, but in some it is . frizaUd, and ie all eomewhiit 
more dry and tangled than in the Maby, arising from' tiie Uttleeil 
-which' they use. It b worn l(mg or cropped short, as with, the 
Mabys, according to the taste of the incKvidual. Some old:«^« 
men had long discontinued the use of oil, and tiielr dry, rusty, un- 
icempt locks aicBng the efieet of their piereiDg sinbter eyes, wldeh al- 
most seetiied to be touched by Insanity, frightened some of my Ma- 
lays not a little, and so persuaded were they that the kM ladies had 
evil eyes, that they felt greatly relieved when I left tiie house. 
I met a few individuab whose bodies were completely coveredv^h 
41 scaly scurf. The children were often dull, burdened with fat 
and very tUnid, but many were lively, bold and ei^gaging ; and tny 
Malay followers every where remarked that in appearance' they 
could not be distinguished from Malayan children. One child I 
noticed whose eyes wore an expression of the last degree of fear, 
and whose eyebrows and features generally were as like those of a 
monkey as it is possible for a human ^e to be. But thb physie- 
^uomy b also found amongst the ftlalays* 


The body is dknaUer and in g^enenl shorter fhan that of a Maky, 
but is handsomer and less heavy. But the great length of Uae tmnk 
in proportion to the limbs sometunes destroys l^e effect of liie iSghter 
and neater build. The chest is generally broad and foH, and Hk 
shoulders narrower and less sloping than in Mali^. The pelvis b 
not so broad and the limbs in particular are lighter, neater, and often 
well shaped. They are almost all in excellent condition witlioat be- 
ing too fat, although the softer sex has often a tendemy to obesitj. 
The comparative shortness of stature, and the smooth, rounded, sur- 
faces which the person presents throughout, in a large majority of the 
Binu^, add to the Bugfs aspect whidi is often observable amongst 

Most of the preceding remarks may be extended to the Bemraq 

DRXU.--The or^;inal dress of the males, to which a few indlfi- 
dnalg whom I met are stiU restricted, is the ch^wftt, — a narrow str^ 
of eloth passing between the legs and fastened round the wakt. 
tl^ these exceptions all were provided with the Malay sludr*, bi« 
jn t, sirong t* md s^pat&ngaii §, or some of them, but often in so 
ti^lged a condition as to shew that they carried their wardrobes od 
their persons and were seldom able to renew them. With the exoep- 
taon of one house, where the mistress lay in a comer and qypeared to 
be, like her husbaand, totally destitute of dothes, I found the womea 
c^rywhere wearing a short sarong fastened at the waist or a little 
below it, and barely reaching to the knees, being in fact the half (tf& 
Mahy sarong. . TUB is the only garment which they possess, but io a 
few families, such as that of the Bint^ of Boko, some of the fe- 
males wore the Mahiy b^u. The hair is bound in a knot behind. 
From the great de^e universally expressed for pretty s&rongs, b&jus, 
handkerchiefs and ornaments, we must do the Binu& ladies the jiu- 
tiee to believe that they would willingly deck themselves in the full 
Malayan costume if they had the means. The only ornaments wHch 
they possess are plain brass rings and bracelets. Their ears are 
|Herced, but the orifice, which is of tlie diameter of a quill, is more 
often occiqiied by a roko, (a kind of small cigar) or a piece of clo^y 
than an earing. The Mintir^ females have wider perforations. Thef 
are enlaiiged to the diameter of about half an inch by inserting a 
wooden pin or roll of pallas leaf, which is gradually increased till 
the desired width is acquired. Pendents are not worn, but maoy 

^ Short trovers, f Jacket, t A sort of petticoat. § Hcadkerchief^ 

rax BnmA or jesoiix. ' 203 

liave sihrer soMi^ about the die of a CompMqr's Rqiee aiido lij 
MalajSy — and slodlar to those worn by^ Javineae femiles. Sii?er rings 
are abo worn. Thej liliid the hair in tlio mme muyu the Joliore 

McDj of the Min&i aniund Gnnonif Bemran still wear Uie bark 
of the taip^ the men nnng^ Ae di&wfit» and the women a piece of 
rude dotii, formed by simply healings the bark, whieh they wr^romid 
thdr persons, and wMch, fike the sarong of tiie Johore females, 
readies onty from the wust to Hie knees. The Udii fomalea wear 
the cfih&wt like tiiemales. 

They ha;re no deacriplion of shoe, sandal or slipper, and no artkles 
for the toilet. 

H0USB8, Food, Mode op Life, Habits, Character. — ^The 
houses vaiy greatly in nze, neatness and finish. They are mndi 
slighter and ruder than the cottages of the Malays, the greater part 
consisting of only one small room raised on thin posts made of saplings, 
with a roi^h flooring of small sticks placed at irregular distances and 
sometimes with such large gaps tiiat cluldren are liable to all through. 
The ndes are made of bark,* generally enclosed all round, but some* 
times with only a piece of bark here and there, and I have slept 
in houses three sides of which were qmte open. A rude and very 
narrow and steep ladder leads to an open doorway. The roof is co- 
Tered with leaves, commonly those ot the sird&ng, which answer as 
well as the &ttap but last only half as long. The d&an fSllSiS and 
other leaves are also occasionally used, and I was told that the straw 
of the paddy is sometimes collected for thatch. The floor is at vari- 
ous heights, from five to nine feet, above the ground. In localities 
where elephants abound it is generally high. Houses of greater pre- 
tensions are sometimes seen. On the P4u I visited one which, under 
one roof, had a large hall witii an elevated recess facing the door, 
where guests sat during the day and slept at mght. On the sides 
were two large rooms and a long narrow apartment with two flre 
places and an array of culinary utensils. An open platform, a foot 
or two below the level of the floor, Connected the hall with other two 
bed rooms under a separate roof. At Payah Sandar near the Sim- 
rong I visited another large cottage which, in addition to bedrooms 
partitioned off, had several recesses with curtains of coarse cloth 
hung before them. Mats and f iUows for sleeping are found hi every 

^ The bark of the Kippong is chiefly used for this purpose both in Jobore 
and by the Berman tribes. 

^ TBS BflnrA OF JOHOMt ' 

liooMi ne Bevnim tribes iMfe siate, but in gcnaid no piDows ^ 
curUdflB. CoiffBe CMmm euittiinB are conuMon, but tbcy ut ofta 
wanlnif , and whero tUa la the caae the whole fiunily, wiA the gnerti, 
aleep hi the same open apartment, and aometunea packed lather 
closely together* There are naoaUy two lire phKsea, and theae, in 
•the hvger hots, are somatimea m a separate room, but they are n 
general on one side of the angle apartment, iHiere the ioor is de- 
prased about a foot Th^ are funushed with the ordinary pois 
and pans oaed by the Makys, and have ako aasall supplies of die 
coarsest Chmese phttes and saucers. Water is carried and kept in 
tiie shett of a peeuBar apeeies of hwge mekm wluch they eulthatt, 
and which forms a very neat and serviceable, though not dmaUe, jar. 
The bambu is converted to the same purpose but not often. The 
melon and bambu are al^o used by the Bcrmun tribes. The stem of 
the on& with the thorns broken off forms a strong and very effedire 
grater. This u also used by the northern tribes. . Pieces of bird 
. wood cut into neat shapes, and curved slightly, serve, with the half 
of a copoanut shell, to bruize chilis and other, condiments. Malays 
generally have adopted a pestle and shallow mortar of stone for this 
purpose. Tlie Bermun tribes use wood and cocoanut shells like 
the Binu^, and Javanese also prefer these. Most of the seasomi^ 
is supplied by the Malays, such as onions, kunyit, &c. The cnlti* 
vated roots are prepared in different ways. Between meals, or when 
a person comes in hungry, they are roasted amongst the embeis. 
Fo;- regular meals they are grated down or simply boiled with the 
addition of hogs grease or vegetable oil. 

The, following articles were foimd in a comparatively weU furnish- 
e4 Mintiri hut occupied by two men, two women and two children, 
two timidngs (sumpitans) several parang^ and axes, 2 dammer stands, 
2 iron pans, 2 earthenware pots, 2 santongs (a kind of basket 
termed by the Malays gar(ngj 2 plates, 2 cups, 5 small tea cups, 4 
iiarthemware spoons, 7 sarongs, 3 bajus, 3 sUuar, 4 waist bands, 4 
headkerchiefii, 1 pair of subangs, 3 hur pins, and 3 copper rings. 
The Mintiriis have three meals, morning, midday and evening. No 
kind of food comes amiss, if it does not intoxicate or poison them. 

The,Bi|iu& use siri, but not to excess like the Malays. The gam- 
bier, betelnut and lime which are eaten with it, tliey, like other abori- 
gines, obtab from the Malays.* Their favorite luxury b tobacco, 
and both sexes freely indulge in it. Tlie women are often seen seated 

^ Some of the Mintirii cultivate gambler. 

togellier ^r«Bf!iig mM «nd eadb wttb ft roko in her ntoiMii. Wbm 
speaSdng it is tranflflerecl to tije [terfortttfdfi hi Hie ear. Whea Ihef ' 
were raeft paildfiijt'fteir echoes, tfie roko w«6 seldom wanfitigi "thA . 
Mintirft women are also mueh ad^cted to tobacco, but they do M 
smoJLe it The meiM of ohbikmig' a light a#e so rimyte tint there 
h no ooeaiiiHi to eany &e on thi^ jottrneys! On my way.ihmi'^ 
Rn^ to^e Lingfa my tm> guides asked me to aUbir 'l^em to go* 
to asDuJl deserted tiMn hot near die ]^ for a' litte. As &eir ab^ 
settee was prdtonged beyond what was agreeable to me, fbr a hiterf 
T^ was Mling, I went to the hut where! foiind them eixtendei* 
comfoitaliiy and smdldng rokos, and it was widi gveaf ^Bflbulty tiiat 
diey ooidd be induced to resoine the journey. Tliey hAd'pvocored «• 
figi^by maldngtheendofapleoeof drystiek nqildly involve in «f 
catity made in another stl^« 

The prind pal cottage is made In the Midihig, or pteoe <pf giotmd 
that has been hist cleared. Thte is nsuidly at some dlslaaee firahi 
flie baidc of a mer, to ktoid the Inundations whkih ooeur after henvy 
tains. (Mferings are made, as by the Malays^ to tlie Jtb Bdmf od 
eommencing to fell llie forest When a sufficient apace has bcten 
opened, the trees are left for some montiis to dry. Thqr are then 
burnt, and holes are made wiHi a stick in the grobnd^ which iienrkh<^ 
by the wood ash, for the ireoeptioa of plants and seeds bMaght ftam 
the old l^ldfog. The cbhiwted phutts fouid in dmost every Mdfinf^ 
are the kibdi (the prmeipal substitute fSor the potatoe) tiie tfU'Ben* 
gllfi, the {AA k&yu, the water melon, and the sugar cane.' Pkn«« 
tains oetor frequently but not idrandantly. Midze Is not ad cook'* 
monas with tli^ Bemmn tribes. The wiid leares uM » vt^getdbiee 
by these trilies, — such as the Apd, ^dhmg, chin&rong, Uiyto» mafanlu 
mnnt ttlbong, n. l^ngkap, o. &now, a. I'dmdt u. diMi^y a. dfann 
pong u. mAn, u. klftsaft, u. limpdt, u. chMv^, u. smamhu, u; rirdang; 
Aaott pfiku, d. jtlMng, d» tab6, d. kfi^yft, d. fctdm, d. mmmuH 
d. p^ip^, the roots of the gtiong, gupul, bftjon, klun&, Knt6tigr» 
tr%d, d^^foH, tttkfl, kiiiig, wu&a, wti^i pmmi, kap^^^&ng, &o^ — 
M not appear to be resorted to in JoUore. In mariy lid&nga tobacco 
is eotivated, and in a few I noHoed some kiiiAtif bean (kichlhig^'bdng-i 
ak &c) In a e(m$lderal>ie mimber of the lAdiags a: pOrtaon. is tet 
apart for the growth of rice. Thedry or wset ctdtivatiensare rteort^ 
ed to according to the locality, but tJheforBflier is aaost general. .Pldw* 
en aie neglected. I only noticed a single inltance of thor cnltlra^ 
tkm, and they are never i^om in the hair. It muit be raanfenUieKd 
however that thefar dweUinga are environed by one ^ast botaaiadjisrt 


den, ttid Uwt lihe river baiikf are hung, and the fwest patbsslxefedy 
>with a gre«l wiety of beautlM flowera. All Uie remarks m tUs 
McAm, .wUli tiie flight eioaptioQB mentioned^ app ^ to the B«in»n 

The liittiig havhigbeen once formedreedw no Gullwe, sad iskft 
eHtirdy to the oootrol of the women whoare never for anumungtidle. 
In the Qonnng, htarmg lint refilled the melon ddn wA wMer, ^ 
futen a deqi badcnfc on their baito by means ^f 8tn^ panng gvv tie 

flhouUbfs afid head, and proceed to ecdlect UMi, snpr cane &c £or 
tiK mormngB repast. BreakfiKt cooked and dispatched, tfaejeapiof 
themselves in nurrii^ thdr <^dren, and treanng mats and bags, un^ 
tilit is time to go out and fill their baslcets again for (he evcmig 
medi. If the men ace at home a slight meal is also prepared ia the 
middle of the day. The only employment at a distance from the Uf 
dfaig which they share with the men, and sometimes pursue by tben- 
fldveSy is angling. Many families have snuiU huts <m the bank of the 
nearest stream where th^ keep canoes^ and men, women aaddiil* 
dren, usually one in each canoe, are eveiy where met with cng^ed 
in this quiet oocupatbn. Tli^ luwe other modes of catching fidu 
The most common is by small portable traps woven of rattans. Bses 
of stakes are also used. But the most elabomte engine by which the 
imrs ai^ «ft ed of thdr denicens condsts of a large frame work, fihs 
Ike skeleton of abridge, thrown right accross the stream, and at a lerei 
some Mt higher titan the banks so as to be above inundations. A 
Ime of stakes b fixed accross the bed, an openmg being left m the lud- 
die. Above this the Bmua takes his seat on asmall ph^om, some* 
tunes sheltered by a roof, and suspends a small net in the qMiiii¥« 
On tliis he keq» hb eyes intently fixed, and as soon as a fish entos, 
he raises Ins net and extracts it. The rivers and streams abomul m 
fnah water fish, and there are about fifty species, the names of wbifih 
will be given in the more detuled account of the country wUch ^ 

But it b m the forest that the men seek their principal suppSc* 
of anhnal food. Thefinrorite dbh,— thefieshof tbe wildhogt-'issl- 

60 that whidi b procured m the greatest abundence. I passed sev^ 
ral tracts ^riiich seemed Hterally to swarm with the hog. fot nuks 
together the banks of some streams were covered mth the pfiats^'^ 
tbar feet, and in some mobt holbws their tracks weie so abaadiDt 
that it was impossible to recognize the path, and my guide rqMStedi/ 
hMtit. Inother districts agun they seemed to be less;numaou8.'I%^ 
are partSBularly plentiful in some pboes to the southward of the 1^' 

flwii dub, mA tke^nltti of Uw ttdtegr off M6mpn§ PohAR DuiMft on 
Uie PiB<i»a£nr d^ps- Mne oqr iini?al thon^ had }dlktd<eebKm^ 
Thtf^ 9tm MMfted tritk^ip aftd flpobs. Of tii^ twa *vMilHi 6£ 
do^irtuflh the Bimi jpontin the iBif dr is the ptaper InmtBroflilm 
bog, akbDag^ liiA= taialler k ate jirfusd la Ihe cktae. ^E1ie:sp6ar 
lia»d« whidb b of naliffe ^rioOtei, is !>Mftd Mi ray thitt teiTfodv 
the edg«r It is momiled oh» shaft aiKMitcig)* ImI? bug*, and forina 
» iigpihl and flttrvkeable wvaajkNi^ vidioiit widofat lAie Bmtk ntfdr Tsii^ 
toroB iMioihefnraator goasiqioiiajoiisiiayy and in Hid effieittifl^.of 
wMcdtylar dafendTtsaiid oflbnifiva Baeds, Iwhaa inaah oonfidaoc», 
When ke anteia a hoaaa Ihe spesr ia sliadc, iritfc the haad- i^rtianls^ 
into ihe (proond inirodt of the dasr way. 

Neil te lie hog, deer anmosl sought. The k^iag^ iud nlaft an 
fhaaed hjr the lnjg^ dogr^ and tie diouMitiTe pdtedricaa ftiebtti 
deer 1^ the aoiatt vadatjr^ whidL kin geneeal reserved inr Una pnr>f 
poae* It has some xesanhbaee to a Bengal fox and appeam Id bit 
affiol to Ihe Chinese hreed* The aaast ooaaoaan node of hnnHiy 
the paihidrir is to sand Idle deg into tfae juni^oBl.the sidtfoEa 
stranaa, liH Binna alawijr floaiing down theennentar pidttni^ai 
gains* il in hb canoe, and cheecfag and gnidfa^ tlie.dqgr hf falejdei|b 
kn^dsavn, a i^ uotoiw aiQiissofcriitl ohiehK Thedayoyri Miium 
doam a paltediA kassd to bieskita legSyand.hy iftahiridi«tedia 
roe* the httstertothe^^ The onigr donmttAe aniaMkr hdri^ 
the dap,.af JvUdisevenltare ibund in.everjr oattBtgty jBe^im/lfMtM 
hoBif hned, snd tike oaaunon Bialaf cat 

Theunbi, hA and prohahljr oA» qlecier of monkqrkaie: tdtfs* 
fondbv bnk I heiave not ffmpnmtiy^ and although Ilia JMUqrsr .intoEft 
ttet oadces aM eaten I cooU tod no corraioration of ftftiiWIMtfn^ 
^nle anatigak tin; Bihiite*: flakes (sa. iptelk a^jft lie iaidaateala 
aliom miiliiisiMWl) atewedaatedbf thctBewaajfaihesi. ISMti.ifBa 
i BwJ O se aa d hythedsgs, .Thoie.prin#% aa«|ghtrars Ao utafalsrf^ 
lu tidbng^nwipang,o.Bdg£ n. gtetegwuvsfticdnindaBii lu lri p faig 
a. iikbat, u. ringlnipy u. 8iu» a. tninto, andiu Iciatang^ The Jtfsii 
nsHlnpttiV aaethabeitll«rlNued. T9ie]^havaLall4 ishptsatoL Miral 
kinds of sMdnh, aBtei«:hilM teatk are careMly femeved Hkeihesa 
.pnaBadui8r>pMks», ' vstsdttfillahQn^aeiraMMttng 

r, :.. 

A:imUimkh and^ifeeifesnateiaitobd hyike Johglrefifasllkaa*h]r 
the Bennun tribes, for cspturing or killing the deer andhQ0«4ind)llia 
^er vkdidbnM nnketntotfy to he dM^oyedrhy it« :^H MoMtaArf a 
aUgfat pod Tilde fence cariiad to a iionsijieniUe knglhr nikaas! Mm 


258 . VHB BQflJA OF JOHOllB. 

gnnmd wliieii it is expected tbe aniiiials wttttrvrene. Atemf 
tmntaf or tliirty.tet opemngB are left» between wiiidt span are foL* 
ed p«aU to the tooe luid eloee to k, end of ivbieh tiw Im^ 
aoMMi tlie opemngt. The end of ihe sheft is fretened to tlie eitn- 
iBflyofftliorisoiitilsapBi^fireslilf cut, higlily elasdc, and aboni tf* 
teeo feet in length and 8 to 2^ uiebes in brendtii. Tbe otiicr ertn- 
mty is fastened to a stronf^ stake drhren into the gnnnid, and wAa 
n few fiaet of Una another stake is plaeed in such a dfavelioD tfait 
when the sailing is fmably bent back on it for two or three feetHis 
perpendledar to liie fenee. The meliiod by wMch it is relaned so 
vetnoted is eqnaDj ahnpie and eieoliTe* A lo^gh pole secured bj 
two stakes is pboed parallel to on» of the poles of the taee, on the 
side where tiie spear and its other iqpparatns an, but at a level i 
litde behiw that of the spear. A stick a faw feet m length if bomd 
tonlf at one eAtt q nity to the wnpSog so as to be parallel to, aadm 
the same kvd as, the spear, whUe the other extremity well naooth- 
edismadsto pass under another stick at right angkatsk, and tf 
which the ends pass under the two poles. Hie stidcs retaia Umbt 
poaitkm by their Bmtoal pressore. TothiscraaastidcablidcAnif, 
thhi bnt very strong, is fastened. Theother end of the siring kat- 
ladwd to the further aide of the opeung aari the partkai pMB>lf 
aorom it is made to hang loosely. WhenananhnalentaistheepB* 
ingteptessure of ita body on this part of the string pnHs the eron 
etUtfarward. An advanee of lem than aa inch releases it» snd <he 

instant the stick wMch keeps the sapling bentis^hns in itatonfret') 
Aeisller qnfags forward to its naitaral poabhm with hmnenae.fent, 
and Ae apear IS driven into the bo^ of the aidmal, or m nasy cuei 
pnMily right throngh it. Theal^rtMss of thepresmraiefoiied 
to idease the spring, and the r^iidity and iiresistifale foroe «i* 
nWeh die qiear is hnpdied aerom the opeamg, are admhaUe. 1^ 

mnterWs ibr evoy psrt of the engfaae are taken fiemthBlofflt 
vwvad. Bven the spear head is made of the *wlo litfMtP, wd k a- 

eeadlngly hard aiMl sharp. 

The Bevmun tribes abo, to capture wHd aamuds, dig pits «^^ 
twel^ feet in deptii wUch they eofer orer wkh bruahwood. 

wad pigeons, wild fowl, and mai^ other bindi which B» liri ^v 
food are caught by means of bird lime of wUsh they peaaeea aefv* 
rery effaedTc kinda, prapared by miimg the ^ttds yaaUed bydifer- 
est trees* 

A eoosUerable number of the trees of the forest adbfd Mlst^ 

^eeeds wfakh aie eateu either in their raw state or after bdiy ^ 


Of ffOMtod. Amtogat tiwite mty be mwilioiied the durfdo, of 
there aie flflvcnl nriette «!» iMmlf toUflis ieeds, the nmbdtui, 
ihe r. g^Ufa|r» r* nUn, r. kemimtrf, limhie, diikii.tivokfaid»ofintogr 
», (maagoflln) Wnk^, WdM, taaii(Hif, mfirld, hudurtrafo, klu^i^ 
bohobaUi, btiikoii» kBtbOs cUoBbioi, nrnpiooi, i6^ kampong* mSa« 
aa^ tiUo, mirilUK, lie, garop, chftMt, ram^, pdU«^ gipf^* la^ 
ddndDBir, lniUra» fliki, hnkim/ tempuuH, pitlif, kinUfl, bUni, bU« 
tMg', Bttlby« nofadti^, kapte, ridin, rtmempfa, Hunim, jilli, ty<i|, 
Mnha^flt6t,lcUbafo, tiki*, kikM, piiQ«i«i jirfag, kfki bualai. 
jiHboiii, mfyODg, mieUuiir, kUkiag^ kirpdl» ksw^, pekop, tayo, H- 
ttiinbiia, gmging, dampe, inirliliB^ laaU&L, pJUiiiipf. BeaUesCheie 
M finiit lieety there are dotibtieaa aeveral others the oaaMa of whksh 
I dU not obtafat * 

AldMMgh die UMog ddee no/t yield fntit, the Bimiib eften jdaat 
irDinv dorttna and chimpMia amongst that* potatoes mi pteitauia. 
I&after years they revuit' die place, and if the trees harefroimap 
and bear frint, thi^ oat doum Uie jungle around and amongst the»» 
aad rechum thttr orchard, or Uuhir as they term itfirMi Ha al* 
vibys retammg to a state of km jungle after each annoal nat. In 
the f tirast I passed naay df these blukto some of whkdi conftmnei 
dnrtfas of great sine and beauty. The durttn grams an frequent^ St 
n diahincft of one or two day's walk aad eren more from the k^dlng» 
aad ftmihea fiad it in such cases nidre coufenlent and agteeable te 
resort to the groves tiiaa to hare the fruit brought to . them. Slight 
temporary huts are oonstrueted bedde the fruit trees, and hen they 
pam the fruit seaaon, which lasts from one to two months, snd oa^ 
retorn when the last dnMn baa been plucked. In one of thete 
groves, that of Danl^, where I took adfaatage of the hut to rest and 
pass the night, there were some smaller huts on the ground which 
appeased to ha?e been devoted to duri^n eating, for, i^ile buafada of 
seeds aad husks were heaped arowid it, very few were seen hdow 
the raised hut The dmriin fbsst is the most joyous eesson of the 
year, snd if the wilder hsfaits of theur forelathers stiH have a poetnl 
bhena lisr the Binuds, as appears to be the iSase, it would not be eap' 
sy to pietuiethem In a hi^fder mood thsa when secfaided hi such n 
spot as DanUk, freed for the while firom the intrusions snd emetitins 
of the]Malays, sad drawingfrom the pure waters of the Kahtog, whidi 
mna past the grove, snd from the suiroundmg foest, the ^eer of 
the oUen tune when the H&j6Bmu&xided the lend. A lull grown 
durtta bhikAr is the oal^ agricuhnial properly whidi has any pen- 
value with themi^and while neither houses, gardens, rice fields. 

Mr in faefe my h»A whiMfsr, YmBudU/ti^yukmt'toeottmmAt 
frtee, Hie dnrftotreek aot i iaft e itiiea t i y the wijcBt •f «il8> 0m 
dollir is piM for eadi of tiie ViittMt lll» prtjedMnsTliMr^ ivImI 
1^ trunk of tbe duHAn, Bice tHaH of tereral odMr MmIitvi tR«i» 
tlMfOws ool on approad^ tin gromd. Tliose wiHi iiiain itant sn 
fBiuad Id! two dollin. DnMa git^M are ioflMtiiM* renttd fer a 
liiece <tf clodi, or other equivalent of » few doHira, and I7 the MM 
lihef renter is inTaiiaWf entitled to the prodmse flir two mM o m in 
gteaon^. * niis is probably founded in reaeon for doHina harofflie- 
n% akernale li^ikt and heavy erops. 

The Mfaitiu^ g;ire freat feaelB in the frail aeaaon* A hnfe BOrf 
fcMing" been eonstraoted, end ftbnndanee of anraeic tanpof (the 
fermented juice of the fruit of that tree) prepaiwd, the whole 
«wantry round about b btited. IV foaiSieB nnder one B&dn 
nA' iSie feUI givers. A atiing of radan or oAer tuhetanee, hir* 
Ing knotB to indicate the number of days to the feaat, is sent to 
4tth of tiM otkar Bitfna. The B4tk aasemblM all the mxffk 
itnAir hfan, nwn, women and children, who repair m thairlail 
«lothet to the phm of the feast. If any BitCn Mk to attend, he 
kM«M r fine of SO fwpeea. The Pingttmi reorfvea them at tha 
4iD0r of'ttie bilei wHih a enp of arradc tampul, and takea their speais 
«Mt other weapona from tiiem. They enter ihe MJd and dHM 
toundittbrice with their arms alEfanbo, after wliifdi they sit downaai 
y^itakeof sirf. The dttnner of rioe, idedi, wUd hog, monkey, fek, 
ee^aaot tee., is then served. When tlie dinner is over, the arrack k 
limiglit forward, and all freely partake of it, except tlie chfldnn a»> 
star siJi or seven years of age; thndtag then ooia m enees and ia kept 
np>ifr ni|(fat and often to the middle of tiie next day, Uiooe wim are 
dilmi>iSiid b/big down to sleep in the bflei, Inisband and wife together, 
Buring the danoa they are dieered wUh Ae nmsie of the nMna, 
findings and enling. The women danee together in the centre of 
ihe*Bde£<enchfnspfaigtbeannofherneigkbnnr. ThesMndaace 
hoandthem. Oneoftlieniensingsor ehaafea«tanza,fenenliyin* 
•pnimptn,' and one of the women aoswen. Hie dancing' oonfllrti of 
a peenMar ehwi lm g an d stamphiy of the feet, and tiie oadty fiieience 
lietweea thaS of the men and die women oonsistB in the iatSer swapY 
fhninpa tajuid fro at e ve r y step . AbmuMumB of sugar caoesandpbai* 
laiaa^are hnng lonnd the bilef and every an^ hripa Inmsidf wIka he 
•hn os cn . These feasta are Isept up far weeiis and even months, and 
in feet areonly fedahediHun the supply of arvnek feUs. Qnests 0000 
and go while it ksts. . Parties daii^ rapidr to the forest in seanb rf 

(^KiMr'anl^lnutai I>iii9og^ih6 «a«^ faiil otanf 

«ri ar^tlla OB g trtiitim and lesg oeremmiy is dqmM, h-flonlDBlimM 

find tlMDMlfni let «lglit t^nniig^ndeliyfladfljftltexridnstQC^M^ 
iatfk,-wtwi»tlw <fctiffft anAgdag are kept up bodde tiwfli. 

Hidierto I have dwelt on the indnstiy of the BwA aa Haoitedid 
the aBqaiMon of ^m iiecesaatiea which Us own iaoad prbdniMs.' - But 
4iie HahsfakMie taagfal him te oaret tiuaga whiciirhetooiia sot hoiT 
tepRMoaeaafe fioiA Ibem. These are eMb,iHrt»i68 of eaithenwais 
tM traUy aMh aa ii08rse.platea, pels»paa8» ;id i i i ^t andaaaea>,tSsyari 
to ^ goefauta are mneh fTmed. fiia anppl|f af nos Man ink, Jiia 
ladaiGleaiiiirtnngth: Althaoi^ he h« hath wild aad^idlii 
Mi, lis -haa-aeitfaer gamhiar, betehl1lft.Bo^ lime. The Mahffc 

andltia Bhmi^ iniahi^ to raaiat the deate of caUiDg aoBfltt^ of 1^^ 
9mm, neNa ttnAa patauasioii to bedoma a debaar of the Malay tvadnr 
if^mtf SiMitat the latter dwmas to ianpoie upon Una. The Bitiai 
eaw tela hkttaalf ift poaieHftoii of A fear of those thinsa whiish briaif 
liteiMarar the Malay, anid» at l^e same tfant, under an oUigaitliNi 
ae ealleet^fSltaa^ ttju ghiru, chinlin, caaaptaor, dammar^ waa(, or 
tttiafinrldataofitoy. Thwe, with(iieaoeptiDnQfd&iiiiiiaEo£whic& 
-he mates torchas, are aividaa of «o Tahie in faia own ^ea, hut ie 
wWdi'Ma-ftaresta so abound that, if a more equltdile system of e& 
ched|wweve established between him and the Malays, he woold not 
eefy flfld<ldHi8etf in possasrion of a hae^ supply of ali thoae arthdea 
wliteh sao now spasf^giy doled out -to him, butof agtowing laapitaL 
-The edlesUon of she above oommodities does not fimn a constant or 
i^l«kp «mpl^^ment fl^r anf of the JBin«i. It is only when than 10 
aitimoiiNialdamaed^or any of them in Singapore tiart 4^6 Malaya hurry 
to tfiie§iiaior,>aad iaducBtfaeBinnfe toeagageforatinieinprocMtin^ 
aaupplyeffwfist^ls inteqoeat. At the period of my virit nearly etary 
man in the eounary wis aearchmg^ lor tSbin (to which the name of 
I^Mh pdrchft, a gmn yielded by a diffmrnt tree, is erroneously apr. 
pfied by Surop^aos*). TIds tree is one of the most eonnaoa in iht 
fsreit of Jaiiore. it k not found in liie aHuvial districts $ bat inun^ 
dvdaiiag' or bfily ground, suc^ as tiiat which oeoupiea the centre of 
the 9«lMBula between the ladfta and B^i«a Pfthir, it occurs frefucnb* 
Ify and itt some- pbees abundantly. Wharewer i penelarated I fooad 
thai ftiida eolleetors had preoeded one. I was mueh etmok fay the 

^ It is time that an endeavoar should be made to avoid these mistakes* 
We might with as much trathandpropslety called an apple a pear. 


rmaaikMb miSioiwalkf bk daitbi ik^ THejlndril 

pcffiocuy BcniifiiB mmiBi mni ou w ou nMwn Humiii mabtob mv 
to Ifcwe feat IB a MM t er, tlie gmft uugorilf iMingabmil tM aria 
bftifftet The hrwiAflf aie iw and anafl ooniwnd wiA 
and hare not (hat tandencgr to be croDked wldeh addb so imidi ta the 
h^BSDljr of a fuD grown dnrfan* 

The Bmai after felling the tree make an ineiikm quite roond B 
from nhicfa the ndlk flowB. Thia ia repeated at diatrtieea of 6ty 
18 inchea akmg the whde trunk. Hie ineUon haa onlgr tlM hceaMi 
of liie parang wMi which it ia made, no bark hefaig lemofed aaae the 
nngh auperAcialooailinglbraaindiortwo«Q.caehaide. Maqrtf 
the traea which had been feOad bj ICaU^ iMtead ef a rf^JMiriDa 
had rings of bark of about an indi In brendlh cot o«k AMakqr 
woodman who had been emplojycd- In diiferiiiit pfaaM in prooarhig tiae 
gitti menlioa«d that tine ayatem ia ahrqra adopted bj IIm M^^ I 
nd(k)e thia in eorroboralion of what Dr. Ozkjr haaatafeed ott tUaheid 
In hia eoEcellent paper on the tibmi * beeaaaeinanartloleaatiman]^ 
atnnoe whidi. appeared about the aame tiaaie in Chambata' Etuim^ 
Jottnal» it ia said the bark ia atripped off the taree. It la to be ioifed 
tliat the meOiod of obtainag the gitti suggtated hf Dr. Qxkgr ennpt 
bepot In praelioe«, I aaked both Maliqni and fiinuia b dfifferat 
parte of the ooontrjr whether they conld not procure it wiAoBt dee- 
4rqylng tiie tree in the aame way aa ,1hey edlaet mintt dammar. Bo' 
Ihn inawer ahraya waa that the tibin wookl riot mn filfie damoMr aad 
naigr otiier gfttaa each as the caontehooe. Thia ia pnolNdi^ the 
futy becanae I noticed that on making' inddona on growiny treeii 
the mill^ juice did not flow freely, and rapidly eoaoretifd. Itaap^ 
pearaaee in this state before being boiled isTerjf difbreat from tbatof 
^e artide Aa imported into Singapore. It haa e dry ragged look re- 
aembfingshreda of baric, and,inBteadOf being d^nae and tough, laBght^ 
and poflBeeaes ao litHe ooheaton that it ia eaei^ t^m in pleeea. I fre> 
ipientfy saw it in tfaia state when newly l»rou|^t in from tlie |nn|^ 
Variousatatementa were made aa to the produce per tree. Conohifr 
ing that the treea are so nearfy of (me sfcte, it is aarpiwn|r <bal the 
quantity of tibdn yUstdtd by them dMkn ao mw^. The CKtreaMS 
mentioned were two catties and fifty eattaea, but it ia doubtfrl wfae- 
tlier any thing near the latter quantity ia ever obtained. Maiqr Bi* 
un^ who bad been engaged for aome numthainthe eoUeetMrnaa^ 
sured me that tiiey had occaakaaally obtained aa nmidi aa 18 oattks 
but never more and that the quantify is commonly nearer 3 to 5 est' 

tks tliaii the nuaamun. I luiTe notteed the tibin at some length be« 
cao^e an intereat ittudiet to it at preeen tadbeeanae ne^ly the 
whole Bimii people for some tune paat litre been wichdimm by it 
from their usual pumiitB. Thef are not under any apprehenriontiiftt 
it wHl be extirpated, and sndled at my ignomoe on soggestnig the 
probahOityofitabdngao. It is only treeainifed at tiiebftiU growth, 
or at least at e very eonslderable age, that rtftsf the labour of felfing 
them and extraeting the g^ttd, and tJiose of aU inferiour ages which 
they are compelled to leave, inll keep up the race. Ihey are no 
doidyt in so ftr eorreet, but the effect of tidnning the tib^ at the 
present rate is to reduce the vmnal sqqily of seed and young plants. 
The aeeds are eaten by the Bmui, bnt they do not, like the Malsys in 
some eountrics, as at £fi6k, extract an edlUe Tegetable tallow Arom 

It is unneoesntfy to speak of the modes in which the other artideB 
of tnffic jidded by the jungle are procured, because I Ad not learn- 
that they diifered in any respect from those adopted by the Malays. 
I msy here mention however that both people have veiysuperBtitians 
ideBB regardbig the collection of camphor. While seardiing for it 
iSktf ibstdn from certain lands of food, eat » litde eaith and use i 
kind of artifidal language called the bdasiklpor (camphor language.) 
lUs I ibund to be the same on tte Sfdilf , the India and the BiCu 
FahtL From the suljobed specimens it wiU be seen that meat of 
the words are formed im the Maliqfan, and in many eases by mesdy 
suhstitating for the common name one deiliied from some quality of 
tiie dijeoti as ''gram frmt** for rice, ''frr sounAng" for gun, "sheet 
legged** ftr hog, 'leaves** for hair kc 

Thb Camphoe Lavgvaqe, 
Wordi not MiAajfmm^ 
Wood Chu^ 

Stone cho'ot 

Rattan ih«t 

lUdn kum^h 

River nmphi 

Clouds padiam tatengel 

Iron chaot 


Deer sabalfu 

]>o. kijang ansong 

Hog simungko 

Tv«r rtli^a 


9!nik.||AtiMk Off>.l«|o«M 







fil|Hw4 piagpio^ 







9iok . 



' litt 




pinimNNL tiioMlmtf 


mamboilf HMitk 















. ImaM 






„ ladi»(M.) 











Little . 

'ridukon (Malay BidncTt,) 

To eat 

miniko, tik» 

To drink 


To thirst 




To sit 


To Uy bye 








Words adapted from the Mhktf. 

Pepper, betel leaf 

pvoAdis frwA pidfls 


k^pait * ^' pait 



„ bOl 



A ruler 







To return 

Small axe 


To buy 




ini bdm jfaibuni „ 
tdokattrtng „ 

tonlot gUp 














l^jam 8&9(kit 
putlog piningi 
peiimbat . 

» t « 

99 pulo 


buali rumput 



















putf . 












s&rong bingke( 

It 18 believed tbfttif care be not taken to use the ioiMi JtifpargreaA 
difficulty win be experienced in finding campbor teees, and thai; 
whenfomid tiie camphor will not yie}d itaelf to the collector* Who*, 
eyer nuqf hftve been the originator of this superstition^ it is evidenth 
baaed on the 6ct that allihough camphor tr^ i|re ahuiKd#nt it rerf 
frequodlfy h^^pena that no canyhor i;anbe obtained from tfae^« 
Were it otherwiae, said an dd Binn& who was di^g;ii]ar]||y free tnm^ 
superstitions of any kind, camphor is so vahiable that not a siqgle 


i66 "tit* BfiitoX '(« taitiilw^ 

MI gprown treetniuld be left in the foi^edt.- ' Camphor Is not attect^ 
ed by the Bermun tribes, «t letst on th^ western nde of the RBmoni^ 
la, and thty are tinacqiiamted with the BHuk K&por. 

Having mentioned the hbours which the Blnui imdertalcea to sa- 
tisfy the deniflMs of liis Makyan oredftdrs, thb would lie the proper 
pUce to exphdh the relation which subsists l ie t i i r e e n the two races. 
But to understand it thoroughly a fuittier acquaintance with the Bi- 
nua is necessary. 

The preceding details will render it apparent that die Binui lAo 
19 not well supplied with the necessaries of life in connderable rarie- 
ty has notliing but his own indolence to bkme. As in other eom- 
munities the condition of in<fiTlduaIs varies much. Hie active and 
persevering do not grudge their labour to render tfaemaelrei and 
their famiUes comfortable. Theik* houses are comparatiTelf tnge, 
neat and car^lly constructed. Thdr Ud&nga are well stodied with 
vegetables. • Their families are clothed. Hiey have their filing hot 
and canoes on the rif er, and their durS&n grove and hut ia tlie forest, 
and they and flS about them are dieerfi;^ and even h^ypy. And, yet 
tliey never have any other capital than their industry. Otheis again 
have not a tithe of their comforts, but are so reconciled to thdr own 
Indolence and its results, that they are contented with their VUL 
I soon found that a large house and a suflicient suppty of dothog 
were certain evidences that the head of the (iunily was endowed with 
a superior measure of inteltigencenid cheerfuhieaB. Where all are on 
an equality, accumulated capital awanting, and hahDy anything te- 
herited hut the common right of taldng the produce of tiie fitotst, 
personal advantages are the only ones known. He who has most 
intellect and activity fores best. 

The family of the Binuft is an Innocent and happy one, and nmtud 
kindness prevails on eveiy ade. He authority of the latiier is ab- 
solute, nor arethe sons freed from it even when they havethemselTes 
become the heads^of fiunilies. It is probahle that in die morepiirely 
nonuuUc ages die family w«s less earfy subject to be broken up, and 
(hitt the patriarchal system prevailed hi its fiUett extent. In the 
house however the husband appears more as aii honoured guest tiisn 
ft§ the lord. Tfie wife has the entire managerhent. A Bhioii ex- 
^efssied their ideas on this score figuratively, bjr sayhig diat the 
husband was nakhoda of the priidli, and ,the wift nakhoda of the 
HAns^. ' The whole household eat togedier, the wifb flitting near the 
firh' place so as to have the smoking bidng^s and kwoBi widiia her 
XK^t* Vrom these she replenishes the plates from time to time. Frou 

Vm «m:I^^» rel^h* an^ %i^ gOQ4 hui90iirwitl]| which tbCi vifm((s.m 
dJifensse^ it |;P7 apparent jth^t the Bin\4:i^,))l^|9se4 witjv^it l^f^.^. 
aiipetite and loqksaapQa &e satisfying of It as the main end .ipf, life^ 
The cbiUrcn are in ^neral oyer fed» and even tliose who ,are natii« 
Fa% Tivadous seem with difficulty to resist the lethai^gic liu^uencc o) 
enmmag ynih^ potatoes boiled in ^logs grease, a kind of food with 
wluch their patural uutrfanent, is eked out from the third. or fourU),' 
dajr of thdr existencfi. .This pay be owipg to the habit of not weanin£ 
children till they are two, three, and sometimes even four years o^ 
ace. It is.nojt ai> un^common soectacle to see the infant of a fex 
weeks and tiie &t nursling 9f two yo^^at. the brc^i^ together. Jfn; 
dulged as the chiidr^ ar^ during their in^ancjth^ nb sc^iner am^ 
at an age. when theif labour can be of Any use, than they are ma^e ta 
assist their parents in their Afferent employments, llie eil^'o!f this 
training, b that the young Binu4 mon an(l w6i^e^ ' are higlily Robust 
and aetiye^coooipared with the Mali^ys, and cabbie of endurihg with 
cfaeerfiilness an amount of labour from which the latter woi4 J shrinjc. 

• . i: I 


The.hiisband caimot beat the wife for any cause, and such is also 
the "64^ of the Alintir^ and probably of all the of her tribes. Shoiud A 
Mintira wooum offend her husband he .complains to her parents 'wJio 
chastise her. . ^e has a redpnwal protection from the parent<; or'thVi 
husbaiudL Should the husband commit a senous offence against tne 
wife her relatiyes complain to the Batin who authorizes thpmlto'it^ 
summarily .with him. .They .repur to his hpu^ and strip it of eVerjf 
article in it. . The goods are .carried to the Batfn who eiyes a'^at'^ 
to the wife*s re^tiVes ana,apJ>ortions.the renuunder betwe^iA liim'self 
aad his officers. .. '" 

Tbtt good humour and cheerfulness of the Blnua are amongp^t theuf 
most cgtriking el^racteristics. . Their minds are free. frooi' thought 
and free from care. . ll^y are timid, but at the same time perfedny 
indepeadenti and, while entirely exempt from all.slayishness of man- 
ner or addr()Bs and wanting in that peculiar courtesy which'^diSiilA- 
guishes the .Malay, are thoroughly respectful. While in M<ire9S tKcy 
are abrupt an^ open, th^ haare the sanie natural soilness of biannet^ 
and unwillingness to offend which characterise the , un(^6htadiiAltea 
Malay. • Their- plainness and modesty of manner is accompani^tf li^ 
a mental candor and trutiifutlness which the Malay reirirds' aif'oar- 
barous simplicity, but which must attract the sympathy and gbotf Wm 
of the European in a strong d^ree, and place them in hifi' estiihadoTt 
far ahpve all th^^ more civili^ea Asiatic races with whom he U fkAitli-* 
ar. Amongst the Biuu& he feels as if the oppressive mdndf aCUoiii 

268 vidB BisiuJi ^ itmiMi 

» " > . • ' 

pherc wbich surfomids Um dsewfatit^, #aro iTBehiiigcd fiof t prfiv 
wni dastie one^ in lilltdi hd em cteoe more brMllie Cr^f. Um 
nnpHaty Mod opcnncsB of thoiriidiidBf ooinbinidd "wltli nuflf fiixiMB 
n'oin TBiuty, letity^ and any ovtfWDeDing' pridcy oonmnndnte a tone 
of aense to Ifadr conrersadoa. tn their peraoittl luilnta, itn Bimt 
are as deanly as the Malayg. ' Thdrpaadlyofdrttaeve&gifatfiai 
an adrantage in this respect over the Maliy. They senipuloofl^ 
wash and dean every ardde of food before oooldn^ It, and rgect 
meat that b at all tabted. Hie gtifoAA behnr die iMt, as iiWi fbe 
llaliqrsy fa made the reoeptable of all ttie vegetable debris of Mr 
cookny and repasts, but it Is free from die ndsmne smeB tUeh 
surrounds the dwdlings of the Jikuns. The ddgs Bve in the Ink 
but are deanly and recdve thdr share of wholesome food. In 
noddng the personal qipearance of the Binud it was mSA tint the 
sensual predominated over the intellsctaal in the espreaden ol ^Mr 
countonances. In thdr manners they are perfeody modest vUt ft* 
nuBar and open, and although both seies at all ages fredy aBSodrte, I 
^d not observe anything' that could have led to die snppoddoa diit 
there was not the strictest reserve amongst the unmarried, and fiddi- 
ty amongst die married. My enquiries liowevor saftUM me tint 
wliile in g^eral the women an faithful, adultery is neftlier imfie- 
fuent nor hdd in suffident detestadon. The Malays assert thit itit 
not diificult to obtun the favour of a Binu& woman, and the Kaais 
ihemsdves admit tliat husbands sometimes chinge thdr whres ud 
wives their husbands. Divorce is amply a putdng awi^ of the wife. 
Amongst the Mintidi it is a capital crime if it can lie proved hf wit- 
nesses. The sentence of the Batfn is carried into ekecotion t]r tb^ 
PMiglfmfi* Tlie offenders are hid prostrate in die h^lrest streim, i 
Wjui dieir heads are kept under die water by pladng a forieed ^^ | 
dver^.thetr necks and driving the points into the bed. When die hus- 
band is satisfied of tlie wife's Infidelity but cam^ot prove ft he msf 
desert her, but lie must leave her in possession of the house sod U- 
d&ng and give her ten histas (5 yards) of white cloth, 90 cents nd 
^ diver rings.* The children remain with die wife. She cannot i«* 
niHry until the husband takes another wife. 
. To this imperfect sketdi of tbe character of the Binu& it 
lie added that although less sensidve in thdr feelings than ^e Ber- 
ifOsm tribes, whose pride takes offence at the leaist appearance of > 
aUght^ or assumpdon of control, they would probably shew llbemselres 
reserved^ unsodal, and even sullen, if they were not treated with 

^* A Dyak may put away his wife on paying her 20 to 90 dollars (Urdem) 

UndnHH nni tfispttit. They are leflU diMkustlbl, leM thutgtiaH^ «imI 
ttore iiiiMfc bi tifeb* dMiiuftcMr Aim t^ Bermiui «!Im6, >nIio i^faiini 
to be hmnoored fike chfldren, and who, if we fiul to do so, easQy '^cm*' 
vince themselyes that diey are wronged, neg;lected, or treated with a 
want of coiudderation. lake them Ihey are very susceptible to flat* 

Tt !b this excesiiye sensitfreness both to flattery and slight hwich 
seems to supply that psychological Bnk between the aborigines and 
the Malays which, at the first contemplation of the greatt dlirerence 
between Aem, seems to be wanting. CMflbation has deprived the 
Malay of the openness and sunplicity of the Bfamd, and hardened hhn. 
jSut^ although he has substituted for a total want of manner, one oif 
die most strongly marked manners pdsses^d by any race, his pris- 
tine seiisitireness is covered not conquered. It is indeed the secret df 
madi tiuil is peculiar in his social deportment. That art of putting 
every thing in a pleasing point of view, of softeidng and conceafing 
the natural asperities of a subject under discusaon, of rendering even 
that which in other hands might wound tiie self-love of the person 
addressed, tiie medium of a complimenit, — an aft in which the well bre^ 
Malay is unsurpassed and which the combined softness, frankness aiid 
Ample £gnity of his manner so well second — ^is the growth of this 
very sensitiveness. He soothes and flatters t)thers tiiat he may him- 
flelf he soothed and flattered. The command over his own pas- 
sions and feelings which he has obtained, renders courtesy and polite- 
ness habitual, but habit has veiled not subdued his Binu& nature, 
and tiie sense of wrong, when not relieved by. speedy revenge, some- 
times preys upon his mind till he is. goaded into fury, and moodi- 
ness becomes madness. It is anotiier result of the inherency of this 
Binud disposition that many Malays, who have not the sustained ani- 
mal spirits or firmness required by the crvilization and position which 
the race have obtained, are disposed to a degree of melancholy which 
sometimes becomes suUenness. liCt the Binu& be drawn from Iiis 
aeclufflon into intercourse with other nations, and his character will 
be emboldened and hardened by the change in his habits, and unless 
a more powerful and spiritual religion than that of the Malays elevates 
him in 4^aracter as in cirilization, we may see him bring the kris to 
the aid of Ills spells, and substitute the amok for the tujo. As yet 
the race sits happy in the ethnic nursery, unconscious of the pro- 
gress of events which must force it from its child like ignorance and 
petee aiid teach it to know the corruption and the Strife whieh na- 
tions of larger growth have found in civilization. May they not l>e 

270 wm^womA lur lomiH 


rudely fiweed into a wider intercourse with the. world until ehn^ 
Moty has given dieni somcChuig of ita, Ipodnasii Uaiwrerenoe^ and Hs 

Marrjaoe, Birth, Burial. — Betrotbment prevails and somer 
times takes place ataveiy early ageonthepertoftheunoonsdousgiri 
in most if not in all the tribes. Amongst the Besisf a child <rf t 
few years old is not unfiretpiently betrothed to her intended husband 
who takes her to his house and brings her up.* The Malaya deckure 
that when a marriage has been agreed i^nni amongst the Binua, the 
relatiyes of both parties aasemble at the house of the bride, who is 
placed in a canoe by herself, supplied with a paddle, and sent doi^ ths 
stream. When she has got a start of one or two reaches the bride* 
groom enters a canoe and gnres chase. Should he succeed in over*- 
takmg the fair one, she is his wife. If he fiul, the match is brokeir 
oflf! As most of the young women haye good stout arms, and can 
well use the paddle, it is to be supposed that lore usually unnenres 
them, and gives the victory to the hridegroom. This account of 
the marriage customs however I believe to be incorrect, ^thoii|h it 
may have a foundation in the practise of former, days. Acoording to 
the Binuas the union is arranged by the parents, and the ceremony 
consists simply in the parties eating from the same pUite. After 
partaking of a repast the relatives of the bridegroom depart, leaving 
him to pass the lught in the bride's house. Next day he carries her 
home. A small present is sent to the bride's parents previous to 
the marriage. The Batins and their fiunilies send 40 pingans on 
such occasions, other persons sometimes 20 pingans. If tiie lady 
has already known the bonds of matrimony, no ceremony whatever » 
used. 'She repairs to the house of her new husband, and ipslalls 
herself as mistress. Amongst tlie Bermnn tribes the husband either 
takes up his re»dence in the house of his wife's parents, or makes one 
in their l^d^mg, Most of the Binu^ have one wife, but some 
have two, and there does not appear to be any rule on the subject. 
The Mintir& are restricted to one wife. 

The wife's mother generally acts as midwife, but when absent the 
husband himself supplies her place. The Mintiri pkce the irife 
near the fire in order to drive away the evil spirits who are believed 
to drink human Mood when they can find it. At the birth a string, 
to which pieces of kunyet, bangli &c. are fastened, is boimd round 

" Amongst the Dyaks near Bai^ennasing betrothal frcfueoUy lakes 

place at the age of 4 or 6 years, 

Htkt Vitek of the iiShot as t charm. ' In the tldrd niontlh of preimkiiey ' 
the'Pdystig' vldtBthe mother, pMbrms 96me ceremoAiea and Mnds 
a cfiina round her waist in order ^thit all mi^ go well with her and 
tiie chBd. On the bbiOi of the first ch^ a feast is ^enerallfgiiTen by 

'Circamcuion is not pnctised. A dngle indrion or silt is nude hf 
the 'Binh^y but not by Ae Bennun tribes. A ssmEar custom ap* 
j^ears to pfeVdf' amongst some oftiie Byaks, aUhough a more ex* 
traoMinary faiAakm is adopted by other tribes. 

Nam^ are sometimes given at bhth, but these are changed at 
the aifeof ffdtettf. ' ney file tiie teedi like the Mahiys and the 
jSciiiiuii teibes« 

' Oir the da^ sneceeding a death the body is wrapped In dbth and 
deponted hi a gtare dug near the hut, together with some of the 
doddn^oflhe deeeased, ind Us parang ¥ he possesses one. No 
cerchnoiiy is observed. Abore Ae gmv^ a frame work of wood re^ 
BOhiMBg a box i^HhoUt top or bottbm is placed. Hds is filled with 
esiA, a {rfeoe of carved wood is'stuek at eaeh end, and frequently tiie 
whole b protected by a roof. ' i M not learn whether, Bke the Ber* 
SBun aborigines, they bum a fire above tiie grave for three or seven 
iK^HMs lo p^veut the hotUti or spirit of the deceased from ciying in 
tfaegravlsi A siffl more smgular custom of tiie latter does not appear 
to be follow^. lUs consistB in jdaeing the end of a bambu close to 
fhi' nose of the corpse; the other end projecling above the grave. 
TIA'iitfadfiselisiidtobetitoflniBd'tolhegravesof chihhreir who die 
yotMg^ and the reason gfrrenfcr it Is that the gases aeeomuhrfing ia 
tii^beid^, and having no outlet, would cause it to swell and burst, 
and tfurt by some sympatfiy beti^een it and the body of die living 
•molllcl, the faster would be afilbcted in tiie same way. 

AniHTtoKAL Ri^aiAKxs'oN AoaieoLTORB, Axts &c.— The oidy 
kinds of cultivation in wMeh the Binufa engage have idready been 
uoticed. lliey have no af^eultuiid implements. A sdck sharp* 
ened al one eml serves as a dIbUe, and the pMng^ asasts in dig- 
giii|^ roots, cMbng sugar cane Sic Faddy is reaped by the hand. 
€>ttfiOes are used for ttimsporting prodnoe, fishmg, and visiting, the 
'rivers and thefar branches' serving as highways. The canoes vary hi 
tength fhom eight to fifteen feeiand are always h(41owed ootof one 
-plene ofwood. Thomost durable tfanber is sdecled, the kkpak'jkBdk 
being preferred as it will last for twen^ years and longer* A canoe 
from IS to 15 feet m lei^> which wUl cariy from 400 to 5M 


guftongB of paAdy lH)6i4M tvomentomiu)iigi^Ii;.iaTd]idiallOt»t 
12 doUan* A wioe of 8 or 9 £B^mkng|li]«ind«edat7or8 
4oUiiis. The sumpitaa 13 known and U aidd to be lued in soiio 
libwes, but I did not see one duriiig mj jourqey:. The bow ind v- 
row are also known but not used. The Malays have not nj^iBed 
them irith articles so costly ud dangerous as fire aroSb All the 
^ermun tribes use the sumpit&ti and poisoned d^rts* Thdr nm* 
pitin is a light and neat instrument and differs fipomthatoftba 
Dyak which is a piece of wood bored. That of the Bsrmun tnbcs 
(Hnd&ng} oonsbts of two bambos seven ISeet in length one cudoied 
within the other. The external o^ke^ wh&di is merely for Btraig& 
and ornament, is about three fourths of an inch in diametefi vA 
neatly eanred lor about * £»ot at each end and in the middle. To 
pssvent it flitting the fibrous bark of the triip is hound round liNNii 
6 inchesof the extremil^ and a ooajdng of dammar pbeoi onr it, 
The internal tube, which is the proper sumjpitan, is of the ssmekqgtt 
with the ease but only three fifths of an inch in diameter. Itieeaa* 
posed of twopieces of bambu, united by a piece, 8 inebes longi whidi 
embracestheendstightly at the junction.,. The hambu used (Aebda 
timfang) is yery light and fine gmned. 

The arrows (iamdkj are small darta made of the stem of the bir« 
tarn ]eaf| 10 inches in length, and one OTtepnth of an inch in diiiae* 
ler at the base» from which they gradually taper tp a fsiy fine and 
pharp point. The base is inserted into a 0Qne4if k4^ ttUnt (idudi 
is Fery porous and light) about an inch in leqgth and ope thiid of a 
Inch in diameter at its base. The point of the dart is dipped fi>ralMitf 
^?e«4isths of an iooh in fpoh. This is made by takii^ akarfpobyU^ 
^Og ipoib (or ky^), limes, and tuba, which are bniiaed, bo3ed «! 
stnoned. To t|^araenici0adde4* Other snbmtanoes, snch updff^ 
jimsrd^ mfiUye, and gidong, are also sometimes added. The pepa- 
fatipn, called ipoh, has the colour and oonosteney of chdadii. ia 
indmon is made round the dart abore the f poh so as to enfurt itt 
hrealdng off and remaining in ti&e wound. 

Each dart is kepi ready for use inacfiiBeof bambuabontoosfouxth 
pfapinchin diameter, fifty of these cf»es are laiddde by sideasd 
4mited by stiii^. . They arv then rolled up imd inserted mtQacaee 
ulso made of bambu, a^ which has a nea did of jalutong. Hie ma» 
case contains a quantity of Mirok (a veiy light, spungy snbslVQi^ ^ 
so used as tinder) extracted f rem a tree eaUed r^npt. After imtft* 
ing the dart into tlie sumj^tan a little b6rok is inlreduced. Wbeo 
the Bin^^.blfiws. into t^e tvi^, it is press^ agahist the ba3f of Ao 

kl^tt tola eone^ Md piemiti ally of the air escapk^ bet«tea>kjiacl 
the odes. In akoMiiiig, tibe sumpUaa is held firm by b«tli handa 
beiiv tigUjr elaqiod over its end, wiiich is inserted into a handle. 

Was isuaknowii tothe Binn&;.nor do the Benaimtribes^ although 
roily, dirtinet aatioM having no pdlilieal and very slight social .em^ 
neckioQ, engage n hostifitieB with each otiier. The Ma%s «f 
Henfngkihitt are rafMdly ihcrsafflngui the iiortiqn of the Peubtsah 
ooeapifld by them, and are even spreading oyer tile weatem.or vnprm 
nountainOUs <linBlon of Pfihing, and, from thdr Chinese like Mbife 
of mntoal proteetioii and ooodnnatioa, becoming fomudaUe to^lilift 
Pibing Kaiagra. It wonld appear that they deal more haahly «Wb 
the abodgines than the Malays of the Pemnsnla, for f^ey rdeaMHiD 
attacked the Mnthi and killed some of thdr BiCfns. Thbf^ 
ssedbg has driven many MintM &miiieB from their caiwlry^ liad 
sbmU colonies have feoi^ their w^ to. the British territory .behin^ 
Maiaeeai and to otiler places. The Mlntiri say that they finmd i^ 
aistanoein vun becanse tiie Hen&ngidiliites were armed with jnttu^ 
kdSy and hnve learned, the use of antidotes. to the Ipoh poisop»«4 
that Ihe dcnder datts of the snmpitan infiiet little injuiy upon theftw 

GoviiiMiBSicyr.— (Fhe boundary between Fahaag alid Johose^inxt 
teneots the country of the Binul ; the whcde cf the Ajk^*lmlti^4 
sad the lower part of the Siatfong bemg in PAUing, and all thb lAeH 
mers, indnifing the MMit on whidi tiiey are found appevtaiaiqg tto- 
Johore. The anihority of the BhMbMk and the Tanmngoog la 
littie more than nominal, tiie aAdm of the Bniu&behig'enidnslir 
adauniatered by thar own duefii^each of whom has a definilO'torvH 
tnial joriadiotion. The highaBt in rank andin nombial nuUiQritj|r:i« 
the Bitfa Onasttt^the desDnrientol tfae^MfliflUt R^i Binii^ .aQo 
the Ind6u below the jnnd&on of ithe SioMrong and iAn^Jiidftaraiidff 
the Biftm Himbft IUja« The-liaggot, s bcanch of thlsjnddtt^te 
nnd«rth6 B6tfn GM& Wj/i wko is abotho great tcKbidlivwioffiiw^ 
his rehdfamtotho BMn OnaoK&haidn^ aopiofreMmhhuMr toih^l 
between the Malayan Tamnngwng and Sufttan .of; Joheeifii ^.Tto 
Sungi Sly is subject to tlie Batfn mgkUiivriu . The fit«lP009/ni tittf 
ridni^ of Tmioag Boidco is under tte Btitin Stf6:Bte\ highexMip 
near CMgiu to the BWn Jfdoedi and aUll neaseritl <.aatfrte.iaL.BMti 
Mw& K08n94 and tiie B4ttn BantMu Al} tbfeaei, ^imgllHimiim 
last, are witiiin the Pahang boundary. The Mal^y local authprity,)^-^ 
who, in matters dt GoVernmeiit, has a nomuial power^ and wlio^i^ 


27 1 ' onuK BQvoA 09 jonmis. 

liiiim to tfM'Bbttitii impariy lliit of naliiliiBer M^ 
MalB)raii'HoiiO{Hdf(tf tlflfa'tndl0r-*fc ^ciwmintifd To Jhntog. Tte 
Bboteo* the Bb^ Mhflt «dl ilBbmniMi ve ittidor tlie Bblnftcr 
MiaUd Pim^ggun of Boko. Tlie juriB^clion of tiie Mahyan Ping- 
hula ol Bitii Plthftt leztendB to Ointiiig Bita on the oMtarn SIb* 
iwgr« biic» mioe tbt mtir coiiiMuioatba Wohm •iMlnntod, lbs 
To Jinnftbg of the Indftii his engroned the Irdfe of ti» Jdrnt 
yortloB of the Sfanrav* The Bmnt Bfnuis are yakt « Jdnl 
or Jankrt and a Batim Each Bdtia has abaoiiita avdwittf wiA- 
in* Ua own jnriadiotiony Imt ho fofera dlffionlt or nuuaual omo to 
a ocNiticil oonqraaed of all dw Billna» exoepdi^ tte Onaatf4; tod 
ntatteni in wUdi all the Binuft are ooneerned i^ipertain toteanae 
ooBaMdL- Thdr deBberadona are wuA to be awiirtiina g rerj potoiy- 
edsfartioolailf tnaflharaof noifeltf idien their knawledge of the old 
iMii doea not allbrd thmn mof pnoadenta. Offsnoaa agdmtyro* 
^crly ir penon are, from the ndldnen cf the fwople, of Y#f nm 
ooennvnoe. Crimea of all Idnda may be eipiaead by Ae pafoeat 
of fines,* wbkah an fanrariably hnpooed, not In ooina, of whidi foj 
km reaob tMr handa, bnt in ooane Chineae ]ihitaa ormaen 
(pingin). Addtery to pmdriud>le by a fine of fhMB 10 to SO fngn 
aooor£ng to droumstances ; theft the aame ; murder, which boweier 
aeema to be afanoat onknewn,- 60 pingan. One lialf of tiie to goei 
toilw BAIn and tlie other half to tfae^ injured penon. If die dfai> 
dor fidl to ddl?er the pingan he beeooaea the ahite of the lattflr. 
Gnnplafails are enqidved into liythe B4dn, who aaaeiaUeB a Dunto 
of die eidam and eoasnitB widi them. The Btfdniseoi^deredtobe 
rapoaalble fbr any propeiily diat is atolea. Bat te eannot eonnet 
the dtiafwidtontoonlBadon or diieot evidence of the theft. No it- 
galar tte la paid to die BAdniL But preaenta are fmpaOfmiii 
tolhem. On aepavadon of buaband and wife by noRXtaal coDMBt dtf 

geoda wMek ate enjoyed ki eommon aiw divided ifttolivee|iait9 of 
whldfr d^ fanaband taloeto two anddke wife one. On the haabaft 
deadiane ddvd of the eatate foea to daughters and two dibdat9iO» 
Onthewife'adeaditbrgoodabiebnnnonbehmgtodiehmlhuid. If 
ahehqppena to have a blukir It deaeenda to the eUMren, the Mtf 

bdng ft uaofirnttuary traatee dining hiaBfe. 

AnongBt die Bfindri die dinadiiidim of propeftf ah die deadi 
dieltaalMmdiaaafoUDwas The gooA winch bekmg^loldm bdbi« 
lie Carriage go to hbparenta and brothera and ^ten. Iloaeae* 

/ Soch is also the Djak ajstem, and with Uiem loo tht fiacs are Tcr^ 

«pld0#, idn, iMwerar^ iammaderadaartniftiDe for the chOdron*. Tjl^ 
MteiriiinitaitodbyJier.. Qi»t)ie4fi«^ o^tihe wib, the hp^H^ 
wanMtig'f ber Mto-miplfal goods |p> «o.hfirehiUr«i^aiid]ttiegi(ioiU if| 
QouuMm AM efitattif shand bgr (lie ku$)>«pid».«iid die childn^ii, wtj^ 
IflWtt their iillier tnd lire wUi Ite iiiirci^ feieide rebrtiTM «fthc^ 

AmdDgai tiie BenmiitribeB Acm is mimip^ eonipletegndatian^if 
foMBtemrfei liiin am»agBl tiw JKiiiiii» !%«• Ae Mintiri heve % 
BHin MlnHi» vte rotes in Janpttl, BtAk CkMrnfr i&.JoMe^ 
BMa PteimJ* Btetinir Mttir, Bitiii Kitki U Ulu Muir, Md B&f 
«iAJMimoaAeJMifdmofftlia«g«pidlMr» SaehoftiittiftBitbs 
tet sidttr hia a Jkmiag^ • JiiM or Joroiai, laifa indeSnite 

ibcr of PtegllnM and UkiMliofs* On the death <^ AB4tia% 
Is ehoaen fit«m ainoAgal tto aoM ef hb eistsr?* 

RsuoiON Ann TftADmeir Ai» Omietif.— Claras I have bem shjija 
|0 aaoartain, tiie Benttantaheiiiftve no idea «f a SHpreqie DOlbg^n^d 
I took It isr gvantad that I woaU fied thr Bjnili equel||f 9tM^ 
My tvyiise was therefiiiiegneat lAea I diaooTered that thqf have a 
tfoipley and. to a osrti&i eitent, ratieaal theology. They bf^i^e -in 
t^egjitehee of one.flad, PiaMjUf,'f>ha made the world a^d frfeisf 
eUaf that is TlriUe, aad at wbiBe.idUjU.thiiigse9iitiiiu^ilQUiie 

^7 ^ %^ i«* ft #rj>r 

ahidrbelttf. PinatodMUaaheTe.fkeskyi.aadis mTislble, ioter;^ 
medlafin betweea Plonin aad tiie hmnan fase.arB.the Jhi^-Hjiemo^ 
powarlhl of adnim btiie /da Jlinarf or WvHk Spirit^ wfap is tjfif^'^ 

ttiDlilalr. He dwella on the darth» iisedih|ren'ttM)iveBof^iy|ea,f94 
of dll otittr fivfof things. It b the Jk Bnmi who aends^ Ipndli^ 
nielaieal and eaaaes deaft ; bnt hk power is enlue;^ ^erire^ ./jngyq^ 
Vlnaia. Baeh v|iedea oftreehasa JiQ« The lifsff^ 
rilMl Ms, hat It is that of the Jin BmA, who haqi*:t]^w ^ 
Iria |K»wer. The BMmtiina ace Aa aniaMted kf bin. i He>i^ 
iiot» therafiMfl^' i^ mOittfy aipaseofDiioadoB of lfce.,dettPiuVT 
life power of natore, bnlftO' be^ to, aamei eatant, ;ideQtiM:wit)i:ili 
iMi^ loMe also. fJDbete ia no saliiisas wotaUp* .bat; to.e^^irt 
death recmirw ia. Jia^^ iii,sidms^, to a Poy^. no odittperson 
keioep anppoaai leobafartlMirai^ <)()imric(fj^ merqr Pm^JfW^ 
Thb Pojinga are an order of men eomblning the funetiona { lof * {mail 

pByai^ian aon ^Q^jPfT^^ ^^pp, ^piaw^ rWrn i™/ f*7 *f^ff» ^^iSRffif T^ 
llMntha 9laaiB»eiid;t»ha«am't9ieaeerrAathria thaiAfBoaqn oKAi 
oofmBMlonsc^iaiePo^ dread-of thai^ M^ikf- 

2/6 vm BiNUA or IOBOHK; 

trifa! power. They are believed iidt mily to be ible to core tlie iiM 

^rimleht maladies, but to infiiot Aeasea and death,* and the Mafage 

have recourse to then for both parpoaea- Klie ^3)^ra ave anbieist to 

them, and every Poyte^liaa one in constant attendanoa upon luou 

Vheii a man falls a licthn to a tiger lie Is auppoaed to hste been » 

trificed to the maievolenee of some Plyy^ whonlie haa oflleaM. 

When the aid of a Poytog is sought to intercede for tiieliis of e ack 

person, jAiesentsareoariedtohimaiidlieteprintotiielioaiewhere 

his pt^fient lies, with Ids niucneal gOouddng^ a long bandm whiiiift 

siispetMed in a boriaontal poMon Irom the roof and atrock vidi 

amidr sticks. When nig^t oomes on, the Peyfof begins Ua chrata, 

at the same tiMe -wafting a white doth to and. fimy while one ef Us 

sittendants, oflen IiIb wife, beats the gilending nd another bans ia- 

cense (benjbmin.) These chante are intoctftiona to JimSfhoi^ who 

resides in heaVen, and tlirongiiwhom ahme Ffauin can beappieaeb- 

ed. Tliey are chanted to different airs the whole night long, and 

soniefimes fbr throe or four nights in saooesaioa, aniil tiie JPoyaag 

nnnounc^ that he has roeehed medtehie to core the diseaae or tiiit 

the dcSty is hiezorable. The more powefol Pbyinga do not need to 

][>rolong tiieir invocations beyond one or txro nights. The eaploBin&m 

given of the object of the invooationBy sndthe mode by whidi they 

reach the deity is tMs. Whenever a penonbecomaa nek, it iabefieved 

ftat PSrmfoi has ordered the Jin Bnmi to eat hia llle(niakaa dia paaii 

nf&wfi), and Ihatdeath ^\k certstnly enaue fmleaa PimUui revoke his 

Aiahdate. But as Pirmftn Is inaooasriUe to moitsis J^wl^dwi- nasi 

be «^Bc-ed to intercede wilh hi-. The ««« of .!« !««.«. 

to fhe heavenly abode of iim^hr^ 1^0, pleased with the frifgiaat 

JNureH, is dispoMd to wdeome the spirit or life-breath of tiie Foy* 

fing which asoenida to him hi the mode of te gikaiidteg* iM^ 

wtL'diks the Poydng's spuit what hia errand ia» He lAfortns te an* 

histfer of heairon of the eondltoi of the nek persm, and aoBdls bm* 

A^^. If PIrmte pleases, J^w^dwAgivea madicine to the P<^r^ 

td^re thedisease,-Uhe Juieepr rootofa pkmt, n flower,* te4 None 

dftiie MiAtys wkh whom 1 eouveoied ondhe^jabtject befMv e^feerigv 

ft^ 'dotmti^ if the Bhsn^ were awaro eyherthit the Bvmk 

^ * 9l:4h§ tiijp^ for a desiH'iptioD orwhicTi wd' ma$l refer to our seifes of 
papers ovthe mafays, which "wHTbeeomhienoed-ao Moil «a mom caaM 

^i^ Sometimes.pronoancod P6w4d^wL ' , 

TJtIpl€n«<&tlUhWe"giv)feli 8lfcV«rtl of llie Poying iirrbcitfmis, bnttkeleDgCi 
i#%iacnLlMa^parbi«^iiaiidedMnitosit jnaessac3Fi0 omil thffm« ntf 
4r.W.W^«U[.tttiiOf|n,tl(ejQttr^«lo(mji;juw9ioo,orintreati^ of tbe Iuh 

Tiu bhuja ow jokow. 277 

in a God, or that the Pdyang^s fower was conndered to be derived 
firom hna and mOMj depeodent ob hb pka^ire^ On Ibe contra- 
17, thqr dedwed that tfaejr had no feUgknia belief and that the Poy« 
ingB cured ifiHaaea and Infiieted cafaumtice by means of apirits irtdcfa 

The Buni^ are nneh less superatitioiis than the Mab^ and the 
more tennble anUMig^ them even doubt whether the Fay&ags of the 
preaent day ean attam ,sapeniat«nd power or aid. ^^ Not one fai 
ahonAvd reaehea JAwiJ^wa," said an old man'—*' The onlf one 
I ever knew to do eo was a Poy^ who ^ed when I was youagn 
His ifntit was seven days in heaven. I have never had refloovse to 
l&em in ddmess, bat always alioW diseases to take their course^ 
IfPinn&n isdetemunedthatanutnahalldie, hemust dfe* IfPir- 
m&n tMito fit Jto^rant him an extension of his life, he must recover.'' 
The Bcnnun tribes like tiie Makys attribute the Poyi&ng's power 
to his command over spirits wlddi possess and inq>ure Urn. The 
^irits of tlie rivers, liantu snngle, are evil, ioflidauBg diseases and f eed- 
iag OB the sm^higat, or insubstantial body, in which the life of man re« 
rides* The spirits of the monntams, liaatu gonong^, are harmless; 
Bvery Poyieg has several duniples who attend him when he visits 
a rick person. A small hut called Sftwi is constructed near the 
boose, and in this the incantations ere peformed, every body beii^ ex.* 
dnded save the PoyAng and ins disciples, Inoense b bumeclf and 
invocations dianted to mnac until the Poyftng is possessed by the spi* 
rit, wldch answers tfaroog^h Ins mouth tiie fueslions put by the disci- 
ples respecting the mode of treating thedisease. When a river sfMrit 
enters a man and he wastes under its evil iniuenee, the Poyang has 
power to cxardse it. The tigers are his sbves. It is somewhat 
enrioos that while the MmtM not oiHy believe this, but that tigers 
never die, they do not scruple to IdU and eat the cubs when they find 

To aaoartain whetfier fcfrer exists, the patient is dkected to take 
Imping leaves mixed with lime, rub tliem together in the hand, 
and squeeze the juice into a cap. If it hardens the patient is pro« 
nooneed to bare Mer. The most common remedy for fever is the 
daun dedlagin, and-for lever and ague theumuts'm4mbu. The akfu* 
bdaat is used hi JMindlce fiir yonng ehildren,--4he akar bAlakrini for 
pun in the hnu. After duld-lrtith a decoction of the daun poar ia 
adflumstsrad to the diHd, and ubat mirian to the mother surii as 
mirimi ^, m. pUAi m. b^, And m* (gi. 
The origin of theur country and jrace im thos rdated. ^ Th^ 

gnmnd on whioh we ttMid b not foBd. It ii taimlgr tlui ikboi^ 
cwtii (kditbdini> In aadfliit timw HnMii brain vpthbdoDj^ 
that the world wig dertroyad and o» a f wh olaned irMi witen iftimM 
lleeMaed Oiinong lAiUnnit witliGhlHidndtfyaBdltMraiktoflHi 
ind this low land which we inhabit was formed latere thm^ ikxm* 
tains in the sooth, and Oiinon^ Leteif (MoinitOpidr)Oanoii|Kfip 
(Mount Kof probaUy,) Gvnongf Tonlot Bang8l» aaddtmooirToatat 
Oaban; on the north, gife a fcrftf to the BaithHi slda. Theinth 
ttfH depends entirdy on these nountunslbr its ateadiness. TbtUi* 
Idarat Bfeountains ai« the oMest land. Hie amJnitofO.'Mnl 
B^ngsi is witfdn one foot of the slTf ; that of O. Tongloit Sabiai ii 
within an earring's lengtli ; and^that of 6. Sip is-lncoatMStwithk 
Aflter Liddmnt had emerged, apriaof piddl wood,edveredonrta4 
without any opeidag, floalwd on the watan. hi thisIlmAilHMloB^ 
closed a Bsan and a woman wliom lie had owdeK After ths lipse of 
some tfane th« priu was ndther direeted with or j^gainst the aofent 
nor driven to and Aro. Tlie man and woman, feeHng it to rest ■»- 
Honied, nibbled thenr wi^ dirongh k, stood on the dry groaoi od 
bdield thL» our worid. At first, howeiw, every thing was daeve. 
There was ndther morning nor evening beoauae the son bad not y^ 
been made. Wlien It became light they saw sev«iisbdddotieei» and 
aeren phnts of rumput sAmbfo They tiMi srid to esch stiier '^Ib 
what a eonditioniM we without ehiiditen or graadchildrsnr 8oae 
time afterwards the woman beeasse pregnant, nothawswinto 
womb, butbthecslvesof her legs. From tlie right Isgwmbiwg^ 
forth a male, and from the left a female, diild* Heaoeitislhittk 
issue of the same wood) cannot iiittnnarry» All *»«"^™* sn ^ 
descendants of the two ddldrsn of tho fiiat pain When ttes In' 
much incr e as e d Pirmin loolced down upon them ^rithplsaww"' 
redconed their numbers." 

In crossing the Lingfa in the upper part of the ravine in iMA 
It rises, a long flat granitie slab oowrad with thieUygraragiB^ 
caDed Bfttu Bekidiong, was p<dnted out as* ttie first esadi cf * 
parents of the human race. 

They look upon the'Gunong LuMmut group wlfli a sapeirtWiw* 
t^everenee, nbt only connecting it with the dinm> of hsansiiltf'^ ^ 
regarding it as possessed of animation HsaifL Lakknnt :is thi ^ 
band, CHittiiindan^ his M wife, and Beehnik lus young cmk At 
first they lived together hi harmony, fc«t onti dayChintuatagnafi^ 
of jealousy cut off Bechuik^s hair. Tbtf young wife vetsiiitfld by 
a lack applied irith sudi Ibvoe to CUiWiiidoBg^ heal jM '^^ 

fovofed^M'Of itg piMAtkNi; Lokboiit, Mdng bis ndMke, sliepped 
in ^Irhh Mb liligv bodj between tfaem; wd to ll^tiniii 

AMMragh te BiiHiiB have a ooaoeption of U10 wfMt of maaafl db« 
tbot from tte b8d|r4«.<«id tbe belief tliit tile spirit o^ 
cvriediBmitMto heayeii, while big andnato body reanliiB beiMe 
tbcm, evett ilievvta'a Idgb dog^ of fanaiiterfadiiy in tbeb* idea of Iba 
Batw»»-<*4liey appear to be without any g^Iimaoing of ftUi or hope 
in IbB peniiaaettt mdeslraetibifity, or rather In ib retention of Indi- 
vidnafity. It is finldoned by Pirmftn of air» and wlien the Jin Buml 
JB eommiamoned to diwohre its union widitiie body, it lehq^ses Into 
airy nothihg;* All niy endearoora to detect the eidstenoe^ in aom^ 
riii^e, of a i«oo|«nition of a liiture life were fruiden ; and yet I obii- 
]Mtf% brings aiijBrif to believe thai it is entirely wanting, eedng that^ 
thorrdigions notiooaha?e erideotly been derived frcim Other nationa 
who beliei^e in tile trftoslatlon of tiie eonl to another world or its' 
tnuaoBighition inthe present. It nnght Innre been antieipated too/ 
tint the lespeet in wiiidi parents ai«lidd would have beoi aoooi&^> 
panicd I7 the same reverence ftnr ancestors, which is so common 
atamgat the nations of the Archipebgo, and ^AAA often ^spiiyo it-' 
aelf in modes indicative of a befief in their centinued esdstenoe and 
smiawment with supernatural powers. WUle in the seawa#d or 
Malayan part of the oonntryv I encountered repeated obstructions ha 
eiamining rocks, for almost every one that was in any way remarka-^ 
Ue for mze, Ibm, or position, was dther the krtm&t of some aneient 
wortief, or waa indued with the power of working evil. To break off 
aftigmcnt was impiety in the one case and madness in the other, end 
a stranger anDt.reapeot the feelings of those to whose good will and 
hewinddited. On rsachbg tiie Bhmi boundary all dif- 
of the kind ceased. 

Ihe histey of the race IS involved in darkness. The tradition of 
tim Binufis is dertamly soffieientiy definite with respect to tiunr on-* 
ginintimeountry where they are lound, and confiims the conela*' 
sioDy derived finom other considttatiobs, that they imimgvated to Jo- 
iKMehtwy ancient times. It is on thek language almost exclusively 
ttat any conjecture aa to tiieir derivation must be founded. There 
ia no doubt that when the Malays first entered the rivers of the Pe« 
niiisnla (about 600 years ago accordmg to thehr own histories) they 
iaund tin caantiT! oooqpied by like BkaxL The deseemdents of the 
aneient lifaa of kings are stiH fiving on the Itad^u. * llidr ortgin 

* A stmHar beUtf to cvtmalnt d ^7 iom« pf the P^nk irfl>e». 

28Q MB imUA Of J080RB* 

ittt supeniatUfaL When Pirmiowir that the lindftlMiiidadiftmai 
he cooildcfed it neoetmy to and a Uaf to fuk <tvar tten. One 
daj the aound of a human voice was heard to proceed from a Innba. 
It waa apfife open, and tfae'MU^ Ukaair ate^pMl out. 

Althotti^h recogmung the authoii^ of the Mal^ianilcrBtiiqr ooa- 
aider liie country aa being still tfaeirpropeityt and do not tolerate tlw 
interference of tiie Maliqfa in the actual govttnment of the interior. 

There can be little doubt that the Bhw4 have derired their tbm* 
tic ideaa from a Hindu or Idamised race. The basaof tiieirrefigioii 
and reHgioua practices is Poyftngism, in itself a apedes of nulder 
Sdiamanismt and tlus they hare united in a teiy ramariiablB maaaer 
toamiztureof theism and demonism; the one dthflr of Hindu o^giBi 
Mlindine to thmlc, or borrowedlmn tiie Arabs tiuoui^ some parti* 
ally converted tribe of Malays ; and the other hnving n ooDfldsnUe 
resemblance to the primitive allied religions of the Dyaka of Bomes 
on the oaende, and the Bitt6s of Sumatra onthe other. Themsde 
in vhieh the three systems have been muted so as to beamalgamsted 
into a ooBflistent whole is deserving of consideration. Poyingism re» 
mains almost nmmpaired, or rather the Poyluaig, while aawnamg the 
^^^wmisf^ of priest and to a certain extent abandomng that of viaird, 
netains in effect lus old posilaon. He still commanda the demons by 
incantations and supfrficatlons, and th^ power rather than his omi 
has been subordinated to the Deity. At tiie same time this idea of 
an ultimate and supreme creator has not greatly altered thor coe^ 
ceptions of the demons. Originally impersonationa of die Vital aai 
Dertructive forces of Nature,-Hxr the recognition innatore, tfaroagk 
tiie first union of reason and imagination in frith^ of a spiritual pov* 
er which animates^ destrogfs» survhres, and perpetually rcsmwa the vi« 
slUe forms and forces of the world,*-4heir presence was atiUsttswed 
to fill the sensible ; and Nature herself, both material Imd' spuitmlj 
was sttlyectedto God. That extrmnundane theism whidi pervades 
many higher religioos, adapted to the andent belief^ left the deaioei 
in the possession of tlie world» and if it rendered their pow« derin- 
tive instead of self subsistbg, it ako eatirelf CKdndod men frosi 
the presence of the Deify. While by his supreme power and oami- 
sdence he could control all things, he remahiedto tiiemnGodsfar 

It is in this adaptation of diffbreot friths^ rather than in a ^ecifte 
agreement in any details, that the BmuA rcl^ion may be coi^wrfll 
with that of the Dyaks. The iantgimttion of the hitter haabeenmoie 
fertile and darbg in proportion to their greater drilizatioA and com^ 

9V» inivA or JMowi 381' 

pMity flCUkis. If bMh wen MttiM iv aa Iriunked tribe or to 
MahmiiwiMft nisatoiari^ for l iuAm ;, it is dtOcQlt t$ ^tijeeCttr»1ui# 
fjiey t^titib^ll w nkach WfUnfUt leqiririimr more* No iBtediitB okild 
h«f« Mgiit th«m thit then Ib nb OM bitt onb, witiii^ idiibf tJUttf 
MilnfAMl te Ide Proi^i^ If tiieb' tWbm h» n Ahdi tooree^iti* 
MtfilMfy thttt It rendtM fivm dM endiniTciirs of Arabs totarrot 
tiMm, iMktiiai^ intiie oriycbiyslyf Islmdsai intbe ArddpekgOi 
9omt bed^nhgt isooeqitiRm of tiie new hkih was etrried to tkem bf 
half ooMr«rt«d tiatif es, aad tiiai tiieb* nybids, or the miad of tii^ fo* 
yinf or Foytefs who introduced tlie imoVition, simei the tf 119I0 
aad great tdoa of God, ahd rejtoted or laiied to eomprehend thor' 
seiielBe i»f fidfb with wiiicli it b surroahded in the mind df iba Ma^ 
bmit^daiL Wtial gives some eoonlenanee to the surmise that some 
sliglitly histrMied contert inparted to them that id^ of Idamisni 
winoh liad impressed itself on his own mind as transcending all else 
that II announced, is the name under which the Deity is known*. 
TlMy oceasionalijr unite it to Alhdi and the words '' Frnn^n Alhih" 
whieh sach a contert might have firequenfclj heard in the mootlis of 
AMkba mfi^t readily be changed to <*Pimi4n Alfadi," b^ the eommorl 
sabslitntion of p for/, and the latter word lUl into disuse fhim the 
heBef that the first was the essential or prindpal one. The sahstttutlon 
of a mere incision for drconuMon may have lieen the resnk bf the 
vague and imperfect com^rdiendon of Islaraism and its requintions^ 
wlueh led ihem to rest satisfied idth a partial compliance with it. 
Ac the same time it must be remembered that circumcudon or anal« 
9gom praelaces existed in the Archipelago anteriour to Isbimism.. 

Hie Idud of invention or imaginadon displayed in the traditions 
respecting tiie origin of man, the advent of the R^6h Binua, and 
liie domestic strife in the fomily of the mountain Lult!imdt, is similar 
to thait exhibited in traditions found in different parts of Sumatra, 
Borneo, Celebes, and other islands of tiie Arddpel:^. The incidents 
are Merent, Irat the charactei' of tiie inventions is the same. 

Hto number seven which occurs in the story of tiie advent of the 
first haanan pair, is frequently used in the Djralc superstitions. It 
also appears in the B6M. reli^on, and may have been derived from 
tJie Hindus. 

Hie Dydbi have a supernatural bang named Pr&m^, who is a 
slave of Hi tfifl&, a contraction of the Malay (Arabic) Allilh Tiihu 

If the Pirm&n of the Binu£ be not derived from the I^mdn 
AlMh of tiie Mabys, it may have had a more andent Hindu ori* 
^in, and perhaps^ When we cun^der tiie numerous and une^puvocal 


982 tw w&vA OF JOBtmti 

marks ef 9uA In origin iHiklr Oib jfeHgion «f tte BdMi nd By 

alu bMTf^ (botk ! rMogniie a mu/ntm God undar tiie w 

DidMta, JiibM, Dewal^) it is ttostraMOMUe tatUakilMitllift 

imi hid licqiilidL the !dfl> of God before tfieli^^ 

«aim9 idiettier Hie nane under iHudi he is Icnowii at preeeatte i 

oomqifc Hke Jabata, or a eorta^ Mohomedtt am Bhe 

HaTMU* ASaiidnitiiaiBeforthenipMiiebdQghaaBOiBenseHh 

Uanee lo it,^ but that to whidi I am most iacBned to refer it is Pir« 

mSlt (which indeed may be coondered the same word, for the / ml 

n are permanently conyertiblein8ome» a*d eanly eourertiblo in mwf 

kngoages) a name under which ^^simu ia imown in southern ladb, 

who wi<h Ptolbr (Ganeaha) is followed by the M Hhidn odony of 

Malacca, and whose name is borne liy many Hindu immigiaati in 

Singapore, and occurs idso in TaamUan history. AceonKqg to Ma* 

layan liistory, Hindu Malays colonized Singapore and southan Jo- 

hore in the tweMi oentory, but liiere was an earlier Hindu ooebbh* 

mty on the Johore river wUdi was in a flouiislung omdltioa in ti» 

ninth century. From them the Btaoik msf have kamed to knmr a 

Supreme God under the name of Pirmti or Pirm6n.t I dull re- 

turn to ^is subject when I come to consider the language. 

A complete parallel eadsts between the religions of the Dyiks» 
Binu&s andB&ttlis, and the elaborate and luxuriant imaginations with 
which the primary and essential ideas have beeaovermn by the lint, 
and the simplicity in whidi they have been retained by the second, 
are directly referable to the difference in the characters and devdop- 
ments of the two people. Tlie primitive rdigion of the- Archipdsgo, 
-^-a variety of t^e Schamanisn whidi probably prevailed before Bo* 
dhimn over all eastern Aaa, which lingers around the mosqiue, andhis 
not entirdy faded away in the West in the presence of neariy 2000 years 
of Christianity,— is still the essential belief of the Dyak» theKno^ 
and the B&tt£. In it they repose a practical foith. By it they laek 
to defend themselves from diseases and other miafortanes» to secure 
the ministry of good spirits, and counteract tlie maleficence of evil 
It is one of the liring springs of theur haUtoal thoughts and 
and as such remains a pronunent link between the extreme soalh 
and the north of Eastern Asia. 

Amongst the Bermun tribes we reeognice a pure S chsm s mim 

^ Compare also the modem Beog4U Param, supreme, Poramafma, 
God, the Tamil Para Brahma, Paraveran drc, 

t Many sects in Soolhera India belioTe that there is one Sapreme Ood, 
—VishmiyNarayana, Para Brahma^ Pirmal dTC,— who is too elevated to 
attend to the personal requests of mortals. 

>tfM BtKUA'OV J()t!ORK. 283 

iTTiQi iU accompanying cfaanns and taUsmans ; a Imng futh fresh 
from iStte ancient days of eastern and mid^e Asia, — ^preservin^ itsi 
priffine Vigour and nmpfiiity in die i^eteenth century, untouched 
by tlie Budbfstie deluge which luw passed ontt* the vastsoutii eastern 
regions, and sent so many warea to Aflferent parts of tiie Archipelago; 
and reasUng the preasnre of the Islamisn whidi surrounds It 

The ¥&ftag and Pftw^mg of the Bermun tribes, the Pqytog of the 
Bimt&, tiie Bil&ns of the Dyaks, and the D&to and the Si Basso of 
the Battes, are all the Shaman, the Priest — wiaeard — physician, in 
differant diapes* 


Small Pox and thb Sba &c. — ^The Bino^ liaye no written oha* 
raotnr, and so fin* as I could learn hardly any indigenous literature. 
It iBpsohaUe hoive?or that they hare maily chants or rudesongacon- 
aaining' a nnmber of the words of their original language, A few of 
these were repeated to me. They beUere the world to be globular 
and enclosed in the sky. ** The sun and moon*' said aBinui£ to me 
one night, '*mo?e round the earth, so that now, wlnle we are in dark« 
neaa, it ia light on the other side of the eartii where thesun ia shfai* 
iofg.'* CUnds and ndn they believe to be producedlram the wayea 
of the aea by the aotbn of the wind. AMinlihi declared to me duU 
fefsand douds werethe sweat of the sea at flood tide. When thna^ 
dcr is heard in the north or south, the Binu& say '^ berbdnf poooutifi 
or stttan*' the norther south tree iasoundhig.* The only esplanatm 
I could obtmn of thb was that in the north and south were liieextremi- 
taea of ngreat beam; that in the north being twenty di^ journey he« 
jrend Boko where there waaa great hUl finom whidi the north wiodsis^ 
B«e. Theyhayenodiviaioaoftimesayethenaturaloneof thenerthand 
south BMinsoons, eaeh of which they eaA ^s&'t&hdn hingin,'* a.wind 
•jear. The Bmai marie, tune (aa the Miiitira also do) by the sea- 
eons when paddy bcot, when Ihdta ripen — ^^ musim piddi," " mnshn 
bu&" l^ke the M^^, when pressed £m* a defimte statement en 
a Buhject on which their ideas are-indefinite, they answer at random,. 
The&therof A iiunify told me that his age was eiglit years. They in-* 
dicite the progress of the day by the incKnation of a stielL Eariy 
noming it repie se n ted by pointing the stick to the aaitem hoiw 
zon. Placed indifiatfia noon, :ineiined at an angle of about 
45^ to the west it oarrespooda nearly with 3 o'clock, and a6 on* In 
this wagr a guide who ia fiunifiar with the path can intimatf witl^^ 

* The Malays use^lhe w^rd ppop (o ii^dipale diracHoos on the horixoa. 

284 m% mnsfVA ov joii<»m. 

10 an boor the ^e at whieh a partjoilap* place will he mdke^ 
and describe with ooiuidtrable aocuraqf the diatanoeof oiiepbce 
aloD^ the route from anoUier. Diataacoi wtcfieding » fraetwioC 
a day are reckoned by lus^ta. aa in some of Hhe IW || nch a k- 
lan4a.^ Likethe northern tiibea th^lvHPeagreaifcdvaad td the iei»a 
feeling arising from eKaggerated i4^aa ryyecting wavea, ae» sckoM 
and ptratea* They have i^iother natural fear caoied to eKOiW tlitf 
of small pox. The exphmation they give of Hub U that in foraa 
times their tribe was visited and greatly thinned Vf i^ ^^ tliatafow 
was then made that they and their descendants in all tune locome 
should flee from its presence whenever and whereever it i^ipeared. 
If it afaouU again hrak out they woold abandon the vktim and tiie 

The Binu^ of the Lingiu and Strong &re said to dose their mtn 
by felliB^ trees when they hear that this disease piemia i* Johoce 
him^ 9r elsewhere in the country. Vaodnalioa woold pnires 

The Uintii)& have aot, likethe Binui, acquired any of the lhhy« 
an ideas respeelang thefimnof the earth, mo^on of tiw sun, && Hie 
dark spotiiin the moon they believe to be a tree, beneath which nts 
ahmar enemy ofmaat who is oonatandy imotling atringa together ti» 
make nooses to oaich U8» wliioh he would suce o e d in doing dU aot 
seme pitying mice aadHigentfy employ thensebes in b itiiig thcagii 
the string. They do not know hon^ or whenoe thewind comei^ hit 
believe that thiur inoantataoQs oaaae tempeeta to aubaidew llMydo 
not withtiieMahiySy ChuMse &0., believe that eoipaea are eansadbj 
a naga endiwouring to swaDow tim sun or moon^ but, fikia eons d 
the Polynesnnsy thkfc aaevil 8|nrit is dev our ing or deatro|iivit 
Many of liiem however have a different notion. They bdiere fha 
skytDbeagreatpotsoqiendedoivertheeaithby aataing. nsenth 
around its foot or edge (k^ Umgit) is eo n s t a ntfy een&ig np spmsti 
iriiich would join the sky and entimlf close it in orer naif snold 
man did not out and eat them. lUioold the string bteaky eveiy ding 
on the sur&oe of the globe would be eFoshed. The soaia a woaaa 
who is tied by a string which iier lord is always poUiagw ThB mooa 
IS also a woman named BMtubd who is mantied to Minfdmg BSt* 
tdag\t the maker of the noosea for men. The stars are tke ehiUm 
of the moon. The sun had foraieriy aa many. Fsaiing howercr 
that maoUnd could, not support so much bciglrtncsa and heat tfaiy 
agreed each to.devour her children. The moon however inpteail of 

* ElUs Heseatcfaes, vol. L p,aB8, 

to be aU devaural, 6tf iqp^ her ran, Na aD«ner had she done so Ihm 
Ihe 90499 hqiNiidijI h«r ibi^ TheMnon 

9^mg ^m ym filM vith tey^ and n«e» and ciwaed Ae mom t<» 
IdO her. This chase has oondnued ever siiiee* the sw sometuiea 
gfiHim t»wirlhe mMm as tabitehers which is an edipae. The moon 
ftSB Udds air her'cmdresi Airing: the Aiy iriien her pursuer m near 
and 00^ hnkiga then^ o«t at vtgrht when she ia ^stant 

WmiiMintwd beisoitei mad his parents must lull Um to pre* 
wnt his IdUini: other persons. A sharp wooden sword must ba 

Loans are freely given and no pledge is ever taken. 

Tja> KELATieN OF TBB Malays TO THB Binua. — Eveiy outlet 

frott the owntiy of theBhuiA is oooupied and guarded by Malays, who, 

hjr pmenliBi^ the free aooass of stw^ers and workii^ on the igno- 

nnee and ten of the Binu&, keep them imprisoned in the intmior. 

Iteing^ eftetaal^ lacked them u^ in the jungles, Afy prey upon 

tiicna-m the most uaseEupnlous manner. It is jvobable that if the 

cha T a c te r of the Bfamft had been weaker they would long nnoe baye 

been reduced to direct slavery. But altiiiough tinud and unwarlike, 

tkey- hiwe fltiMorn notions ofright and weong, and any attempt at com* 

pakkm m met with an obstinate re^stance. The Mali^ theretoa 

vespneti the iodqiendence.and the h&dto of the Binui, adapts hha* 

Sfltf to Us notionSi and has reeoume to craft and c^oleiy to attain 

kis endn. Ha treats his victims with a preat shew of redact and 

Wndwws, ttid ehealB them to theb faces in the most courteous and 

firiand^ mmmer. While he dpead» the power of the Poy&ngs, he is 

weU. awnre at. the same time of the influence oi his bolder and more 

cB es g etie and. reckle« character on the Binui, and, when oocasioa 

y eydroii it^ tsBisof bisgood will being abused, of the inadequacy and 

4ifaitontiess oTthe return tlial, is being made to him for his advances, 

and hints^thatif his dditor does not prove more diligent he will not be 

aMe lo i^^strain his anger. 

no BiiMtf of Johqre evidently owes to the Malays every depar- 
tore km/k Us ori(ffaial forest habits» If we deprive him of those .ar- 
tidai Ibr whidi they hfWie purposely infected him with a taste, and 
thoee which he has yohmtarSy sought from the desire to imitate and 
approvimato to the bibils of the more dvillMd appropriators of his 
oountry, there wiU remain hardly any thing to distingui^ him from 
the mli)er of the Bermun races. Indeed examples may yet be seen 

386 iWB'M»irA^oto'>jMoM;r 

«f men whose indolence prchrento iiktm from 'murJaag up to the Ugh 
prices wfaiolt the Mahrys exaet^ and wfio Ihre'in liie coodilSon of &e 
leas advanced Jakidbs, thdr only cloWng a ciiftwit; and tiieir food 
Hmitad, daring tiie gfreater part of tile yoar^ to Ibe prodnoe of Hmt 
Mdfaigs and of the forest 

Compared with the labour which the aCipoMon of the BCCicMwhi 
of life costs them, that which is taqidred lo obtain the ftir kmmi 
and convenienoies to which they are now hafailQaied, ia exocanfe. 
Instead of a scanty and irregular sapply of elotiiin|^ and otiier all- 
eles, it i^ooid suffice to raise tibem ton eonditlon of greatter pleafif 
and comfort than the Melays themselves have attained, becaoae thar 
industry is greater. 

The Malayan Panghulu, Jinnang, or other Head in each river is 
also the head of the monopofy of trade with the Bhm&s. fltnngm 
who enter the river fbr tradhig purposes idsit him. He either sop- 
plies them from Ids own store, pimhases whs* they reqimre frsn te 
Malays of the river, or allows the traders to- do 00 Areody. TUs 
system is enforced with more or less strietness according to the eha* 
racter of tiie Panghulu, but traffic is alwajfs to a certain eitentettfi« 
ed on withont his intervention. Strangeta are absolofesly proidldleA 
from trmfing with the Binuto. 

The Mahiys of southern Johore, firoto, their long inteieuui s e wlk 
othtfr nations, and their piradcal habits, which were condttued doim 
to very recent times, and are stiU engrained'in many of ttan, hsve 
acquired a peculiar character. They retun much of the manner ef 
the uncorrupted Malay, but their courtesy is seen to He on the sur* 
face, is liable to l>e converted into a tbn€ oi effrontery, and even with 
the better bred often fails to hide dieir true disposidim. They are 
greedy, bold, frequently reckless, desigtdng and deoeltM. 1 9pmk 
of those whose characters have been developed under dnrnmstttces 
which have given free scope to thdr activity. Every where nmAtn 
arc to be met with in whom the phvtieal oi* rapadons dispositioB has 
not been fostered by opportonlfy. 

The Malays settled on the rivers leading into the coimtry of Ae 
31nui& may be drrided into tinree islasses: ' The Panghulu and hii 
relatives and dependents; Malays of* Johdre, freqnentiy fnia Tl- 
loh Bling&h, enjoying some considerMiiMi and iAfluenee IhAi tfiar 
means aud their' connections in ^ngapore; and nuseellmieoiis set- 
tlers who have not this advantage. Hie trade with tjie Binais is 
chiefly m the hands of the first and second dasses. They act m 
conceit. The prices at wfaidi articles b<mght and sold ate to be 

Tn^/VOfUA ov ^flo^%^.u-r 287 

iralued is from time to tive^ifgohMybf the Pwjghulu, who in 
tiiii, M in all other matters, ooiisalts the prindpsl men of the river. 
The Fui^a then confen wkh the B^ns of t2ie Brnnfa on the 
sofegect, and. so manages the discussion as to carry his pcrint. Hie 
fffinciple on which the sliding scale of prices is managed, is to main- 
ftttn a high value for what is sold to the Binn^, tod a low one fdr 
wlM Is hongfat from them. When the Bbra& rice harvest has heen 
veaped, they are persuaded tSiat rice b every where sb plentifol that 
Hi price is veiy small, and that, on the other hand, the price of doth 
&e. is high. When thdr stored are ei^hausted, the price of rice is 
raised as much above, as it was formerly depressed betow, that of 
the Sbgapore market. Tiie result of all the enquiries whidi I made, 
and of numerous instances of barter of whit;h I was a witness, is tSiat' 
tiie Malays sell the goods wlilch they purchase m Singapore^ at id* 
ymuo» of from 100 to 400 per cent on the prices to them, while diey 
liiiy tibin, camphor, dammar and other produce -of the forest at 100 
to 400 per cent under the price which they recdve for it in Singapore.' 
Hiqi a voyage of two or three, days enables the Malay to double or 
quintaple the vahie of goods transfered from Singapore to Johore 
and fW>m Johore to Smgapore. As the trade is almost entirely by 
Karter, tiie Malays have a double profit on every- tnuiMction. But 
they are not satisfied with having established this vulturine qrstem of 
trade. ' They resort to etery indirect mode of enhandng their gains 
that is eonnstent with the preservation of the trade. They make ad* 
vanees of goods, and as their debtors are unacquainted with writmg 
and aoeoonta, they have little difficulty in exacting more than the 
stipvdated rettim from tiiose ^heee memories are not very tena- 
eeoos ; for the return is made in small quantities at a time, as forest 
produce is collected. But the most c^tain and constant mode of 
defiranding the Binu& is in wdghing. This is generally done hurri- 
edly, and when' a pretence is made of doii^ it more carefully th^' 
beam is brought into a horizontal position^ not by tiie eoanter-< 
poise of the weights, but by the finger of the Malays This mode of 
weighing has now become so prescriptive that although ihe Binn y 
generally are aware that the Malays do notweigh*£urIy, and some 
have even acquired so much knowledge of the balance (Chinese) as 
So pmnt out in what the fr&ud consists, the Malay laughs it off, insists 
it is aQ right, and delivers t^e article to one of his attendants or tosses 
it into liis canoe. To shew more definitely the extent to which the 
Malays take advantage of the ignorance of the Binuas I add some 
{Statements of the pricey of •artkies at different places. 


9HB BINHA t»» iomiM 


Tobicco, . / one cattj^ . •" 
Salt, .* tf gantong.* 
Cooonuts,.. each .. 4 

Coane Sarongs, each S ^ 

Bogia , (inferior), ^ 5 to 6 

hiyus, • • . • 38 to 75 





Sing^KM-e prices o( 
suDuar articMs. 
Jfl 13 cento; 

18^ cent«« 4 „ 



Coarse red cotton cloth, one yard 

Large pfaOe (coarse). 

Small ,, „ 





lto2 rt 

60 „ 

^1 to 1. 35 „ 

10 „ 

14 „ 

10 ^ 

10 „ 





Artidet bought fiwm the Blnuds. 

Lignum aloes, 
Canphor, . . 
Dammar, .. 
Benjaaiin (mixed) 

I catty 38 cents 

Ipicul 35 „ 

M 19 ^ 

On tiiB LiNGiu. 

Singapore price. 

66 cts« to if 2i 


75 „ & upwtrds 


Artidei told io <Ae 

lUce (coarse and undeaned) 5 gant. JS' 1 

Singapore price. 
15 gant. JS" 1 

Tobacco one catty of abt. 12 tails, 18 cts. 

Salt, ISgaut. „ 1 2G 

I small blanga,. 
1 ), kwalli, . 

1 lUg« 99 • 


1 coarse knife, . 


« • 

» n 

77 „ 

38i „ 


9 to 10 cU. 

15 „ 

39 » 

Hi .9 


The iBteroourse between the Malays and Binuas for trading pur- 
poses is frequent and almost constant. Owing to the oompandve 
narrowness of the Peninsula, and the short dsstance and want of 

** These are the actual prices of articles examftted, and the SiogaporQ 
prices in general are those of articles of the same qoahtf. 

THE BcsuA or joHoae) 289 

monntelns between the tivet heads, the whole oouiitry is easily ac- 
cessible to the Malays, so that there is hardly a jkampoo^ that is not 
visited by them. It is probably a consequence of this continual in-* 
tereourse that the Bina& lan^^uan^ has been ahnost superseded by the 
Makyan. That 4liey fspohe a ^stinct laiignag« before the Mali^ 
oecupted their rhrers I am qiute salSsiied, althong:h they hanre no tra- 
dition that th^ evtr did. This eendusion is drawn from the follow* 
ing" oonsideratioiis. Akhougfa tiieir knowledge of Malay b very con- 
sideraUet they speak it in a rude^ imperfBCt maiuier. They are igno-* 
rant of many word^ which eren ilfitemte Malays kuoiw and ooeasion" 
ally use. They often apedk uogrftmatically^ and have adapted phrased 
such as a foreigner would have recourse to« but which are not idioiha- 
tie Malay. They apj^y some wofds in a restarkted setfse, and give 
too great a latitude to others. An instaaiw which is of ednatant po- 
currence will illustrate this. The word " bodo^^ signifiest «i ignorant 
person. The Binu& almost invariably use it for ^' I dont know.'* 
One day I hoard its meaning still ftrtiier stretched. A womaot picked 
up a champada in the forest and called out to her husband ^''bod^.P* 
I asked how a fnfit cduld be a bddo, and it was explained that tlid 
word ineant that'the champada ^* wodU not do," was tod much de- 
caved td be used. Some words of the ancient language still keep 
their ground, aad are more generally heard than the corrriap o ading Ma^ 
lajan words; Others agaisi'have hitiierto escaped obfivion, Imtare stf 
seldom used that it is probable they wHl ere long be obEterated. 
llieir pronundalkm/Of the Malay is exMedtngly broad and is riso 
guttural and somewiiat nasal;* They- speak very' slowly and give to 
every iMer its full powiir. A stiikii^ pMdiarity is thdt they speak 
the Malay a& it is written, winch prores either tiuit they acquired tlw 
lan^age before the fashion was introduced of omitting the final k 
md initial h in many words, or that the Malays fi^om wkomthcy 
arigina% learned it had not adopted these elisions.' ThuiJ they say 
•'kaimif ttawdafc t6whd" ''tdhan hindiwk Mlir." Ml the Malays 
aroond them in tiie Pemnstila hftVe dropped or f{reatly softened the 
toM k and initial A, but thc(y have no knowledge of the period ^en 
the change took place. It wis probably gradual and insen^dfalev and 
must have been subsequent to tlie intn)du6tion. of Iskmism ^hen the 
Ar^hs gave thefr dphabet to the Malays. I citonot venture to decide 
lioir ftu>'tiie nearest Malayan face who retam i, similar pronuneiatioti 

* TheBermuoi tribes have .a drawling, nasal speech, but not harsh and 

i- 2 

290 TttS BINUA Of lOttOBK. 

may htve been the teachers of the Binafi witil I have made (urtiier 
enquiries on the sabject. 

' In offerings some introdiictoiy remarks to a series of eontrftnlioos 
to the elimograpliy of the Archipelago (f n whidi thb hmiedlj writ- 
ten paper has aoddeutafif taken precedenee,) I took oeeaidontodweH 
on the extreme interest of the baguages of even tiie mdest nea, 
and the neeessity imposed bf our rery imperfect knowledge of aiif , 
and ignorance of moat, of ascertaining iJiese langoagea befiore seeldiif 
to penetrate the thick darlmess which emrdopes the early hhrtny of 
thb region. 'n)ei.BinQ& supply a strong ilhistmtion of ttns neceaniy. 
In our immediate vicinity a people are found in tlie nuddle ef the 
Johore forest No one knows how long they have iired there, or 
whence their forefinthers came. They tiiemsehres have lost the last 
vestage of the tradition of their real origin, and it is a mystery to the Ma- 
lays who must have known them for many centaries. Tliey hare abao* 
lutely no history that goes fiorther back than two or three genera i wig. 
It is the language alone therefore that can enable us to cross the 
'gulph of obUvion that stretches between them and tlieir progenitan. 
If it cannot afford materials to construct a sofid and unbroken bridge, 
it may at least supply us with stepping stones. At present I offer 
no observations on the remnants of the original language. Many sf 
thC'diaiects with which it is necessary to eompare tfaem are not to 
be found in booln, and the task is one demanding much time and 
extennve research. Sorike highly interesting results have already 
been obtained from a partial oompaiison, but it would be prematare 
to enter on this until my enquiries are more advanced. While a large 
proportion of the words differ from those dnlecta of the Bermim 
tribes with which I am acquainted, several occur in those ftragn 
languages which have other words in common with the latter, llwse 
aboriginal words are in- some respects the most valuable disoofenes 
which Johore has afforded. I found no arddtectural monnmads of 
^e Hindu era of the ArchipehigD, no ancient images or inscriptioDS, 
such as, in the north of iShe Penlnsnla, in Sumatra, Java and Bonee, 
excite the enthusiasm and reward the toil of the ardieologist Bat 
in the living symbols preserved in the language we are translated to 
ages still more remote. The primitive people of the Arelnpeiago 
apeak to us in words free from Sanskrit and ArabiG tamt, which 
cbhn for their descendants, now sechuted in the central forest of Jo. 
bore, a brotherhood with many nations which have risen to import- 
ance on the busy stage of the eastern world. How much of the an- 
cient hbtory of the Archipelago has been transmitted to us in the 


]«igua^ of the Biiija& and tkt BerMun tribes, will be considered 
when the Toeabukries whieh I bare been for some time preparinf^ 
are pnbbshed 

Many of the Malays have Bimii wiTes* wbo of course are Islam- 
ised. The Binuk on their part are debarred from seeking wires 
amongst the Malays^ and this most always^ hare had considerable 
influence in dieddng the natural growtii of population. The first 
Miday adventurers were probably more numerous in males than fe« 
males. In many places the Chinese tend to absorb the Malays in 
their turn. The more dWlized and wealthy races thin those below 
them of their women, and neeeasi^ driTCS tiie latter to make up the loss 
in some measure at the expence of those still lower. This is one of 
those fondamentid fects of etiinography which should be borne in 
mind in speculating on the gradual extinction of aboriginal races 
when comparatively civilized colonies come into contact with them. . 
A* considerable proportion of the Malays ui the PemnsuU behind 
Malacca are descendents of women of the aboriginal tribes, and the 
Malays in their turn gave wires to the immigrants from China, so that 
the greater portion of the Chinese of Malacca hare Malayan blood 
in thdr reins. 

Binuis oocanonally embrace Islamism, but although attachment to 
their old hibits and pride in the antiquity of their race, concur with 
their want of regard for the Malays in rendering them averse to thia 
eonrersbn, tho Malays are persuaded that they will ultimately be 
ratirely amalgamated with them. Tins is a fate which every const- 
dention of humanity and religion urges us to endeavour to avert*^ 
As yet the Binni preserve much of their natural openness and ho- 
nesty of diaracter, and their whole disposition is such as to give as- 
mrance that they would prove wilBng recipients of Chijstianity, 
were it presented to them in its purity and simplLdty. Were an in- 
telligent, and kindly missbnary to settle amongst them, the sapo-. 
riority of his diaracter to that of the Malays would speedily gsin 
for him tiie influence and aotiiority of a &ther. A great improve- 
ment in thdr condition might be brought about by merely placing 
their intercourse with the MaUys upon a juat footing, to accomplish 
which the influence of the Singapore government and the authority of 
the Tamdngong would, it may be antidpated, be readily accorded, 
llie latter does not derive any advantages from the system of rapine 
^hich prevails in all his prindpal rivers. At present while, in many 
{Places, hb subjects are procuring t&bdn at prices of 2^ or 3 dollars per 
l^icul, he pays them rates varying from 7 to 10 dollar^. ^{nnovation% 


would of course need to be made gndnally and with prudenee ;ttii te 
orercooie the direct and indirect oppodtioa which might be expected 
from the Malays great temper and firmness would lie re^idrite. Bat 
with the sincere ooneurrence of the Tam^faigeng all diflbnllks would 
in time be overcome, and he would deme so nmdi adiaatage from 
the increased prospe rit y of the moat laborious eiass of his mljeeti 
tliat interest alone would prompt him to continue the good work 
when onoeliegun. Johore is now the only Malayvi country orer 
which we have a direct and almost abeolnte influence, and we derire 
little credit from the &ct that while the small Settlements wluch we 
have acquired on its coast, Singapore and Malacca, absorb near^ ill 
its trade, we have nerer made the least efort to impnnre the con- 
dition of its people.^ What its capabilities are I shall have an oppor- 
liunity of shewing when I enter upon its geography, in tiie mean 
^me I hope that the iae^ contaiued in this paper may awaken Mme 
interest in its aboriginal inhaU^tants, and that, fttim one quarter or 
another, protectioik and sympathy, which th^ ignoranee preheats 
them from seeking^ may come to tlnoi. 

In the course of this paper I have had occasion lo compaareor con-* 
trast the aborigines of the south of the Peninsula with the Malays, 
the B6M» and the Dyiks. In oooBparing their language mth dut 
of the aboriginal tril»es of Sumatra, with the Javanese, Sundanese, 
Bawean, and Madurese, with the known Dyak languages and the pe- 
cufiar Malay of Borneo, and with the languages of tiie nortfaent 
boundary of this circle, the Peninsulas of Eastean A«a» — ^whcie the 
whole originated and where many words are still £aund in oommon— 
I shall have an opportunily of entering into a more critical eianiDa- 
of all the ethnological affinities of these people than would be suited 
to the nature of this paper even if I were already in posseaaan of all 
the raquisite materidSi; Here 1 will only remark that the eharacter 
of the Binu&, the* Dyak and the B^tti is essentially the same, and 
may still be recognised in the Malay. 

The Binuii has less developement of intelleot, and leae ooniiptioD 
of tiie pa^aionB. Natural inflnenocs are with them greater than ar- 
tificiaL Evesy indMdual and every family Hves more in the pun 
and fresh pvesenoe of nature than of iiMsi. Detached in fiunily groups 

f The success whi^h recently crowned CoJqnel Bu^terworth'sendeaTOors 
10 indace the Tamungbng to send his sons to the Aerd. Bir. Keasberrfs 
school sbews how mndi might have been accomplished ere now if all Uie 
successors of Sir T. S. Raflles had recogoiied the improvemeni of thena- 
civfs of Che couotry, and the adYancemeiit of knowledge, as ol^ects worth} 
of thetffectife aid orgorernmcot. 


In the forest, Malayan corruption, which would long^ ago have re- 
duced them to its own dye if it could have operated on them in nl- 
hge masses, has foond no assailable point. The absoluteness of the 
influence of the family, and of simple and solitary pursuits, has also 
prevented the internal growth of vices. There is no outward influ- 
ence to counteract it. Society in its turn contains no institution or 
principle that can interrupt its harmony. Their character and habits 
afford no room for any disturbance of the equality that rdgns through- 
out the whole community. Hence there is no appreciable soda! 
strife, or ambition. 

The B^ttte and Dyaks have long^ outgrown the close pressure of 
nature, and agglomerated into todal masses in which the pasrions 
hftve fermented, and the intelleet and Imagination been quickened. 
Bat these social masses have been small ; nature has not been driven 
back on all sides as in the plains and slopes of Menanglcabau. Hence 
l^oCh the Battd and most of the Dyak stall preserve the Binui charac- 
ter at bottom ; but, unlilce the Binu^ they have elabon^d their super- 
stions and their social habits, 4nd hare acquired some vicious propensi- 
ties, such as gambling, wliich the B^tt^ carry to a mad excess, and 
the unnatural customs of head hunting and man eating, wliich are only 
more startling illustrations of the imiversal truth, that, witliout a reli- 
gion like Christiaiuty, which does not stop at precepts and doctrines 
but spiritualizes the very springs of action and fills the soul with the 
divine idea of the world, virtues and vices, and particulariy those which 
are national, may dwell together in harmony. It is undeniable that the 
BiWs as a people have a greater prevalence of social virtues than 
most European nations. Truth, honesty, hospitality, benevolence, 
chastity, absence of private crimes, co-exist vrith cannibalism. 

The Binu4 nature, as we have already had occasion to notice, is al^ 
sp very recognizable in the Malays, although the pride and pretension 
engrafted upon it by Islamism, the bold and actiye part which they 
have played in the modem history of the Archipelago, and the influ- 
ence of courts formed on the Mahomedan model, have obliterated 
much of its simplicity and all its artlessness. 



Hating failed In my attempt to bring one of the Binn^ with 
me to ^gapofe I am unable to offer any portraits of tbem. The 
foil length figures of a man and woman in the accompanying 
Ktbograph are two of a party of Mlntir& from Gunong Bermna 
who lately settled at Rnmbi£h near Malacca^ and were induced 
to visit me in Singapore, — ^probably the first voyage that any of 
their race have undertaken for many centuries. In a future paper 
I shall give some account of the impressions made oo them by 
the voyage, and their behaviour while in Singapore, as well as 
several particulars which could net be introduced into the prece- 
dmg paper. Nos. I, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in the Hlliograph of eight 
heads are alsoMlntidb, the two last being females. The remarks t«i- 
peeling the Binui physiognomy (ante p. 249 — ^252) are, on the whole, 
applicable to the Mintird. The full length figures fail in doing 
justice to the originals. The face of the woman in particular al- 
though grave is not dull and sullen.* SofSie of the profiles giTo 
a good idea of the originals. The second is the least success- 
fuLf It is that of the most intelligent of the party. His features 
are remarkably well and sharply cut, although the head preserrei 
the general Binui characteristics. The forehead is fine, but ai 
usual the cbeek bones swell out laterally beyond iL The faces 
of all the Miiltiri seem to be formed of two parts separated by a 
line across the eyes. The upper is the forehead, risiog from a 
base considerably narrower than the line connecting the lygoma* 
tic projections. The great bulk of the lower part is horisoolally 
oblong, the external lines having a slight inclination inwards from 
the lygomatic arches to the angles of the lower jaw opposite the 
mouth, after which they converge towards the chin which forms an 
angle much more obtuse than in the Biduandi Kallang. This form vi 
given by the lower jaw not proceeding directly to the ear but form- 

* While it thus rather fails in the eipressioD, the features are otherwise 
drawn with great accuracy. With reference to the whole of these lithographs 
1 have to express my best thanks to Mr. Wiber for the rapidity with which 
he drew and lithographed them at the last moment. If the haste with 
which they hava been produced depreciates their value, he is not respoosi-" 
bte for it. 

t* As the head is a remarkable one and very unlike any Malay head Unt 
observed,,! shall endeavour to present an accurate drawing of it hereafter. 


ittg an angle be low it The tertkal dongation of the upper part 
of fbe face is a striking feature. If a line be drawn from the 
angle of (be lower jaw Ihraogb Che lateral projectioB of the 17- 
gomatic arch to the top of the forehead, the portion abore the 
projoGtiott greatly exceeds that below it Thiia in Pfirut's face the 
one is 3§ and the other 2| inches, in Tali's foce 4 and 2| 
inches, while in one of the Bldnaoda Kallang, Saweog, the pro* 
portions are reversed, the nppcr part being 2^ and the lower 8 
in. in Noneng the former is 3^ and the latter 3 in. The nose 
in an is sradl and slightly tamed np, and Out mouth large. The 
liair falls over the shoulders, and, with one of the men, in a profti^ 
siOD of curls. 

Figs. 1 and 3 are not sufidently prognathous. 

The toes ot die Mintirfi like those of all the tribes of the in^ 
terior widi which I have any acquaintance, are spreading, so that 
the foot is very broad anteriourly in proportion to its length. 

Otfier characteristies may be gathered from an inspection of the 
anneiLed table p. 305. 

. ^ 



Allusion having been made in the preceding paper to the in- 
siilar tribe who were recently transferred from the island of Battam 
to the southern^ copist of Johore by the Tamuogong, and also to 
tiie race who frequent the creeks of the same coast, a short 
comparison of them with the Binu4 may not be without interest. 

Being desirous of assembling individuals of as many of the 
ipvild tribes as possible under one roof, so as to compare them 
carefully with each other and with the Binoi, while my impressions 
of the latter remained fresh, the honorable the Governor, with 
his wonted readiness to encourage and aid enquiries of the kind, 
procured me through the Tamungoog a visit from two of the 
Sabimba and four of the Beduanda Railing. 

The Sabimba previous to their exportation to Johore by the Ta- 
muogong inhabited that portion of the island of Battam which as 
traversed by the stream qalled the Sungie Sabimba and its feeders. 

They are entirely a forest people, having no ladangs or cultiva* 
tion of any kind, and no boats. They are consequently barbar-* 


008 in dieir conditio* eonpared witli the Biana. Aeeording ttf 
their own traditions, howerer, they have not always been of habib 
so mde/ They dedam that they are of Malayan race, and gite 
the following aoeonnt of their adreat in Battam« Their fmMbm 
lived in the Und of the Bngis^ and were of agricnltarad and bm* 
itim^ habits like other Malays, la the conrse of a voyage from 
Celebes to the westward, a • teasel containing a party of them aod 
a Raji Bngis, was lost off the c«akof Battan. Sone of Ciwoi 
reached the shore, and^ hating na means of relnming W their 
natJTe country, remained on the island. After a few generatioiis 
their numbers had mcreased, and they lived in comfort nakiog 
ladangs, and gradually regaining the condition in which their ship* 
wrecked ancestors had lived in their native land. At this 
stage they unfortunately attraeled Ifao notice of pirates and their 
kaippongs were ravaged. New ladangs and .houses were mad«^ 
but again they were visited by pirates. They removed to aoolker 
locality, but their menciless .and.:persevering<assailantsfQaind them, 
and continued to repeat their attacks every few years. At last when 
their kampongs were destroyed for the seventh time, they gare 
themselves up to despaii*, abariddned their ancicint habits, and soagtt 
safety by wandering in the. forest and restricting themselves to 
the materials of food which it spontaneously yields. To prevent 
any longing to return to the comforts of civilization from again 
exposing them to plunder, slavery, or death, the whole tribe made 
a vow that they should never . again form ladangs, live a settled 
Fife, or even eat the domestic fowl, the crowing of the cock having 
sometimes betrayed their dwellings to (he pirates. 

iVhat^vcr be the foundation of this tradition, it Expresses Cdeir 
present condition. l^hey plant no vegetables of any kind, bat 
use the leaves, roots and fruits which the forest affords, sacb as 
the akar kaluna, a. sim^po, a. ajas, a. aaprio, a. kat&pi, the omat 
nibong, u. biyas, u. sirdaog, u. f^ngkap, the buah tamidak, b. 
bfilok, b. tampui, b. m&neling, b. p^cho, b. k&bes, b. ridan, b. 
kadumpa, b. rinjas, b. m&ngos ut^, b. kalading, b. p&ss^ b. 
durian, b. lakup, b. pakald, b. tore. They eat the desh of ev^ 
forest animal which they can Icill, and when occasionally brongbt in 
contact with more civilized people, shew no objection to any kind 
of food save the fowl which they scrupulously avoid. The wild 


miiDils nsed are the hog, palando, Icori, latong, mui&bg, tapfii 
kobong, bewak, mfiloV, pirgam, kaloogk^ng, koko, Uong, punaf, the 
ofl of snakes, and many kinds of fish. The kijaog, rusa, elephant, and 
bear are not found in Bf ttam. Flesh of all kinds is cooked by the 
men, Tegetd>les by the women. They use a Dyak smnpitan which 
is also armed with a spear head after the manner of the musket and 
liayoneL* It is corious that this weapon has been imported for 
them from tune immemorial, and that they have not acquired the 
art of forming sumpitiins of bambns like the Benniins. The Bor- 
nean sumpitan is artificially bored. 

They make rude temporary huts in the forest with the floors on 
the ground, and never remain long at the same spot. 

Before marriage the bridegroom prepares a hut of his own to which 
he carries the bride on the day of marriage from the house of the 
Batin where they are united. 12 histas of white doth, and 
some siri and pin^mg are delivered by the bridegroom into the 
Batin's hands for the bride's parents. 

The children of brothers cannot intennarry, but those of sif- 
ters and of a brother and sister may. 

When one of the family dies,.the body is washed, wrapped in doth 
and buried id a grave, an excavation being made into one side to 
receive it Above the grave they place rice, a pot, an axe, a hatchet, 
a knife, siri and pinang, praying the deceased not to call on them or 
require anything from them in future. A fire is kindled at the aide. 
On the.third and seventh days they visit the grave, and alter a monfli 
abandon the house and seek a new locality for their residence. Tlie 
goods descend to sons. Adultery is punished by a fine of 1^000 
rattans, seduction of a virgin by being compelled to marry her and 
give the customary present to her parents. 

Their ancestors were warned in dreams that if the race bathed 
tempests would visit them. Hence they abstain as religiously from 
bathing as they do from eating the fowl. The only punishment 
which the Malays threaten them with, or ever inflict, is to duck 
them in water, of which they have so great a horror that they 
say they would prefer being killed at once. 

Dreams are greatly dreaded, and, if bad, keep the dreamec 

* They only use the ipoh to poison the darts. They take the bark of the 
tree (which is a common one) braize it, and boil it, till the Juice is of the 
consistence of chanda C^pium prepared for smoking.) 

Q 2 

298 .TB% ORAM SAWinnA. 

in a stale of wie»ineto for soran days. A SaliiiriM of «id 
dreamt that he would be killed b j a tifer, and Withio tiro dajs to 
dream Iras fulfilled. 

The 00I0117 at present lit ing towards the bead ef the Sngie 
T4mr^ (which falb into the Salat izmtia or eld SCraii of 
Singapore opposite the most norfherlj point of the isfand) osossts 
of 25 meo, 30 women, and 15 childrem. They att serft of tiie 
Tamoogong being on der a Malay Jenoaog who employs tken in 
colicctiiig t&b^, dammar, rattans, kayu gharu, etiony, cUM&d and 
wax. In return he gives them rice, sago, and very nrdy a liUle 
cloth. Other Malays are also allowed to carry on a Mttte trade 
by barter with them,* by which means they are supplied yrilk 
uxeM^ hatchets, earthenware, cooking pots, iron pans, sat^ chilis, 
and tobacco. 

To describe them forther would be scarcely anything more tbia 
a snccession of negatives. Thus they do not drcuncise or io- 
dsc^ they do not file the teeth, they do not perforate the lobe of 
the ear. They have no religion, no hantna or other sopenuto- 
ral beings that have names, hardly any medicines^ no Pofiogi 
The husband alone assists at births. To aid parCudtion a decoc- 
tion of diun Saloso is admimstered, and they also sanboran liko 
Ae Malays. A fire is kindled near the mother to scire awij 
evil spirits. A decoction of the branch of the Hmkuras is also 
given to the mother. The umbilical cord is cot with a wmUu 
TOtAg (or rattan knife) and knnyet powder applied. On Ibe tliird 
day the mother bathes in water mixed witha deooctioo of Uie 
cftftm kamdio followed by an application oflime juice. She then 
Resumes her wandering in (he jon§^e in seardi of food, her diiid 
being tied closely under her arm with Its mouth to the bretft It 
does not receive a name till it is a few months old. The childrea 
are never beaten* 

I have only seen two individuals of the race. One is an old dud 
and the other a middle aged woman. Both are at once seen to be- 
long to a different race from the Blnua. The bead in partuvlar i» 
9iuch larger, and formed on a difrerebt type. The foceis very loog^ 
arising from the length and indmation of the lower jaws. Ibe lip» 

^ Except InUbip, which tbcy cannot dispose of to others opder pai* 
«jt a ducking. 

»rc firm but thick. The jaws a little progQathoos, but Ihe fiiittiiiess 
«f ihe lips diauflislnes the dtMp When viewed in profile the fea* 
tares seem to be areaoged on a evrve.* The man tias a beard of 
aCraggli^ aad eoarse white hairs, which b stronger than that whieb 
Malays generally possess who allow the beard to grow, Baeh 
tbonlder has a band of similar hair, but that upon his person gene* 
rally is not remarkable* 

Bis shoulders are narrow and arms fleihless, approaching in 
tiiis Kspect to the Australians, the woman's iaoe is very broad 
across the cheek bones, so as to present the most Mangollan of 
all the heads. 

Boih individoals at first seemed without ideas, and averse to 
oooreraation. The man when questioned answered, and to a certain 
extent overcame his reserve. In the evening of the second day 
he beeame very kHpiaciotts nnder the influence of a glass of 
cherry brandy, and has since been commonicative. The woman 
sits with her eyes fixed on the gtonnd, and her face wearing an 
expression of hopeless stupidity. No smile, no glance or mo-^ 
lioQ betraying the presence of thought or feeling, has once lighted 
up her settled look of dniness. Her person is loaded with flabby 
fat, and dolhed from the waist to the knees with a dirty sarongw 
A rag scantily covers her bosom. The curved gitt& t&bfin handle 
of a pir^g, which projeoks above the folds of her sarong tells tho 
occapation from which the poor woman has been summoned. 

f reserve my remarks on the language of this tribe and of tho 
Beduandd lUUl&ng. 



The Pul&i lies farthest to the west of all the rivers that fall in - 
to the Straits of Singapore from the Peninsula. It derives some geo-* 
graphical inlereflt from its rising in GnOong Pul&i, the most sooth-^ 
eriy mountain, and having its embouchure near Tanjong Bouro the 
most southerly point, of Asia^ 

• In the lithograph, (proGIe No. 8) Which is very good in other ri^spectSi 
the lips are not sufficienily thick, the geaeral curve too Slight, and (hC 
l^wer part of the face not sufllciently prominent. 


Before the British obtaiaed possesion of Smgapore, the RaBang, 
which may be said to bound the present snborbs on the east, was 
flie immemorial haunt of a small tribe who lived in boats, bat aroid- 
ed the sea. Upon the cession of Singapore, they were remored 
by the Tamongong to the Pid^ where they hare remained ever 
since. They formerly consisted of about 100 families, occupying as 
many boats, but the ravages of the small pox have reduced the nuow 
ber to eight. They are fishermen and foresters, dividing their tiBM 
between the two pursuits. They have small fishing stakes near the 
mouth of the river, which some of them visit in the momuig. But 
they have so much dread of the sea that they do not rentnre to qoii 
the river, and constantly proceed towards the interiour before 
night When a strong breeie rises they drag their boats a shore. 
Tbey never make huts. They collect forest produce for one of the 
Tamiingong's Malays who has charge of them. They have a bo- 
010 or physician who sings to summon the hantus to give them 

They do not cultivate any plants, their ancestors having made 
a vow for the race against forming l&dfings, and they believe ^t if 
any of them were to lM*eak it death would be the .conseqneace. 

At child birth the mother drinks a decoction of the leaves of the 
bdkdu that have fallen from the trees and float on the water, and 
the child a little of the expressed juice of the budh kdluna. For 
any swelling they bruize leaves of the bdro and rub them orer 
the part swollen. Guts or wounds they rub with the juice of the 
akar IdlS urdL For pain in the bowels they use ginger. For 
head ache, they drink the juice of the kdyu Hpiilu dngin- 

Prerious to marriage the bridegroom provides himself with a 
boat of his own. 

Corpses are wrapped in mats and buried. Upon the grave they 
place a cup of woman*s milk, one of rice and one of water, and 
entreat the deceased not to seek anything more from them. 

Polygamy and adultery are unknown. Widowers and widows 
do not marry a second time. 
^Persons of the same family cannot intermarry however remote 
^ the degree. But the traces of relationship must soon be fost 

Specimens of the rude chants will be given in speaking of the 


Two of the men, Saw^og and S&ogo, (flg. 6 is the profile of 
Sawteg) have very remarkabie beads which depart greatly from 
tlie BiDui, MiDtir& and Malay. The forehead is broader than the 
cheek bones, so as to give the face in front something of the shape 
of a pear. Bat in contrast with this onosnal breadth is its extreme 
narrowness, the hair approaching to within less than. 2 inches of 
the eyebrows.* The second remaricable characteristic consists in the 
entire absence of the prognathous form. The lower jaw indeed 
advances well so as to form a rather sharp chin, bat instead of the 
upper jaw advancing, the whole face from the chin to the base of the 
brow appears as if it were flattened, so that when viewed in profile 
an the features seem to be placed on a straight tine from which the 
prominent parts rise very slightly. The lips are comparatively thin, 
firm and not open, and the mouth smaU, presenting a great contrast 
to the gross, loose lips of the Miotird. The under lip is slightly 
(hrosi oat or pouting. The whole mouth instead of being sensu* 
al has a singular expression of good temper and even of se- 
renity and sweetness. The eyebrows are horizontal so as to form 
parts of a straight line. The upper part of the body deviates no 
less strikingly from the ordinary Binua standard, the shoulders being 
wide and the waist comparatively narrow. The smalhiess of the 
head in proportion to the width of the shoulders is one of the 
marked peculiarities of the figures. The face in its peculiar flatness 
resembles the profile of a Siamese in the plate of eight national por- 
traits contained in the second volume of Mr. Crawfurd's Embassy 
to Siam and Cochin China, and the extent to which the hair ad- 
vances on the forehead is another Siamese characteristic. The brow 
however is not a slight curve as in the profile of the Siamese, 
bat advances from the face at a sharp angle. The line of the lower 
jaw also instead of extending back in a horizontal line and then 
rising nearly at a right angle to the ear, proceeds in a direct slightly 
curved line to the ear as in the second profile in Mr. Crawfurd*s plate, 
that of a Chong. 

Another of the Biduanda Kallang, Naneng, (a remarkably strong 
built and powerful man) has the pyramidal or lozenge face in per- 
fection, the cheek bones being more prominent than in most Bmua. 

^ The lithographed profile ofSaiteDg gives too great a height to the fore^ 

302 ras QKASIC aUElAlL 

He differs from (hem and Uie IGolM in Ike abseooe of Ik prog* 
aallioas fonn of Um lower part of Ike faee, id iU beng dei|ier, 
and m the aagle of the ebin, or that formed by liaes drawn fron 
it to the outward extremities of the cheek bones, being much more 
acnte. This arises from the greater Jength of the lower jaw and its 
proceeding directly in a sloping or dii^y cnrred Une from the ev 
lo the chin. The general character of his faoe is between the lb- 
lay and Siamese, but perhaps nearer the latter. The expresskn is 
much more Siamese than Malay. 

All the faces are less lively, but at the same time less indoleiit, 
than those of the Mintird, the general expression qoiet, eootentcd, 
pleasant, non-obtmsive, and for the rest blank. The onilinei are 
less rounded, the skm harsher, and the eye more doll. The forinres 
of S&weng and Singo haive a pinched or compressed look. 1 ne- 
ver saw any Malay who resembled them. 

The feet of the K&ll&ig are straightor and narrower than Ifae 
Binui, and the toes parallel instead of spreading* 


This race are closely allied to the Bidoanda Kallang', (both indeed 
appear to be branches of one tribe, tke aboriffi$ieB qf Simgopvrt, 
and both derive their names from Singapore rivers) but Ihooghf 
like them they do not venture to sea, they are not confined to ooe 
river, but frequent most of the rivers and creeks of Johore that hsve 
thev months in the old Strait and in the wMe estuary of the Jo- 
hore River.. I have never examined them closely. The foUowiog 
extract from my Journal relates to a small party which I encooDter- 
ed last year in the course of a geological exploration of the Jobore 
estuary and will convey some idea of the singularly secluded lifes 
weich many of them lead. Others are less solitary and barbarous. 

^^ I now pulled' across to the south eastern comer of the estuary 
and entered a broad winding creek called Trds Bfid. For sods 
tnne nothing is visible beyond the mangrove walls of the reKbes 
which expand or contract as we proceed. As we went deeper 
and deeper into this lonely creek, the feelmg of iU wildness and 
seclusion grew stronger. At Tanjong Biiaye we had left the last 
trace of cuUivation behind, and the uniformity of the winding shores 


ef Ike creek, the smoolftness ofiU water, the stiHa^s that prevail- 
edj the absolute n mt of all Uvkig things and* all signs and sounds of 
life, and the uiipreBsioB that from its ntuatioa k was not frequen- 
ted by boata, gate to it a character of the most perfect sit^litode. 
WhiJst enjoying the full influence of this character, abend of thecredc 
suddenly broke the spell by disck)sia|^ another reach in which were 
two boata. It was soon renewed aod redoubled as we neared them 
and the steersman declared they were wild men, and cautioned us 
to avoid doing anything to frighten them. They were fit accompa- 
niments of such a scene. When they saw us they paddled hastily to 
the side and apparently sought to screen themselves from view by the 
mangroves, but we were too close upon them to admit of their doing 
so. As the evening was falling and I was desirous of reaching the 
foot of Gunong Ba(i by daylight, we did not stop, and I had there- 
fore no opportunity of examining or conversing with them. Their 
appearance however is too wild and remarkable to require more than 
a moment's look to impress itself on the mind. One expression 
was strongly stamped on their countenances, that of a dull blank 
stupidity almost idiotical in its excess animated for the time by the 
startled and frightened look with which they gazed at us. Their 
hair hung over their shoulders in a tangled mass of a dry dirty 
red. In each boat, a woman naked to below the waist, held the helm 
oar, and a man paddled. There were also two lads ; and the same 
idiotical expression was so deeply stamped on the face of each, 
as at once to reveal a life so miserably contracted as to exclude 
all that social expansiveness of individual nature which produces 
a free growth of mind and a wide range of ideas. Compared 
with these wild denizens of loneiy creeks my unlettered and igno- 
rant Malays and B&wi^s assumed a high rank in the scale of hu- 
manity. The contrast between them and the Malay in particu- 
lar, a native of Johore like themselves, was so marked as to ren- 
der it in a high degree difficult to account for the difference if 
both are of the same stock. The Malay bold, sociable, talkative, 
intelligent, and even possessing a certain peculiar refinement and 
sense of honour. The orang utan, although speaking the same lan- 
guage, idiotically stupid and in habits liker wild animals than men, 
shunning all intercourse that can possibly be avoided with the 
rest of mankind, and apparently having no social feeling amongst 

BOl ' TVS ouakg slbtar. 

themselres saTe that which serves to keep the familj togetbev. 

Since the above papers were sent to press my friend Mr. Tbom- 
son has come in from the Old Strait, where he met serenl of 
the orfiog Sletar and oring Sabimbi. Some of the results of Us 
obserrations, I am happy to be able to promise, will be gi? ca ia 
a supplementary number, and the y will be illostrated by lithographs 
of several beads. 


* ft 

in the three preceding pa^s. '''""''""*'"**««"»^"«* «co„?f,e/y 


-" K . S»2» PS Bfi • •! 5 3 





10 10 

00 -q 



From highest part of interior Fonte- 
nelle of scull to orifice o f ear. 

7rom Highest point of occipital pro- 

Juoerance to orifice of ear. 

■M.-.m,^ ^,, car. 

« J- J- Between orifices of ear measared o- 
ver eyebrows. 


Between orilices of ears measured 
vertically across middle of parietal 

Circumference of the head measured 
round the forehead and occipital 
protub erance. 

S SS S £ g ^^- ""^^^ iSeJowerjaw(chin)<j^bieh- 
^ ^ ^ est point of occipital protuberance 

Breadth between tne most projecting 
points of the lygomatic arches 
measured ov er f»ce. 
Straight line con necting .vi 
Breadth^) ! browatbase^ 
Height of tdT^ 

00 QOQO 

Length of face Irora chin to biehest 
part of brow. "'Bnesj 

Chin to orifice of ear. 
Facial angle. 

" ' 323 ^n?'c of chin form'cTby lower jaw"i 
^ p^ linjjrawn fro m chin to glabellum, 

K S S *rc«dlh in front between the shoul- 

^ ders. 

^ * ^ OT M ' " 

^ ' ^^Ui Circumference below the shoulders. 
• • 888 id. at waist. 

8^J8 Length of arm to wrist^ 

■ ' g^:g id. of hand. 

O 9»-« 

: : g^8 Length of limbs. 

Breadth or pel vis in front measured 
between the anterior, superior spi- 
nous processes of the Ilium. 

id. of femur from the great tracao- 
ther of femur to the external con- 
dyle of fibula. 

id. of foot. 


Breadth across toesT 





All diseases are caused either by spirits or by the spells of men* 
Amongst the spirits of disease — Itdntu Pmydkit^ — the most power- 
iul are the Adniu Hamoran, Hdntu Bdra Ship and Itdntu Bdra 
TerkiUr, These H&ntus cause the greatest mortality. The Hdntu 
Katumbolum (spirit of the sm^ pox) is held in such dread that the 
Mindri evince a rq>ug^ance to mention its name. The Itdntu 
KamAong haunts the abodes of men to afflict them with pidns in the 
bell^r and head. The Pinidkit Pundn (Malay KampwidnJ causes pains 
and accidents to persons who hare had a desire to eat of any parti- 
culajr article of food, and have not been able to get it. The Hdntu Su' 
hurOf or Hunter Spirit, dwells in lakes and pools in rivers. His body 
IS black, and he has three dogs named Sokom, or Black-mouth. 
When one of them passes a but, the inmates make a g^reat noise by 
beating pieces of wood &c. to frighten him away, and the children 
are caught up and held tightly by the older people.* The Hintu Si* 
buro chases men in the forest by his dogs, and, if they are run down, 
he drinks their blood. At the upper extremity (^u^mJ of every stream 
dwells the Hdntu JHngi, In tlie ground lives the Hdntu Kam&ng 
who causes inflammation and swellings in the hands and feet, so as to 
ieprive his victims of the power of locomotion. The Hdntu Don^ 
dong resides in caves and crevices in rocks. He kills dogs and wild 
hogs with the sumpitan, and drinks their blood. The Hdntu Penyd' 
din is a water demon, with the head of a dog and the mouth of an al- 
ligator. He sucks blood from the thumbs and big toes of men, and 
death ensues. When he leaves his watery abode, he wanders about 
incessantiy in search of food, until satiated, when he returns home. 
The Hdntu Kdyu (wood demons) frequent every species of tree, and 
afflict men with diseases. Some trees are noted for the maUgnlty of 
their demons. The Hdntu Ddgo haunts graves, and assumes the 

* The Malays have a similar belief. But with them Sokom is preceded 
by a bird named B^r^b^r^. Whenever it is seen near a house as much 
noiae as possible is made. 


forms of deer. When any one passes, he calls them. When a per- 
son is wounded, the Hdntu PdrifuAtns on the wound aad sada (he 
blood. Thisis the onuM of the blood flomig. AmonfBt the adur 
h&ntus are the Hdntu Chikd (who produces more excrucialing puns 
in the abdomen than the Hdntu Kambong) the Hdntu Jimoi^ Hdn- 
hi Sfddry'aikd Hdntu Sw(fn. To enumerate the remainder of the 
Hantus would be merely to convert the name of every species of di-. 
sease known to the Mintir& into a 'proper one. If any new diseiM 
appeared, it would be ascribed to a H&ntu bearing the same name. 

Tlie Pqyangs and a few others only have the power of afflicting aad 
destroying men by spells. These are of various kinds, operating in dif- 
ferent ways, and rapidly or slowly. The most noted b the tuju.* The 
Poyang takes a little Ulin sdanbdng^ or wax that has been found in 
a nest which the bees themselves have abandoned. Over this he 
mutters a spell, and wmts his opportunity to menuju^ because to en- 
sure its success he must not only be able to see the victim, however 
distant, but there must be a strong wind blowing in the direciaon of 
hb rendence. When such a wind rises, the Poyang takes the wtx, 
places a vessel of water, with a lighted candle or two, before Idm, 
mutters an incantation and fixes his eyes intently on the water. If 
he can see the image <tf the rictim distinctly in the water, he throws 
the wax into the air, and the wind instantaneously transports it to the 
victim, who feels as if he were struck by something. Sidoiess fol- 
lows, which is either prolonged or induces speedy death, acoordin|: 
to the exigency of the spell. 

But It b not upon every one that the spell will operate. Blmj 
persons by supernatural skill, or by counter spells or cbarms, 
surround themselves with an invisible fence or wall, which not onlj 
renders the spell moperative, but even prevents the Poyfing from see- 
ing their image in the water. The use of invocations and charms to 
avert evib and evil powers, natural and supernatural, to countenct in- 
cantadons, to inflict mabdies and calamities, and to exdte bve and 
regard, b conunon. The first consbt in general of pend^tdingi ciU' 

"^ Tuju,menuja, literally, (opotfi^ 

m, suiontsTif IONS or rm HnrrniA, 309 

cdby iJbe Malays doi peiulhidin^ payers or iiiTocatioiis of defenee,'*' 
(frms tSHdin§^, a wall») wUck nuist be repeated sevea laies at sun 
rise, and seyen tunes afe sun set The foUbwing are examples of 
p wHfindifiy used fhr protet:^oa against the naMcence of enemies. 


Hong k&ehula katumbo bisi kanduri idng limu kahutdn katungalaa 
iiku ti'dinddig hita iku b^ing dedinding bumi tibrap b^rt^r&p tutop 
dngin salagoH kan Ulw&nku sant& s&but did&bmi gantong kl^ kabut 
mat& or^uig miningo ^u d^t&ng klam kdbut pHmun &ku m&limua 
siklian muso sitruku Uiwiinku guru sidik turun berdo& &ku mfngin^- 
|can doi plimun siklian mdt4 muso sitrukan Idw^uiku. (1) 


Heh pisamin namdnid bisi ^ku. di&m d^m k&ndang m&leikat sa- 
bl^ dikiriku iku di6m d^U6m kandong kand&ng m&ielkat sabUe di- 

(1) ihyogation ot tub. ivwallbd. 
Hong t hoiHy iron sboot, an offering of the wise to the forest in so- 
litude^t I am not walled with stone^ I recline walled by the Earth 
mj face downwards ; cover ma Salagorf wind from my enemies* 

* The proper meaning is probably << the hiTocaUon of him who is walM 

t With all the assistance which I have been able to procare from the best 
native Malajpan scholars, I am unable to gtye a translation on which I can 
rely of some parts of these rugged and di^ointed iavocalions. 

Hong^-'no Malay can eiplam the raeaniag of this word fiMher than tkak 
it is used in original Malayan invocations in the same way as the Arabia 
Biimittah in the modern or modified ones. It is deemed a very unhallow- 
ed word, of great power, and so pantu^ (hot}, that if any man uses a. Hong 
invocation three times nothing that he undertakes for Atime//* will succeed, 
and be will lire powerful and miserable, able to aftict or assist others, una* 
ble to help himself. It appears to be considered as a recognition of an Es- 
sence or First Principle beyond God, and an appeal to It for power which 
God has not granted to roan. It Is used in Javanese invocations, and a Ja<- 
vanese eiplains it to mean Embryo of Being, Primeval Essence, so thai Sir 
T. Raftes conjecture thai is the EBndu Om C^nm) is probablT «ovreet.— » 
BIstory of lavajSnd vol. p. 961^. 

Kaehuia. Chula (instead of tandok) is the name given to hard horns 
or hom^UlM pans of animalsv believed to possess magisal or medicinal pro- 
perties. Jang limu [Umu] kahutan katungalan. The Malays cannot al&x 
any definite meaning to the first two lines, lasiead of the rendering giwea 
above a better one woatd perhaps be [magical] science for protection when 
alone in the forest,^or to make the offerer alone as when surrounded by a 


dUm dyittm kaodibi^ milakilsabtts diidapiD ko ternlHid Mtinmid 
mnq^liil iUm terniifd Irattn bbtan^ mitiliaH jikiba ti^ 
]mn lida terni^ dn tini6i& bond dan U^ 
jildilKi tid& tenuilA bond dan l^uogit Ikn pan lidi tamUi, tm^ 
mijrat (fidiUAm kobor mengk&l ika pun teniiii& b£rkat dekalwl kta 
do4 guraku k^p&da iku kabtilkan Mahamad kahulkan bagfodartail 
Allah m&ka kabul Olvl memikei doa 8^^a niiwl tidaUi &ka teniiii^ 
8^Uid& iingf bemf&w& di&t^ dania fnf . (2) 

Charms to gain the affection or good will of the penon dnrmeii 
are much luied. These are termed Pengdseh (by the Mahys dod 
pengdieh from kdteh, lore, aifeclion.) The following is a Bpedmen. 


Minfa ikn ndtyong diyong, iku tning depindrar, ikn tigi ika 

Tear off the husk within. Hang a &ick mist before the eyes of him 
who looks at me. Come thiek mist, the concealer, and render me 
inrisible to all enemies, opponent and assailants. True holy m- 
stractor descend, and pray that I may touch, by the invoeatumof m- 
Yiaibility, all the eyes of my enemies, opponents and assailants. 


Heh I^sanun which art named Iron. I dwell within a fence of 
Angels, eleven on my left I dwell within a fence of Angels, eleven 
on my right I dwell within a fence of Angels, eleven behind me. 
I dwell within a fence of Angels, eleven before me. If Mahsmid 
be oppressed, then will I be oppressed. If the sun, moon vA 
stars be not oppressed, neither shall I be oppressed. And if the 
earth and hearens be oppressed then shall I be oppressed. If th« 
earth and heaven be not oppressed, neither shall I be oppressed. 
If the dead bodies in the grave be oppressed, I also wiU be opprt«- 
ed. Blessing to me through the reception of the prayer of my reh- 
gtous instnicton Receive it, Mahamad I receive it royal prophet of 
God ! and grant that I may wear a prayer of a thousand lives, thit 
may not be oppressed by all that breathe upon this world. 


septrtf p^jongr, dku berj^Mn l^b^h der! i,ni segM m^usf^, heMt ika 
memakei penglseh, li^bis k^^h segiAi minusii iing k&kf du& beij&* 
rf liini, us&k&n antar& m&nusi& selingkan nimput Tinting k&ya kfi- 
yan bond dan l&ngit tundo k^h sd'&d^ tundo siy&ag tando ginUo* 
p&d& &ku jugd. (3) 

The Piminfs (from m&nfs, sweet) renders the person o^ng it m^* 
versally agreeable. 


Paoho pim^s, diun pimfinis, fiku titas sdmbfl berUrf, dudu pim 
aku terUdu m&n(s, berdiri pim aku terl^u m&nfs, m&nfs £p^d^ 
8eg&l& m&nu8(& berk&ki du& berj^ lmi& sepirti bdlan daogan m&ta- 
li^i, terlalu m&nfs memandang ch&yii miikd aku, birkat aka m^d 
do& pimanfs n^ ch&yia mania di muk& ^u. (4) 

The Panundo procures submission from others. 


P^u rondOy p&lcu rind&y iku littd did^dam sibf, &ku dudu d6ihxk 


Oil I star and sdr. I pour it out. I stand erect like* an umbrd- 
la. I walk greater than the sons of all mankind. Blessing on me, using 
the prayer of love ! Love [me] entirely all mankmd who have two 
feet wid are five fingered. Speak not of men, whilst grass, twigs 
and trees of the earth and heaven bow in love. Let aL bow in aillBcdoD, 

bow in love, towards me. 


8weet shoots, sweet leaves, I cut, running tiie while. Sitting 
[niay] I [be] exceedingly sweet. Standing [may] I [be] exceeding- 
ly sweet. Sweet in the sight of all mankind, two-footed and five-fin- 
gered, as the moon and sun. Exceedingly sweet to be seen [be] 
the lustre of my feoe. Grant that I, using the prayer of sweetness^ a 
sweet lustre may rise over my face. 

312 ttm mfWMMBTvmfim of vn mnriKAi 

whig iing hkiii, aku jiig& minlM tti^ libMk r^snl Allah, mdikn. 
|^f> £]ni flinibil^ mi^m^ w^n^w^ 4ku dudn 8m61& iBUnufrff^ i^^ W* 
ni&wi ^IMs tundo, taindokan iUUib* tondokBa Mohamad^ dftundokaa 
b^giadi niaul AUHht birkit ikxk memfikei doi piniBido fika nmido 
segftUi minusii, berldikf dii4 b6ij&H llnUL, kibulkaa Allah, IdUmlkia 
Mahamad, k&bulkaa bfig(nd4 naul AlUUi, kabnlkan fiku memikei dot 
puMindo fiku mem&d^p tdntong beijiwft s^giUi maniistt beds^f dai 
beij4rl liml (5) 

The Chueha causes enemies to lose their strength and be humili* 


Sttuso ]kMUng riUM 

Sffigf hMMg mMaik 

Mintk tutop hM ttng gm&r 

Mint& buki h&ti »aig kinfr 

Aj^ ^j^ ^eh^ ^h6 

Ana lildng tumbo delimba, 

Aku j^h^t 6ku depuji * 

Aku s^Mh 4ku disumb&li 

Usakan samantfarfl maniisSi 


■■ ■ ' I — ■ " ■ I I I I I I ■ p ill ■ ■ ■ " m 


A nail, a low nail I plaee m a sibi,* [When] I sit amongst 
piany men [may]>I be amongst the greatest^ prophet of God I Giant 
me the fortune to eut that which is called Mamu. When I sit, may 
all mankind who breathe wholly bow. Make them how, God ! Make 
them bow, Mohamad. Make them bow, royal prophet of God ! Grant 
diat I, by Q^g the prayer of obdsanee, may bow down all men, two 
footed, live fingered. Grant it, God. Grant Jt, Mohamad* Giaiit it, 
royal prophet of God. Grant (^at I, using the prayer of obchance, 
may stand before the linng pdnts of ifi mankind two tooted) fife fin* 

* A kind of handkerchiefs 


G4ja bling sdbrdng Idut 

Songsang bulu songstog* gading 

Songs&ng bulef songs&ng k&ld 

Songs^ing t^gan soDgsdng.urat 

Songsing d%ing songs^g d£r& 

Tundo min(umb& Idlingking klki Idrflni, 

Miid4 fiku terklling turun dipanjuni ldw6ng 

An& ngang diujong bulo 

Aku jolo dangan tami&ng 

Mdt&haii terkil^k dikining dku 

Simiit periring dibibir ^u 

Chuchd ABih chuch& Blfihamad 

Chuchi bagindd rasul AUah. (6) 


Siluso p&d^ag alM* 

llirow a ffiil&seh bsancb. 

May the heart that Ss aogiy be shut. 

May the heart that is Idbd be oproed. 

A young lalang springs up in the mobt ground* 

I am widced, I am applauded. 

I do wrong, I am reverenced. 

Why say amongst mai^nd. 

Two footed, fire toed, 

WfaSst even the white elephant, 

'Hie streaked elephant beyond the seSi 

Keverses hs hair, reverses its ixaSks^ 

Reverses its trunk, reverses its feet, 

Reverses its front legs, severses its veins, 

Reverses its flesh, reverses its blood. 

Bows down reverentufiy to the fitde toe of my left foot/ 

My o9 pressed oat* run» down at tbe side of the door< 


Hie Pemata Lida is a prayer for rendering enemies speechless 


Pming kring pining kotei 

Dibil& dik&ki gdj& 

Dar& jintong &ku konchi tuUngnii &ku p6li pitd 

H^h AIM H^h M&hamad H^h Bagind4 rasul AIM 

Mint& kjibulkan do& pem&t& lid£ 

Aktt m&t&kan lid& muso sitru 14w&nka 

Idin6h ixkkixL kr^la aku 

La ilM& ilalM berkat aku memikei do& pem^ Hdl (7) 

The Pebinchi (finom binchif hatred,) is used to exdte hatred b the 
olject of affection towards a rival. 

The young ngiing* is on the end of the bambu, 

I strike it with a sumpitan. 

The sun is lifted up on my eyebrows. 

The waves [of the sea] roil on my tongue. 

The ants follow [each other] on my lips. 

Abase, Grod ! abase, Mahamad ! 

Abase, royal prophet of God ! 


Dry betelnut, dried up betelnut. 
Cut by the foot of an elephant. 
His hearts blood I lock, his bones I break, break. 
Heh God ! Heh Mahomed I Heh royal .prophet oi God ! 
May the prayer for breaking of the tongue be granted 
* That I may break the tongues of enemies, foes and assailsotB. 
Be you soft, be I hard. 

La ilMhd il Allah ! bless my use of the prayer of the tongae* 

* This bird frequents the upper branches of the highest trees, and if pro* 
bably in general beyond (he reach of the sumpitaoi 



Pacho pebinchi d&un pebanchi dku rintas tujo t^nkeh tajo li &ku 
gdnting tujo k^ ika meguntiiig h&ti ixAAdikng ndnoitu, finkau me- 
mandiing bo&do f tu bagimfin^ ^ngkau memand&ng b£bu, bag^m&iia ^- 
kau memibid&ng p&yfiy dudu inkaa binchi, tidor ^nkau bmcbi, beiji- 
Ha iakaa. bincbiy mlUcfin tokau bincbf, nUoidi fiogkau binchf, minum 
ankau binchf , kormetmei hijiog dd&ng sUino itu, sampd t(g& h6ii pu- 
tii8 binchi finkau meUhat p^fi d&no itu, memand^ £ku sa'orang ter- 
l&mpau m&ius bfigi &ngkaa memandlng i&ng berchiitl mnka aku du& 
bias hiii tunin m^it6h4ri 8&ma tonm smiiigat ^uikau ntf m6t^M 
aibna d^ sm^ngat sttno ftu. (8) 


Pucho beruw^uig ruw&ng dialling d&un pebinchi (man piyo b&w£ 
puling hiti didilim terlilu binchf inkiu berdiH binchikan siino itu, 
inkau beijilin binchfkan siino (tu, inkau tIdor binchfkan aiino itu, 
uBikan samant&ri minuBii adingkan rumput rinting kiyu k&yin 
ligi hibis binch£kaa manding nino itu, tunmchihii p&di muki ika 
jikiliu berdiihii miiam berchihii muki oino itn. jekikn tifidfi 
berchihii milam tiida berchihii muka nino ftu ika turunkan mi- 
ntt peminis Hcu niikan doi pebinchi binchilcan segala um&t; segala 


ShootB of the Hate pknt, leaves of the Hate pbmt. I pluck seyen 
stalks, seven leaves. I out them seven times, and cut the heart of 
(the son of such an one.)^ Look on that person as you look upon ashes, 
as you look upon a swamp. Sitting, hate I Sleepmg, hate I Walldng, 
hate f Eating, hate ! Batlung, hate ! Drinking, hate ! Come, sha- 
dow of (such an one.) Until three days are passed, hate to look on 
(such an one.) Look on me alone as surpassingly sweet, as if you saw 
that which shone brightly on my hee. Twelve days, when the sun 
descends, let your s|Rrit descend together with it, when the sun 
rises, let the spirit of (such an one) rise together with it. 

* Here the name of the person against whd m the (foa is dirscted is men-* 
tiooed, vh^p usiog U. 


manusid tunml& pemfims n&no f ta nfi do& pebradil dinraki ribo ita 
h^^ bincht sildli&n i&ng bernUwi memand^mg muki n&no (ta me- 
ningf&r swMl si^no (tu. (9) 

The Tdnkal consist in spoken spells or chaitns, or in amulets or 

The following specimens are of the first class, 


(A spell used when about to attack an elephant) 
Hong ! gamp6h b^, gamptii dtii ebimirong, cMh ddmokir, Ak 
kiri, fflb& k&n&n, &ku membu&ng b6di gamp6h g6j6 mengvignot g^ 
mengub&ng, mengub&ng disibr^ng d&o4iit pHo mendide bUaigi meii- 
dide sabr&ng ttojong, sib& kiri, sibd k(in&n sibd kumbing \A& nfo^* 
^u melep^kan j^ t&ng^. (10) 


I^mg n^n^ kap&d& 6ku i&ng aku kap&d6 n^n^, bin fltu Un ^ 
b6n iku b6u ddon, bfiu dknbdu tfin6, b6u 6ka bdu n^n6, b&nflmbiu 



ShootiofBeniwangintenuix with leaves of the Hate-plmt Bj 
faith and sacrifice cany away the heart within with exoessife hitxed. 
When you stand, hate (such an one.) When you walk, hate (audi 
an one.) Whea you sleepy hate (such an one.) Speak not d num- 
kind» while even grass, twigs, and tarees altogethw bate to look os 
(such an one.) Descend brightness ou my ftoe. If the night M^ 
ten^ then 9haU the &re of (fuch an one) bnghten. If the night do not 
brighten, the faee of (such an pne) shall not brighten* I eaw todcs' 
oend the oil of sweetness* I cause to rise the invooatioii of hatred. 

Hate I all people, all mankind. 
Descend I sweetneas of (such an one.) 
Rise I prayer of hatred on the f^e of (sudi an one.) 

Hate entirely, all that breathe I tolookontbefaoeof (suohanoiie») 
to hear the voice of such an one. 

(10) Hong ! quake, ghost, quake. I wish to oast down. I wiA ^ 

tUB svptMBttnosM or ras mco'ira^ 317 

kaMogr, natap rimpolAii plntin; kn mdnftcmg hidong ndn^, kW «&'• 
6iric^ ktid brAt ttegvn dMtbig t&ngwi Mt bUgi dig&ntong Utu i»i« 
H^ b^ dlgtotxmg tempijaii, bergr& bito, siniA bergit tkagm ndn^ 
bergr& s^mi bergrA tdU prat ludmbut j^ t^ngan chuehn nitaL (1 1> 

The foDowing is a tdnkdl ot ehana to allay atoMns. 


RamboDg per-rango'on btong gkji mendut g4j4 mengobing men* 
gobing sabr&ng l&ut sid kin si& Idn^, aku k^b&ng ribut. (12) 

On entering the forest the following t&nkal is repeated. 
Sibd kin sibA k&n^ seg&]& muso sitra l&w&nka inint& budng pan« 
d&ngan pad& aku, aku berj^ddn sa'orang jui. (13) 

strike. Oo to the left. Go to the right. I east out the ghost, qaake« 
The elephant murmurs. The elephant wallows on the opposite side 
of the lake. The pot boils^ the pan boils, on the opposite side of the 
point Go to the left, go to the right, go to the water vessel, ghost 
of grand father,'^ I let loose the fingers of my hand. 

(11) My grandfather's to me, mine to my grandfather; my smell, 
smeQ of water ; my smell, smell of leaf ; my smell, smell of earth ; my 
smell, smell of grandfather ; my smeU, smell of mud ; eating pinang 
idztore, I shut grandfa^r's nose ; hind foot do not raise, hind foot is 
heafy ; fore foot do not raise, fore foot n heavy as if there was hung 
a split stone, as if a water jar were hung ; move stone, witii it move 
fore feet of grandfttlier ; move together ; more entrails ; receive tl|^ 
fingers and hand of grandchild, grandfiitlier. 

(12) Rambong perraz^'on batong ; the elephant gatheis in, the 
elephant wallowing, wallowing On the opporite nde of the sea ; go to 
the right, go to the left ; I break Hie hurricane. 

(13) Go to the left, go to the right, all my enemies, opponents 
and assailants. May your regards be cast abide from me. May I 
walk alone. 

* The sisphani, to wit» 

318 tBM sunRflTinoM or thc MoiTmAi 

Spells and channs are not howerer limited in their power to ibcbi 
M^tmaia^ and the forces of nature. Even the demote tbemselfes m 
sabject to Ihem. For protecdon affainst the Hinta Sftburu, the foU 
lowing charm is repeated* 

Ap& n&m4 inldUi &njing Sokom n&mi inkfia dnjbg it&m nibna te- 
hanko dyer n&ma tntoko ridd^ung nima toftnko ut6n pde |rigi kdcfin 
polifing haw^i 6njinglEa puMng, ^lp& diburu sini t6d& bibi t4di rusk 
dttntuplobfing idong Idhka idong sada ku do6 b&u ka b&wa angin 
Klu. (14) 

The H^tQ kapiAu and H&ntu lUmbong are exorcised by the f<d- 
lowing spells. 


Hong piMu muUL pidlu tetb&ng jibut biluntok bHum tiwir ika 
membufing tiwir pidhi dikap&li fiku mcmho^ng diitis kip^ ittog 
piMu mbti butog diiLt^ U^^kL (15) 


Hong jiwi muUL jiw6 jiwd sheitan sada ^iku tiwir jiw4 tompiai; 
8ud& ikxi t&w&r jiw& t6kui4 audi 4ku t&w6r tim membufing jiw& kris 
smdngat fakaiiU sm&ngat jiw& l>&ngket bunkar s^gali jiwa dil&m 
prut dilam badan terlnt lanchfag &ku memiifag segaUi jiw6. (16) 

(14) What is your name, dog? Sokom is your name, black di^. 
Your master's name is Water. Your master's taame is Riddaag.^ 
Your master's name is Forest Bqfone, go you away, take your dog 
airay. What do you hunt here ? Hiere are no hogs, no deer. Hie 
nostrils are shut, the smell of your nose 1 ha^e charmed. My smdl 
the wind carries away. 

(15) Hong ! fever, prindtiye fever, fly away, be phicked out» nn- 
charmed biluntok. I cast a charm for fever on your head. I throw 
it upon your head. Lose the fever. May it be thrown away above 
your head. 

(16) First essential lifo! primitive life! the devU's 1i£b fawe I 

* The name of a tree. 


Amulets aramuch used. They Mrefonned of pieces of kdnyityUii- 
gl^, and other substances stning on a shred of terap baric, and bound 
round the neck^ wrists or wust They are preservatives agamst de- 
monsy bad winds, and generally against all evils. 

There are spells for rendering the person who uses them invulner- 
able, but the fortunate possessors are careful not to impart them to 
others. There are several invulnerable men at present amongst the 
Mintir^ as LUt at Simanj^h, P^at firing, Hambdng at Lobo, 
BdiSn at KUmg, Timggdng at SiamiAD^ PJmghulu at Jibbi, Kdkd 
and MimpU at Pang&waL 


There is a famous Wishing-Rock in Ktkag called Bfitu Tr^, to 
whidi the MintiriL have, from, time immemorial, been in the habit of 
resorting. A person going tiiere must not cany fire with Mm, 
because, if a spark should fall upon the rock, it would immediately 
take fire and be consumed. 

On the rock grows the flower Chinkwi^ which is not found else- 
wheie, and can only be gathered by women. Whoever possesses 
even a little of this flower acquires great power. If a woman, she u 
followed by men, and if a man, by women. It is kept in a piece of 
small bambu, and placed in the ear, or &stened bya string round the 
wust. If any person wishes to obtain a portion he must sleep with 
liie woman who has it, and take it by stealtli. In the monung he 
must place 8 or 10 silver rings upon her fingers. When she awakes 
and sees the rings, she knows that she cannot recover the Chingkwi 
If the flower be caried to sea, its virtue is lost. It is much sought 
by the Mabiys, who are greatly addicted to the use (^ aphrodisiac 
charms and substances. 

There is a Wishing Phuse on the summit of Gunong Bermun, 
which is much resorted to by the surrounding Mintiri. Other moun- 

charmed. The life that lodges have I charmed. The life that is 
affected have I ciiarmed. I cast out the hard (evil) life. Let your 
sfriritythe spirit of your life, rise and be lifted up, all the life in your 
bdly, in your body, spring upi be drawn out. I replace all your life. 

820 vttB mpxftsTiTioxs Of tBM fltnrflUL 

tain samniltB are ftiM) wuMng^ pkoM, becaveeaaflh has Ui good ^irit 
When a peiaon goes to a wiahlng^ plMe, he carries iHth Un tvo 
white fowls, and all the dHferent artieles of food in use. TIm kttff 
he places in a sort of flat basket or tn^ made of rattans, wludi he 
suspends from a tree, or places on the highest point of the lamnit 
He then Idlls one of the fowls, pbMSing it on the traj, and lelstte 
other free. He now rilently addresses to the sphrit of the nuWDtih 
all the wishes that he has at heart. This done, he prepirsi tad eatt 
a meal on tiie spot. If what has been desired at the wishiof phee 
does not come topass, it is reviated a second and a tiJrd tfaae ; afte 
which, if the wish still remains nngiatified, it is considered that the 
spirit is not frvorable to the wisher, and he therefore repairs to uO* 
ther mountain spirit. 


It was mentioned (p. 255) that the Binu^ on commenchf s new 
ladang, make offerings to the J{n Burnt, A Mintiti, when be his re* 
soked on abandoning his old ladang, searches for a good bdlhy. 
Having obtained one, it remains to be ascertained whether the w* 
pematural powers are fovorable to his occupying it. This he does 
by attending to his first dream after selecting^ it. Should be dream rf 
being chased by a dog, or by an enemy, or of entering water, or of »*• 
ter flooding the locality, or of any other incident wluch is oonsideRd a 
bad omen, he proceeds to seek for another spot. Hie liiyorable omens 
are to dream of felling or climbing trees, ascending a hillr or of 
growing plants &c. When his dream giires him assurance that he 
has selected a fortunate place, he repairs to it, takes a little aA 
repeats a charm over it, chews it, and then spits or rather blows H 
out of his mouth (IfdmhorJ towards the four cardinal pdnts. 1%^ 
tankal used is the following :. Uitt& pemuk& mulut pemuki ika bdi* 
U bli& di-ilir dibll& oU bli& &ku membuftng s^it^ j&to blHnto htim 
ko tiw^ &ktt membuang bis& s^t6n mmt&biUaigkanBint4jiBlE»^ 
segid& sdit&n. (Uma,* the ofener of the mouth, tba opener I, op^ 
young man towards the lower part of the stream. Let it [the jit^] 

* A cleviog for paddy ou hlllT or dry ground* 


be cherished by the yoiuiir man. I east down the denL Before I 
hftve ehMrmedy I ht?e drm Itwty the ▼eaom of the devil. Miy all 
devils be driven vmsff msy they be far [from here.] ) 

The Mmftot^endedy he cuta down a Uttle jungle ftahoM $d*pidd» 
por**J Three days afterwards he retumSy and begins his labottr in 
earnest. Having cleared a sufieient apaoe, he waits ontil the trees 
whidi he haa fdled are soffidenUy dry, and then, on aome clear windy 
day, seta fire to tiiem. When the ground is ready to receive his plants» 
he prepares some Hppcng' Ukodrt or riee floor mixed with water, in 
iHiidihe dips a bundle of leaves of s&tftw&r, gandft nis6, dfi fiti, and 
ribd libd, and here and there over the ladang. He Hien 
plants some b&ngl^, whieh has tiie property of driving away tiie evil 
power or bad spirit that lurks in the ground (h$dmg bdd( 
The ladang being now completely dunned, he proceeds with oonfi<» 
deuce to plant Ins potatoes, klhdi, &e. 

Rice, however, requires a special charm of its own« On proceed** 
ing to BOW it, about two chupas of paddy are taken and mixed with tip^ 
pong idwdr and lime juice. This is carried to the place where it is 
to be sowed, and along with it a kinfe of the kind called pitau rdnt, 
a sarong, an incense pot (perMpan) and leaves of the ribd ribd, si« 
dingin and pdndin. The paddy is smoked in the fumes of benjamia 
or fignum aloes, and the leaves pkeed orer it. The sarong is ex* 
tended on two erect poles. The knife is laid on the ground. The 
charm or invocation is then repeated : ** Smiltthf mujor bri sf jn bri 
dingin ko melitt&kan bud6.'' (In the name of God. Quidcly give 
coM, give coolness. 1 pfause the young [the paddy seed.] ) The 
leaTOs are now taken and stuck into tlie ground, and the paddy is 
then sown. Three days afterwards the whole field is sown, holes 
having been previously made for the reception of the seed. In plant* 
ing paddy $ausa or wet rice, similar oeremoides are used. 

When the crop is ripe, and a di^ has been fixed to commence the 
barvest, a large quantity of food is eoUeoted, and some guests are invit- 

* Literally fells a cooking place (sa*pidapor} of jangle i. e. as much as a 
cooldng place oecnpies. 

-t" Jimbdidng and not bddi would be here used by the Malays, who con- 
Hoe the latter word to the haunting of a murderer by the gbost of his victim. 

329 "^ KAMIIAGB. 

edtothefetrtof thelU<viiMojfe«fvdajf(Makaa8alongt&him.) Ob 
the morniiig tiie head of the fiunify, having carefiiny wrapped lui 
dolhet round his whole person, (berdahoog,) proceedi to the piddf 
witii a tn^ (Uie initnunent used for cutdng paddy) and ibvt repots 
this inTOcatkm ** SnuIUhi ika mengimhil smingat p4ddi jtegan &n 
■Ijo hii dmgm flcn mengtobil hud^ bod^ puling ka rami iln." 
(In the name of God. I take llie spnit of the lioe plant hd't 
noteanaecoldtletit gm eoofaiesi. I take the young, [paddj], twij 
to my house.) He then cuts seven ears, and carries them to the 
house. He next orders some of his household to go to a difecot 
part of his ikeld, and cut a oonsidenble quantity of paddy. Thisii 
brought in, the grain trampled and rubbed out of the straw by Ae 
feet, husked, and cooked ahmg inth the food that has been eoUeetod 
on the preceding day* When the guests have feasted and are about 
to depart, each of them recdves a fitde of the new rioe and food 
uneooked as a birkftt or blesdng, 


Marriages are not ordinarily made with the haste of the Tmfm. 
Feast. When a young man is dodrous of marr^iiigagirlyhetdbhtt 
wishes to his fiither, who communicates with the father of the girl 
If lie agrees to the match, 4or Snlver or copper rings are praented 
to him, and a day b appmnted for the marriage. When it trriresi 
the bridegroom is conducted by his parents and relatives to the biide*! 
house, where a large feast has been prepared. On entering, he ptj< 
his respects to the near rehitions of the bride. If the Batin doei 
not reside at a great distance, he always attends, and presides at the 
ceremony. Siri and its usual accompaniments having been plaeed 
ready^ on a niru, — the bride takes a bundle, and presents it to the 
bridegroom, who presents another to her in return. Tlu^ father of 
the bridegroom then addresses him, eiyoining him to dieriabhis 
wife, to be land to her, on no account to beat her or behave hanb^ 
to her, but, if he should ever be offended by her, to complain to ber 
parents. The father of the bride lays a similar injunction upon her. 
The company are then feasted* Tlie bride and bridegroom eat froia 

Che ttune plate, a custom which is common to most of the Hindu*- 
Chincfle and Malayan races. The briidegroom remains for the xof^u 
The teelh of the bride and bridc^^room are filed with a stone be- 
fore tiie day of marriage. 


(Vide ante p. 270.) When the mother is in labour, a cup of wa- 
ter is charmed and administered to her. The juice of the d&un pa- 
manto and dfiun pamiid^m is given to the child, while this prayer is re- 
peated : ** Kurm&n^i tapdnd&ng s^it&n binto r&nggam anlcau sa- 
m& p&d^ p£dftm kaa suda tr&ng nan sudd ditingo pand&ngan ku 
ada mengilnit tuhan pamanto mintd padamkan &ku seidLU sudi t&Udi 
minta p6dimkan seldUi nan sudi." A name is given to the child at 
the moment the umbilical cord is cut, and this is retuned until mar- 
riage, when a surname or cognomen (gilar) is bestowed, which is 
used ever afterwards in lieu of the name. These customs, however, 
are not inflexible. The birth name is sometimes superseded before 
marriage, when misfortunes happen to the child, under the impres- 
aon that it is unlucky ; and the gilar of the parents frequently gives 
place to the name of the eldest child with the prefix pa (fiUiher) 
ma (mother). The latter is considered a peculiarly pleasing mode 
of address, parental being no doubt found, in many cases, to be strong- 
er than personal vamty. A similar custom prevuls amongst the 
Malays of Nanbg, Hambau, and the other states of the interior, 
and has probably been imported from Sumatra, from whence this 
portion of the Pemnsula was directly colonized. The importance of 
proper names, in asristing to carry us back to remote times in a peo* 
pies history, is well known to the antiquary in Europe. Amongst 
those aboriginal tribes of the Peninsula whose native language has 
nearly disappeared before the modem Malay, the enqturer often finds 
in the names of places and men thet>r]ndpal monuments of antiquity. 
It is probable that these names are really words of a hmguage once spo- 
ken, although the signification of most of them has been lost. The 
examples subjoined, which may be recdved as fair samples, (for they 
were the names of all the relatives and acquaintances of my inform 



inant resqiectively,) sre an additional proof of the fict mentoed In 
another paper* that neitiier Hindiusin nor Iriamism has hnpruwd 
these tribea, save in some cases in a sligM and ^dpeifidal tanuier. 
No people ever zeakraaly embraoed these reUgions, williottt the iuhms 
of the gods of the former and the pn^het and apostles of the latter 
being largely appropriated by them. Lists of Malayan nanus olubit 
many M ahomedan and a few Hindu ones, but the greater na&iber 
are pure Malayan or ante-Malajran. 

Na3ib8 op Mintira.* 





Simun m. 


Gimgam tn. 




GiWd m. 









Diyong m. 



P& Sfng&n 

Ikan m. 

Ch&'^ m. 






8ik& m. 


M&rompttt »!• 


Pin^ m. 





PoWOh HI. 



Pfidati m. 




ll&ng m. 


M^lang m« 














Ru nu 

Bunga m. 



Ch£eb6r m. 

P^ro »n. 







Init m. 


Dapoi m. 

• Ante'p. 16, 17. 

-f Those marked m. are also Blalayan oames. 

To the names of mountains and rivers of the country of the Berrann lnl>^ 
given in the paper on the Binua of Johore, the foUowiog names otditunsc^ 
the Mintira towards Muar may be added. As many of these names, f^ni 
the nomadic system of squatting, must be modem and transitory, they vt 
jiot of equal importance with the names of mountains and rivers. Bw'i 
Milid^ng, UmbAI, LIraamA, Sl^lang, Timlang, GAhang, GUithig Rawi, Sa- 



Nambs Of Obano Bbsxsi. 




KdUt JawB 1 

.Ghiinte m. .(,Ch^ 



•$§;di m. 

Nilka m. 



Bd]]|glB4 m* 


NaboDgkok m« 

(<f onia 97», 


Pram nt. 


Kich< in. 





](^okaJlou nu 

Munf|o m* 


JukUt m. 





Kolot 9t. 











To Kdfisai 91. 

« « 

Sul^ng m. 




Lin^ m. 






• • 




M6t 7/1. 







The grave, of the Mintir^ is not protected by a roof like that of tlic 
Binu4 of Johore, but in other respects resembles it. Above it, they 
kindle a fire, itngdn^ that the smdng&t or spirit of the deceased may 
wann itselt, and not weep and wail in. the g^ave from the cold. On 
the grave they also place some paddy, plantains, kl^d^, kl^di, pota- 
toes, siri, betelnut, gambler, lime, tobacco, a pis^u rdut made of wood, 
and a sumpitan which they have previously broken in pieces, — spraying 
the smi&ngit that he will not seek more from them. After a deiith in 
the ladangy nothing more is planted there, and when the crop or plants 
on the ground have been gathered, it is abandoned. 


It was mentioned iliat the Binna of Johore have apparently no be* 
lief in the existence of the soul after death. The Mintir6 have a pe* 

hr€j Op, Tfr&p, Jangki, Jilatong, Bung&, Larabanung, Durian GantAng, 
Sangf Kroh, PAkn, Berhot, jy&l&h, Tit^pont^h, Mangi?, I!^nAs, PilUi^ Lu- 
wii, Rilei, Limau, Gobapg Lingo, Giniii), S^a6og,,li:imh^P&89a,TAok 
PuDjang, under Batin r4'limb<3i, B. Kichl. 


culitr and pontiye fidth in another worid. Hie sm&iig^ It, ^ 
soul (or insubstantial kit senable body which the sfnirt penoates, 
and which, aooordinp to some of my infomants, was preyed on bf tlie 
Htotiis) at death leaves the gross or earthly body, and b esmd by 
Batano Lassa on the wind to Ngamonari or Pulo Sua (Fndt 
Island*) which lies far away where the son sets. There the smimg- 
to of an the dead live toother in harmony and constant eDJoyment^ 
for the great island b ftdl of trees, and there are none tint do not 
bear pleasant fruits. Hiey marry and have difldren as in thb worii 
but pain, disease and death are onknown. Hie sm&ng&tB of men wbo 
hate died a bloody death do not go to Pulo Buk^ but to Tina Mbha 
(Red Land) which b a desolate and barren place* Its smiog^ 
repair to Pulo Bui to procure food^f 


The MintihL do not appear to have any more predse tnfitiott 
respecting thdr origin than the Besisi and otlier tribes. They lU 
believe that they are the original oecupants of the country. '* Yoa 
know" said a Besbi to me «* that thb b the Pulo Besar or Greit Is- 
land which belongs to us, and not to the Malays, who have mtroded 
into oar country." The Minttri have the same notion, and those 
who lately vbited me added, when convernng on thb subject, that the 
Pulo Besar b so great that in former ages their ancestors were em- 
ployed for many generations in endeavouring to circumambubte it, 
but each new generation meeting a new country, the last of their no- 
madic forefathers settled wbere the race now lives. They were not 
in continual motion, but each generation, after advandng a consider- 
able distance, rested, and the succeeding one, when grown up, resam- 
ed the journey. The Mititir& have the following tradition respecting 
the origin of tiieir Batins. The first of all Batins and mbrs was 
Bdt^ Changei Bisi^ whose naib, as hb name imports, were of iron. 
He lived at Gunong Penytomg in Mcnangkabati. By him t R^s 
was placed over Meningkabau, a Bvadibiri over Pihtog, sod, st a 

^ Thb will remind the reader of Bolotoo. 

t The Slain not the Slayer, b excluded from Ngitng,n4rf . They biTt o« 
belief in ftiture rewards and punishments. 


later period, a PUtghuIu o^er Ulu Pahang^. Batin Iron Nails, in 
the coarse of tame, died, leavbg in lus place his son Baim Kr6t 
Tiga or Batin Three Pieces, who derived hu name from the fol- 
lowing dreamstanees. The Bind^Uiard of Pahang was greatly of* 
fended at % F^mgfanla bttng placed over Ulu Pahang, but dared not 
sheir his resentment openly daring the life time of Batin Iron Nails. 
The latter was well aware however of his feeUngs, and on his death 
bed enjoined Batin Three Pieces not to reeeive any complaints nor 
seek anythmg from hhu. The Bind^Mr^ finding that Batm Three 
PSeoes, after he succeeded his ftther, was not disposed to afford him 
any opportunity to open an intercourse or provoke a quarrel, retdved 
to take the initiative himself. He therefore sent some of his Ptai^- 
Ihn^ to the Bdtfn, who requested presents of various kinds from him , 
and, upon his refusing to give them, set upon him and cut him down. 
But every wound which they inflicted immediately closed, and the 
Balin remained afive and scathieas. The PangUm&i sent word of 
tins to i^ Bind^hari, who hastened to Menangkabau in person, and 
ordered tlie Pangfimas, in Ins presence, to cut the Batin in three. 
This was done, and each ]neoe, as it was severed, carried to a little 
distMice. No sooner were they placed on the ground, than they flew 
together and reunited, and the fiving Batin stood before them tmin- 
jvrsd. The Bmdih&ii then took counsel with the Raja, but the kt- 
ter advised hun to desist from all attempts to molest Batin Krat Hgi. 

It is because all rulers, from the Raja downwards, were first insti- 
tnted by the Batin, that, to tins day, the Batin must be called to take 
a part at the histidhtion of every new Rija. 

In governing, added the rebtor, the Balan, m the finest, is giuded 
bytiie^tUtlU(ea8lom, or what used to be done from times of old); 
die Panghulu, in the Bald or Hall, by tiie BirwMng (or written 
laws); and the Raja, in the Astini or Palace, by the if <l^foo, or sim- 
pie Justice. 



Ilie fmt 8ttpei«tidon of the Bflmna tiihes k liieir faest protec- 
tion a0SBflt4lheir •V^J supentiilaoiit and morecmliMditfigUMnn. 
Tbe Mabys and Cubase of Mflbooft, With £bv exoepC^ 
tiMMilarly the Makys of Maning, Bamfaeu and the other ebies in Iht 
laterloiir, have impfieit Mth in the enpemalarai power ci^tvf- 
«ng8» and believe tfiat many others amongat the ahpnginM are imla- 
ed with it. Hence thqr are careful to aivoid QflfendiDg Ihem in wj 
<My, heeanse alHioiigh Ihey do not attempt, at the time, to nft^ 
or even use threats, it is believed thflt they take the q^oe deefily ti 
temt, and Will sooner or bter by occult means nvenge tfaotfeto 
The Malays, when ihey have opportoidties, resort to them for tbcoR 
^diseases, with wlueh they or thorjiebtives are troubled. Bmm 
ako not mfrequently sends them to the Poyang, whose poverlfaef in- 
voke to cause disease and other misfortune, or «ven death, to tho9e 

who have injured them. 

Amongst the Makys themselves, the tujuand other sapemtunl 
arts are practised, but their practition^s are considered Inferior in 
power to those of the aborigines. 

riie very <dfcamst«noe of these tribes renuMning unconvvted, it 
probably a principal cause of the belief in their posanrion of unhal- 
lowed powers. New creeds in all countries ere received withimts to- 
tal abandonment of the ancient ones. So long as the eriftaooe of 
the Old gods and demons of theknd k credited) piultitudeB will uk 
their aid or deprecate thc^ wrath, although they bdieveit iflsiofiil ^d 
do so. Tothk day neither Hindukm, l8kmkm,nor CkM^u^'^ 
self, have extingidshed the ancient sopevstituns pf the emt^ 
where they preftiL 

From thk dread of the Poyangs the OiUNolUwAappeactabeex- 
empt. Thk people are natives of a country in Sumatra eslkd.IUvfi 

• I do not here consider the political relation, which could hardly bedoje 
without entering more AiUy into the constitution of the MenangkaHte ^f^ 
(lying between Malacca and Salangor, on the one side, and Pf^*"^'.^P^. 
other} and the peculiar character of their people, than consists viuu 
character of the above notes. 


Rm tad Ah^ lying immediBt^ljr to tiie north of Meiita|;ab«a, «idp6« 
n^MBteAbyibeUiirgey and scarcely nav^^le, river Rakan, They are 
dMngolahed for th^ir tra^ng character, «ild» aa traders and s^tlerd, 
ih»f ham for a lodf period, but particalarly during l^ekst twenty or 
thirty years, annually repaired to the PeninsuU opposite, sometimes 
by way of the Rakan, but more generally by the River Sidk. They 
are bold, persevering, and penurious, qualities which have long 
enabled them to engross die prindpal hitemal traffic between 
Aliokoca and Pahang. Hiey dways go wefi armed, but the chief 
source of tlieir strength is thmr sodal spiAty which leads them to 
make common cause against those who have bjured any of thdr nation. 
They are notr settled in considerable numbers in Rambau, Sungi 
Ujong and ^6 western part of Pnhang, and tiieir numbers and pow- 
er yearly increase, and become more formidable. About seven 
months ago, bands of them, under Bdt& Bidohom, an invulnerable 
man, attiteked the Mintir&fai iKfTerexit places, IdQed mmy of the men 
and carried away more than a hundred of thdr women and gMs into 
Pahang, where they sold Hiem as slaves^ The Rawa deciared that 
they would hunt down the Mintird every where, and deal with them 
«n In the same way, in consequence of whieh the greater tramber 
have left th^ houses and are now scattered far and near. Several 
parties have come within the British boundary. 

In a series of papers iDustrative of the Malays, whidi will i^pear 
in the Journal, the con^deration of th»r eariier relations to'^he ab- 
origines will be entered upon more advantageously. Here I only 
remark, with reference to the incantations, charms, and other super* 
stitions (tf the Mintir&, that tiie greater pat appear to be essentialiy 
native,* — that is, they have not been borrowed from the llindus or 
Arabs, but 'Imve assumed their pectoUar form £rom the state in which 
^e tr^e has existed on'tiie Penuiimk from time tasmemorial, while, in 
substance, they have been transmitted directly from the same com- 
mon source to which a large part of the inhabited world must refer 
its earliest superstitions. The religion of the Mintirii is the Primitive 

* The Arabic portions havel^ceD added or substituted by Malays. 


HeillieDum of Ana, which, spmAifl^ fir to the easlaad wt,m 
anodited inth the refigkmsof the eldest ctfiBfed nations, for itllou:- 
ished in tDCtent Egypt before the Hebrews were a people, la Greece 
and Rome, and bids fair to outkst Hindniam m many pwti of Inii. 


The constitution of sodety b as nmpie amongst the Mintiriu 
amongst the Bina& of Johore. Perfect equality prevwls. ThcBt- 
tin b not distingubhed in hb manner of fife from the others. Ciimes 
are reiy rare. Theft b unknown. Cluldren are carefully bstructed 
to avoid it. Their only other education coousta m teadiing the boys 
to climb and cut trees and to use the sampitan,and the girls to nuke 
bi^^ and mats. The only play thing used b the gdssini kon^ or 


They ha?e no wdghts. The coeoanut shell is used as a metsure* 
The munical instruments in general upe are the Mong (roBng) w^ 
ibarxffiftie^. The rabana and gindang are also used. 

Thdr weapons are the sumpitan, chiuankaa (a land of sword) m» 
and limbing (spear.) 

The most prevalent mortal diseases are the saldt mati £tujuorto& 
(death fhmi tvyu,) saldt punan, saldt bara flbip, and bara terldfir. 

There are no traders, shopkeepers, or artificers. 

Thdr only resource when troubled in mind b to aing. 

They do not batlie frequently. 

They do not mix socially nor intermarry with other Binoa tribes, 
nor with Malays. 

Mineral medicines are unknown, and the only animal substiace 
used as a remedy b the oil of the boa constrictor. 

Writing b unknown. Hiey reckon dates by knots on a string* 

The Malayan Haatua called PMsset, PdUmg, Bijang, PontaBO»,»^ 
Peoaagabn are not Haatus of the Mmlira, although, from intercoose 
with the Malays, many of them know thdr names and attributes. 

The flesh of the elephant b not used. The fruits used are the 
timpuf, tSikiro, Ur&, kand(m, kimdk, kl^d^, tampun^, klfer^» P^' 
Itoan, rimbustto, raranSan, luring, pr&h, jir6h, kingo^g, Hui^H' 


tumpal, bbQong, ttnkoi, rMan, sikr&ng^, amp&dil, l>ang)coap» put^h, 
hm&h, kamfluiiy didfiUn, mang^fc&pasy j&ngk^g, bombong, lu^n, ka- 
mui, w6p9 chittong, sippaniy lanjut kliss^ l&lan, Idmoh, sirdang, ru- 

The names g^ven by the Mmtiri to the different varieties of paddy 
cultivated by them are the following. 

klid&Dg mr^t ribu hati Idrbo 

timpo^ n&chin &t^p sH gunong 

8&riog undan tungol pulut Itto 

koiU Umpei burd. „ put^ 

The dry rice cultivation is by fsu* the most prevalent, but the wet 

cultivation is also resorted to at L&bo, Malim, Sirdang, Payong, P^« 

s&og» Jukriy B&wing Kichi, mwuog Besar, Kidding Passang, and 

Sipp^ Kichi. 




In October last my Malay writer, Inehe Mahttnad bin H^ Am 
Fatha, whom I had sent to Malacca to cdleet additional materiib 
for a eomparlson of the languages of the abori^nal trilm, iaformei 
me that he had brought a party of the Mlintird to ISb hoose in M«- 
lacca, and thought he could induce them to visit me in Singipore, 
that I might be enabled to gain a more t^orou|;h knowledge of t^ 
character and oondition of the aborigines than I coold do durlo^the 
short intercourse which I had had with some of them when 1 wuin 
MahMsca. The party in question hdd <xime inter the British tenHdry 
some time previously, ftid settled at Aumbtth on Mr. ll^eflterhsut'i 
land. I requested Mahamad to bring them to Singapore, andttef 
arrived here on the 16th. of October and remained till the 7ft* o' 
this month (November.) The pmty consisted of Viwiajf vA lus 
wife, Parut and his wife, «nd T611£ 

They hesitated much to undertake the voyi^re, as the radfc, Eke iS 
the other tribes of the interiour, have a hereditsiiy dread of the wt, 
and no Muitird had ever ventured upon it from time imtDenDri>I' 
IVlien they eame on board the Skochf tiiey were at once placed b^ 
low, to prevent their being frightened by the waves and the moCioo of 
thevessel. They soon became very seasick, and it was not tall die boat 

was opposite Pulo Pisftng tint oneof the men had so farreoorered tf 
to venture to rise and look round. But no sooner cGd the rom( 
waves meet hfo right than he was seized with fear, and ptonged be« 


low the deck again. 

When they took up their residence in my kttmpcmgf thef were it 
first a little reserved, although they had evidently seen Earopeaos 
frequently. On the second and third days their porindpal m^' 
ment^ while tfadr poisoned arrows lasted, was to shoot \Mb, um 
they soon discovered more species in the kampong than we bad 
ever observed. On the second day they had depopulated all tbe 
trees. Amongst the spoib which they seemed to priae most were 
two owls and a colony of bats. The ktter they stnsed upon ^^ 


great glee, carried at once to their house, broiled slightly, and devo«r* 

Vnir or a fartt of orans mintira to sinqapors, 333"^ 

«d. NcMng hmg kft in the kamponf , I took them, next evenliig» 
•IdDf ihe Garden road, Iratthej did not sDoceedin gfetdng any Inrda* 
and tins made them tinnk Singapore a poor conntry. Some ekunpe 
ef jimgle on tiie hiDs beyond Mr. Caldwell's villa redeemed it a lit- 
^ in their eyet, and tliey were anxious to readi them, bat disliked 
Iwring to eroaa any swamps. I offisred to gire them a small phmta- 
lion if tiiey wonld remain in Sfaigapore, pointing to the sugar canes 
and fine frnk treesin tiw CMneoe plantations on the adeof the road. 
They said they eould not live where there was so little forest, and as 
lor plantations they eoold make kdangs of their own in Malacca. 
llHy pdntedto Syed Omar's and Mr. Dyce's lull, and asked what was 
te fatne of sneh a house with tlie hill and trees around it. When . 
told that it nnght sell for 3000 dollars, they expressed the fire- 
Best aslBnishment, Shoitfy afterwards, when Pawang was deserib- 
iqg the mountains of Ids oonntiy, I asked lum fior what price the 
Miudifa would sell Gunong Beratnn. He hesitated, looked at Mr, 
I>yee% IdU, and at last said, '*sapulo f^doog, " ten godowns. 

Of aU the s^fhts which tiiey saw in Singi^re, the Chinese Temple 
pleased them most. But after having visited the Town, Telloh 
Bttng^ Segliqp, andsomeolherpartsof the island, they deekred that 
Malacca was a much finer plaee. 

Hie Aree men differed considerably in disporitaon. The most re* 
markable was Paw&ng, who displayed much sense and firmness in his 
4±taracter,-and asligfat degree of pride and reserrein lus manner. He 
was> to by his companions as a man of superiour ability and 
knowledge, and his reputed skill in natural and supernatural mede- 
cmes made him an object of much attention to the Mah^ in the 
neigf^bourhood, who invited him to their houses and visited him, to so- 
fidt herbs and charms. The women, in particular, regarded him 
as a magldan of undoubted art, and nmny, on first q»proaching him, 
tkrew theaedves alhb feet. His head was decidedly inteUectoal in 
ita formation* 

Pifut was a picture of indolence, good nature and content. He 
seemed to enjoy what the passing moment brought, widiout any intru« 
mon of thought or care. 


T&M was al|o good Dftlured md indoleDty baft more IWely, and not 
without a little humour. He was ezoeediiigly Ibnd of raw liraMiy, 
and, when slightly etefated, danced, sung and played on his flute, — a 
piece of bambu with some holes in it. On the tlurd evening he was 
seised witii melancholy, his tiioughts reverted to his absent wife, and 
he sat for some hours by himself, drawing plaintive notes from hb 
Ante, and ringing of her, by turns, while the tears ooursed down Us 
cheeks. Hb temperament was much more exdtable than that of the 

The women were good naftured, and one of them, Ffiw&ng^s wife, 
lively. While their conversation was diaraoterized by an Old Testa- 
ment simplidty and unreserve, thdr manners were, in every rsBpeot, 

The impression wluch they made upon every one who ssew modi 
of them was very favorable. In manners they were soft, ample, can- 
did, and, at the same time, independent. Their whole eondnet 
inarked by a tone of propriety and good sense. They shewed an 
tire absence of obtnisiveness, greecUness, decdtftibiess, intoleranee or 
any other of the vices which so often mar tiie efl^eet of the good qtm* 
lities possessed by many of the races who inhabit Slngiqpoce. In a 
word, they were perfectly well behaved, and inspired a trastfolneBS 
^ and liking, which are not often awakened by Asiatics in the breast 
of the European. 

Within a fortnight after I had wished them a sale voyage bade to 
Malacca, and promised to visit Gunong Bennun under Mw&ngs 
guidance, a rumour reached me that the trading boat which carried 
them away had been wredced, and three of them drowned. Tins 
most painful intelligence has been confinned, and Uie saMMtioo 
which I had antidpated when bringing these notes to a dose, from 
the hope that attention and sympathy might be dimwn to the race, b 
embittered by the* reflection, that the resolution of those simpk friends 
to overcome their natural dread of the sea, has proved a fitfal 
one to them. It appears that stormy weather was experioiced 
from Pulo Pisdng to Pdd^g. When off the latter place on tbe 14th. 
^he boat beiii^ much damaged and tlie wind rising to a gale, the 


Malays made for the shore. They had nearly reached it about 9 o'- 
clock at night, when, dreading that the boat would be dashed in pieees, 
the crew prepared to leap overboard, and wade or swim to the land. 
T&ld and P4w4ng's wife were afraid to do so, but his dster and P&rut 
her husband consenting, P&w&ng fastened them to himself by their 


waist bands, saying that they woidd live or die together, and then 
they all plunged into the waves. They sunk at once, for it was deep- 
er than they had believed, and, the bottom being a stiff mud, they 
never rose again. Next morning, the Malays, who had succeeded in 
reaching the shore, saw the boat still holding together, and, on going 
to it, they found T41& and Pdwang's wife alive in it. The surviovrs . 
procured a boat, and arrived at Malacca on the evening of Ute next 



This Archipelago, embndng wyend hundreds of islete, beeideBtiie 
conndenUe islands of Battam» Bintang, KHmon, Gampaog, GaIIaft» 
Linga and Sinkep»t >* thinly inhabited by several interesting tribes. 
Some of these have already been slightly noticed by Dofedi writan, but 
the greater part still remain, I belicfe, undeaeribed. The more impor- 
tant tnbes are those termed coUectifdy Ortmg Pe^tuku-^ui^ OtenDy 
the people divided mto tribes. Tliey are all vassals of the Kiqg. 
Those of the highest rank, to whom distbct services are appropria- 
ted when the King goes to seaor engages in war, are theOrang Bdn- 
tte mider an UlttblUing, the Orang Singg6ra, under a Balin, tile Oranf 
Kopft under a Jinnang, the Orang Bulo and the Orang Uoga. Hicl 
other tribes, some of the land and some of the ereeks or sea, are the 
Orang Gittm, Orang Bek&ldi, Orang Sugi, Orang Muro, Orang: 
T4mbus, Orang Minting, Orang Kilong, Orang Timii^g, Onnfp 
Mn&u, Orang Pub Boya and Orang 8ilat. Besides tiiese, tiiere are 
some wild tribes in the interiour of the larger islands. 

PuloBattam is the first of these islands, fiMrming, in part, the souths 
em side of the Straits of Singapore. Its ereeks are frequented by 
prahtts of several of the pelagian tribes, and in Ita forest three inid 
tribes are found. In the north western parts live the Sabimbi, who 
have been already described.^ In the forest of the north eastern pro* 
montory wanderastall wilder tribe, called by the Malaysof Singapore 
Orang Tr^g Bumban, ifrom the Points of those names on the west 
and east ndes of the promontory. The eristenee of this tribe was 
first brought to my notice by Mr. Simonides some time ago. I sent 

* This we consider an appropnale name for that extensive Archipelaso 
formed by the prolongation of the plutonie soneof elevation of the If aUy 
Peninsula from Singapore to BUliton. The fka of its being so doseiy eon* 
netted geographtcallj with Johore as to appear a continuation of it, partial- 
Ij submerged by the sea, and the previous sppropriation of the general Pe- 
ninsular name Malaya to the Malayan Archipelago, would Justify the adop- 
tion of the name. But the best reason for using it Is the fact that these is- 
lands (with the exception of a few of the most southerly) formed the insu- 
lar part of the kingdom of Johore from the thirteenth century to our oocnpa- 
tton of Singapore 27 years sgo. 

t Banks andBilliton may also considered u included in it. Theysrs 
so geologically and etbnologically, although not geographically. 

t Ante p. 2^. 

t Maky to make a vocabulary of tfanr laognage, but he could not 
iDflet any of thenu I have lately ioimd a abort nodce of them in n 
Dutch work puUahed but year, entitled ^Berigten omMnt Indie, 
gednrende een tienjarig verblijf aldaar" by Mr. Rottger, Ibrmerty a 
ttuamiary at Rbb. Thia I ahaD give afterwarda, if I fliil in obtam* 
lag a more complete aeooimt Intinsoath eaatein partofBattam 
are loDiid 


Hiifl tribe inhalnta the foreata on the river Sa Raya or nther on 
Iti feeder the S. Mak& Kuning, which joins it from the left, about 
five boon poll from the month of the xiver. After aacending the 
Moka Knning about four bonra, we reach PankaOan 8« Raya, from 
vriiich a five hours walk bringa na to the kampoqgs of the Orang 
Utan or men ef the woodst 

The tribe conriats of about fifty fiunilieei who live acattered in the 
iMeat m amall huts beneath the treea, finrmed of a rude pbitform 
mpportedliyfour poato about three feet in height, from which the roof 
of airdaag leaves rises at once without any intervening wall. It ia 
open at both ends, and baa no bidder or door. Hie males mostly 
ivear tiie ehiw&t of (ir&p bark, and the iemalea abort sarongs of etoth. 
Thqr do not cultivate any pbuits, or breed any aidmals save dogi« 
With the help of these, and with the sumpitan, siligi or spear of ni^ 
bong, axe, hatchet, and knife, they procure their ordinary food in 
the forest, and rattans, dammar, and agala wood, which tiiey barter 
fi)r rice,' doth, implements, tobacco, and salt The articlea of food 
which they derive from the forest are the same ammals and vege<- 
tables which tbe Orang Sabimba use (vide ante p. fi96.) As with 
them, the Ibwl is fi^rbidden food. 

A Malay Bitb, i^med Pijar, who lives on Pulo Loban, is en« 
trusted by the Idm TuAn Mndi of Bluo with the charge of Iha 
tribe. He virits themfrom timeto lune, bringing rioe and otherar« 
tidea, and receiving b return the forest produce which they have col- 
lected for him. They are prohibited from tradbig with other per* 
eons under penaify of a duddng^ 

838* rns oraho moka kuniko; 

For 1000 nttaoB thtj reeehre .4 gBntangs of ooane rice ; for lOO 
dammtr torches, 6 gtntuigB; and for one bwket (1^ feel deqi ind 
broad) of agUa wood, 4 gantanga. 

They have derived aome obscure and distorted nodoDS of aCrealor 
from the Malays, and appear otherwise to have no retigion or sapcr* 
stitions. Altthl^'tii (God) is die creator of aU filing things. Nflii 
Maliamad (the prophet Mafaamad) b his wife, who destroys all finsg 
things. They dwell above the slcy, and have two children, a mile 
and a female, whose names and functions they do not loiow. They 
have no idea of the soul as separate from, or surviying, the body. It 
is probable that their belief in a male creating and preserving, and i 
female destroying, god was derived from Hindus or Hindu Mabjsin 
the antemahomedan era, and that they have merefy altered the names; 
a practise which appears to be common in the Archipelago, and one, 
indeed, of which the history of almost every nation furnishes exam« 

As soon as the breasts of a girl are of the size of a betelnut, ^ m 
considered marriageable. When a marriage has been agreed upoo, 
the parents of the brid^^room send to those of the bride 3000 nt- 
tans, a piece of doth, a jacket and two silver rings. The marriige 
takes place at the house of the bride, in presehce of the Batin and 
several guests, and consists in tiie bride add bridegroom being plwed 


* In the eastern parts of Bengal, which, Arom tbeir ethnological oonsec- 
tlon with the Hindu Chinese peoples, we shall have frequent oecasion to re- 
ler to, instaooes of this kind occur. The successive changes whicli the re- 
ligion of Europe has undergone were accompanied by a similar conftision of 
names. ** The memory of the pagan [daasic] creed was not speedily en- 
dicated in the extensive provinces through which it was once nm?ersiHy 
received ; and in many particulars It continued long to mingle with, tndifi^ 
inencef the original aaperstlUoDsofthe Gothic nations. Hence we find 
the elves occasionally arrayed in the costume of Greece and Rome, and the 
Fairy Queen and her attendants transformed into Diana and faeroympbs. 
and invested with their attributes ahd appropriate insignia " (Sir W. Seou, 
Introduetionio ths Tahof TanOane,) "Christian|(ly never soeeeededia 
rooting out the aneienft creed $ it only changed many of the suhjecu, vhich 
maintained, and do still to this day malnuin, their place among us. What 
had been religions observance subsists as popnlar SBpersUlfon} the cr^^ 
the Saviour only replaced the hammer of Thorr ; and the spells which hid 
once contained the names of heathen Gods were still used aa efltoctlvS) btr- 
iDg been eArtJitofied by the additroo of a little holy water, and tbesabsUtO' 
tionofthe names of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, TobiC, St. Peter and St. 
Paul" (J. M. Kemblc. Iniroducliofi (o (A« AtHf^^^SMQn iholofrm 9(S^ 
limon w%i Saturn p« r. J 





adebynde^andmadetojdnhiuidSy vAiiledieptreatBeigoiiilihemto 
be kind to ewh otfaor and avoid difpvtea. A feafet follows, at which 
tlie mmfy married pai^ eat from tim tame pbta or leaf. Singiiig 
and dancing to the rahaiiA foUdw. The Batih leceivtt a pfeacut of 
2000 nttanl* 

IfA husbandiandt jkleaaed with Ida wife» he may rttuhi her to Her 
parenlB, and after the lapae of a month the parties may form other 
eonneeiions; Poi^^gamy b nnlaiown. The children of hrotUeri cail« 
not intermarry^ 

A Bfdan dr midwife assists at births, W receives 4000 rattaits on 
the first occamon of the idnd in the fiunily, 3000 on the second, 
SOOOonthe third, tod lOOOonany subdeqdent birth. Thednly me« 

the mother. 

and a decoction df tiie root for the child. 

*"/** r"*'*©*^ 








Iras m. 

OlcO fft; 


Dras m. 




Mini m. 



LimiL ni. 

tUn4 m; 


Nibor nki 


T&mk m. 








The ^ewlare l>ariediii graves hear th^ house) l^feetdeep. Asubia 
pUan is placed on that of amale, and a kmfe on that of a female* Iii 
kbont amonth after the burial, the &mily abandon the hiit, andnial^d 
another in a distant pUuxi. 

The face of th^ only male of the tribe whom I have seto was ld« 
zenge shaped, tad in Hus r^ecti and in the length and chirve of thd 
lower \tw and consequent shape of tiie lower part of the fiuie, ap- 
liroadied conriderably td one of the BiduandA K&Mng, Ndnedgi 
From him however, and from all the other indiriduals of that tribe 
whom I have seen, he was distinguished by the advance of the lower . 
part of thefiMSe finOmthe nose downwiuds. Caused by the prcjeetaon of 
the upper jaw. in this respect he resembled the general Binua and 
-muntype. The distingiushing feature ef the Mintira, — Ae vertical 

340^ tmm mam mmA KVNnicr. 

dooption of the upptr part «f the frcey-^'WM fitnniimlly nvM. 
The 4i0lHiM Ihmi tke qrgoniilk pcDJeodon ptftufthe 

fc re l n M d biuy 4 inokM, and to tiie dtfn oidy 2^ indHS, amnnd 
tm «M fltaraigfafc fine. Tke lips were Beafay, faa* mudikngiMithiD 
the Mintin, the eyebrows thick and inclined upwards, the tjft 1m^ 
•oft bill kaslnatffOiwtiMHi that of the Binaa and Bemnoi tofliei, the 
ear iMdcratelj burgOy Che forehead very aarrow but higfaflr tkia in 
the Bidoanda KaOai^, the haiv-veqr thick, tte ahoolden and chert 
less broad than in the Biduanda Kalbmg. 



By J. T. Thomson, Esq. 
Hon. M, N. H, S, Newcastk-upoH'Ti^ne. 

In Gompliaiiee with your re^aest I send you a few notes on these 
IriiMsniadft during a late visit to the Old Stndlnof St]^pqK>re^ when I 
came in contact with them* My dutieafaave frequantly W me to these 
pacts^aad my constsnt attention had been d«wn to the ftct of wfldtitteg 
existing in the ereeksi and along the shinrea of the Strait abore iMBlion* 
ed ; httti notwitfastandkig aU my anxiety to obtain an interview vritli 
ULj of theniy my wishes had never been gvatifted. It l» tnie that 
paaiieB of the 8l4tar tribe had been oDieii descried flrom the Gunbost, 
bat we iqiwaA them tqa ohy and timid to allow of a ne^r approach. 
Tbis time we wei« more fortunate. A PangSma (L e. Malay war<* 
riar).a notorious piiate, had been caught by one of the Tomuvgong's fol-* 
lowers, who in former years had formed one of the crew of the Guu« 
iMMit — elated with his sacoess, he came to ndate the drcumatances of 
Ida bold feat ;.amodt^|(st these andother interestiag matters regarding 
rafly»in which trade oiur Mend had in former yean even obtained ho* 
norable notoriety amongst his countrymen, — ^thewiU men or Oriag. 
Ut6a were casually mentioned as bebg in the vieimt^. The oppor* 
tunity was not to be lost, and our iaend» on certain condUtions, agieed 
to bring several of theor chss to* the Gunboat on the foUewing dajrv 

The next di^» when aachoreddoseto the flhore^ several snudl boats 
and canoes were seen sldrfittg the mangrove, and slowfy approaching 
to our anchorage; Uiese proved to be two femilies of the SHtar tribe 
mentioned at the end of your aitide oe the Or&ng Bian& of Johore. 
I found after earefiol examination that they were known to the Malaya 
aa the " Or4ng Utia Slter." On theur first approeeh one oonld net 
h^p being strud^ with the extreme s^ualidness tf • th«r appearance, 
united as it was to a dull insensifaiU^ to what was going forward, a 
marked contrast to their pert Malay conductors, who assmned over 
tiieniaaairof superiority and command, which is never mtnessed iathe 
Utter w hen in the presence of Europeans alone, and affording at once. 


I might say, a staiid«rd for judging of the place which the Or&ng SUtur 
ihooldholdintheniilaof^Mlisatioii. The fiunSBes eoonsted of two 
men, Aree women, and several children of hoth sexes ; they were ez« 
ceedingly shy at first, and could with great difficulty he prendled on to 
speak, hut hy Idndness of manner, and some triffing presents, the 
men were induoed to throw off a considerable deal of their resenre^ — 
80 much so, that they didly visited the Gimhoat, as long as we were m 
iheb vididty, bringing fish and a few birds for barter, and a system 
ftfUur dealing befaig strictly k^it up hy the commander and his anew, on 
oar leaving titeypromiiied always to viot tiie Gunboat, to supply sudi 
necessaries should she ever come in Ihdr neighbourhood again, and teB 
the peofrileof tiieirtribeto do the same. Our riflit was prodndive of 
considerahle benefit to them, as tiiey were weD suppfiedwitii many 
necessaries (hnniries to them) such as rice, tobacco and doth. Hiey 
loolc great trouble in procuring us what we were most in want of, 
firesh fish, and our parting we were led to l>dieve, was attended with 
confflderable regret on thdr ride. On our better aoquatntsaee, wfaeo 
asked why they used always to run away before the Gunboat, tfarir 
simple reply was, that they were afraid we would earry them off to 
Gallang, a place noted for the fieroeness of its pirites, and for whom 
they bear a great dread. 

On taUng^likenesses of two of them, a man and a woman, the man 
sat with great steadiness and composure, and seemed perfectly aware 
of its meaning ; onfiniriung the sketch, and being shown the produc- 
tion, a sfight smile was eHdted : — irith the other subject conriderable 
^fficulty was encountered, she at first hid her fiu% beneath her shag- 
gy matted locks, that strayed in wild abundance over her scaly shoul- 
ders, and would onfy now and tiien venture a glance at tiie open- 
tioQS of the pencil, — ^no persuasions would induoe her to show her 
face, till at last her young diild was given her, iriien in a poaticHi 
natural to the mother, the sketch book vvto soon made to bear wlnt 
was conridered a tolerable fikeness of tiie original. 

This poor tribe are River nomades, thdr locality extends firom the 
Santee, at the east end of Old Strait or SMt T&mbrfin to Ffindison 
^ Wtst. The SMtar, a creek of the Island of Singapore, «fd 4h 


tent from the town only 8 mUes, gives its name to fiie tribe, and ii 
skmted nearly in the nuddle of their range. They number in M 
40 boats, or 200 people, and are sabject to a Batin or petty cluef 
whose names is Keding. Thdr de fiioto sorereign is tiie Tomnngong 
of Johore, who can oommand didr sendees in fiie manner of a feu- 
dal lord. Thek* language is the Malayan, and considerable pains 
was taken to elidt any words fordgn to that language, but witiiout 
eifect Their dialect is the same as that of the Or&ng Lant of Tnlloh 
Blangfth, but spoken with a slightly more guttural accent, and they 
dip thdr wprds as much as the natiyes of Kedd^ As a proof of 
thdr possessing the same language as the Malays, I may mentloii 
that the children were heard when playing to converse iki this lan- 
guage, and were perfectly understood by the Malays amongst our 
crew. They are possessed of no weapons dther o f fensive or defen* 
aive; tlidr minds do not find a higlier range than neceasity compels, 
the satisfying of hunger is their only pursuit, of water tiiey have 
abundance without search ; with die serlcap or fish spear, and the 
parang or chopper, as thdr only implements, tiiey eke out a miser- 
able existence from the stores of the rivers and forest ; diey ndther 
Ag nor phmt, and sfill five nearly independent of thdr fellow men, 
for to them the staple of life in the east, rice, is a burovy ; tobacco 
they procure by the barter of fish, and a few nartoable products 
collected from the forests and coral reefs. Of esculent roots they 
have the prioh and kakna, both bulbous, and notunfike coarse yams, 
— ^ fruits they eat the t&mpuf, klM^ and bdroh, when tfa^ come 
in season, and of annuals tJiey hunt Hie wM hog, but refrain from 
snakes, dogs, guanas and monkeys. Such are their prindpd means 
of subdstence, for many minor products of tiie liM^ests and creeks must 

be left unmentioned. 

On thdr manners and customs, I must needs be short, as only long 
aequdntance irith their pregudiees, and domestic feelmgs could afford 
a due to the impulse of thdr actions. Of a Creator tiiey have not the 
sHgfatest comprehendon, a fact so difficult to believe, when we find 
the most degraded of tiie human race in otiier quarters of the g)obe» 
have aa faituitive idea of thb unerring and primary truth imprinted oa 

344"^ M9fA]lS» «N TVS fli^T AB Aim SAKaiM TUlHi 

iMr minda, tto I took Ihe greatest cure to> fiad » sSgkk inip «f 
tfa^ M^ vitfain di0 chaos of tfadr tbouf^tB* even honrefer degndid 
0pdi nNfte be» bill to disaf poiiiled. They ntttber know tie Qai 
nor DevU of tho Chfktei or MdboaodfB, ^oiis^h tb^ 
had boai toU of 9aeh» oor aiiQr of the denigoda of Bindoo mjfthob- 
gy, numj of wheia were reeounled to tiieu. la Ae thr^ grak 
epochfl of tebr ia^vidual UTOf» we eonseqiieiitly find bo litM or ei- 
remoolea enwefeed ; al Inrlh the child m onlj weloomed to the woiM 
by Ihe BMlber'o jogr ; al niarriafe> a month fidk of tobacco aad we 
chujiah of rice handld to the mothers oonfivm the h jmcDml tjn. ^^ 
death the deceased are wnayped in their gamonta, and ooounittcd 
to the paienl earth. ''Thewomea weep a litth»» then kinre the spot'' 
wicpe tiie wwda of (WIT ahnpte earra to r. Of iifirf8»dew6e^ olamb^s 
and oiicf light aplrils thai haunt ench monnlain> rookt and tree in 
the JMUayan eonoiption, theyt did not Icnow the nemerHior hid 
they aiqr thing to he afiraid 0^ aa thcjT themaelpes 8aid» than ths "^ G^* 
llBir Kntea/' who are men mm thewdvc^t With tibia I was fMoel 
to be contented, and teazed them no BU^ee «boiit the snljecU Thtj 
do net pra^iee dreumeiaioQt nov other Mahomedaaoiifltoma. ,Thdr 
wonMBfrintenniny irith the Mahi^ whUb appears to be not iinfre* 
qaent» they aiao ifife tfieir women to Cbinem, and anold womtatoU 
US of her h«dhg been mated to iadividaab of both naliona» in m ear- 
ly penod of her liie. It wna tother rotated to me, liiat mwy y^n 
agQ^ when they had a Malay as thtfar fiatihi, nearly^ aU the mm now 
of their tribe were induced! to undergo the rite of droumeision, tlioogli 
eneh a practice is not comfonnisd' with* . ITieir tribe thongb coo* 
fining their range v&hin the linrits of 30 milea square> may still be 
considered of a nery wnnderiog land; in their sanqmns barely saia* 
dent to float their load they sldrt the mangroYBa, ooUectii^ dieir 
food fram the shores and forests as thcgr proneed etheiwting one spot 
aad fihett soarehing for another. To one atoeustomed to the eomfofts 
and artificMi wanto of a diiUsed Ufo, theira as a contrast appsss 
to be esdlreme; huddled up in a anmU boathacdl^ nmaanring V M 
in lengthy they find all the demostio comfort Aat they are in «»t 
of; at one end la seen the fire-pbocy in the middle are the lew utea< 

aiHJJUbl aN 9HB flLBT JUl AND ftAlllMSA VBOaUb 84&^ 

rib thqr vny ^ in podsenion of/ and wt die oliier end beimtli a 
kidjtiig or mat not ODoeeding eiz ieofe in len^, fe found die sleep* 
ing apartmeftt of a linuly often oodntini^ 5 and 6, togedwr with a eal 
and deg, inder tfan they find dtolter fnnn llie dewB aHd veins of tk^ 
lUglH) and heat of Um di^. The Makys erai in poinl»||r ont tfaeso 
sdnted qfuarters eiied oat ** how nuaenUe," but of tfak tfie ol({eceB of 
their oonumsenDtion wnh not aware; in them diey hate pronded all 
thdr wants; thdr ohildnsn sport on the shove in eetfdi of ahefl fish 
at low water ; and during high wirt«r tiiey nay lie seen diaafaing the 
Biangrove branQhes» and dashing fttm tfaenoe into the water, with ail 
the fife and energy of duidnm of a ooMereKme, at once afibt^ng a 
proof tiiat e?en they ioLve their joys. 

Their personal appearance is unprcfiossessing, tlieir depoftanwl 
iasy and slorenly, united to a great fiithiness of iMMfy; the ndddle of 
l{oth men and women is generafly covered by a coarse wrapper, made 
from the liarlc of the IVap tree; this extends from the naral to the 
Imee. The woaaen affected a sligiit degree of nrndesfy at first approach^ 
wiiich soon gave way. Instead of the wrapper of iVrap, tliey fr»* 
qaentty pot on instead, an oU patclwd iqi Mah^ evong- The locka 
of the men are bound np with a tie of doth, and sometimes by fim 
Mday mpetangan, those of tl» women fiA in wild hixmianoB over 
their Tbm and shoulders, llidr chtldrea go entirely naked rnitU the 
age of puberty. Several of the men and women we afterwards saw, 
were subjeefc to deformity in handi and fimbs, a rather unusual dn»ni» 
stance for these parts, and thdr prevdtting diasaae, was a cutaneous 
eraptaon, that covered the whole body inth a seafy covering ealled 
Korup by the Malays. To this whole families were subject from the 
mother to the infant at the breast. With this disease nearly every 
other person appeared to be afflicted. The fingers of such poor crea- 
turee were seldom at rest. A spedee of Iqirosy also appeared to at- 
tack the feet of the oH, and the features in the face in one or two 
l^ees were found to be contracted from some sodi diseaee, reader&g 
those* subjects htdeons In appearance. 

Upon the origin of the tribe little light can be thrown, for of their 
lH>S9Cssbtt of traditions orsiqierstitions after much en4][uiry I could 


ind no tnoey bat before nradi dai ht said on tUt wahj/ttik gitifc em« 
tioa must be used, as is well Imown te tiiose wbo have to sift mkmtj 
from wild, ignoraiit tfod indolent tribes, and wbo akme ean otimiM 
tbe difficulty of gaiidng a correet notion of the peeoBsrilaas of thdr 
idess on such points. ItistiiereforetoethnogiiphSealenqiaifydiatve 
may expect to be indebted for any dight giioqises of tins interatiii; 
topic As I before stated they ^eak the langoage of the Malays 
with much less deg;ree of difforenee in pronundsHon, than mi^ be 
found in stepping from one eaautj in England to another* T^ 
may therefore be said with little fear of contradietbn to be mentf 
unconverted Malays in the general aoeeptatbn of the tenn, (hoagk s 
distinct dass from the Malays propeiiy so eallod, vdw ponied tiidr 
hordesoverthe Archipelago* prioir to ISOOof the Chiistbai ecs from 
tiie grsat river Mabyoo in Sumatra. While all the tribes of Mihp 
on tiie coast of the Malayan Peninsula, and acyoining isbnib hi?e 
embraced the tenets of Mahomed, they have remained unaiBeted by 
the movement Tiie nomendature of individnak, lefluins fh^ wse 
as when Hindooism held sway over tiie Aieluqpebgo, and we fed 
In thdr proper names an astonishing degree of simibritj to tbe 
names of Malayan heioes prior to the oonverrion of tiie race is oiea- 
tioned in the Sijarah Malayu and other works.t As a list of pM^ 
names will be interesting, the following is a small oollectioD^ 

fTTtdimg Penis Sin^ 

Masei Awm Deesn 

Sadai^ Boning 

Sciokang Boon teh 

Neelcang Sang Kang Impang 
In phynognomy they are doseiy allied to the '* Bidnands EiiOtaf 
noticed in your paper on that tribe. This coupled witii tiie fiMt that 
tbe SUtar and Kallang are both creeks of the iriand of Sing^or^ 
the original locality of each, and that sampns can approach the a** 

* Query f Ed. 








iigable |i«rt of either ereek within two miles, there need not be any 
he ritation in prorJaiming thdr identity of origin, though now they 
live as separate tribes. The most distinctive features ^f the tribe 
we, lowness .of brow, retreating baekwards, from the superciliary 
ridge, a protrusion of the lower part of the face, not in the manner of 
prognathous tribes but by the acuteness of the facial angle, in illus- 
tration of this the profile of a boy of 12 years of age is appended, 
drawn from the living subject who possessed the distinctive type of 
the race in an exaggerated degree. When viewed from the front they 
are found to f ossess an obliquity of eyes and eye brows, the eye lids 
being much closed and only showing half the pupil. The general 
contour of the face, obtains a dedded character, by great breadth of 
forehead, expansion, of zygoma, and rapid tapering to the chin which 
is lengthy and narrow. The nose is depressed and mouth moderate. 
Such may be considered the distintive features of the race, though 
many were seen possessing tlie Malayan type strongly marked. 

The Orang Sabimba now remain to be noticed, and as an apology for 
the paucity of remarks and the errors that may be detected, I must men* 
tion that the morning on which I visited tliem it rained in torrents, 
which entirely prevented my reaching their encampment It was 
therefore in a miserable Malay .hut that I collected several of their 
number who were accidently on the spot, and to wliom I am indebted 
for the following notes and information, though I am by no means 
satisfied with the vesult. 

Their pysiognomy is of an entirely different type from the tribe 
already- discussed, and they also differ as much-in liabits and customs. 
They are forest nomades,- being in possession of no boats or canoes 
of the most simple construction, and regarding the water with a de* 
gree of terror, as already mentioned in your notice of them. To the 
siunpitan as their principal weapon they owe all that they can obtain 
of the animals that live in the trees of the forest, and with their 
dogs (a species of Pariah) they hunt the wild hog. Their food con- 
aats of rice as the staple article, but they add to thb the flesh of the 
hog, monkey, snake and ape, birds of all kUids excepting that of the 
fowl) Cor the rd^ons stated in your paper« They also abstain from 

348*1' UMAmKai ok tbb «lktar amd tABiiiBA mui« 

plaiitin|^9 and ooiMaqiieBtly thnr TegeteUes ooiidst of tlM wIM findte 
of the jungle. This tri^ ie modi more helpleBB than the OHng 
SMteTy bflinf entirdy dependant on tiie Malays for didr arma and the 
greater pait of their fiood. Tba awnpitan b the aanie as tint ved 
hy the Dyaka of Sambas in Borneo fromiriwnoe it la imported to 
SingiqNire, and from tiience finds its wi^ to Tunbran tiie rifer on 
whidi they are now located. The arrow of this Is ddieatdy fmUoo- 
ed, but the orang SaUmba make n ruder deaeription ttMOHelfvs. 
Itie arrowsarepoiaonednnth tliejmoeof the Upas tree, and Is <nU- 
ed ipob* The tribe, oonsiating of 80 uufiiidnab younf^ and eld, «e 
now emplojred in cntdng rattans fertile Malays who furnish rioe» wea- 
pons and utennla in return ; they faanled to metlwtlli^ woe a Boo- 
lang tribe, but appeared to liave no distinct reeoUeetion of the period 
they liad1>een deported from that island. Tiie tribe is sepanAe from 
all other tribes in the Pemnsuhh and the t er rito r y over which they now 
roam is unoccupied by otiiers. They are unaequa&nted with the de« 
coction of inebriating liquors, though they informed me that the tribe 
formerly possessed the art, their imbits are t h er e f o re as terapeiale ss 
the Malays. They do not intermarry with the Mabys nor wiU thef 
part witli ttieir oApring for any oondderation; towards tkc Ctiaae 
they l>ear great detestation remoring always from their ridmty; tins 
iact may be aooounted for liy the smaUneas of tiMsr nmniwrs and from 
the wish to avoid the extirpation of their race. Thdr Batin orehief 
is named Bintang, and they owe feal^ to the Tomnngong of Jo- 

They are equaUy atiieistical with tlie Oring Sl^tar, nor are tbef 
imbued with any of tiie superstitions of tiie Malays ; of giiostB and 
witches they were ignorant, a foct diflkult to inlieve. Of namge 
oeremonies I was told th^ had none; the preparation of a shed, open 
on all sides, in size 6 feet by 4, covering a few stidcs and leires 
strewed on the ground, comprises ail tiie bridegroom's care; tiie price 
of a\rife was stated to be 10 needles, 3 hanks of thread, 16 oubits ef 
cloth and 3 reals. On any of thdr tribe being near deatii tiiey letre 
this hut until they think all is over ; they then remove the corpse od 
a plank shrouded in its clothes to a grave in which §xt buried toge- 


tiwr the ulaMib of the deeeesed such » Aimpitniy cooldiiir uleiuib, 
fmttmg^ byongs, &c. ; these thef pbuse tit the eide ; th^ then leere 
Chespetatid waadertooliierperti. lliefthofeaoeoaiitdiffBrssfight-i 
If ftoai your owa wUeh eheiwi tint ^0f are not guided by slrid 
ndes in liie eve of deate nd imrriigcB* 

Thdr huiguige k the Meteyan, apokea with a peoulhv accent^ 
whether or not th^ oiigiaallf apoke another haigiiage I cannoi offer 
att oi^iaiofi. Their pvinuiy words are all tile same, so it b probablo 
that tliey speak tiie kngaage uniaiaed with Arable, but deqicr ie« 
seu^ iar6i|rired on this snfajeet; aa aeqaalntaaoe with tfaepldlology 
of the Aiddpelago, lalght thivw maojr intereetiiig ftets open to the 
worid; your eatensife eaqfdries on llils sabjeet will therefore be look- 
ed for with iaspaHeaee. Thefa* proper oameadiffveiitirely from the 
mtar tiFibe) and are sBglitfy mbaoi wMi the Malayan/ the foUowin; 

Ayin Bootooo Ktttang 

NIpis Radia Titlei 

Bangas Kassar Kassaw 

Meoloot Looioot Pang 

Meemdi Aisa Tengah 

Nareemah Mungee %*ng 

A oopioue fist of proper names I would suggest as forming a cri* 
terion of what raees they have been ki eofttact wifh^andasnotthe least 
nnpoftaot of th^ brandies cf ettmologfi^ enquiry. 

Tlie persottal appearaiiee of these denieens of the forest is, to say 
the leastypleaeiiig I wi^ formed foateres in tiie young andaeontented 
pladdity of eonfeenanee in llie old, wocdd at onee ^ow them to be an 
improteaUe riee ; UnsHadkled wM the dogmas of the Islam and W- 
fondne in thdr preoeptiata of all ttings, they ^tand as its were on the 
threAdId of suflit a fidth as dirisliaidty presents in its primitive, most 
hum!»le, and purest form, but they haye no one to invite tiiem in. It 













« ill the names are Xalayao.—Eo* 


19 such niees as these thsit csU for nusnoosry enterprise, nor 
dose rektioiis with the Mafa^ hs¥e gmn them s tssle for draB» « I 
fouiid them weuing* dodi iastasd of the bnk off trees. Theironen 
were dressed hi suongs in the nsmer off Malay«B wonen, bitfiie 
men only wores strip of dolh of sesntydbMBsioiis, reond Ae wMt 
tnd passing betweenthe thighs. Thehrnddrsss was open sad ample, 
their demeanour respectfol. The Malays spoka of tiiem as bring fittk 
hetter than baboons, and treated them asamueh inforiordaBstodMa* 
selves. The Malay women of the house in which I was sfBrAed 
shelter commanded thur leas fortunsae sisters in a maimer motto be 
mistaken, and this was allowed asa matter of course; itaioded coo- 
siderable amusement to see how the MaUy women placed the anis» 
atrughteoed the foce, and directed the eyes of the female subjeetefoj 
pencil, and when they Imd placed lier in a pootion pleattng to theni- 
selves they sat themselves where they could best gratify thch ov> 

Their physiognomf you have already described ; the reader hthcr^ 
fore referred to the plates annexed to Hds piq)er for iiiitlieriafonm- 

Plate No. I. represents «x heads of the river nomades, sad thoogk 
coarsely executed they may still l»e offered as correct portraits of 
the originals. Fig. 2. gives tlie fodal outlme and skull of a Boy ef 
the SUtar tribes who possessed m rather an exaggmrted degree the 
marked peculiarities of the physiognomy of his race, and in order to 
render such peculiarities palpable to the eye of the observer I bave 
enclosed the outline withui a square constructed m the foflowui mur 
Her. The lower containing line of Camper's celebrated focial aqgle 
drawn through the meatus auditorius to ths base of the anseis tikea 
as a Imsis, this line is produced tttber way until lines at right angks 
to it touching the posterior and anterior parts of the head aodto 
will mtersect it. The line contained between those points of in^ 
section is then Usected and upon it are formed four equal wpisrei» two 
onclodng the superior part of the head and two the inferior sad to- 
gether making the large containing square alnyve mentioned ; three of 
these sqiures are agupdivided each into one hundred equal parts, wd» 

fttMAmm 699 THB fiUTftR AMB fllABlMA «IIBJB8. 36l« 

<br file flalnof deanjesB, those'siaall tnie»h«Ddr«yi pvtsMwmdy 
shown CD sudi parts as aie not filled up by the oudine of the head. 
Agaiii should the head reach beyond the sqnaro as in theosse of fig. 1 
iextra squares are created to contsiii it. By eacefol measimnieiit 
the reiatiye proportions of die head nay thus be reduced to numbers 
Vith msthemalical c oi Te classs , and as the higher front square con- 
tains the front of the skull and upper . pert of Ihe ftos it may be 
denonunated the superior anterior square, ^e lugher back square 
1^ be named the superior posterior square and so on^ and by finding 
the number of lOOths. contained in each square the relative propor- 
tbns in numbers can at once be ascertuned ; thus in figures No. 1. 
2, 3. and 4. the proportions will be found as follows. 

J. 4. 

Anterior Sup. Sq. 

Posterior Sup. Sq. 

Anter. Infer. Sq. 

. 88 

. 71 
. 60 
. 44 

1. 01 
. 92 
. 90 
. 90 

. 56 
. 62 
. 50 

. 85 

which would place the Orang Sl^tar intermediate between the Euro- 
pean and Negro in expanaon of the organs of intellect, andagun shews 
them to possess a greater de?eIopement of the jaws and " organs sub* 
serviant to sensation[and animal fitculties than either."* The drawing 
of the Mias, sometimes caUed Orang Utan in this country and common- 
ly Or^ng Outing in Europe, is given to show the wide difference be- 
tween it and the subjects of this paper, who are generally known to 
the Malays as Orang Utan, thus confounding them with the lower 
creation. The above mode of measurement is not given as the only 
one required to ascertain the physical peculiarities of the skulls of 
races, but onty as a lumple method of rendering palpable to the most 
unpractised eye, the differences of configuration of the outiine, and its 
principle can also be appHed to the other modes mentioned by Dr. 

* Pricbard's Natoral History of man. 


tacMuikig tb€ wrm of the tknl wkm looked upon Tertiadly, Md 
Ike btftttf the kMb or mMbr MitaB of fiio oroidiim ifter tiie kmtr 
jow fa ronofod, tat bodi of wUdi motfaoilB tilora is aeidofli opporta- 
wkf to proclioe ht mSiOmAf oppoMit roMoao. 

Ploto Nik t. repffooenlB the fbdd ontliBO and skull of a oum aod 
>i»oiHHi of tke SoUkiilNt tvike. 



- 3^a/i^ 


Mw ni llif SubimU Tritie .Tumbriu 

I PrtM. i.TT, 





NOVEMBER 1847.* 

By Captaik Conoaltok, 
Commander of the H. E. L C. Steamer ^ Hoogkfy/* 

On the 29th of October, Colonel Low haying embarked, I steam- 
Vd from Pinang harbour to the northward, passing' within the lAakkwi 
Group of Islands, and at 3 p. m. on the 30th came to an andior in 2 
fathoms' water on the east side of Palo Mutiadl m Lat 7^ 2V N., for 
the purpose of sounding across a spit of sand that runs out from the 
main land, and forms a low point on the east ade of the island. On 
the 31 St. we examined Palo Mutf&r4 with the boats at low water, but 
nothing that indicated coal was to be seen. On the afternoon of the 1st 
Noyember, finding there was just water enough for the Hooghly to 
cross the spit of sand, I steamed to the northward for seven miles, until 
we deepened our water to 4 fiitiioms, dose to very high limestone rocks. 
We anchored here for the night. Early on the morning of the 2d. 
1 manned two boats, Colonel Low proceeding in one, and myself 
in the other : and pulled in different directiona for the main land, 
"when several miles of coast were examined, fhe water along the 
<soast here is very shallow, with a dear sandy bottom. The land for 
some distance in, is sandy and the jungle is not veiy thick, the trees 

* On this occasion Captain Congalton was accompanied by Colonel Low, 
"Who has briefly communicated the general results to the Honble the Gover- 
nor, and whose more detailed description of ihe geology of the coast we 
shall expect with great interest. The examination of the numerous rock 
specimens collected win be a work of some time. The present paper ia 
extracted from Captain Congalton*t report to the Honble the Governor, to 
whom we are indebted for the use of it. As neither Captain Congalton*s 
rAport nor Colonel Low's letter convey the iorormation which is requisite to 
form a correct Judgement of the probability of coal existing in considerable 
depeaits, (see our remarks on this potnt, ante p. 1^ it Is necessary to add, 
in the absence of all details respecting the composition, thickness, strike 
and dip of the associated strata, that Colonel Low takes a much more favor- 
able view of the recent examination than CapUin Congalton. He considers 
that two years would be required for a thorough exploration of the coast, of 
which only three or four points have been examined, and he thinks it is ve- 
ry' probable that the whole of it, ftom the latitude of Purifs to thatofPh4ogi^, 
is either one coal field, or a succession of coal deposits.— £o. 

354* KXAMnfATioii or ras coast or 

being mostljr what the Malays call K4ya GUbn. The trees grow at 
a good ilirtaiiff from each odier, with fitde or no underwood. Here, 
I am sorry to say, no indications of coal were to be seen. On the 
afternoon both boats met, when we returned to the Steamer, wrigbed 
and steamed to the northward, pasnng Snngei Kiyu Kamunfa g, 
which, on a former oooaskm, I had Tunted ^th Colonel Low in the 

boats of tiie HoogUy. 

At 4 r. M. we came to in 2 fothoms water, about a ^ of a nuk off 
a point of land called T&njong P6tong.* This pobt is rocky, d mo- 
derate height, and has the appearance of an Island, but it is joined 
fo the low swampy land on the coast It was here that the Gmiboat 
got the sample of coal [described ante p. 160.] This point lies in 
Lat. 7^ 37' 12'* N., and is distant from the Fort Pmnt at Finang 
155 miles, in about a N. N. W. direction. On landing on Tinjong 
PiMtong, we found several Siamese, who stated they had been sent from 
THog, by orders from the Rijah of Ligor, to collect all tiie coal th^ 
could get^ and send it across the country from Tiing to L(gor, as 
the lUyih required the whole for lus own use. They then enquired 
if we had come to take the coal, adding that they had orders to gnard 
it. When I demanded to see the R^dh's written orders, they said 
they had none. I then told the head man that I would not give him 
or anybody else one Dollar for aU the coal I saw in tlidr boats or on 
the point, but that, as I was now here, I intended to dig a hole and 
see if there was any coal underneath, what they were picking up be- 
ing nothbg but black stones which would not bum. They said, if 
that was the case, they would not remain any bnger, but return to 
THmg. After clearing away a space of rariegated Flag stones, I or« 
dered the crew to commence digging a large square pit, a little be* 
low high water mark, through a stiff blue clay. This {ut we con- 
tinued digging through the stiff blue clay, which gradually became hard- 
er, until it changed into a hard gray sandstone, with, here and there, 
thin black streaks, like blades of Buffaloe grass. During the digging 
of this pit the water constantly kept ooang m all round, so tiut tiie 

« In the dbarts the places where coal has been found are marked €.— Ed. 

^Hlfi malXy ^ENiVsutA von coAi/. 355"^ 

Virew wete obliged to knock off every ten minutes to bail it otit. Af- 
ter digging to the depth of seven feet, this clay got so h^d that^ick. 
axes and jumpers made but little impression on it, as it then seeo^ed, 
to fQrm into a kind of gray sandstone. Having icarefuljy examined. 
tJiis po'mt ah refund* I found thatit is composed, on thq east .i?ide> 
of Iron stone, ^ndstone and two sniali sandy bays. M thej 
north end it b coniposed enlarely of byers df gitay ^andstone^ lying 
nearly, in every direction of the compass* About 200 yards to the. 
8oiith)Krard pf the .North Pointj and on thi. west side, there is a small 
sapdy bay or rather bay of sand and broken shells. Thi$ bay extends . 
about 300 yards borth and south, and at its southern end a ridg;e ol 
sandstone the face Of t^e sinali ^ill a^out ,15 feet high 
which is. washed by- the .sea a( high .wat^K txpijaedia^y., abreapt . oi: 
this sandstone, to the westward, and extending abottt 2Q0 yards in . % 
nortti and^ s^uth dir<x:<»>n,'is a byer.of Ijhe parly cdloi^iied ,4!ag stoneSi 
before .iiientianed,un4ernarfb which- lie9 the jtoid.k^bedde^ui :% 
stroqg blue.clay^ After breaking the upper ;lAyef;.6f ^a^ stones^ 
which is ea^ done from, ite bei^ mostly hoUow iUden()ifiM;h buti 
more.«p li^.sonie plaees thep pthersi the coal is seen,, lying in aaeast 
and west 4irectioi|, a^d exactly jf^embl^ng tri^ «t,£ffbi;ent d^tances, 
from each other.* On fipplying pi^ sfxes or crqw bars it c^^^lyS^V^ 
way, breaking off JU lengtlis of firom5^ne foot t^,i>early>,26 hocbes^ BQt 
it is onily ,^ the MJ^pfr .part of these apparently bllen bees that coai. 
is to be foiuid) varying in thickness fi;om on^ ^ three i)4cbee^ T^ 
heart of the tuee is a mixture of hatd.stbne. JBat in, most of, the^ 
trees nothing .^ ,to he seen i^ t)\^ pfaipie of cbid, ip the. lowerjpiort^ 
which is nothing but a mittiire Of blue claijyi l)^ ja^ bus that wl^d)^ 
lies opider t^ rQjdfUsb Qag;lr» These tr6^^,;dd pOt ei^tend.down to t^ 
outa: eXtranity of the i^oeks at fow water, bu^ wert^ bnly n^et witl^ 
when the side was at half ebb. It was qi^y op th^ small :q^a^a| 
200 j-ards that.they ,W)m to be seien, i^ i can trilh safety slafte tiuit 
iuiw na more repAina^^s mot, . , : i •'! . ; > -« r> 

, • "Wii iekJkM fante p. tiB2) tfiMUcf ecJal of thli^ldcMit^'was 'ftgtii^ WH 
la^Wfled lignite, tnd cqnfidered ^ btghlj bitominous Jet*! a. mere appio^ 
Wiate mineralogicalbatnt than cktanel ton! fbr the most bflatemable 9^* 
bflien.-MDi . 


! . 


Grbat Earthquake of the 16th. Noybmber. 

Ou the forenoon of the 16th November, two rerj heavy shocks of 
earthqiiRke took place at Batavta, the one about 10} and the other 
about 10^ o'clock. It b stated that» wiih the exoeptioa of that of 
October 1834, this is the heaviest earthquake that has been feh at 
Batavia durinc^ the last 30 years. But notwithstanding, no greit 
damage has been caused by it ; in some government buildiogs the 
old cracks caused in 1834 have re-appeared, while the walU of dif- 
ferent private buildings have also been ^lit. 

The spire on the council house at Batavia appears to have suffer* 
ed from the shock, as it now inclines to one side, while the fipiK 
placed on the iron cross of the side building is totally bent down, tod 
the cross itself inclines to the left. Some think that they observed 
three shocks, but one of them must have been very slight, st gene* 
rally only two shocks were left. 

We can only give the following, amongst the reports reosred, 
which has been commuiueated to us by the Rear AdmiFsl Vtt den 


« During the earthquake which took {rfaoe on the £srenooaof to 
16th, the Rear Admiral was just standing at the time ball, where to 
following observations were taken on the astronomical chMia* 

** The first shock took place at lOh. 18m., being a shiverioif} vp 
and down, which lasted about 8 seconds, and in comaoquenoe oiwludi 
the clock of Hal^ie No 12, which stood on a pedestal fixed » 
the ground, sprung forward 25 seconds, while tiie dock of KneM 
No. 60, having gradually decreased in its motion, stopped in 3 ni- 
nutes afterwards. 

** At 10th. 25m. the second shock took pkoe, in the diredwD of 
east towards west, more heavy than the first. It had no mfloeorf 
mi tiie dock of Hakvie, which stands east and west, while the ckck 
of Kneheif whleh had previously been again set agdqg, did not stop> 

'* Notiiing remarkable was observed in the state or movexNOts a 
the river. 

*'On the ishmd Onrust the two shocks were observed at lOb. 16«' 
and at lOh. 22m. continuing for about 4 seconds. The second i^ 

onKAT bahthquake ix java. 363"^ 

also considerably heavier there. Their direction was about E. S. E. 
and W. N. W. The barometer shewed 761* 4 lines, the thermome- 
ter 26. 5 de^n^ee Cebius. It blew a gentle breeze from the S. W. 
It IS remarkable that although the second shoek took place at Ae 
same moment at Onrust and at the time ball, the first shock wa« 
felt two minutes earlier at Onrust. 

** Private reports from Buitenzorg mention that the earthquake 
took place there about lOh. 30m., and tliat three heavy shocks were 
fdt following each other at intervals of 3m. and 10 minutes, without 
causing any other damage than tlut some pillars were cracked. 

" At Legok Njenang, on the south side of Gunong Gede, the earth- 
quake was very heavy ; in the morning three severe shocks were felt 
there, and during the whole day ligher shocks, prindpally in the 
evening about 6 o'clock." 

In the Preanger Regencies, principally in the Residency of Chen- 
bon, the shocks of earthquake were very severe, and lasted for along 
time, and mncli damage was done. 

In the most eastern part of the Preanger Regencies, and princi- 
pally in the residency of Cheribon, the shocks were very heavy. In 
the latter Residency they occasioned great damage. Tliey were abo 
felt in the Residendes of Banjumas, Kadu, Samarang and Rembang. In 
the residency of Tagal also some, though not severe, damage was done. 

In Cheribon the earthquake was first felt about 15 minutes to 11 
o'clock ; the first shock was very heavy, and was speedily followed 
by a lighter one. At 5 minutes after 1 1 o'clock there was so heavy a 
shock that very few buildings were able to withstand its force. From 
this until midnight other tliirteen shocks were experienced, three of 
which were very heavy ; the first lasted about thirty seconds, and the 
third exactly 61 seconds. The pUdn before the Reddency office was 
filled, in the twinkHng of an eye, with all the inhabitants of the 
neighbouring houses, and soon experienced such a severe undolation 
that many could scarcely keep tlieir feet ; the direction of the waves 
was invariably from the southeast the northwest ; sea shocks were not 

From midnight to 6 a. m. of the 17th, nothing was felt save a light 


trembling;, but on the 17^» at 6 o'clock, the shocks began sgiin witk 
renewed force, and between that hour and 10 in the forenoon vast 
shocks had taken place, of which one lasted 31 seconds. 

Some detuls of the loss follow : — ^At the capital of Cheiibon lU 
the Government buildings (with the exception of the store houses) 
and more than 200 private stone dwellings were severely dami^ 
and mostly rendered uninhabitable, in consequence of which no one 
durst remain within doors during ihe ugfat, and all passed the night 
on the plains in tlie town, or in the gardens. A Chinese dweffiog 
in the city fell down. One person was killed and ax otJiers hut. 

At PaUmanang the Commandant's house and other stone build- 
ings in the fort were severely damaged, and some personal injuries in* 
flicted, — ^the wooden dwellings suffering no injury of any consequence. 
At two ndghbouruig sugar factories great havoc was done, the 
biuldings of all sorts being thrown down, and several lives lost 

At Dana Radja^ Radja Gala and Pajnankirtm many bmldings 
were destroyed. 

Almost all the post stations are severely damaged ; many stone 
watch-houses along the roads were thrown down ; and even the mile 
stones along the great road feU over. 

At Indramayu the first shocks caused severe damage to ^e asas- 
tant resident's bouse, the commandant's dwelling and the fort, and 
the stone houses of the Eun^iean inhabitants, rendering tliem unin- 
habitable. 40 stone houses belonging to Chinese were partJy or 
wholly overturned. At different places the ground was torn op«i 
from one to two feet in width, and from the openings large quanti- 
ties of sand and muddy water boiled up ; by the falling of one of the 
houses a woman was killed, and her two children wounded. 

The Government storehouses both at Cheribon and Indramai^ 
which were of wood, did not suffer. 

At Kuningtm the rejpency house only suffered a little. The west- 
ern part part of the regency Madja Lengka i^ipears to have suffer- 
ed very little. 

In the regency of Galu, and in the eastern part of the regency 
Cheribon, no damage of eonsequence was done» 


Aldiough tlie earthquake was felt throughout the whole residency 
of Cheribon, its devastation was confined to the northern and west- 
em parts of the r^ency Cherihon^ the eastern and northern parts of 
the regency of Madja Lengka, and the diyidon Indramayu. 

Light shocks oondnned to be felt until the 20th Not. which how- 
ever oceaooned no damage. It has been ascertained, on investiga- 
tion, that the shocks made themselves most heavily felt on the north 
east and north west slope of the mountain IJerma^. There the 
ground was split in more than forty places^ «id rents are found of 
more than fifty roods long, and three to four feet broad. In some 
pbces the roads to the coffee gardens are rent» so that the approach 
to the same for the present b impossible. The coffee gardens them* 
selves, however, have not suffered ; nor even the deasas lying on the 
mountains, with the exception of the small dessa l^ibulu where the 
ground b torn. The inhabitants of this dessa, consbting of 29 fa- 
milies, had time to take flight. 

From a private letter from an honored hand, we aie put in pos- 
session of further particulars of the earthquake in the residency of 

The first shocks were felt between half past 10 and 1 1 o'clock, 
the exact time can be ascertained with difficulty, because the clocks 
and watches in the interior differ. The first shock lasted fully 30 
seconds ; the direction in the first alarm was not observed, however it 
was not a proper undulation, but more a thrilling witii short shocks. 
Some seconds tiiereafter the second shock began, which lasted about 
20 or 30 seconds and was still heavier. From the very short inter- 
mission between the first and second shocks, the two might be taken 
for one. 10 to 12 minutes later tiie third shock came, as heavy as 
the two previous. It then appeared that the direction was from 
South West to North East. AU these shocks were accompanied by 
a dull vibratory noise, exactiy like that which the iron cable makes 
at tile bow of a ship when the anchor b fiiUing. The undulation of 
the buildings was plainly seen. 

The writer journeying the same day on a tour of inspection to Ar- 


djowinanf^n 16 miles from Cheribon, found all in mins, and wu 
obliged to pass the night in a hamha hut. On the fdUowing mornmg', 
proceeding furllier on horse back, the shoclcs began anew, with sudi 
violence that the horse would not proceed furlber. 

On the 18th, he proceeded on horsebaclc to Buniamatti on the 
rirer Tijmanok^ lying 16 miles southward from Iniretmaiju. Here 
the shoclcs must also haye lieen heavy, for all that could fidlla/ on 
the ground. In the house of an overseer, tliree different rents were 
made in the ground by the first shock, through which water, mingfled 
with fine bluish sand, spouted up to the hdght of three feet Jnd- 
gingby the direction of fallen objects the shoclcs were felt from soadi- 
west to northeast. 

The atmosphere was unusually clear, so tint from this place the 
mountains in the Preanger Regencies could be seen ; from one of 
these, probably Gunong Guntor, a column of smoke ascended. 

The following day at Dana Radja, where all the stone building 
had been over turned, the ground was found to be rent in more than 
fifty places. From most of the fissures water spouted up mingled 
witli fine bluish sand like the sea sand on the beach at Ckeribon^ 
The overseer declared that the water was warm, and that it had a 
disagreeable smell. The direction of the shocks must here have been 
from southwest to northeast as appears from the direction in which 
some stones, which stood on their sides to dry, had fidlen. 

In a small dessa named Getiting, five mUes to the northward of 
Dana Radja, and in another dessa named Persona, 8 miles to the 
northward, the quantity of water and sand spouted fh>m tlie ground vas 
so great that, acxorduig to the natives, it occasioned an actual iotin- 
dation. On the same day also the mountun m the Preanger Re* 
gtnclei above spoken of was seen to smoke strongly. 

The mountun TJermae in Ckenbon, was, during all the time in 
qnestioD, uncommonly clear and cloudless, and nothmg peculiar could 
be observed on it. 

According to the view of the writer, the shocks which were fdt 
in the above named place came from the direction of tlie Prtangtr 
Regencies^ and the unduUtion of the ground was checked by the 


trachite pillar of which the Palimanang mountuns consist. It 
then went northwards, and, after having passed Ardjowmangon^ 
proceeded agam in the direction of west to east ; whence also it can 
be expliuned why the shocks were felt much heavier in the immedia^ 
ndghbourhood of the Palimanang mountain them elsewhere. Oa 
all places which lie in the volcanic district of the TJermae the shocks 
were felt little or not at all, but heavily in the alluvial and tertiary 
clistrict between Cheribon and the river Tijmwok. — Translated 
yrom the Javasche Courant. 

occaamud . injostke, have arisen from the neglect of the subject, w« 
shall take this opportunity of inviting attention to it. 

We have not space to ^q more than advert to a few of those cent 

♦ •■•-..' 

VOL. I* NO. \U R 2 

*^^* The conclusion of Colonel Low's Treatise on the Jjaws of Siain 
will be given in a supplementary number, which will bring the mat- 
ter comprised in the first 6 Nos. and the 2 supplements, to about dou- 
ble the average quantity promised in the Prospectus. The object of 
this is to form a volume;, so as to admit oi the future ones being an- 
nual. A title pftge, contents and index for Vol. I. will therefore be 
given with the conclusion of Cololiel Low's Treatise, early in 1848. 

The Editor regrets that the effect of bringing the volume to a close 
at the end of six instead Of twelve months, will be to render it less 
illustrative of the range of subjects which the Journal embraces than 
he could have wished. The ptibIi<^on, during the fitst hidf year of 
1848, of a very full enquiry into the habitual use of opium in Smga- 
pore, and its effects on industry, health, crime &c., by Dr. I^tde, 
which has been already received ; a report by Dr. Horsfield of his 
nine months examination of Banka and its Tin mines ; a paper on 
aigriculture in the Struts Settlements, and another on the commerce 
of Manila, wluch are promised by gentlemen thoroughly oonvisrsant 
with these subjects ; and translations of some recent contributions to 
the zoology of Javaj with which he has been favoured by Dr. Blea- 
ker of Batavia; will supply som^ of the deficiencies of the fir^t vo^ 









In laying before our readers the first of a series of papers on the 
Laws of the Indian Archipelago and Eastwn Asia, we shall con- 
fine our prelinun^ remarks to the more immediately practical bear- 
iqg of the subject in connection with the British Settlements. Tius 
we do becaose the great general importance and interest of the Laws 
of the different Races with which this Journal is concerned, must be 
obvious to erety mie who has any relish for ethnographic studies, and 
because the difEorent systems that prevail are so intimately connected 
with the histoiy, and the pecutiar character and habits, of the people 
who posacea them» that any comment on their origin, spirit, and in- 
flneaoe will be most conveniently introduced as a preface to the se- 
parate papers of the series. The importance and even necessity of 
sooertuning the laws uf the large proportion of those Races who con- 
tribute to furnish a population to our own Settlements may be less 
obvious to many ; and as we believe that much inconvenience, and 
occamial iiyustice, have arisen from the neglect of the subject, we 
shall take this opportunity of inviting attention to it. 

We have not space to do more than advert to a few of those con-t 
VOL. I. NO. VI, R 2 


rideraftions wluch must occur to every one who has any ezpenenee 
of the actual operation of a purely European juriq>nidence in a com- 
munity like that of Singi^re, of whidi only one fiftiedi has even the 
reUgion of Europe. It u owing to this, on the one hand, and, on ^ 
other, to the great diMimilarity in dviliaalion and cuitoms between 
the different races themselves^ the recent origin of the Setdeinent, 
and its almost purely commercial character, that there is perhi^M no 
other British cotony where interesting md nice questfons of intenia* 
tional, and what may be termed inter-religious law, so fireq[uentljr 
arise as in Singapore. But as they generally occur incidentally to 
the lawyer in his chambers, and have rarely been discnaaed in the 
Court, (for there is little inducement to carry such ijuestions to a tri- 
bunal from which the professional judge is absent three fonrtiis of 
the year,) this branch of jurisprudence has hitherto been little culti- 
vated. The religious and domestic usages of each dass of our mot- 
ley population have received a certain degree of toleradon ; but in 
profesang to combine with this an invariable recognition of tbe law 
of England as the only foundation of its dedmons, the Court has not 
been successful, or perhaps always consistent, in eluddadng the prin« 
dples by which this union may be practically consummated. It baa, 
on the contrary, as much as possible, avoided die discosdon and ie- 
termination of these principles ; and the daims of tiie Asiatiea under 
its jurisdiction to have the extent to which thdr usages mqr l^gnBy 
prevail, so defined as to be in some measure comprehensBde, bare 
been met by general declarations of Its willingness to admiflbter Eng- 
lish law with a large and liberd regard to thdr rdigions, manmurt, 
and customs. Without venturing to impute any blame to tiie Comt 
for thus shrinldng from grappling with a subject apparently of a <fif- 
ficult and obscure nature, it might perhaps have been of better con- 
sequence if it had not hedtated to explore it thoroughly, and ezpoae 
the very limited and inadequate protection which die most Hbeml in« 
terpretation of English law, if sound, will aflow to native usages. To 
have accomplished this, however, an intimate knowledge of these tt»- 
ages, and of the laws with which they are synonimous or inlcnvoven, 
or from which they are derived, would have beeO necessary ; and, na 

AnO XASnftM AMA. S23 

tliere tf» fio wotfa in nMdi llie t^MgtB Brt fitOy and fldttifiiUy dei** 
effted, iotf iMi tile tee^plkHi of ttle pore Hindd aild Mahomedan 
^fiHHtiU^ ltd rtiiBl^ Mcearfble audioiftiea mi liie laws, to whleh tiiey 
^duM iMts r^terfed. It would htre been unreaflonftble to expect from 
Bng^ jttdgeA, in addition to the orffinaiy labour* of their offiee, and 
during tiieb generaDjr brief tenure of it, tbe leannng and original te* 
aeareb of a Or WQBam Jones. It is time (iiat, aa ndtliertheae lawa 
nor ttages, «^hatev«r wdgbt may be ^ven toUtem, could enter into tbe 
siibeiaiillte jnrispnidettoe which the Court adminiaten, and b erery 
eaae In eny degree Intolmg them, muat, in so fiu* aa they irere al- 
lowed to intuenee the dedaion, hare been proved amongst the frets 
of the eaee, the Couit, in eveiy such case, liad an opportunity of ex- 
■a^liliig eertdH brandiea of the subject, and ascertaining the exact 
degree in wl^ch their reoognitton could be reconciled with the faith- 
Ail ndn^iatMithhi of EngBsh law. But to this the answer is, that In 
ffiapenalng justice to racea with many of which dissimulation and 
craft, ao fue CrOm bdng discountenanced, are reckoned necessary so- 
eial arts, it Is often impossible for a judge to entertain a conviction 
tfanft the laws and usages expounded by the witnesses in a particular 
oaae, are anything more than a derer adaptation of them to the inter- 
ests of the party on whose behalf they testify. Cross examination, 
howefoi" tnhiable aa an instrument in exponng falsehood, does not 
alwa^ eueceed in extracting the truth. Berides, a judge who desired 
to eonunend the wisdom of any general prindple to the respect of 
hia sttOeessors, Or to lay it up for his own guidance in ftiture cases, 
woidA not be wQDug to adopt it until he had tested its range of ap- 
pUoaMSty, by eonsidering the general scope and spirit of the usages 
of the AA^tic tace or rsees on which It was to operate, rebitirely to 
those wldeh haf e subsisted in Engiand incorporated or in union with 
the Inw. Ite would not eren feel satisfied of liis competence to deal 
skUMIf with the evidence offered in the paitieuhir case, without a 
previoue general acquaintance with the system to be explained, in one 
of its •|>irtlcations, by the ^tnesses. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that ^e Court should have been somewhat averse to entertain ques- . 
tlona wMeh it had not the means of satisfactorily determinbg. The 


matter for regret iB» that this indiaporitioD to look the diffioilties fiur- 
ly in the htt^ coupled with the profeflnon of adodnieterinig the lav 
in a liberal spirit^ has had the effect of throwing a Teil ofer a gmk 
praetkiJ iigusdoe, — ^the nooFadaptataon of the kw, ia aone oCiti 
hnmchesy to the personal feelings and habits of laige maases of tbi 
people, — and tfaerdiy postpomng the interpoataon of the legklaitaR. 
For the truth is, that however well fitted, in the main, acooBldcnbb 
portion of the law of £ngland is to the condition of a oomnMrai^ al- 
most purely mercantile, (and more intelligent and intelligible as it on- 
questionably is than any Asiatic system that oould be sobatkatMl for 
it,) it is, in some of its provisions, so irreeondleable witb the hahitB 
of many classes forming the bulk of the population of Singapom, tliat, 
in its administration, these habits must continue to be dkregarded, 
until a legislative remedy be pronded. Unless the Couit irare to 
usurp legislative functions, to incorporate them with its admlniatm twe, 
it could not be more liberal in its regard to those hahitB tliaii tiba law 
allows ; and it would be a contradiction in terms to alBrm tbafcit ooaU 
exercise that liberality at all in those cases where a just and toknat 
spirit most requires it, — ^those, namely, in which natiFC aoilois ask it 
to give effect to their usages because the law of England is iMly re- 
pugnant to them. 

To enable the legislature to interpose wise^ and jo8tly« it vauldbs 
first requisite to ascertain, from the best available aouicea, what ace the 
usages, and laws which have been embraced a^ usages, of eraiy con- 
siderable class of the people, in relation to matters in which pcisoaal 
feelings are deeply concerned. It woul4 then be neceasary to enqdre 
how far, with a view to the advancement of the people, and tkflir gra- 
dual approximation to the higher dvilizadon of Europeans, it 
be expedient to deny all toleration to such of these usages ai 
manifestly and grossly inconsistent with the prindples of natural jus- 
tice, and to merely tolerate others by restricting the i n t erfep e a ce of oor 
Courts of justice with them. What remained of an innocooiis arbi- 
trary character, and intimately connected with the social or persooal 
virtues of a class, might be placed directly under the proteetion of 
the Courts by modifying the law, as regarded that class, so as to 

- AStD lASTtXAH ASIA. 825 

eODBtmnee nch uttgw. It is not at all probabla tint* wMdn aof 
pcnod of timo tlio pro^MOtnw chaogca in wfaidi woidd bo oonndflvod 
\j » lfgialatnrw» Swopooni will f aim an urcBmatwl nd oouideraUa 
claaa. On the contraiy, eyeiy one who b c o nT w aa nt with the recant 
hiatoiy and preaent oondidon of the Eaatern Archipelago, moat bo 
odBVineed tiiaty 4Ui in nany nofo trmpiyatf regieoa of tiie giobo the 
EiiropoMi nuse hae pteniledy or will idtimsfeely pfovaii, Ofor the on* 
gimd ooallpaBtl^ ao m .theae countrtta, wliere ^ fif abja at one time 
pfotaninateAia power and inftoence as they atill do in munbera, the 
QuDcao win ere loqg, ^'poaaeaa the land," and moat of the local races 
bo giadyalfy, not ao miieh aawmilated to, as ahsorbed by them. As 
CUni^is so near to theae countries, and annuaily pours a freahinfiision 
of inuBigifnts into evciy Chinese society bt the Archipebgo, and the 
ooloiusti WMntrin a constant hiteroowvo with their native country, It is 
aotlilKdy that the habits of a people in whosi natioaal vanity iabig^ 
dordiqpod will hwgefy deviate Iram thoae which prevul there to ap» 
proaah tiioae of Eoropeans — the only race equal to themselves in in* 
teUgenee and social refinement^ and sc^erior in force of eharaoter, 
withidueh they are broi^ht in contact It is therefore the ChineBo in 
partieolar, the moat numerous and inqportant dass of the popubtion 
of SiBfiyore, and thus likefy bng to maintain dieir social identity, 
for whom a modtftcalion of some parts of our law is most uiyently 

It is nothowever for the sake ofour own popalataoQ alone, that the 
Inveatjgation of A^atic laws and customs recommends itNlf as a work 
of direct praotieal ulffity. SoexteoaveisouroommerQialintereottrM 
witii every people of note in (he Archipehigo, and so prolonged are 
the periods during wUch native traders remain here on their perio- 
dieal vistts, that, in the ordinary administration of justice, it must of- 
ten be necessary to aacartm the laws and usages prevaiting in their 
countries. We mi^ instance the case of contracts entered into in 
other parts of the Arcfaipdago, wluch, when they come to be discus- 
sed in the Courts of Sngapore, muat receive a construction accord- 
ing to the laws of the place where they were made. A considerable 
number of the Asiatics who reside in Singapore have not adopted it 


M tfa«ir pmaanail ptaee of iMidiooe, biife cbflfiik to ^ Uttin^ 
of Brturabf to tkfllr Mttfa oioiilrf : Hoam iHMa aof il 
«0 iMTO widMt htkHag a will, k b moumj toiMrtntkor 
MiTO kw of iwiiwioii. 

We oomottnoo vMi u ujilwirii Trortaa oo Uto kw of om of ihi 
noit importutt mHom of SMftm Aik^^-^he Biimwin, i «wk 4i- 
mw&if gfoii; «MIi«f , ftiil UulMOy, snd tbd OKtoMftve iniiite 
irUdi pioikobly no om bttt ko oittlMr OMdd teve Wo^gkn i» hm 
uptm It Hy faitrodamxiry ranarirt rMMior it uttMoeMtty fcr « to 
Motrin oat fpadort from It by any roe^mioofrfarimi of the ioiffflftr 
togMitliitoiMtelat6rMt0tlmlo|^MHy«iuiidHoi^^ loi- 

■tidhltly oonnootod m we aro wttH tiie Biattotoi bMh amiaMMly 
aui oomauraialljri ihoir taM aiiittit hftfo gr^^ mob- 

tion dian tlioae of more renotto nalimii. We may be tllowoi,liow*- 
wr, to ooftgnrtnlate our rOaden tiial Mi fotlkta of our oefiM hm 
Man Into tile haftda i^ Colottel Low, who liaa ha^ been io will 
known fbr hia oontibutois to oriental BtMatore, ind wboaelVaitiNi 
on Stameee Grammar, Uteratare, and Oovttmment, and on M^ 
and ^ Phrabat, tbMf bow long and aealbnaly be baa Utmfi ^ 
Ibat Md from wbieb be now brbiga ns tlib new evidenoe of tto^' 
tent and aonndneaa of bk reaearob. Akbongb, oiring to tfaegtoakf 
intereat in tbe Hbida-Cbineae Umgoages in Europe, be may notnev 
be notad, aa be waa Ibt aoany years, aa "^ihe fiiameae fikkohr*" we 
beUeva be baa bere aoeomplkbed a task fbr wbicb tke aMeat enMfa^ 
tora of tbe Siameae language in France or Germany wovddlumeoa* 
iMBOd tbeir Ineompetenee. 

• ^ 



' ii 









C. n. B. A. S. A M. A. S. C. 

»oiiiHuitiY Biiri»OTi» IV nil nrth PMWAvt9iaMT ot thv itium 




Elements of Siamese Law. 



In the Soil. 

After Conquest. 

Singular Custom, — P,honk- 


Agiicolture, and traditions res- 
pecting it. 


Of Widows. 

Of Courtiers & Officers of Go- 

Of the Priesthood. 
Testamentary power. 
Exclusion from property. 

Obsequies and superstitious belief. 
Parental autiiority, and redprocal 

obligations of different mem- 
bers of a family. 

Coins, Wdghts, and Measures. 
Interest of money. 






Secret compacts. 

Administration of Justice. 

Courts of Judicature. 

Jnsticiaiy Forms. 

Ezpenccs of process. 



Judidai Oath. 

Spedfic crimes and thor pumsh* 


Treatment of prisonerSj-PrisonSi 

DiForoe and separation. 
Slaughtering of aidmsls. 
Self murder. 
Mode of procedure wiw« «it> 

nesses are not proeanUe. 
DecisioA of a Judge. 


u Short aa in but, rut. 

i Broad a aam all. 

aa Short a (sound prolonged) as a in nun-k, arm &c. 

i as in meet^feed. 

(1) i, (2) h 1st as in ffes, or a m faie— 2d haid as in W/>e<«^ 

h the French u, short and long. 

ti as in foot and moody, 

ai as ^ in my, cry &c. 

ad as ow in sow^ now. 

kji aspirate. 

t^ never as tji in thing. The letters are pronounced distiBcdfi vi 

«.*=« The want of several aeeenied and eompoundlitterstMdhifl^'^^* 
hat compriltd ui to modify hU orthograpkio lyifim eonii (fcf a6^.-«*» 




The orij^nal elements of Siamese Law had undoulitedly an ancient 
origin, and were intimateiy allied to, if they did not actually spring 
from, some Hinda Code. But Laws, from whatever source derived, 
must, in process of time, accommodate themselves to the genius, the 
habits, propena^es, and, in some measure, to the geographical posi- 
tion, of the people who use tiiem. The modifications which they un* 
dergo, vnfl render Digests and Commentaries indispensable: and 
from these will eventuaDy emanate a body of popular enactments 
with which will be blended traits of national character and sodal po- 

Independent of that interest naturally attached by the reflecting 
portion of Tw^wlnnd to whatever contributes to, duddate the various 
degrees of mental energy possessed by different nations ; and to tiie 
expoation of tiie many causes which may, at different periods, have 
increased or ^minished it ; there are, as in this instance, frequentiy 
local drcumstances tending to connect practical utility with the sub* 

To the investigation before us some degree of local interest may 
be said to attach. 

The Siamese have been for several years past near neighbours to 
the Briluh in their Settiement of Prince of Wales' Island. Tliey 
now border dosely on the newly conquered Provinces of Tennase* 

There Is beddes a considerable popuktion of Siamese, who have 
pbiced themsdves under British rule, both as settlers on Penang and 
as agriculturists in Province Wellesley, on the main coast of Keddah ; 
and who are consequently subject to a British Court of Judicature. 

In a political point of view, also, it is presumed that we ought not 
to be ignorant of the real character, prevailing ideas, and capacities of 

^ TheLawsofantttonfonnthemostinstntctivepart of its History. •*< 

8 2 


a people so dreiunstanced, or of the laws and institutioiis aSeeCmg 
them. It is plain tint, whether forced to it or oftenntfe, we must 
occaaonally from onr proximity have interoDurse wi& tfab people. 

To those who relish die task of comparing the Codes of the van* 
otts Eastern nations, these pages may possibly be of use. 

It is likewise presumed that the prmdples of Siamese Law w3f 
prove to be pretty faSr transcripts of the Codes preva l ent in north 
and south Laos, and Camboja, and probably of the Ava Code. 

It may be premised that the practice of following precedents has 
made it easy to evade the law in many instances ; hence tusiam win 
occaaonally in Siam be foimd at variance wUti tiie Law, a htt noted 
by M. De k Loubere m 1688.* 

If it should be found that the Siamese Laws are of Htndd origin, 
we have yet no sure due by which to trace all the steps of theb' pro- 
gress from Hindbostan. The Siamese seem to have no distinct B^ 
Code of Civil or Criminal Law. But they are abmidto% supplied 
with Bali Ordinances for the regulation of then* moral conduct ; and 
for the due performance of religious Duties and BSteg, — ^It may pro- 
bably however be found, as I am incfined to believe it w31 be, tiiat 
Bali Codes do exist in Siam. 

The Digests in the Thju h&nguage are numerous. A new one ha& 
generally been issued at the beginning of, or, daring eadk succesdre 
reign. But sudi a practice has not been induced so much by a de- 
sire to innovate, as by feelings of ostentation ; for the repeals, ahera- 
tions and qualifications of the old Laws are few. Many odihHoiu 
have however been made at these periods. 

It is requinte that some account should be given^ here of the Di- 
gests which form the groundwork of this dissertation. 

It may be observed, at the same time, that Or€ii AuihorUi^ o» 
points where information was deficient in the Digests have beei^ 
consulted, amongst the natives of the country. 

The accounts which have been given of Siam by Loubere and 

^ *' The Siamese say that their Laws came from Laos.*' This was 9 
matter of course as the Siamese oatioii was itself a coieoT from^ 
De La Loubere's Siam p. 9. 


other Travelers and Voya^ers^ and the Reports of Missions, do not 
fumifih us with authentic data from which correct information can be 
drawn B]iplifiable to the present day respecting the internal policy of its 
RnlerSy and the Laws by which they are gt>vemed. But there is still 
much in Lonbere's account of IKamese Law that Is yet applicable.'*' 

I>oetor Leyden has described, on the authority of M. De la Lgp- 
here, three Codes, under the titles P,hra Tamra^ 'P^a T<smmon^ 
and PJkra Kammanoot, But they may with more propriety be 
termed CAopf^r of Codes. 

The Digests in the Siahiese language to which I have had access 
are tlie following. 

1st. Kot P,hra Ayakaan. 

TUfl is a popular Digest now in use. 

The first part, as the text purports, was compiled in the year 2,155 
of the era of Boodd,ha [Anno Dom : 1614] by order of a King of 

As the Siamese, out of superstitaous motaves, nerer pronounce the 
name of thdr King niiile alive, and rarely even after his death, his 
titles only, in tids instance, are given. 

These are, Bom-detcha P,hra eka t,hasong, Eeso*un b^omma- 
narot Uuromma bip,heettra P,hra Chad na yo hoa. 

An addition was made to this Digest three years later headed,-— 

Att,hamma*t,ha cfaak,ka weebfita b,hatang. 

The last part of this is therein stated to have been extracted from 
a Digest dated on Monday, in the 6th month of the year Wik (or 
Monkey) 1102 or Anno Dom : 561. 

It concludes with the observation that a copy of it was transmitted 
to the P,Ariiya Lttkyhdn or Raja of Ligore for his gmdance, **in the 
year of the monkey, in the month Al, on Wednesday, on the first 
night of the decrease t',ho eok*^ '^ [two years of the century having 
elapsed.]" The particular century alluded to, is left to conjecture* 

2d. The next authority fs a Digest which was procured by me 
at Mergui, a few days only after its capture by the British troops« 

^ Louberc confesses that be had no access to Siamssc* 


It purports having been compiled in 1591 of the SiaoMse en Sib* 
rat or A. D. 1048.* 

'' Bot P»hra Ayakajin nee k,hat wai tk k,ha-weetchatt t^halitiii- 
*' chau Pyhraya Eentyha-wongsa mba krang' 6k maa k£a t^ pdf 
'' Mareei Tmmau pee ma meea 1596." 

'' Given to Chau P^raya Eent^ha-wongsa, when he went ia ISH 
*^ [Anno Dom : 1055] as General of the Army sent agtbit Tons' 
*' serim/^ 

It is further stated that about this period much ignorance prevail- 
ed respecting the Laws of Slam ; aud that m the year of the Sikb- 
raat Soopphanratsadoo sangwachara chatt,hama8^ Sookk,iw ^M 
^ka deet t^heeyang At,heet raware 1591, [Anno Domini 1048J the 
Digest was compiled by order of a King, [hia proper name vmn^ 
ing] entUkd P,hra karunna, P,hra baat SomdetEka tyhatwot Eeso* 
tin bdromma b£p,hit PJira P,hAt.t>ld-Chaii yo hoa k,hr&-0D|[«»^' 
cha PJira Narai, song Meekk,haraatcha-tham an maha prutitf 

Hiis Digest agrees in all essential points with the Kot ?}nif^ 
kaan^ but is not so comprehensive. Its principal chapters m, 

Tat fating. — On the distribution of justice divided into SHew 

Tat sanuio-dn. — On the distribution of jusdoe, II Heads. 

Tat P,hriyan.— On evidence, 22 Heads. 

3d. The third Digest examined is entitled, 

Koi tnai PJira Ayakaan and contains the following datei ai^ 
ions held in Siamese Courts, independent of a list of the ctfes d^ 
cided agreeably to the Laws of the Kingdom at these periods. TH 
first date is 1095 of the Choonk Sakkaraat era [638 A. D.] ^ 
second Sesnon described happened in 1146 of the same era. ^ 
the thhil quoted refers to the 1557th year of the Soopp^a^ 
doo, or A. D. 1014. 

4tii. Bot P,hra Ayakaan [Ldc chai P,hra Thammasait InM*" 
paat] is another work. 

* It is afterward stated by order of P,hra see maat a Prinw of tbe s«^ 

blood. jM>tbebf<^ 

t The translation of these and otber Titles has beeDgiTeonDder"^ ^^^ 
^ Governnunr in the vii paper of the 20th. vol. of the Transicww 
R. A. Society. 


The first ch^iter bprefaced with the remark that the Laws treat* 
ed of are derited firom Codes of old, framed during the reign of Ba* 
romma ekakkrapjkat who, as lus name Imports^ wielded tiie miglity 
discuss or diakra of the Gods aoeordng to their mythology. 

This appears to he a Text Book on both Criminal and Ciril L«w. 

It contains numerous cases and precedents to guide both judges 
and those who mtj come, or be brought before them. 

Independent of tiie abo?e comfnlations, which embrace both Ciril 
and Criminal Jurisprudence, there are numerous Treatises on the 
more particular branches of Law, which hare been radier con- 
fusedly jumbled in the laiger Digests. Amongst these are, 

Krommasak. Respects ranks. 

Lak ChaL R^^ards the prefering of ^dums, complaints &c Forms 

Lak Intyhapaat. On the exduami from attendance at Court in 
a suit 

Bu set. . On dedsions. 

T,hamma Attradok. On proper^, and inheritance. 

T,hotsameet Rachatyham wa dod k,haa. A section of the ten 
books of Commandments. It relates to slaves also. 

Tat flung. On the distribution of justice and preferring of siuts. 

Tat Samno-dn. On the same, and on examinadons. 

Tat P,hriyan. On eridence and OrdeaL* 

The Siamese in Courts of Justice seem to be much more attentive 
to precedents than to the letter of the Law, and of these first they 
have many bulky volumes. ** They are practised in CfadUng the 
spirit of the Law, under the pretence that it is not applicable to 
each particnlar case, observes M. Dela Louberein his work on Siam 
written in the 17th century. 

Respecting the origin of Laws amongst mankind, the Siamese ob- 
serve, that in the Trai PJko^ or TVt Loc0, viz., the three Worlds^ 

* The P^hraAyakaan seems to hare been derived ftom the BaliP,lira 
R^aPanya. The PhraThammasast from the Dhorroabot onClYil Law. 
P,hra Tamnos relates to Justitution. Zak Beenyapat, Regulations for 
Courts and Judges. Krommasak also. Lak Chat Nuk Praat the work of 
^ome leamied Lawyer. Palat is Viceroy. 


Earth, Heaven, and Nip,haa [NiTan] displayed, it is rdated that 
men* kmg eoolinued Ib a stale of innocoiee after tlieir creation, Imt 
were aedueed at length bj Mwt Paekom or spirits, who inatiUed cril 
into their minds; that good spirits came xo counteract the misdiMf 
done by die evil ones; and that botii followed men like their riiadovs. 
But as the firrt became orermatdied, nianldnd found it necemary to 
set up things and to frame Laws. I mi^ here obsenre that copies 
of the three Digests 6rst mentiooed were presented by me some 
years ago to the Royal Anatic Society. 




Chaptbr I. 

The Sail. 

Tbb Simese are rather an agrieoltural tlui atradnig people, and 
thej are not mom pastoral, ahhoagfh it is pnliahle tbeir anoestora 
were, before deaoBniing from ^enoftfa. The ^reat Mf of thepeo* 
pie, spread over the ^NOitry, live ckiefly by e«itivafaii|^ the soil; — 
and the popnbtton of their towns, by petty trades and tiafllck, chiefly 
In agvlciiltural prodaoe. For atthougfh Bankok, the capital, exhibits 
a busy csomniercial soene, yet It is to the ClHiieBe that the impube 
nMist be attributed. The property of the former mainly conslals in 
rioe-groauds and cattle; timt of the latter in thdr floatmg^-rafta, shops 

and stock Id trade. There is a rieher chMW composed of tlie owners 


of gardens and ofdsmtdiB. These five more andoleatly than their 
Beighbovs, when their pfentatlons are in bearing. Tbe wife and 
dMightevsef aCAtfti TImm, or owner of an orekard^ carry the produce 
to market in baskets slung over th^ shoulders. IfJhrlM ridi, tim 
latter are frequently allowed to retain the psoifta to fonnr separatcr 
fonda for folure eoDgendes. 

Rank Is known from the nuaber of mm or fidds over which the 
IndKviduai possesses a WMnknl superiority, for it is dsiditfoi if vamf 
of the puUfo oftoers have actual)^ such l auded property^ 

Tlie sell of Siamia fertile; bet the best euMnted districts fie io 
the imnMHftatr vickdty of navfigaUe rivers; whMeall beyeod these dis* 
tricts may not on liie average exceed, by the accounts of the nadvea, 
a anle, aithougk taken separate^ a for any be found from three to 
five miles* h may be sidd of all the Ultni Gangetic canntries tfaaS 
they have fruitfol smk; but that the ease with whidi the various 
tribes which peo|^ them can acqdre the means of subsistence, must 
operate against thehr being folly eukivaeted ] while it may be consider* 

336 THK SOIL. 

ed as no weak W to the mental improrement, and to the defdop* 
ment of the physical energiea of these tribes. Hi^ cannot peredre 
the utility of arts and sdences which, under more rigDrous cBmes, 
necessity has originated, and which refinement and habit supeniddei 
to that necessity, now uphold and inrigorate. 

It does not appear from any of the Siamese writings examined \j 
me, or from information orally obtained, that the Sorerogn is the 
virtual proprietor of the soiL That he is perf eetiy despotic cannot 
be doubted. But eastern despots generally encourage agricnkare^ 
and however tlie case msy have stood ori^naUy, it is evideai from 
kw cases i|U0led in the digests and dednons that the oceiqnets of tiie 
land have a firm prescriptive if not an indefeasiUe proprielofy right 
in it. Perhaps their Kings miqr have deemed, and witii tmtii, that 
tiiefe own pimp e iity was linked witii the admiaskm of that i%ht| 
and hence may have arisen the fixed assessment on landed property, 
which has not altered ance the days of the earliest interoourse of 
Europeans with Siam. It is collected ather in kind at 10 per cent 
or in money. Ten per cent on the value of the nett produce is hero 
meant. Although tiiis lor Asia is a Ught tax in itsctf, yet whas ta- 
ken in coiyunction with the obygation to personal serrice fir the 
state, and with otiier exactions to which all an Sable, Ift will be fooid 
onthe whole oppressive. Besidesthe Kingswill often break tinvagh 
all law, sodal or moral. 

The assessment however is oolyJUeed on land under grain cultiva- 
tion. Whero it u stocked witii vahiaUe or useful trees and tiuubs, 
the ruUng power exerts tiie right of iqqportiomng the tax to its fan 
creasbg value to its owner. These observatkws aro sqiported by 
passages in the IMgests wherdn caaes in point are produced, and 
some have been derived from inquiries amongst tiie Smmese . la 
one instance a suit u brought into Couii to recover damages frtn a 
Defindant for encroaddog upon, and nsng a portion of land be- 
bnging to tiie prosecutor, whkh it is stated he had original^ dear- 
ed and a^HvaUfL And iu another clause it is provided, tiiat "'IVo- 
perty in tiie sml, or consisting of pbntations and bee-tracts [meuiag 
oertun spaces of woodland where bees are abundant] must be proved 

.THK soil. 337 

on occaaon, by examination of witnesses and inspection of written 
docummUi. It is admitted that he who fitst eiears forest-ground, 
and sows thereon, will be entitled to a written acknowledgement of 
his title to it, u^der the seals of certain officers. 

Pertii^ no nation is more scrupulously exAct than the Siamese 
are, in oommitting to paper an account of such events or transactions 
as are, in the remotest degree, liable to subsequent scrutmy. To po- 
litical negodations or diseusrions the remark is pecufiariy applica- 

A Chau Naa or cultivatorwho is desirous of clearing ground ap- 
plies to the head man of tiie Tillage. The latter shews his written 
application to the proper officer, who directs him to inspect the land 
and mieasure it. The applicant baring cleared it, receives a written 
titie ; but although he is not in it vested absolutely with a right in 
perpetuity ; still the land forms thereafter a part of his reeU pro- 
perty, is alienable by deed of sale, or by g^ and descends to his 
heirs at law. From tins it is clear that the King can take advan- 
tage of 80 defective a titie. Prescription is the owners best safeguard. 

Phmtations and gardens are taxed according to their actual capa- 
dty of production ; and because this must fluctuate greatly, the 
grants wMch the proprietors recdved when their trees began to bear 
fruit &c. are renewed at intervals, and new rates of assessment set- 
tled. No allowance seems on these occasions to be made for tiie 
partial unproductiveness of any portion formerly taxed as productive 
until that becomes exoessive. 

According to the Bali Meeleent^hara Milinda Raja, which is a 
compoidium of knowledge and one of the most valued books in the 
country, and one which Siamese Kings affect to respect, there are 
four things which must be attended to by a Prince who is desirous 
that his subjects may prosper — 1st. Sati^amed^hmng^* The distri«- 
bution or loan of grain to the husbandman, and the exaction of one 

^ This and the other Bali words occaring in this paper are rendered ac- 
cording to the Siamese conception of their meaning, as I have no dic- 
tionary of the Bali language to refer to. Bat the Sanscrit scholar will 
find no difficulty here, since the Bali 15 cognate with that langaage, if 
not its acttttl root. 

T 2 

338 THS SOIL. 

tentli part only of the prodaoe of the hanreflt— 2d. Pateetameijitaif. 
The r^l^olar pajrment of Oorernment tenrmnts and depend ante hjr 
half yenfy hMtahnentB. 3d. The lending of raxmej without infeerest 
to induatiious subjects— 4th. IVaeka Peeyan§^y oondesoeiitioii, aitrkt 
impartiality in deddon, and dehy in pronoundnf^ JodfemcDt far 
three yean, if witneMes cannot be obtuned. 

When the Siamese compier a eoontry tiiey frequently penmt the 
inliaUtants to enjoy their own laws, in so far as may seem oompoti* 
ble with the safety of the former. The plmder at the first oc9cttpa- 
^n belongs to the King, and as it is obtuned by What they term 
keep mot, which nu^ l»e rendered a perfect ** wmetping of the terru 
tor^f'* may lie supposed to include public and private property of 
eTery denomination, and they scruple not besides to inast on contri* 
hutions of gndn to meet real or feigned exigencies. Countries sub- 
dued by the Siameseare assessed ad libitum. But lliey often, for sea- 
sons at least, permit tiiem to pay the rates to wMdi tliey have been 

The Siamese, as has been noticed already, partake more of an agri^ 
cultural than of a pastoral nature, and as the [perhaps IVrtv] race 
from wUch they fining was^ it may be assumed, strictiy nomadie, the 
Qonjectore of M. De La Loubere may be correct, — that they were m" 
ginally instructed in agriculture by the Chinese. Tins conjecture re- 
oetyes some support from the fact of the annual plougliing festival be- 
ing oonnnon to both these people. Formerly, the Kings of Siam at- 
tended in person to perform the ceremony of holding the plough, but 
political reasons, joined perhaps to superstitaous ones, seem, many 
years ago, to have induced them to delegate the task to the P,Aott« 
iatjikp or keeper of the rice granaries. 

In the 6tii month, the astrologers fix on a propittons day, and, when 
it arrives, the P,honlat,h^ proceeds in great pomp to afidd beyond the 
Town, where he ploughs « space of ground sofident to yield a cnvp 
of five measures of grain. 

The Chan PJireea P^honlatMp or simply the P,honlat,bbp hus 
another duty to perform of a very strange nature, at the festival of 
the 2d month of the year, 0£ there personates the King, and goes 

MW SOIL. 339 

!n apateukeeiifOr on a bollock, in procesidon to the rice fields at some 
distance from the dty, to the place called T,Ai Sou Ckeemg Cka^ a 
band of mudc keeping hJm company, and there undergoes the pe- 
nance of standing on one foot at different places for one yam (equal 
to about three solar hours) duriug three successive days. But a^ it 
would be no easy task without siqiport, a frame of wood with a gilt 
canopy keeps turn from Ailing whilst he is dmng penance, or, as it b 
believed by the people, ** proving the dispositions of tlie Devattaa 
and spirits.'^ A select band of singers dances before him. The 
performers are supplied mth hons, with which they take water out 
fii a large jar, throwing it over the by-standers, and invokilig the 
Nok P,hreea Raja hong or the Royal goose (Humza) to descend and 
«|uench his thirst. Should the P,hon]at,h^ let his foot descend, ho 
is liable to forfeit his property, and have his family enslaved by the 
King ; as it is bdieved to be a bad omen, portending distraction to 
the state, and instabiUty to the throne. But if he stand firm he ia 
beUeved to have gained a victory over evil spirits, and he has more- 
over the privilege, ostensibly at least, of seizing any ship which may 
enter the harbour .during these three days, and taking its contents, 
and also of entering any open shop in the town and carrying away 
what he chooses. Care however is taken to apprise every one of die 
event, so that his vieeioyship is no great gainer by his perquisite. 
The severity of the punishment awarded for a failure in the ceremo- 
ny b owing to the fear of Ac Court that it might prove a signal ta 
the fiBcdous to disturb the general peace, and that it would, at any 
rate, create discontent against the government 

An inunense^rowd attends the eahibitkm of this curious task. No 
ratbdal account has been obtained from the Siamese of the origin of 
this custom. But I inotine to beUeve that it is a remnant of some 
andent festival in honor of the sun, especially as it is acknowledged 
to be one of Hindu origin, and as the P,hraam or Brahmans attend, 
and are almost the omly performen of the ceremonies^ bearing 
images of Ganesa and other Gods. 

The Brahmans of India at one of thMr festivals worship the sun, 
standing the while on one foot, the other lestiog on the ancle, and 

3*10 TH> SOIL* 

looting* towardu the East with their hands hdd cot open before thea^ 
m a hollow form.* 

It is said by the Sounese, bat with what troth has not been shewn, 
that in the 6th month when tlie King, agreeably to andent usage, b 
hound to circumambidate die city dunig se^en sormsrife daf8,t 
should any delay take place in the preparaiMm of the oonreyanee for 
his use, whether it be an elephant, diariot, palankeen, er a horse, 
all of whidi ought to be in requisidon, — it is. ineomhent on him to 
stand on one foot until the cavalcade is ready, under pain of lom^ 
his crown. It is not probable that the tiara is ever placed in jeopar* 
dy from this silly custom. 

Several tribes of Hindus sahite a superior by standing In the man- 
ner above described, and holding thdf joined hands- in front of their 
fttces or foreheads. 

Amongst the omens dreaded by a Prince are oertun appearances 
hi the heavens, eclipses, comets, foiling of bats, dreams, bleeding of 
statues, (in which they believe,) twinkling of the eyelids, words aod- 
dentally heard in walking the street, calling of lisards, &c. 

The Siamese tradiHom respecting the introdoetion of agricoltorai 
habits amon[p(t the human race, are coeval with those wUkh have 
referenee to their mundane chronology, and have apparently been de- 
rived' from the west,' and incorporated into theur history, after tiicy 
)kad themselves become an agricultural people. They suppose that 
there is a Mh pjw sop or primary principle from which gram qimng. 
Of this it is related m the Bali work TH P^hom or Tree loJb«, ''the 
three words displayed," that, in the first and innocent age, giam 
(meaning rice) was not only abundant but was cultivated widioat 
trouble. It so happened, however, that the foir sex (ahw !) of those 
times had most voracious appetites for this kind of food, and devour- 
ed such quantities of it, that the M^ p^ka^sop^ in order to punish 
them, orduned that they should only reap chaff in future. Themaks, 
fin<^ng that a scardty had ensued, and that th^ had difficulty in 

* Asiatic Researches vol. v. p. 235. 

f Tbis is also the period ofagreatHindufestival, vide A. S. Journal 
Ko. ll»p. 11. 

THE SOIli. 341 

lunaging affinlrs, set up a King to reign over them. The M^ p,ha-* 
Bop having felt thereby propitiated, permitted the grain to fructify as 
before. " When men become wicked scarcity prevuls, and when 
'* their wickedness becomes excessive, the whole grun of the coun- 
try resolves itself into its first prindple, and ascends to the heavens 
in a spiritual shape." It may therefore be compated in some mea« 
sare to Ceres. 

The Mali^ are impressed witli the same belief, suppodng that 
their granaries are often emptied owing to the flight of the rice 
grain, termed by them the ^' paddie terbang^^ or ** Samangat pad^ 

The Siamese may be conndered as very slovenly farmers, a cir- 
cumstance attributable to the luxuriant liberality of nature, and to 
the little value attadied to land. Women materially assist in the la- 
bours of the field, but not more so on the average of a year than the 
women of Great Britun. Except near tiieir larger towns, the far- 
mers seem to have adopted the indolent methods of culture prevalent 
In Pegu, and on the Tennasserim Coast, and sameHmes used by the Ma* 
lays, lliey collect lai^ herds of bufbdoes, and when the nuny sea- 
son has commenced, they drive them about in the flooded fields until 
the soil has been sufficiently worked up and weeds destroyed. A 
coarse and large wooden rake, or in its place a bunch of Hiomy 
shrubs, is drawn over the surface, and the seed is then sown broad- 
cast. By Ms last process t^ey reap only about one-fourth of the 
quantity which would be obtained by the transplanting system, or in 
other words the produce of an acre sown broadcast may average 110 
tyhanan^ while that on wluch gnun has heeapUmied, will yield four 
hundred tyhaium* and when rice is at a medium price, about 31} 
gallons may be bought for tbe value nearly of three shillings. 

The annual inundation of the 8iam river, or M^ nam assists the 
labours of the husbandman, by destroymg the weeds and nourishing 
the crops by the mud it deposits in its oouree. The seed is sown 
and the crop reaped betwixt the 7th or middle of the 8th (July), 

* A i^haoao b equal to abeut I \ gallon. 

342 THB SOIIi. 

and that of the 12th month. Near towns, a rude ptough and bar* 
row are in use, and gnun uphmied. 

The cropa are reaped hy means of a ahort aekk nearly resemUii^ 
the Eng^h one ; and thai part oofy of the alaik n^nch is graaped hj 
the hand doae to the ear, is left attadied to the latter, a pradjoe al- 
so eommon amongst the Malays, The grain Is fmddy. dried nnder 
a hot sun, and haying been laid on a clay floor in the open air. Is 
beaten out by the feet of oaten or buliloes. The ^usfc is sepa r ated 
by. pounding the grain in a wooden mortar, or by pbcing it betwixt; 
two logs of wood which are groored. The lower one is ixed in an 
upright position, and the other b made to revolve on it by manual 

Siam, like alaaost every ooe of the Eastern oountries, produces va« 
rious desoriptions of rice, some of which are of qmck growth, and 
may be raised on high grmmd when the rain u frequent. 

The Siamese, Burmese, and other Ultra Gangetic natfams, prao* 
tioe gardemng in its rudest form. The Chinese, however, are sape* 
rior in tlus respect. But systematic as their ideas may be on the 
subject of gardening, yet they dkplay little real taste in execatkn* 
Tludr garden deity is invested with the attributes of utUily in prefer- 
ence to what is merely ornamental, and when aiming at the beanlafii], 
it u by the formal arrangement of flowers and dwarf trees withm a 
very limited spot.* The Siamese m»ke a square garden, and plant 


oocoanuts In double rows along the sides. The interior is divided 
by ditehes into longitudinal compartments ; on the edges of these 
areca trees and plantains are phmted, and in the nuddle> vegetables, 
such as sweet potatoes, plhuli mun t,bet or yams, and the root of a 
plant, the arum aquadcum, melons, cucumbers, pumpkins, gourds, 
turnips, radishes, which two last are coarse. The Chinese pickle 
the leaves of these last, and use them at their meals. Also the t^ 
plant, greens, and onions. Of flowers they cultivate many ; not so much 
on account of their beauty, as to supply 4be flower shops, as in the Bs* 

*" The Royal gardens in Chinese Tartary may seem exceptions : bat H is 
their eiteni only which would appear to render them worthy of being no- 
ticed. Sir J. Davis has treated this $abjec( fatty in bis useful work on China* 

THS SOIL. 343 

zars of India, and for the shrines of Buddha, wliich are decorated 
by the worshippers in this country, as in Ava, with these acceptable 
offerings, and which are also essential accompaniments of many im- 
portant dvii and relig:ioi]s ceremonies. * 

* They have the China rose jCbaba, the Arabian Jasmine; Gamcllasy 
the chumpa, Michelia champaka ; kadanga (tbe Malayan pananga) ; d&k 
kalong, a white flower ; Ian t,hom, a whitish flower (the kading of the JUa-*- 
lays;) chaba, a red flower, (bonga rija of MJ ; d&k boa lo-ung, the lotus 
andnymphsa lotus; daau rii-nng, [boongateiayamoffifalays] ay^ltow 
flower ; p,heek,hoon, a sweet scented flower ; mimusdps elengl, (Lin : and 
Marsd ; dik ban mai ro roe, a red flower ; d&k t,hiyan, a red small flow- 
er: d4k nom mio, d&k sen yoot, dtt kadanga cheen,|ellowfsh green flower $ 
P,bott,ha cheat, d&k kto (kt^mmuning, chaleas paniculate) ; d&krak Coo- 
mlngoo of Malap) ; dik k,hem; d&k hongseepbaat; d4k yee t,hd ; dik sa- 
rapyhee ; d4k boon naak. 


Chaptbr II. 



The property of an intestate person, should he leave no lq;al heirs, 
eicheatB to the Kingy who contrires generaUy to get a portion of the 
estate of' ereiy person deceased. Wills are written or made Tcrtal- 
)y, in the presence of competent witnesses ; and may not be cod- 
fonnded witJi alienation by Gift. Real and personal proper^ mtj 
be willed and gifted away to any one, and, as heriditaments, dcKend 
tOy and are without distinction dinded amongst, th^ heirs at Ut. 
The laws of inheritance are considered as applying chiefiy to Hetds of 
fanulies. Under thb view, the property of a man deceased, is divi- 
ded into three portions. One goes to the parents and grud pt- 
rents, one to the widow, and the third to the children, and other re- 
latives on the man's side, according to priority. * But should 
the man not have cohabited so long as 3 years with his wife, she vill 
only receive one third of a portion or part. Before proceediDg 
further it may be as well that the forms required by Law rebtire to 
the inheritance of property be described. 

When a man dies his relatives must give immediate informitioD to 
the Sam6 Maraddk or Registrar of Estates of deceased PerBons. The 
digests contain long lists of rules for the realizing and presemtioa 
of such estates, but which are too tedious to be here detailed. 

A registry to have been valid must have been made in presence of 
a Sena Bddee^ a corruption apparently of the Indian SeMfoli^i * 
JIfoon, a Koon^ and a Montree^ Officers of the rank of 1000 M-a 
or fields, or of a sinular mumber of Officers whose ranks vary from 
600 to 400 na*a. The distribution of the property takes effect iftf r 
the solemnization of the obsequies ; and should a claimant hario^ 
the power, and opportunity so to do, neglect to put in his claim pr^ 
vioos to the termination of the obsequies, he forfuts his right. 

It should seem, although it is not of course expressed, in the di^- 

• This apparentlj inyerttd order of succession is in strict c^aforfli'T 
^ith the Digests. 



estSy that IHtle attention is pud bj the poorest clais to these rules; 
and that the latter hare prohably been made purposely to senre the 
cuphlity of the CoMit. Wealth b Siam frequently leads> as it does 
all over Asii^lo the ruin of its possess^' ; what therefore cannot with 
safety be enjoyed is often buried. To this also, in a great measure* 
may be asoribed the aversion shewn by the mass of the people to en« 
gage in arduous but Ucratite professions ; and the heedless manner 
in which they often throw away all that they are wordi at festivakt 
births, marrJRges, and funerals. In many of these respects they agree 
with the natiFes of India, and In al} wiUi the remaining Indo Chi- 
nese nations, and the Malays. A poor man will stint himself in eveiy 
comfort for y«ars, in order that he may he able to squander his sav- 
iqgs, perhaps equal to a hundred pounds sterling, at his marriage. 
Indian despotic native governments too, alvrays encourage sudli 
w9i$to ( since poverty in their subjects is desirable to them ; and not, 
where provisions are so abundant, followed by dlsalfection and tur- 
bulence, but productive of submission and docility. The Law there- 
fore regarding succession is often evaded by a man during hb Kfe ; 
oinoe by Gift he can transfer property from his own hands to nume- 
rous relatives, and defeat the rapadty of the Court. But any at- 
tempt by an hdr to conceal property which belonged to the deceased 
causes a forfeiture of his didms 

A person claiming inheritance most personally appear ; subsdtutes 
beiug inadnussible. Heirs to property must asnst at, and bear their 
share of, the diarges for obsequies, exceptions being made for those 
who cannoty from the nature of circumstances, be present 

Bdbre property is divided, the debts of tlie deceased are to be 
punctually paid ; and competent witnesses must be present at the 
division. It does not appear that any distinction is drawn betwixt 
property of wluch a female may be possessed, and that left by a man, — 
both are divided on similar principles. The eldest child, whether 
male or female, gets the largest share. Should the individual have 
no parents, grand parents, or great grand parents living, tlien the 
portion, or one third of the real and personal property, which such 
persons would Iiave otherwise taken, is divided equally, and added to 

V 2 


the two remainiiif^ portions, — (the form of first separsdng^ the Es« 
tate into three imrts, being always adhered to.) The same prindple 
reguUtes the din^on where there are no daiHumts to toAer of tiw 
other two shares. A son or daughter having reoeiTed a marrii^^ 
portion from a parent during diat parent's lifetime, wifl not be enti« 
tied to share in his Estate, unless a paudty of near relatires giTes a 
title thereto. In hd he or she will only, in either sappoention, be 
entitled to such a part of tlie property as would by law fiifl to be 
shared by either ; and if the marriage portion sliould happen to be 
less than tliat part, tlie deficiency is made up at the diyinon of the 

• A Siamese is not restricted to one wife, polygamy being auihaHz- 
ed by Law. Ck)ncubinage is also common ; hence it is enacted that 
if one of a couple who have long cohabited without having been mar- 
ried, survives the other, he, or she, will only be entitled to daim a 
small part of the Estate of the deceased depending on the generosity 
of surviving relatives. 

A man or woman marrying without the consent of parents, wiO 
forfeit all right to inherit. This principle is extended to other 
branches. The paternal authority is enforced very strongly in Siam. 
A person going to a distant country without consent of parents can- 
not claim any pordon of inheritance at their decease ; unless it be 
proved either that h^ returned to minister to thdr vrants during their 
illness, or at any rate that he attended the solemnizatioii of fimeral 
rites. There is in all this much in common with the Chinese laws. 

It would appear that under lawful and ordinary drcumstanoes, a 
person remaining ten years absent ft<om his country without intelli- 
gence being obtained of him, cannot afterwards lay chum to property, 
which if present he might have inherited. 


Chaptbr hi. 


The state of nidowliood in Siam does not materially differ from 
that in England. Widows are not re s t ri cted from marrying again. 
In the event of a teparaiiony merely, hetwixt husband and wife, the 
sons remain with the mother, the daughters with the fiitlier, on the 
prindple that Ihe man would othenrise be deprived of female assist* 
ance in liis household* 

Although no legal restrition Is imposed on the widow ; yet,, by a 
fiuuaed moral one applying indireetly the more frequently she has been 
married, ilie less will her share be of her deceased husband's proper- 
ty. Should she have married a fourth hudMnd, she cannot claim 
any part of hb property at liis decease. She is a Preisiya^ and her 
alleged incontinence must thus be punished. But she is entitled to 
her Attradok or personal property, and to what she had personally 
acquired, during cohahilation, (women earring on petty traffic if they 
like,) and also to the portion which she may have brought to her huj»« 

When a husband HeA before consummation, his widow does not take 
any portion of his Estate. Nor can either inherit the survivor's pro* 
perty if they have not cohabited for three years. The children how- 
ever take aooording to Law. * The crime of adultery invalidates any 
chum to such property on the part of the wife. But the wife has no 
recourse against the husband for infidelity. The moral Law on this 
point, as ooudied in the Baiiy would seeiA to make some amends for 
the deficiency regarding it contained in the Civil Code. It iriU sub- 
sequently be noticed that a man may kill his wife and her paramour 
if he discover them together. « 

if* man has three or more wives, they will, in the event of hb 
death, sliare amongst them one third of his property, — the wife who 
was fint married receiving the largest portion ; — ^and the remaining 
wives, portions according to their seniority. They will also get one 
Aa/^ sliare amongst them when they luive no father-in-law or uiothcr- 

848 wmotrs and Ttiziit ptfomerr. 

In*1aw alive. But this supposes the inferior wives to have been finw, 
for if slave debtors they are not enlitled. Loabere has described &e 
course of suocesaon m different terras from the Digests. He ob- 
serves that '* the great irife takes first of the deceased husband's pro- 
** pertjr and tiien her chSldbren. The fittle wivea remainig the pro- 
** perty of tiie heur, and not inheritinf^.^ (IVttnsls of Loitbere's 
Histoiy of Sianr.) 

Where a widow has been twice naniod, and has had a fad/ iiy 
her first husbmid, should she have a famly by her aednid l a^ iij^q 
also, that fandly will talce five shares more than the step ofad^vn in 
the event of the death of the aeoond hadand* In aoaae oomnMOta- 
ries the step childrea are not allowed to rianre; sfaieB it b anpposed 
that tliey reegivv a porihnfiom ikeir /Migf^g Estate. If daare are 
no children by the aeoond marriage, the step ddldren Mem entitled 
enly to one rixtii pwt ci one of the three ekares of ^e Estate. But 
I cannot find in the Digests the reason for this nic 

A widow who marries a widower and bean a faaiiy to Mm, takes 
the usual tbfard. Should the have no children tdie tidses one half of 
one of the portiens* 

A widow may marry her deceased husband^s brother, or the son 
ef the brother. And the converse holds good fai the case of a man 
marrying a deceased wife^ nster. B«t such imions we not much 
countenanced, and the first may be safeljr deemed obsolete. 

Such property aa a widow may have personally aopiired, or bmm 
brought as a portion to her husband, w have received from him » a 
gift, remains her's under every circumstance ; and wiU not be tifan 
Into account on the divisiotf of her deceased husband^ prapei^. 

There are four classes of wives u» Siam, [jidtiiaogh Loubere oaly 
admits of two, viz«, tile *^ great wife and ieetermiveei the itUterb^Mg 
all slaves.*''] 1st. Those bestowed by the King on Oiioera of ths 
Government either as rewards for goodcoadoct, or iram a poEtic 

* ^ The chief wife succeeds to aH, then for her chiidreo^ wbo iiAeril from 
Ihcir parents equal portions." 

^ Inferior wives may be sold as also their chiMren by the heir, and they 
depend on his pleasure and on what they received from (he father bererc hi» 
death.**— M. de la Louberc^s Siam, p. 22. 

irtoowfl AND niEin vRoraHTT. 349 

motive, snd who «re not ahrsys aetuiUy married. Theae wives are 
first in rank ; they mint be treeted with great respect, being Royal 
gifts : but in the ndnd of the husbend are considered inferior to the 
Meea torn »y«» ferming the Sd. dassycr the Iqpic/ wives, l>eing those 
to whom he has been imited agieeridy to pfe s cr ib ed ibrms. Off this 
second dass, she whom he first married, enjoys to tlie last the prero* 
gatives of precedence neit to the chief wife, the King's |^ ' 

To the 3rd^ cfaus beiongsthe Meea chop chai kern 4ng Ktendly 
ike wife ofmieM mftmfree cAoJre, wludi would imply that modres of 
prudence and duty, more than of affection towards the object, first 
uq^e the men to connect tiiemselves wltii sodety by substantial bonds. 

It is not mdisp^nsalrfe with a Siamese, as with a Hindu or a Chi^- 
nese, that he should have a son to perform his obaefuies : but a feel-' 
ing of pride makes 1dm anxious that they sheuld be conducted by an 
adopted son, should he not have ason, with requisite formality. The 
4th. clam Is formed from slaves. A slare woman baring cohabited 
with her master beeomes virtually emandpated. 

The age of marriage for the men is 20 and upwards. The wo- 
men are considered marriageable at 14 yeanof age. Butsometimes 
they enter that state at the early age of twehre. 

An action will lie In Cfiamese Coerts for a breaefa of promise of 
marriage either by man or woman, and damages will be awarded to 
the extent of reimburring the injured party for such expences as may 
have been incurred in preparing for the wedding, but none for the 
culpable fiddeness of the ofbnder. 

Marriage is confined within the following degrees af affinity. A 
subject may not many within the 7th degree. The forbidden decrees 
are from parents, induded, down to the remotest lineal descendants, 
and upwards, so that cousins or any one of the same blood may not 
intermany. * • 

As Loubcre has observed *^ there is no restriction to their marry- 
ing with women of any nation.'' They have of course tiieur preju* 
dices on this subject ; and incUne more to the Indo-Chinese races 
than to others. They have a great contempt for the Malays, they 
bemg MussalmaiiSi and do not often marry in that tribe. 


The Kings of Slam do not follow the above rules, bat always mu^ 
ry into their own fiumly, and even form alliancfai with their own as- 
ters and daughters* eren, on emcryendes, wliea more distandy oon- 
nected scions of the royal stock are not obtainable ;—Hi praelke 
whidi it 18 well laiown fnreyidled as regards the sisters in Egypt, sod 
is yet extant in olher regions besides Siam. 

An absenee such as to cause a husband to be considered dead, in 
Law, and which b decided on agreeably to paitioular SmsIs, entides 
the siq^posed widow to reodve her portion of his estate and tQ mar- 
ly again. But before she and the rest of his rdali?es can beoome 
▼ested in their right to their respectiTe shares, it is neeesaaiy tint 
certain ceremonies shall be performed, and funeral rites paid, as if the 
husband was dead in fact. 

When the death of aa absentee has been fully ascertained, it is coo- 
sidered a duty imperative on his heir to scnipulously peifosm lusob- 
seqmes. His name and age are to be written on slips of pi^: 
these must then be burned along witfi an efligy, or a rude portnitof 
the deceased. 

Tlua last custom corresponds with Hindu prsetiee on like eecuions. 
The custom of burning at funerals square gilt pieces of paper, on 
whidihieroglypiuc or other characters have been written, is of Chinese 

Independent of these general laws in rebdon to the women, tbe 
Siamese Law-givers of later tunes have framed others, to be qiecisilj 
administered iiv cases where women are irives or daughters of officers 
of the government. 

* Vide M. De Loubere, Head, Marriage of Kings. 


» > 

Chaptsr IV. 



Men in offiee in Siam are ranked, as bc^re notieedy a^eeably to a 
Bcale of fields or Naa, extending upwards from 10 to IO»(NK>. The 
grades fixed by thb scale are howeter merely noaunal as to real 
property, and they are distinct from the Titles wlucfa are capridously 
'heeUmed by the King. 

Under other oondidons of society than ve find in Siam, such a 
system might, witii propriety, be supposed to JiaTe sprang from Insti-* 
tutions embradng feoda! seiritude. It is likdy that it arose in this 
country from the custom which a needy Court might haye resorted 
to for the payment of its serrants ; and that it was ^si^sed when the 
cttltiTated land had been parceDed out to the mass of cuidvators. 

The estates of servants of (Sovemment from the rank of 10 to 
400 fields are inherited by heirs in the same manner which has been 
described as applieaUe to the estates of subjects in general, mt, by 
the three-fold partition. But for civil and nulitaxy officers of Iugh« 
er ranks bye laws are in force. 

An officer of the rank of Sena or Bddee or Moniree [minister] 
cannot, it seems, wiU the whole of hb property away. The Grovem- 
ment acts here on the supposition that none of its servants are hon- 
est, and therefore reserves the right of controuling the distribution of 
the property of tiie higher ranks. 

When an officer of one oif the above degrees dies, his estate is 
realized, and claims entered. In the manner described for Estates In 
general. It is then separated into /our portions, one is taken by the 
King, and the remaining three portions are dirided agreeably to the 
laws relative to property in general ; with exceptions in case of the 
deceased leaving a widow or widows bestowed on him by the Kihg. 

A widow who was the gift of the King to an officer receives, at 
his death, one half of half a share^ above that taken by another wifo. 
But if the officer received the irife at his spedal solicitation, she will 


receire one half of a share less than the other. By thb is meuit 
one fourth part of the ** widow's portion." And the portion, so for- 
feited, will be ^nded amongst the other widows, or giTen to one, if 
there is only one remaining'. 

A widow must have cohabited three years wifii a husband to give 
lier a title to the portkni ftxed by law. A neglect on the part of 
the widow to assist in defraying the expences attending obseqoiei 
creates a forfeiture of her chum. 

Tlie iridow of a public officer who was a gift from the King will 
reeeiye a lai|^r portion than above stated, in proportion as it may be 
made to appear that she had assisted lum in hb official duties. If 
she was not a gift from the King, she receiTes one fiftii less than she 
would under ike akonfe ciame; and, if she was given by tiie King 
at the request of the officer, two fifths kss. 

The iridow being, or having been, a shive-debtor to the deceased^ 
will not receive any portion of ids estate ; since, by virtue i^cohabita* 
tion with him, she has been emancipaied : but her duldren inherit 
according to law. 

Supposing the officer to lea^e a widow who was his own choice, and 
one given to liim by the King, besides on Anoo hJkeeriffOy or con- 
cubine, and a T^hat hjkeeriya or slave wife, all of whom have cbU- 
dren, tliey share in the foUowin/r proportions. Those of the first and 
second classes as 3, — ^unless they are public servants, when they wiU be 
entiticyl to take as 4. Those of the Anoo bM^^iy^ as 2(, but if 
public servants as 3. And those ctf the last as 2. 

On the demise of the wife of a public officer : and supposing thai 
she was bestowed on him by tiie King : her property vnll be divided 
into three shares,— one will go to the King, one to the husband, sod 
one to her surviving relations. The maniage portion is generaUy 
restored to the rdatives should her surviving husband's rank be that 
of 400 Naa. 

A husband, with the consent of his wife, may leave her in the house 
of any one as a pledge for the payment of a debit thus eonstitutiDg 
lier a species of property. 

But wcwien seem liere to Iwye some means of checking the increase 

OFFlCEBiS •#^60VERNMCNf. 3o3 

t>f the practice, for if th^ suspect that their husbands are running 
in debt, th^ mxy publidy protest against their bdng answerable to 
their creditors, which seems to bar the exerdse of tiie husband's 



Chaptsk v. 



Tlieorder of the Pyheekyhaor PrtntBof SiamfaoovnpoBed ofm« 
dhridutls taken frain the warn of tiie peopAe; wad evh m e mb ci of it 
may retanitoB0ec»direoqiloyiiienty otherwhoD the lesl of the peo- 
ple HOb to provide for I&b gubmstenoey or when his awn b innfid- 
ent to arm hfan with moral weapons to combat the lemptirtiens to 
wUdi be is exposed; for, howerer abstnMted lie ought to lie In ndiid 
from all wbidi can Astract its attention to hca?enly otjeets, yet tlie 
necessity he is mider of daily nd:dng In the tinong to recem the 
contributions of the pioos voCaries of fens religion^ nmst aAird oppor* 
tunities of proving Us good resolTes. 

It is natural to suppose that the Boodd^Ust Rnests sbonld have 
aimed at exception from laws wUch could but rarely be ^ppBcahle 
to thdr rituation ; and which nmst haTe interrupted the oontempla- 
tiTC dudes eiguined by thor reDgion. 

Were the ordfaiances of Boodd^ha strictly enforced, a Pyheekjio coqU 
not inherit property unless it happened to be solely of tint desoip- 
lidh wluch miglit serre to supply fab Toy linnted wants and restrict- 
ed indulgences. 

A Priest can only be brought mto a Court of kw as a witness. 
If he should comndt a crime, he is oonTcyed, or goes before an code- 
riastical Court, where the condstorial diie^ ftaya P,hraBadet judges 
lum consonantly with the Uws C()ntained in the Sacred Bali Code, 
PJira PatHmok weenai. If he should be proved to hare been gn3^ 
of a very serious offence, he is stripped of the yeUow Ckemdm or Sa- 
cerdotal mantle, and deliyered oyer for pnnislmient to tiie secular 
arm. A Nen or unordained Priest may inherit property of any sort, 
and an ordained one may take real or personal property whidi naif 
have been bequeathed to him, but he will not be entilfed to take the 
same as inheritance, where no bequest lias been made, ne con- 
Terse likewise holds good, since a Priest may bequeath property Uf 

iNlfMftAMCE dF PlfOPjERtT. 355 

«Tiy one, althougili bid rehtivefl and connections cannot inherit it, be- 
cause in case of his dying intestate, his gooids and chattels appertain 
tb the ttMmastery in wMch heifyed and enjoyed the contributions of 
the piotis worsluppers. Indeed, should a Priest strictly adhere to the 
rahs ef Ms order, his sole property and effects ought to consist of 
a few indirtpenflfeArte armies of daSfy use. His drtes consisting of the 
Chewdn at ^dngcdsldng robe of the orde^ ; P,Aa Sah^k,hatee a sort 
of scarf ; P^ 8ithongjh\6wer garment ; Rattakjhot okj a sash wound 
about Hie body at the height of the breast ; RoHak^hoi io another 
for the widst ; PJui angsa an under garment or shirt ; P,Aa krap 
p,hra a qlcU ; and Pjha eJiop ap^ a bathing drdn. Ablutions do* not 
form a prominent part of the Booddhist re1%ion, as it exists in the 
f ndo CMnese countries. But tftese Chaulc,hoo bathe pretty r^ulariy, 
although they are certainly deficient in personal cleanfiness compar- 
ed witii tlit Brahmans. Next, Acre is l^ boat or vase for holding 
the dsSfy collections of rice and other food. For the rest, they fol- 
low the example of Nak^tuefia [NaJ^asena} a hoty character of Ba- 
li Writ, and keep at hand, a mat and pillow, to which some hayo 
added tite forbidden luxuries of a cot and musMto curtains. The 
latter can hacrdly b^ termed' a hixnry fn IKam, where these insects 
swarm, but an article not to be ^spensed mth, afui especiatty where 
t)ie thoughts must not be distracted. Perhaps the Priest is afraid 
that, by exposng his person, he might be tempted to Idll these in- 
sects, which would be a sort of murder according to his creed.* The 
Ndng eeseet is a square piece of <9oth, oil whldi the Priest sits,' atad 
the p,hoBa krap p,hra on wliieii he piuys. On such occasions his face 
is turned towards tlie rising sun, a pracfSce found amongst the Brah- 
mans of India. He mtist also have a raror for tonsure, a needle case 
and needles, 'a tinder box with steel and flmt, a drinldng eup made of 
wood or of bamboo, funnel shaped, and haying an apperture at bot- 
tom with a strainer of cloth to preyent him swallowing any insect 

When the strict P,heek,hoo wishes to drink, he coyers the mouth 
of the cup with a bit of muslin, and insertfaig the other end in water 

^ I had a Siamese of Bankok in my service who, when a mosqito happen- 
ed to ax itself on his halid, permitted it to drink its fill and fly away. 


sucks it ap« He thus avrnds, he thinks, the an of tsldop iwij tk 
life of any insect. It b hid^ for hb peace of nund (pionded Ui 
humanity b nneere, and of thb we have net suffident proof) tfattbe 
b not obliged to keep a microscope. The next artides are i Unk 
book in whidi to record useful knowledge, and a steatite peneQ;-* 
bundle of palm leaf slips, and an iron stylus to note down amunai 
matters ; — an umhreDa with a hook at the top, so that it ouf be 
Aispended while the Priest b at hb devotionsr-Ae Mai t^ or 
wand, which b usually about 7 feet long, and may remind Ae anti- 
quary of the mystical stalb of the Dnnds, the Jews, the Magi ud of 
the Brahmans. The tarupjkat b a fen of palm leaves, and &§«- 
rally used to shade the bare head of the Priest from the i^ of ^ 
sun. The bagor jfom contains the betel and other ingredjeoitB of th^ 
masticatoiy, not ezduding tobacco, which should properiy be redmo* 
ed amongst noziaus drugs, and therefore forbidden to tboribytheor* 
^nances of Boodd,ha. There b likewise a vessd farthlalMP87 
purposes, and bsdy one of equal utility. 

Three witnesses are required to establish the yalidily oft ^^^ 
bequest, and four for a Brahmin. In expbnation of the htter jv< 
of the sentence it may be remarked that persons of the iMi^^ 
tribe have, from a very remote period, vidted and redded in ^ 
their numbers being regulated by the estimation in whieh ditf ci^ 
iwas held by particubr Kings. They are termed Ajai^PtlD*^' 
Uoub P^iraam, and Chodok,ka P,hraam» the last b the Vg^ 
ceste. They are chiefly empbyed as astrokgers and aaooBtiDti^- 

To estaUbh the validity of a Brahman's bequest, itb aboM«ss»- 

It is 

ly to prpye tlyit he made it forty days previous tp hb deoesifr 
aflirmed that any person who may presume to question the rigo^ « 
testator to bequeath property to a P,UeekAoo will most sasffedlf be 

prec^itated into Nmtik or Hell, 
The asseverations of a Priest are impUdtly believ^ in a C<Niit of 

Justice, nor U an oath ever adnwdttered to kkn. He dnp^*^ 
senta to a question put, by raidng hb tanq>,hat or ^ u^^^ 
the negative by letting the fan drop. Tins laconic mode d rtf^ 
WQnId puzzle or cross questioner. 


Tlie Priesthood in Siam is oyeratocked, and In thor poorest pro« 
rinees they )u« yeiy burdensome on fJie population. In the province 
of P,hoonga for instance, ezduding the isfauid of Junkoeylon lately 
annexed to it, I calculated when there in 1824, that there was one 
Briest for tiie care of every hundred souls. It b to thb incubUs that 
the dedine of Buddhism in some countries may be diiefly imputed, 
although, in as far as India is cothcemed, the people made butapoor 
exdmige of the vohratary system, for the tyranmcal and CTactfng one 


of the Brahmans. 

But the Government has often interfered to check a system which 
must prove depresnng to the energies of the people, and by directmg 
that the preparatory and final examinations of candidates should be 
very strict, thereby excludes numbers whose only inducement to enter 
the order is the hope of living at ease at the expense of the commuiuty. 

There is one strong inducement, however, to enter the Priesthood 
connected with their notions of purgatoiy. They believe that the 
soul of a parent which b there in sufferance may be relieved from 
torment by the son becoming a Priest or even by such son obtaining 
some one to enter the Priesthood as a substitute for him. Their 
expiatory ceremonies are but few, and have all reference to fitture 
states of existence^ having no efficacy in the present state. The Sia- 
mese hells are in fact purgatories, for the punishments to be endured 
by giulty souls in them are not conndered eternal, although the periods 
of endurance amount sometimes to millions of years I Perfect rege- 
neration in thb life cannot he attained by any ewptatum^ or virtu^ 
ous course whatever, 

Apastacy b rare in Siam, but ndther the moral nor civil Codes, so 
fax as the copies examined by me shew, contain laws preventive of it. 
The Priesthood retain a powerful influence, but not a slavbh one 
over the nunds of the people. The knowledge that any one may en- 
ter the order tends to render it far less venerated than that of the 
Brahmans, and causes the veneration to be. paid to the Priest merely 
as an organ of Booddha's laws, and not as a sort of demigod Hke a 
Brahman. In the Lower Provinces a few Siamese have been con- 
verted to Mahometanbm. 

3SS RimuTAHOi Of pnvmn «c. 

There are no rdigioiii wdowmenlB fai Bimi cxdwYe of those ovtr 
wlnek tke fwqr ef ^ Prieediood is avfaitrify. Anj pcnon oi^ 
oMko ofer yroporly to a ^«I or noiMaterf, but if it be in ted, it 
pi^B tbe xaml ta luidl the pubHe meeeiireteeBl ie mide. 

The Roiv liA bat tlMaii, it te o^f Iqr fa>liMioii» if it deecrvw 
tbeniiiie»paHdki]igefaclHntebfeiwliire. UertwoHdmmfUumUf 
sre ifsMd by the Kluf'e oAoere grade to the people. 

Bcgpae ere chiefly tiwee iaceperitrted by iiAaeaB a&i 
from kbour, for any man may gain a llTefihood by eaey 


« Chaftbr VI. 


It has been asserted (bj the AuAor of Ow KMorioal Heialioii of 
Siam*) lihat tiie Siamese know not such a thing as a will. But be- 
ades what shall now be stated, it is only requisite to refer to the 
head Gifts to shew that they have the foil force of testnuents, for these 
cannot he enjoyed lq;aUy and openly by the grantee until after the 
death of the granter, (unless the latter should have authorised an 
immediate transfer of the properly) and they are resumable at plea* 
sure, or in the event of the gnnter recovering finom ackness. 

But the Siamese make written as weU as verbal Testaments, nor 
does the law interpose to reverse such acts, even should it appear that 
the Testator has, in the apportionbg and afienatang of hb property, 
infringed the social obligations. A written testament is termed 
Naogsh bandu Sunya Nai kh^dig, also ihamphemud hm wed dgid- 
fying to make a will, and a verbal one, Sangwai kap and hdk wai. 

All that a widow can daim for herself and children in a case of 
exchifflon from the sucoesaon to her husband's estate, b the portion 
she brought to him, and whatever she may have saved out of her 
marddok^ or marriage portion and out of the allowance granted to 
her by him during his Bfotime, or what she may have amassed by 
frugality or trade or any other occupation. 

It is obvious, from the tenor of the laws affecting men of rank, 
that a great anxiety prevails in the Palace to prevent them from 
squandering thdr property, because the Sang rirtuilly shares in it 
on their decease. This bdng the case, such persons are not allowed 
to makeavnll until the extent of their property has been ascertained 
and the royal demand satisfied. 

Priests, although next in degree to theKng, are passed over in the 
law digests, vrinch respect wills, without much notice, since were 
they even rich, their property on their dying intestate foils to the 

^ M • De Loobere. 


monastery where they liyed, and once the King would scarcely Ten« 
tore to lower himaelf in the eyes of his anbjeclB and incw the ana- 
thema of the Priesthood by taldng any part of it. 

The Siamese are generally sufficiently attached to thdr reUtivcs 
to prevent them executing cruel testaments. 


CmkmR VII. 


IMlorf , and ralwls are not allowed to Inberit property, and Hiey 
are ^eefeed fitmi what lliqr poaieaB, tiior e^tatea are folfrited to the 
Kfaisry and tiidr tod&ea an redneed to daTeiy. 


Many of thecaaes whidi are ctf daily occarence^ and which respect 
members of the same 600%, are submitted to the arbitralioQ of the 
Elders of a ▼illage, or a competent number of persons chosen by the 
parties concerned, as is the costom in some parts of India. 


The practice of adoption Is prevalent over the Indo Chinese countries. 

It ia not imperative on a Siamese, as it is on a Hindu, to adopt 
a son in default of iasoe lawfully begotten, nnce the nonperformance 
of funeral rites does not expose his soul, after his death, to those tor- 
ments which a Hindoo deems the sure consequence of a neglect of them. 

But a tincture of Hinduism is fiscoverable in the ordinances res* 
peeting* inheritance, where a ^rillul neglect to perform obsequies does, 
in most instances, render daims on property invalid. But as the 
obsequies of a Siamese msy be performed, and without endangering 
his future bliss, by any person, he feels little anxiety for an heir 
on that head, however he may from more natural motives wish for 
one. Hence, like the Hindoo, he has his ceremonies betwixt the pe* 
nod of conception and birth &c. 

Hie first symptoms of pregnancy appearing, duums and incanta- 
tions are resorted to in order to ovearwe the P^e paup aud P^ee 
pjkrmi^ wliidi are believed to be spirits which torment incipient beings, 
and distress thereby the woman. 

Tliey have also very g^ross superstitions regarding women who die 
in child bed. To prevent thdr spirits haunting the relatives, various 
incantations are rehearsed, and certain spells are tied around thdr 
snns and necks. Hiey believe that magicians dig up the bodies of 


*•, ■• 


■■■nrr Tmj ptweBd U tike 

BM-n ^}*^ in cL^jd be4 

<k^t FJyee deep^ md c uffaaiuMi to 

ci^ftW broffniD^ ofi 

bir^ iff'rri tbe tomb vidi a toiific j^ and to 

larin;^ firn a^wm«d a PfVitic and ip pa ir i n; 

rkntatioQ? of the nucricbai li o w eiei soon fora &c 

to deMxnd vben, aifter a sliart parinr, the nufkiin 

prttcndg to ilwaffli l g M, Mi tte ■ ihliiM rf 

tliej have gained the objec t of prefcntb^ ita 

Hie ^fahys are embocd wHh sopeniitiansof aorijai 
and alike rerolting. 

lliey ionurtijDes extract the wutlee anak or dead eUd frtaa the 
wumb of a womaa who has &d in labor and buy il m a i^iBrale 
place. Thej prick the fi^gen of the deceased vifeha necdkiy be&riqg 
that if this cereniony should be ncgtected ti^ spirit becosMsa hmg* 
sootoee and flics off to the Tiimmtains with hair wiUij dbheidled, and 
thereafter enters into and possesses the body of any indiridoaL Other 
possessing sprits are also much dreaded faj women in duld bed and 
fijck persons, particularlj that one they term PletHy which is a soil 
of invisihle witch* ^^ ndes on the winds, and enters into the bo- 
dies of the sicky sorelr distressing thenu When pressed hj the nos- 
trums of the native phyncians she is supposed to, retreat to the fing- 
ers ends, and there expostulate with him through the moicM of the 

Any number of children, and of either sex. may ^t any tiioe bo 
adopted, they not being relatiTcs of the adopter within a oertun de« 
gree, although brothers miqr be partially i^opted aqd may be thus 
admitted to the present privileges of a son, but they win not neoesstn 
(ily inherit as such. In the same way nephews or oth^ relatives may 

Adoption! 563 

* K.'/k 

he partialiy adopted. Should the midntadner of an adopted son publicly 
declare tiiat he oonnders th6 perdon in right of a son, this las^ will 
reeeiye an additional portion of the inheritance^ A woman can a^ppt 
with consent of, and during tiui life of, heV Husbaiid, or at her awii 

pleasure if unmarried, ot a widow. The age for adoption rdrtty ^-i 

ceeds the seventh year for the adopted^ and geneiiilly tak^ place 6t)m 

the first to the thii^, in ordei" that tiie adopted cfiil^ may lOsie quick- 

ly aH recollection of its natural parents* No particular Certimony at- 

tends adoption. An adopted sdU or daught^ forfeit immediately 

after qintting its paf ents rdof all dlaims on thdr property after their 

'" •' ' '.'*■.. 
decease and thence forward. An adopted iShild is^ by the adt, yetted 

with a perfect right to enjoy every benefit whicih'a dhUd begotten by 

the adopter Would hate enjdjed during th^ lifetime of the adojpter, 

and to succeed to the lawfiii share of his Md aiid personal property 

after his death. In the first case he b Irfesponsible for the debts or 

other acts of his red parents, tn the secMmd, he b'e<iomes liable foi* 

tiiose of his adopted parents. But in a ease whei'e the adopter has 

one chUd or dlildren, of hisoWn body, the share' of the adopted child 

is 011^ A^of that of this one child, of of that of 6n6 of these others4 

A man may adopt a cl^d of any Mhe tbhkh ^onhipt Booddjia* 

BM^fe* maf liit »dbpt'a Ve&ttve wfth^^^ 

Buf aUihtJUgfiitfis'tiiift'perfgotiy essential td the salvation of tWe^^ 
soul DfiL%m&^ a&9dMMg^tO' hb <5reed that hV should have a son,^ 
yetlti^ad^^jMie'thtn^, adtbei^ ate nf^y ceremonies to be attend-' 
ed'io on' Mir deceakei^ 

When* i p^rsdh'betidtlied sidk,' a iMest id generally called to attend' 
him tmfflKhl* I'edif^fs oi dies. H^'rep^ald many Bali se'ntencies out' 
of th^ l^lfiti^k pJJik 'Ai^diniiiky isi yfi&th the following is a spedmenVI 
behigfrtih'th'e ttrf— 

Kootsala D,hamma. 


App;Mya'kata*D,hamma: '' ^ 

Katt^-me I]^,hamiiiai. 

Kootsala yatsameeng^: 
Samayi kamawacharang. 



KooflonU cheetUog, 

Oupiliiiia hotee. 

Loma nalsa. 

Hakyha taQyaaa Minp»hA yoottiof . 

Roppa ranunaiMuigwa. 

Satt,ha do. 

K,hant,lui do. 

Ratsa do. 

Pho Pyhancha do. 


Dyhanuna do. . . , 

Yangyan^ wapana. 

Rapp,ha Utaa samay^. 

Tyhatso botee. 

Aweek,h^ po hotee. 

Yowa paoa tatsa samay^, 

Anyepa att»hee. 

Pateecha moppaxu. . 

Aroopee no D»hamma. 

Eem^ D,lmmma. 


When a man dies hia body is wadwd and robbed oviar wilb UmnaK 
lie, and (^ck limey then wrapped m white doCh and atraldied eat 
The arms are fixed in the posture of adoretioii» and a ploee of foU 
or silTer together mik some of the common maslicataj nttztara are 
placed in the mouth, mercury and honey are also poured 4o«a te 
tbroat of the oorpse, and, if the de ce ssed dkd In aflnent draom- 
atanoesy it is placed upright, and a hollow tube k passed frooa lbs 
mouth to the rooi of the house to csny off the efflnviay wbfla bsB- 
boos sre fixed in holes which have been made in ttfr feet to dimwei 
tiie nunsture to a receptade below. 

But should dio deceased bare been a poor men, bb ftiends cmnot 
aflbrd the expense attending this ceremoii^* Theytfienfenitairiftte 
body witMn two or three days after death, idifle the ikh keep Ae le- 
mmns of their relations for a wedc m* e?en a month pr e n o ua to in- 
terment or burning. 

. Aknptt iuuMdiaftdf subi^uent to thie decease of the iadiTidiial, 
JPrieiti attend to reid the coetonaiy xitoelor semce for the deadt 
whidi is A part neaiiy m the tenu juat aUnded to as used in Ihe pre* 
senoe of a sick peraon. They channt the £oioa^, and P^Jbd^iAoitoon 
and Pikm nmlai.* Whik the body reniatti8,]n tiie house, the retations 
hum near, it tapers and ineense sttdcsi and place viands before itur 
and eveiy day a ftant is given to friends. sndneigi>bonrB,ar4wnypapied 
by ▼arious pidblic exhilRtioDs according to Ihe wealth of tiie glreis* 
Hie chief of thfi^ are Lm kj^ or dancing and anging, Hoam or 
fiuoD6i$ resemblinff Punch and Ins attendants* ^litfnawiidhiMi infai Atm^ 
of ^tMs X>«oi,and CBUao. Tlie. Burmese are nmch attached to thb 
amniwfnunti abnqstey«y Govetyir of a province heeps a band. Nest 
there is the Lvkjiin or CoBpac Oper^ and the ngeeoobktn or Clii- 
nesePlay. The Clihiese acting is the niostponipous imaginable; most 
of thor niavs seem to liince on some Tutar romance, or the actual 
adventare of some Tvtar Prince. The stage is one continued scene 
of grotesque and noisy miitaiy bosde, excqit when a measured 
qieech b to be delivered* lUs the hero ut^a generally in a ritting 
postare, stroking the while hb jetlgr beard, with Islsmitic gravily, 
andt when a few sentenees have been inlevehaipged with the person 
addressed, anon comes a deafoidng p^ of dmsu and braaen. inatam* 

and a mimicry of w^ is dlspfagred sufBcienfly uidicative of the Chi- 
nese defidency m point of pugnacity and good taste. 

There are also exhibited J^i^pl,ih^g,CMrapartieuhr land of dance 
with Bpen^ fM ■' « ■ ■ ' — flnfftfltms and phantasmagoria, in whinA the .aha* 
dows are made to act a sort of pbty* 

Hie Malays aiaeipert at this entcrtnnment It is termed by diem 
Wagamg^ kuUtp and it is probable that theyhadit from Java* There 
are also fencbgi boiing^ and wrcstUng matches, tight rope dandng, 
jugjl^af, and fefHts of dexterity and strength. 

The Rdadves of tlie deceased, toshew thdr liberafity, endose pieoeii. 
of mon^ in limes and throw tiiem amongst the crowd. Atnightfire 
treea^ or a cdDection of fire worhs, fastened m bamboos, sre dis- 

866 ^Kmo^iMA 

The Priesti relieve eadi t/QiiTdmittg tiie nigiit, iont geaenMf tt* 
ntiring at « time. TbeyreiMtmitoftfeeBiJHrdflc JI«M, «%!» 

M^jhoottyh^ttttff pot^KtpHHf pfthttfutiSktikg^ KGtjknpdkilft^ tlKHttC^ &e. 
Tfaey also give adtiee to the people aasetnihied. On Ae dt^ winr 
Ihehodjifltobeeonsiiitoed, Ifnotbefhiv, itSsjiafiittoa ^^ aid 
Willi mulsh pomp eanfed ^ ffa<6 m^ r pfause near t temple wliere 
dead bodies ire buried. lUr la tdomed with tflofli- &e., and here 
tfiSai gamea are exMMted. The pi^per m((»jndfi^ ibr a' Siniese is 
winte Vkk that oT a CMnese, but the liijbncll^ li not always ittend^ 
ed €o. On Ae decease of any of the'ltoyal iktiiiiiy \M Mmcfhdvktd^ 
ef moundng^ is to shate tiie head! * TEfe Chkiese iffl^ i&i' HOr iff 
gro#y on such ah x^cttcAotk^ fta^'matay mttntHs' wtthoitt^tuitluiig H;^ — * 
(Dutis' CMna.) W . 

The SUunese do not burh papers with' charaeth^' written on th«m 
Hke the Chinese. The pri^ repeat'again portiWoftli^ Bafi, and^ 
the relathres set fire to the pile. Tf iihedeiBeudhris of tiierofai' 
stodc, or m priest, the pQe is set^on ifire by s'rddcet sent from a £s- 
lanee along a wire,, a* praetioe describe ^ Symes-as pi e ya i eiii In 
Ava. The remains of aiViest were thite c onsu m ed wMe t was at 
MmtdMm durhig* die Bhrmese wsr, atttd'sudf wMA*^ ' ^(otiriSty of tSt 
and perusps other iinnkminaines^ tnat'ule'pOfous earth was soaked with 
tliem and ebiitfnued to bum for many days afkier'the Oermuotty-faid 

Hie Siamese ooHect the ashes And bone?, wilsh^em Kn perfioied 
water,' and then eMher preserve Aem in vases or else Ibmb them wift 
paste, lime &c Into busts of Boodd,hi, and^kee them lu temples, or 
they pound them snd, mixing them with tinb, wttlr the wtfBs of a tem- 
ple with the liquid. Tiie great raise Sbnd or pyramids over the ashes. 
They place etootaphs and other buildhigs eommeMoraif^e of the deki 
\n places called Sant^'Mraky being the karamut of the MaUys. 
Here figures and paintings of the d^6eiuM are dispfaiyed, surrounded 
by the fflne representations In ciay or wood v( his ddpendsuts, cattle^ 
and other animals, birds, &c. Tliis mayremined us of the Seythisn 
custom of burying such tilings along with their owner, and* it Is na 

«Bsi(au»4- 967 

4Qubt a. |-epu)Aiit of that rustofn jli^ft to the Sameae by tbdr northeni 
ancestors. . flie stages of life are four.* 

The pppc>.|ike the Piirae^, expose the bodies of their rehv^Tes ta 
be favoured iby vuitq^eiB and vild heasti. 

Jl^.j^ffif^ Ifjifre liqdlfs.ifre iB^erf^ jui ealled F9ohap»lMBede^ uA 
thi^ ^hcv^p'O'entatiott takes pbce Paehl^^ aqd the place where ,a pe« 
notaph or other monument or statue is raised to the memory of the 
deftd is^ termed Sfni^gf^harak. 

When a Si^oese ffata^.^ SaxUJkc pJ mNA^ heinrokea the miiaea o| 
of tho8j( wl^Q.haY^been i^e burie<t to aasjat him ii^ the earigencio 
of jl^r The ipyooi^(n.|s }f\ 9a{i, and nms thu^ SookkM^ h^Uoo 
affoq.woHiko, spiokkjh^ff^xkj^oifn^f which may be rendered^ " grants 
«< me peace and quietness, hipg life, happiness axid prosperity and 
M strengA^apjjl.esiepption from eviL" 

The Mfjays» jw4 ^ MusiyJlinanH.ia genend, use the usual shorty 
prayer on pasang cemeteries, yic«, 

AUah is grea^(lhme iqpeMd} tiim ia nagodhut Qod» theun- 
2)ouiiidad^ iMPdiuLeiid >e»iftosBfc • 

ThqsefflMea^eie miwders haiie bean rtnmmittudj wfaere wy pii* 
OHs.pfiwm have^'died^ tr whetfe moonnonls haivbeen niaed to th^ir 
vwsipfmit^eio all MlM StmiJkfipJuatAt and the ^>«[ttBi they ^ s». 
eced IQ are inir0hid[o» proper oooanoas. The Slameae inrake the 
maoes of parents and ancestors ait various times, espedally whesi lisit*. 
|[|g t^eir 4mibe or tjsanuBieiilk Priesmtlaftd to read the Bali ritual. 
Th0.toirii.i» JiPt elwafps elM^ appioaebed by them. 

Butrioe dressed, and other yMods^ nestgays of ik»weBB» ligbted id* 
cense, apd hmsii tepevib aca pbMd dose to the tomb tOL refresh the 
spirits oi th^ dead, • 

The Malayan Mussulmans (and I belieit tiuwe off India) praodae 
aaiiidlar fe9Qe%r Amefigst the former, it is tenaed lUiunduri 
(^^sSgJiii a94 oM^ be gone through at aoy period subsequent totte 

* As described under the UUe Lak,hana roopa in the Bali Work Milee- 
t,hara (Uilinds), Tis., aoopasa oo(chaJ70» inliney ; Santatee, youUi and 
manhood ; Charata, declining life j Aneecbata, age and decrepitude. 

36S #B»Q1T1KI^. 

decease of the person. Meats and even ardent spirits are laid at ^le 
side of the tomb, and tiie manes are inrited to partake of tiwm. Flow* 
ers are likewise strewed o?er tile grare. The relations, or the Imnan, 
repeat set forms of prayer, and the former make siirJi kuneatations 
as llie degree of grief, or afleotatkm of itiindnees. TheSiaaMae in- 
voice or eall on tiie manes of tiieir panats, ufkUi f/H «ikw, to «d 
Qicm on prmsing occasions. 

The MUumU Riya contains mne injunctionB r e sp ect in g tke per- 
formance of foneral rites and tlie blearing derived thereby to the per- 
former— K,hanta (Canta) or Ghapler, AHeetongm^ 1st SoodJ^Mjkte-' 
ktm^^t^ata takaUang^. The person who ftnfing a oorpoe §tmA^ 
on the waters pkHisiy aAwds to it tlie aocnstomed ceremooies wfl^ 
alter death, be rewarded ten thousand Ibid. 

2nd. SJkookkJka tjkamg weem t dliiffoii^.— It Is neariy of eqjod 
eflieaey ahoold a person bnry or born Uie reniains of a pasoper. 

3d. Pttee wee-actee tee-tyhaaa sahatssng. 
< 4tfa. Waiya waehang. 

Ml. Ootdjmma takaog (ehattoo t,hBlsa astefcmng.) 

6di. Yateena (att^ha tjiataa sahatsaaf •) The peifcrna n u e ^ 
obseqfoies to tlie remains of brsHirsn b followed by many boMfils. 

7th. Mata peetoonang (aalt,ha sahatsang.) The dntf of pony 
tially perfonah^r die dboeiiiiies to the mortal reaaafais of prals ii 
so obvkws, that the merit is conridered less here than in any ef the 
o th er Jnstanflfg. 

8th. Sangfc,hang ak,hantoo kang («lt|ha Bait»ha sahaeaai«.) If 
the deceased died a poor Meet the bensAls arisbig to Hie psoas ere* 
■mter are increased to a great amount. 

9th. Anduiienitl8thebodyofa£',*iw-^MSii«^e*crly^ 
ritual gddeof superior sanctity, tiie rewards awattmg those who per- 
form die foneral rites are imiumerahle. 

It u rather shigukv thatwhh aUdi^ venerstion for tibe dead, 
the Siamese hare no ftmilyiMMief or tides. FewdMKforeean tme 
back their dessent above two generations. 


Cbamve VIIL 

The Royal pit is inedttmable, whether it connstB in land^monej, 
goods, Bbvee, or iMle ; and it descends in perpetuity to the heirs of 
the g^ranteey sttfajeet to the general and customary kws of inheritance. 

However well defined these laws are» they may, it is dear, be ren* 
dered nufatory, or be ended, by any one who chuses to g^re away 
his property during his lifetime. 

It is obrious tlierefore that a holder has absidate power over hb 
property both real and personal, and that he may proceed to afienate 
it fiom those to whom in equity it ought to, and by law must other* 
wise, descend. 

The digests eanunined, do not shew one instance where recouno 
may be had by an heir at law against the eijoyer of property thus 
unjustly disposed of, but human nature here contains the counter* 
acting principles within itself of lore of kindred, and a dread of re- 
proach and of the eouacration of posterity. 

Gifti ought to be made in presence of a competent number of 
witnesses, and rdbMtifcs have of coarse the power to protest against 
such, shouklthoy hsre reason to believe that the Bestower is not in a 
sound state of mind. Under this beHef the giver is subjected to three 
separate examinations. ShonJd donbts e»Ui they are removed acoor« 
ding to the law. 

An Oflfeer of the rank of 10,000 fieUs [next to that of an ordain- 
ed Priest] must have ifisposed of his prqierty by gift (the King's 
share being always deducted) 45^ days prerious to his demise, and in 
presence of at least seven wit nes ses, else his gifts will be invalid. All 
Oflfeers who rank as holders of 1,000 or of any number of Aa-a» 
fields, down to that of 800, mnst have given property away 35 days 
before their death, in presence of seven witnesses at the least. For 
those of the rank of 800 fu^a down to 400 na^oy 33 days mnst 
have intervened to render valid the deed of gift, which must have 
been made in presence of six witoesses. And all iiferior officers and 


370 oirTs* 

subjects must hare divested themselves of property by gift at a peri* 
od of one month at least prcHous to iMr death, and in prasenoe of 
five witnesses at least for the former, and four for the latter. Three 
or four are sufficient to attest a Priest's will. 

But should it be otherwise artigfartoriiy pnrp«d that a person, while 
gmnf^ awRT property at any kwful time befhre his deaths was in a 
perfectly sane state of mind, and that the act was a public one, and 
done in presence of competent witnesses, his deed is ralid. llese 
lat^ are cakulated to prevent fraudulent alienation of pmpeity and 
to gnard the heirs at law agunst the effscta oi such, and mispbced 
affection, but perhaps chiefly to secure the Kbg^s share. 

The receiver of a moderate gift of propeity, if an krir at law, 
does not by acceptance forfeit his chum to parlkapate in tlie estite 
of the donor after his death, nor can other heirs at law prevent his 
taking his share, unless the sud gift was unusually great. The digests 
I have examined are not expUcH on this point, and probably leare it 
to be decided in equity. 

' A son or daughter cannot claim any part of the parentis p f oji e ity 
during his life, but the latter frequently gives them portions; hads^ 
clothes, arms and food are bestowed by Royalty. These piesenta or 
gifts are termed Kyhdng tjwng ehai and KJkdng kam turn. He gives 
dothes to the priests, betel boxes to his ofllcers, and red or blade riee 
to the rabble. Prom this last ciutom he is termed Ckau k^kadu ddkg^ 
** The Lord of the red rice*** In this instance he adheres in some de» 
gree to Bali ordinances, for in the MeUnda raja^ it is enjoined, under 
file head Saisame dyhang^ that it is part of the duty of a Kng to 
distribute gnun gratis to the peasanfry* 

Loubere expresses himself ratlier too much in general teoDos on tiM 
subject of gifts, for he merely obsei^ea Hwt ^* the heirs tdce all ex- 
cept that which the deceased had given from hand to hand.'' [T^rans : 
Hist. Acct. of Siam.] Gifts by subjects to their superiora are call- 
etl Tawal. 

MH^at may be termed the 3d cbiss of Gifts consists of sudi as are 
made by Governors of Provinces, and Chiefs of petty Prorinces. 
They are called k^kdi^g k,ham nan l^ soei. 

GIFTS. 3/1 

The 3d. dass includes presents brought by Ambassadors from for- 
dgn Courts or sent by the Court of Siam ■ to fereigh governments. 
Ambassadors are called K^Uk wkring Pjha Rachasaan (maa, tlic 
perfect of the yerb, being added to signify the arrival of one.) 
KJidng httnnakaaii means presents^ sent by one independent Go* 
vemment to another, and when it is intimated that an envoy from 
such a Government has delivered presents, the phrase b " hai kh6ng 
hmnakaan maa tji^g tio^* and '* KJi&ng hanncLkadn Chau PJireea 
(here the name o^ the country is kdded) hai ma leap thii saam pjiaa 
k^hrk''{ifig bannakaan U Rachasaan ma tji^ng Uo L e. The King of 

mbassador, bearing presents and a letter, has arrived.'' 

Like the Clunese, the Thai race b very scrupulous in valuing pre- 
sents received, and in nuking what tfiey may suppose an adequate 
return. Although it will generally be found that the valuation of 
what b recdved by them is greatly underrated. 

The niomeiit an eiivoy arrives, oticers are appointed to note down 
the nature, quantity, and value of presents brought. The most cost« 
ly and liew, equally with the most common articles, brought as pre- 
sents, are beheld without any outward expressions of* curiosity or gra- 
tificadon, by tKe Siamese officers ; as they affect to impress the giver 
with a belief that such things are quite indifferent to their master, 
when in resMty there b no trick which, eXi^tfficially, most of them 
would not practice to obtain for themselves presents of the most or- 
dinary kind from envoys. 

The last class of gifts may be considered as embracing every spe^ 
cies of tribute or k^h'dng Bannakaan tjiawai^ terntcd also kyhrdng, 
and ddk ffioi ngun> i^hang^ gold and silver flowers. Tyhawai «o-ei, 
or tjkavoai kjham nan expresses the payment of tribute.'*^ 

* It has been thought requisite Co be thus miiiute on this Head as, thes^ 
terms dre easily convertible, and eiperienee has shewn that the Siamese are 
ever reidy, i^hea they can do H with impunity, to make use at stick eipress-^ 
sioos In their correspondence With foreign states as may best serve to Hat- 
ter their own vaoity and raise them to a higher but imaginary elevation in 
the scale of nations. 

The King sends always three persons with his Embassies to foreign 
Coorts, and they are seldom intrusted with much discretionary power. 
These are the P^raya Raehatyhot or Chief. The Uppat,hotj or secoodj 
and the Trit,hot or third. 


Chaptkr IX. 


Although from a view of the oonditioii of the femile sex in anj 
country, we may not he enabled to infer the exact state oftctnfiza- 
tion to which its peof le ha?e arrived ; we must yet derive mmy Mds 
from it for rightly appredating thar chancter. 

Where the institution of marriage esdsts in dvilized life there is 
hardly any department of society in which its influenoe is unfelt, and 
on the other hand where it is acknowledged m the bwer grades of 
dvilizadon, it even imparts a glow of refinement to tiieintereoiirBe of 
a semi-barharous rare. 

In Siam it partakes much more of a dvil contract than of a refi* 
gious institution. It was originally entirely a dvil aAir, hot at tins 
day religious ceremonies are occsdonaily introduced. Folygamy b per* 
mitted to the fullest extent, but the poverty of the gresi bulk of tiie 
people materially counteracts the operation of tfab indulgence. Hie 
men marry, as before noticed, about the age of 16 or 30, acnd the wo- 
men from 14 upwards. The boys wear a lock of hair on Ae crown 
till of this age, when it is submitted to tonsure with wath solemnity.. 
The lock is termned koa chok. 

When a youth becomes attached to a giri, her parents are consuH* 

Three or four days art allowed for preparations on the arrival of a fiDreitD 
Envoy at Siam. He ought not to be seen abroad until presentation. At 
the audience, the King speaks first, and asks the following questions agree- 
ably to ancient custom. These are, however, very oomprehensiva ones. 
Whence have you arrived ? What is the distance hence to yonr coantry? 
What dii&culties did yon eneoooter on the way f Are grain and other pre- 
visions cheap there, and is the region healthy f Is your nation at war wlUi 
any other nation, or does it eiUoy repose f The Envoy is not eipected to 
reply at length to these queries, nor is the Siamese Coort desiroos of bear- 
ing diplomatic eloquence displayed before it. 

The King does not appear in his regalia when he gives commoDandieBcee, 
and unless the Envoy happens to have been sent by a Coort held in high es- 
Umation and respect by the Siamese, he will not he honored with an oppor- 
lonlty of seeing His Maiesty in eroionetf splendour. 

The Siamese are assuredly ignorant of the value of time, and diis ctreon- 
stance coupled with their pride and insufferable adherence to absurd eu- 
quette is frequently a cause of tbeirlbfgoing advantages within their reaeb 
rather than that they should appear over soUdtous about the Issoe.ofa no- 

ed, « m almoBt all cleiiiici?i]ixed ooootrieB, through tlie iii8tru]iieDt»- 
Iit3rofoldpcnoDB. As die has had firequent opportunities of seeng' 
him, and thepareDts and rektivesy vho tra IHcewise consulted, aeUkm 
force her will, her reply is soon ohtamed. If Hvrorabie to the lover, 
he Gommenoes lus attentions by maUng presents. Bat both rides 
secretly consult dlTiners to learn how rich they respectirely are. 

All being arranged, the friends on both sides asaenMe, when the 
portion of the bride is fixed and set aside. For the poorer classes 
her porlicm oonsisfes in a small sun of money, and n few caittle per- 
h^w, andusefiilimplementBofagrioidtureorart. The nuddle ranks 
give from 12 to 24 Dolfan in value, and the Ugherdasses ad libitum* 
Independent of the mere poition, which, as among the Ifindns, be- 
comes a property not ai the dUpoioi of the Husband^ the parents 
and reladves of the parties make sueh presents as they can spare, to 
inerease flie oomforts of the couple. These consist of money, doves, 
catde, and other goods. During the tiu-ee.di^ previoosto tiie mar^ 
liage, the bridq^room fives in aroom built dose to the bride's house. 
She carries his meais to him. A feast is given every day ; when all 
sorts of Uieatricd entertainments are given and sports are ezhUnted. 
AH the Bali passages, ^propriated to sudi a soleamity (whidi us- 
ed formerly to be read by Priests) are now chaunted by the dden 
or some one versed in that language, — they are anch as have been des- 
scribed already on occasions of fimerals. Hie Siamese wrap tirine 
round their hands in boxing. The Laos, Hlce the Hindu pugilists 
are armed with metallie knobs defending tiieknucldes. Other gsmes 
are, foot-ball, trials of strength, throwing of a discus across the river, 
rowing, leaping, swimming &c. Loubere has nearly in similar terms 
described the forms and ceremonies preliminaiy to the marriage- 
rite : observing that, after the presents have been distributed, the 
husband may consummate. It is probable that since he wrote, some 
changes have taken place ; for he has omitted an essential feature in 
the rite, namdy, the umting of (he hands of ttke parties by means of 
a white thread. The man is placed on die right, when certain d- 
ders join wit)^ the thread his right hand with the right hand of the 
woman, and also pbwe his head close to hen, A dngle white thread 

^7i MAliaiA«K. 

IB then nude to encirde the crowiu of their heads, forming lim ao 
MkKfioQal fiak. The elden next repeat tiioM BaH pmugek, triikh 
it was formerly the du^ of the P,heekbo or Kriesta to redte ; mdfia- 
ish by saymg **pen pke&riyakmi leo ^i^ he jre married permmi^ im 
together tmltl death part you: " The ceremony fa oomploted as ia 
Ara hy the parties eating a dish of rice together;* The mother of 
the bride dresses her in the evening; and; aeoompaaied by idl the fe- 
male rehithres, oonveyt her io the temporary honsd of the bridegroom. 
Loabere eiqprcssly states that no priests can be present at mptiafe. 
Bat their attendance has been sanctioned rince his day, and again 
^BsaUowed. The discontinuanoe of the practice was oiring to tiie 
pious seal of one of their Kings, who dreaded that the habits of ce- 
libacy enjoined to the Priesthood might be counteracted by ttqunA 
mecCii^ witii persons of the otiier sex, a danger which Bralmiins are 
not subjected to. It u erident from the nature of the Bali book 
read at marriages, tiiat the institution originally^ that is to s^, after 
the introduction of Buddhism, partook much of the Hindu solemni- 
ties on oooasions of marriage. Fdrmeriy it was customaiy to caU 
lire priests to attend at the house of the bride the day befixre the 
marriage was to take place. They brought the beat m- vase, whidi 
is used in oolleMng the daily oontributiolis of tlie charitable; and one 
of them carried a small Image of Buddha. The peo|de of the house 
then placed oensers of burning incense, waxen tapers and flowers be* 
fore diem, wlule a Priests repeated certain Bali lbrmttbe.t 
The Priests, having pononounced these set forms, toolc water out of 

* A. practice on like occasions amongst the Burmans. 
-f h iJkka^a weepdtee patee pahaya sapp,ha sim \ Chorus to' each, i^ee- 
patee seett,heeya sapp,ha p,baya. / na saya parectang 

2. Tbe same sentence ending with «app,/ta > p,hld tyhamang 

UutkkM^ \ k,halang; 

3. The same eoding with «app,/ia roAA,/Ui. J 

The celebrated creed, if it ma} be so called, of the Indo Chinese natioos 
follows, viz., 

iiamo tatsa b,hakhawaio, Arahatto, Sammasam, P,hoott,basa, P,hoot- 
t,haog, Saranang k,hachamee,^t,bammang saranang k,haeliamee,~saag- 
k,bang saranaog k,hachamee,— T,hoottee Yampee P,boott3hang saraMns 

Samp,boolt,he att,hawee sancha t,hawat,ha sancba. Sahatsakee paacha 
satta sang,hatsaneenama mee hang— See rasa ahaog tesaog d,b8mmancha 
5ang,han*-cha at,har6 nama mee hang^nama kara noopp,hawena haiiuwa. 


the Baat or vase, and sprinkled it over the company ; accompanying 
the action with some additional Bali sentences. They then oondiad- 
ed with the B,hawaHo and App^hamang^ two prescribed fonns. I 
have griven insertion to the formula in order that iho&b who desire it 
may be able to compare them with Hindoo formula in the Sanscrit. 
Women in this country talce precedence, if umnamed, not only by 
custom but by laws, aeeor£ng to the rank of their fathers; and, if mar- 
iled, according to the rank of their husbands. It'is abundantly evi« 
dent from various passages of the Digests, that the men, from the 
highest to the lowest rank, recave great assistance both in the ma- 
nagement of thdr households, and in tiie conducting of their public 
duties, from the skill, activify and zealous intelligence of their wives. 
They assimilate in the cheerfidness and acute perception with wfaidi 
they engage in their husbands' aifiurs to the Burman women ; and 
both afford a favourable contrast to the sex amongst more Westeily 
Asiatic nations, where they are denied the exercise of thor mental 
fiaculties, and enervated by sedufflon. Jealousy is not a duuracteris- 
tic of the men. The Siamese will not, however, trust a young to^ 
in the management of business. A three years probation is always 
reqidred. The inves of the officers assist by ginng adnce and by 

8app,h^ ufipat,haw^ aneeka antaraya pceweenatsantoo ase sattoo. 

Then come the following. 
saraphootth<6 paneha panya sancho chaitowee satee satta sang^batsanee aa- 
qiamee se^rasadrc.^ 

Samp,hbotd,he nawootta rattate att,ha chattaleesa wee satee satta sang 


Eeetee peeso B,h«k,hawa arabaog samma samp,hott,ho weecha charana 
sampano, sookk,hato loka weet,hoo anoottaro booreetsa d,hamniasa ratee 
sattyha T,hewa Maooolsaaang P,boott,ho Bbakkk,hawatee. 

Sawa kjhayato B,hak,hawata d,hammo santee seeko Akareeko patcha 
tangweet,hee uppbaweeoyoheetee Soopp,hatee panno B,hak,hawato sa- 
wasangjho ooch,hoo patee panno drc, Yayapateepano B,hak,hawato Sawa- 
sang,ho same chee patee pane drc. 

Yaya t,bee tang Chatulee booritsa Yookk,haoee at,tha booretsa bookk,ha- 
la-nee esa B,hak,hawato sawaka Saok,ho Ahooonayo pahoonayo t,hak,keen 
nayo ancbalee karaneeyo aoooUarang boonya k,hetang Lokatsatee. 

Sak,h^ k,am^ cbarup6 k,heeree 8eek,harakat6 cbantaleek,be weeman^ 
|,heepi ratt,b^^cba kami urawana gaban6 vehawat,bamhee k,bett<. 

Descriptive of the abodes and visitations of the Dewatas. 
. KaraaeeamattybakoossaMnayataogsantaDgpatyhang ab,hee sameteba 

Eevam^ soottang ekang d:c. 
Cbayaato Sic*, d;c. 

376 BiAlEIAM. 

iumng arien in the absence of their luisbands* Many, firom 6ie 
other efaMes, make tndSng mjagea in boats* up the river, both on 
their ofivn aeeounft and on that of their hasbaada; others apeenhte 
in retailing goods ; nd the imes of the lowest daas, iMlp to caHxrate 
tlie groond, spin ootton, and weaive it» and also weave aik from the raw 
material obtained from Laos md China.^llie Laos rilk is l^eGeted 
to be eoarse.) Tliey cairj prodaoe on tfaueir shoulders to maricet; 
or oonvey it In sntfdl carts dmwn by oxen. Hie Burman women ge- 
nsrally cany loads on thdr heads. The Siamese women emhraider 
and sew. 

Lottbere iias observed tibatfte Siamese women do not reeebecom* 
plimentsiy visits from men. By whidi, it is siqiposed^ he mefiit^ 
wlien alone. But, where £uniUes are intimate, there is little reabk- 
tion imposed on their dUferent members, who virit irithoat restamt; 
Tlie females, like those in Ava and Pago, attend pabfie festivals 
and theatrical exhibitions; where the^ are open to attentions from 
dw iKn, and where matches are formed. They are bdieved to be 
chaste, and detection in adultery is often followed by the death of the 
oiettder, or of botfi man and woman by the hands of the iqnred bus* 
band;anditi8alMwi!ys, if the husbsnd prosecutes, foOowsd by the ut- 
most disgrace and by opprobious punishments. Yet conridering the 
general Hberfy they enjoy, and the frequentabsence of tiieir bwriasiria 
on tlie public service, we cannot avoid the oonclusimi that they have 
received educations fitting them to resist many temptations, lliose 
of the higher ranks, being exempted frt>m manual ]ab(n*, are mere 
sedttded and are not often seen abroad. But, as Louberehaa observed^ 
when they do go out, it is on foot, and widiont ostentation or idfiee* 
tation of concealment Women are set down in the census of the 
people. The King seldom employs any excq^ting female servants in 
his Seraglio. No person is allowed to toodi his bead. And, asLoo- 
bere also observes, allhis food is weighed. Tt» Qoeen has her equi« 
pages, boats, gardens and slaves, and frequently trades. She is rare- 


t The boats alluded to are about from 60 to 60 feel long and from 10 
broad, draw about s foot water when empty and about 2 feet when loaded* 
The freight is chiefly salt and petty wares. Siamese iromtn are eipert tt 
the oar, and excellent swimmers, 

ly seen by a sabjeet, unlM «t a dSstaneis at some grand feMimls ; 
■ni tlMi It ii V*^^ ^^ ^® 's MmM, <inee the spec^tators are 
tapadtd t» tam thdr ikcM in an <ippo^te direction to that in irUch 
aha nMy be, or run the risk of Mag bamhooed. Women do not 9uc- 
ifteei t» IIm ihranc, imt can we doabt their influence in eeorat? It 
ta well known, thKy btlii in Siam and in Ava, great political changes 
hMre bean efeeted by Maeees^ of the Mood Royal. 

In Ihe Bali P^kPA Smta mmJerd are certain Cbapters idati?e to 
women, tlie isklef Slay be here footed. **Mata PJ^eeriy€t^> des<^ 
tAffik9% of ihe weann yrhA alene is entided to the appellation of 
wife, namely, she iHm dieerfitDy busies benelf in domestic economy 
and ftdfils the dntfes of her etHiqin *, and who is ever awake to the 
isCeresCa ind happinesa of her huAands^' 

^ P^ftM^mtM Pjk^^Ayoy** an app^atiOA given to a mip whose 
lyJBctien towa««ds her IWBiba<i onrp^poe fl that eadsUng towards brothers 
Mid siiters. 

•* SmU F^keerk^;^ applied te a wife whoeoaympathises In all Che 
hopesi iMurs and wishes of her husband, that she becomes almost 
identified with Mm. 

^' i49»,AM P,Aetfrly«,*' un4er«lds head are dcsciibed the disadvan- 
tages attending a marriage at a poor man witii a rich woman, for if 
he Is not cbfigAd abtohttdf to rely on her bounty, he will yet always 
leel a degree of dependence upon her* 

'' An&9 P,heej4fa,^* neUttes «o <lie wkdom of that law whidt ranks 
fitt man before Ihe wam«n» eonstitnCing 1dm her proper lord, guar^ 
dtsn and adtteer. 

'' Af»a P.h^ri^,'^ descriptive of the miseries arising to a husband 
from bspd f emper in his 'Wile* 

'' Chora P^heeriya^'' oontttins dilutions against an alMance with a 
woman of bad character* 

" PJittdkagM jPykferlya/" cautfenary to husbands not to inirar 
the jeatousy of thrir wives, as, under the inftuence of IMS deadly paa^ 
sion, they may resort to desperate revenge. 

In the Mteleenthara^ are the following r cdprocal duties of hus* 

♦ Chsp. 230. 

B 3 

378 ^ MABlUAttl. 

band and wife. The hiisbind is eigoined to poiiit out to ius wSe 

Papaogneewttilya. whataww ia i»|mpcr ocnoM m codAmI* ca.' 

Paraeaang parang irf- .„, . * 

waniya. pmaily the noe of traducuigr ciAer lina or 

oChara. Henoat baatofronhiBwife 
P^heeriTang dham- • • ^ 

m^ ntnkMl^ A.- mj« jewda and efMa aa, finom ms parlaadv 

,^'**™"« ^*»**''- raiikorweaItii,ilieliaaarigltttoeipeeL fiuc 

both ought to conaider their interaata aa ideiitoJ, It will be his 

P.hootd,ha Mara- eaw alao, that hi- wife atlaid dulf to the 
waagkarotea. perfonnaiioe of religloiia duties and rites, as 

wdl as to moral preoepts and mtm^fOaatrf 

D^bammangk^ara- enacmenta. The wife ought not to gife aij 
wang karotee. thing away without the loiowledge of htt* has- 

band. She must strictly end piaiotuaHy attend to honeehoM dft- 

Sapphaeett,beesecp- ^^ ^ ^ riUa of hoapitaBty. and eka- 

pangacheokMttTyha- rity, endefvouriaf eonstantly to radnee as- 

perfluous peeoniaiy ezpenditore. Indepen- 
dent of the deep interest whieh she must alwnya tafceinher hnd»and*s 
happiness and state in aoeiety, it wUl be her duty to aaaist him by her 
advice when occaaona offer; to correct by gentle expostidatian any 
bad habits he may lunre aequu«d» and to revife and enooun^ the 
growth in Ins mind of riituons principles* 

She will pay eTsiy req»ect and dmiftil obe* 
Mata peeto sat,hee- dience to her own and her faasband*s parenti, 
^kTSr^aSSS: iHi««er-««Hl««|«ctth.Pri«Ao.d. 
Ke. She must aoooiftpany her husband when he 

carries gifts and offerings to the Priests. She will beware of dnpli- 
city. She will pi^ due deference and submisrion to her husband, and 
bear with his peculiarities, and her accents must be mild and sooth- 
ing, and her behaviour free from petulanocf 

t ^' The husband has the power of divordog. Ha restores her portioD to 
her. . The mother Ukes tiio first cAOd, the cftird, the fif^^ so of att the odd 
ones : the hosband the rest.''— Al. de la Loubere's Siam, p. 53. 


G»AVT£» X. . 



The bwJ[gt?M a wide scope to the paternal auihoritjr, restnuniiig 
it oi^jr wMim tiiose limits wfaidi hsfebeeneatablished by the geneial 
seoee of the commaiiitf . The parent hai of course the power of 
cooecdag his chiUren witfiin reasonable bounds, and may even if 
pressed fay want uU them be/ore ikey haoe arrived at years of dls- 
cretimiy or> which amownti to the same thing in most inrtanfffvi, dis- 
pose of their services tn money. When children reach the age of 
five or six years, they are doChed for the first time ; and after thig» as la Lonbere, they are not uncovered for chastisement. 

The Siamese are much attadied to their children, and rarely part 
with them unless compelled by some pressing calamity or necessity. 
The childMi, on the other hand, are taught becoming gravity at an 
early age» and tiiey both kve and venerate thor parents. 

Where the civil and criminal codes are deficient on the subject of 
rec ip roc it y of duties in fimuHes, and in other relations of Society, the 
Bafi moral code b sufficiently explicit. A husband may, agreeably 
to custom, not lemr, g^ve his wife as a slave debtar to another, that is 
•eU her services. Lo ub er e advanced a strange aq s crti on, which, accor* 
dingto my researches, is not bom out mtha: lyy custom or by the ci- 
vil or nunal codes. It is that tiie Siamese, when oifended with their 
daughters, sell them to aperseo who haa a legal right to malce them 
eonrteians. The dregs of the people of any countiy may be guilty 
of dus enormity, but sweepmg chargea agttnst the whole of a com-* 
nranily o«ght to be avoided, nor can I find any law countenancing it 
in Slam. 

The reciprocal duties of parents and children, as extracted from 
the Bali MmMt^kara or MiUnda R^are obvious. 

Hie parent must warn his child against vice, and mstruct him in 
religloas duties and observances ; he ought to afbrd bun such means 

380 KDrCATIO?C. 

as hU rituition in fife will admit, for the aeqituremeiitof qmM kmnr. 
Iedg;e, aiti and snienoe ; he nmft MCde him io marriage ; liie snap 
rules respect a dauj^ter as well as a son, so far as die sex wiD admit; 
the child must assist the parents in their wortdlj buaneas, refiete 
them iu old a^e from the cares and toils of life, and kXkm tbem with 
soficitude mider every Tidssitude of fovtimey attendiii|^ to dicir ia* 
Ktmolioiis ; and when thej die, <heaoii,lr, if no ami «m#fea^ the 
next male rebtive mi»t ponohialljF pertotn aD the e ^ ohie^and ens- 
tomary obsequies. 

Next to these duties are ttiose 1 1 tii|utmal!y UnAni^ on I ciim and 
|iupih On the teaeher deftdves the iiapeniive oM of i nstm e ih g 
his pupil in aR tile knowied|pe tMek ke U Mmm^ p^memeS t^\ aim 
that of intmdncu)^ him U>tiie society ef wise aiid good nenw He 
muet also find meaniof hafrhi^ his ptiptt imt m oie d fai tlkMo bnaches 
of knowledge wherein he is himself deMeHt; he most aaadowly 
m'ateh over his pr ogre s s, and preveni luai fnmt phSng oaly a su« 
perfidal acquaintance with flubJeelB* 

The pupil roust he regular in Ids aHendiwfle on Ida ttnelmr, and, if 
required, act as his servant. He must tMil hlii with feipeee atA 
deference, and he will present the eusteniary prMe^taof eloriiea and 




The systems of education pretaifiiig aa Mmg H the imtiona who aiw 
Worsliippers of Booddha are neeriy alike. 

'Hie Sbmeae somMmes begfai ta fawtiuot tiieir eUHreQ at « feiy 
Mrly age, hu|g«neraUy at that of aoren yearA. 

It mi^ be compntad Hiat one tadf of the mrie papudation i^ in^ 
Stmcted in reading lUtd writings 

The first lesson whieh is hvBUlcatad is resfieot towards psraiia» the 
ruliug authorities, and the nged. Amongst equals the eldest re* 
eeiTes preoedeuee. Cooieqvcvt on tlm slaite of eocitly at lMge» and 
the patriarchal rules by whteh Its uMBdMra are prinddy tcfidltid. 
Kheir language conndos tv^ variety of cxp t e saioii smied Io tlie hi« 
tercoutse of the gradations of rank« Misappliretioiam of these brmsflC 

apeMh €Kpofie Ml individual to Ibe contempt o^ Us equa|g,tl»e batred 
ofUiWerior9iaadtoeof|K»idl]Mau«b«|0iitfi^ Sain* 

MioR iftnuidB by ^qiiab niAng the folded haade to the middk of the 
face, and to superiors, Ugher or lower aocordini^ to ijhe dc^gree of the 
peraoo addreased, 

Sk»e$ and aervaata in presence of tl|«r laaaton, and inferiora in 
praaemie of euperion* ait on tbeir heeki, nitb bent kneea, and heada 
ineBBed,wblletbqrMiaelteiifoUedIi«adftaboYethnr heads. Infe- 
riors etoop on paaami; asiq>erior» and where the diaparity of rank ia 
great, ttkt fovmer) on entoring'tiie boose of the latter* most make his 
appioeeb oa bia knees «nd elbowsy and wait until beia addressed. 

The moat mrim^ aAront n person can offer to another is to place 
bia bimd m the bend of thatotber. Toioadihisbead dresa is little 
Jeaa msiiMnf , 

It ia also a hreaok of lespeet and politeness not to take off the 
nongpjka or scarf and wrap it ronnd the waist on entering^ a honae 
imavlslty iMMl-nnefleettotiiokupibelongfoldsofthe Chong ka» 
hen or lowest part of a man's dress, is on a like occanon oonatnied 
into an aisont. On ei^ering a hooae the Siamese uncoTer the head, 
mul indeed it is most oomnum and agreeable to them* aooording to 
nndeoat custom) to go at all times bare headed. 

The IQnf and his Courtiers only corer their heads on sdenm oc- 
casions. The King's crown is the -first thi^g amongst the Regalia, 
and obeisaaee is. paid to it when off his head,, a custom of Chinese 

When a boy has reached the age of 8 or 9 years, hii^ parents take 
llim,with all the accompanying pomp they can afford, to a monaateiy 
or Waif whme he is deUvered into the charge of the Priests. Incenae 
and candles are bumed, and presents are bestowed on the Priests. 
The parents continue to send provisions while their son is under tui- 
tion. The Priests first instruct their pupils to trace with steatite on 
a Uaclcened board the foUowing words and letters in Bati : 

NaiM PJioott,h& seett,ba t,homma 4 a aa i v il, riik, rh Ihkf Ih 
0, it ai, 6, au, &m, a. 

When perfected in this lesson, they are taught the T.hal or Siamese 

38^ tDUCATlOV. 

ilphabet, and to read and wrfte in tint lanfua^, which is a fiur moi^ 
reasonable node of inatnitkm Aanlliatin use amongst the Malsyi, 
where boys are tai^ght to read Arabic witfaont bcsng instnrated in the 
meaning of tbe words. 

A short Bafi course succeeds, which, should parents ehooae, is pro- 
longed, and, as it is ordained in the BaH moral code, the PHaat ii 
obBged to instruct his pupil in wtuiterer knowledge he is himsslf 
po ssess ed of, provided the parents allow their ddUren to coalimw 
kng enough under his care. Howerer, it seldom h^^cns that pa* 
rentscansparetiidr diildren for a suffieientiy long period. lUe ex- 
tent of a Priests knowledge may, with a few exeeplions» beooMUcr- 
ed as confined to a pedantic acquaintance with the BaK hmgvi^ 
nddier dtensife nor weD grounded, to a v^ny lespecilahlc profictsBcy 
In figures, ft smattering of astronomy, confniedfy blended with astn^- 
kgical mummeries, and polj-demonolatrf , if I maj we dM expra* 
Am, and to a superficial acquabtance with physic. 

In these seminaries the elder hoyt imttrud the yomnger. IVj sD 
read aloud at the same lame. 

Priests are not per m itted to become teachers to the fiamale sex. 
Giris are tiierefbre instructed by their parents and brothers AUio* 
they have no access to the BaH„ yet as tiie moral precepts and &• 
courses are translated from that dead language into the T,|iai hngn- 
age, and as nomerous poetical and other worlcs are common in the 
country, females h^ve many facUitxes for gaining instruction. It is 
supposed, however, thst not more than one in twenty are so educated. 

The Siamese and Burman modes of instruction agree very dose^. 

Hie Princes and Princesses are educated both In the T,hai and 
Bali languages. 

Hie fonner are either instructed by Priests, or, what is most gene- 
rally the case, by Laymen of sancdty and learning. 

The Princesses are also taught by the same persons, but are sooner 
withdrawn from school or tuitaon. 

The women are generally tanglit to spin thread, to weave and dye 
ctolh. Tliey are neat embroiderers, and sempst r es s es. The sit of 
cookery is one, of which no good house^riie, even amongst Uie highest 

souCATioN. 383 

dass, would cboose to be found ignorant. They likewise mtke boxes 
of leaves and rushes, and prepare bouquets of flowers lor presenta- 
tion at temples. 

The managemient of tiie temporal afftdrs of th^ husbands forms a 
prbdpal branch of their education. 


Chaptse XL 


It is worthy of remark,, as it b somewhat Gonsolatotj to refleet, 
that, amidst many perrerted instholioiis of Indian and indo*Chineie 
despotisms, that of slavery has rarely^ perhaps neter, been inlfieted 
with that remorseless and savage rigor, whidi for ages tarnished the 
fidrest records of civiliaed Europe, and unfortunately, even yet, eterti 
a rinister influence over tiie destiny of millions in the ddrd %uatter 

Slavery lias, however, in one shape or other, been estabEshed, liroa 
time immemorial, over all of tiiese regions ; and without widdng to 
trace its distant origin to any other cause than that of the power 
which the strong exert over tiie weak, we shall proceed to exanuse 
the oondilaons in whidi it exists in Siam« 

In tiie first place, it is abounden duty of every Siamese to maintira 
and clothe Us depepdanfes of every description, — ^not perhaps a hard 
one oonsideting thdr half naked state, and the dieapness of food.^ 

The Suonese are dSf Khalo ang or ** SUtoei of the rulinig ^ower^'^ 
the last term agredng pretty closely with the Indian word mtkar or 
drear, tirerj man betwixt the age of 20 to M, or even to ius 
death, is, in so for, a slave that he must obey the usual mandate of 
Crovemment, (however ruinous obedience may be to his private m« 
terestB,) to serve it for three or four months in the year« (Loubere 
rates it at m months, wliidi native authorities do not support,) widi- 
out remuneration beyond a scanty supply of rice. Tlie services of 

* '' The Master has all power over his slave excepting that of iaflietiog 
death.** , 

** A Siamese may ha bom or may become a slave.** 

'' Captives in war, debtors, or persons who have been confiscated by jas- 
tice can be enslaved.** 

'^Childrenofadebtorslave, bom during bis period of slavery, remaifl 
slaves after he has purchased his liberty again.'* 

''One is born a slave when born ofa slave mother; and in slavery tte 
children are divided as on a divorce, the master standing in the place oflbe 
fother. The other children in the same rank belong to the fa^er if be is 
free, or to his master if he is a slave. But if the interco use with the feflMie 
sla?e was without the consent of her master the latter takes aii the ektl* 


the aged are commonly dispensed with when they have sons to sup- 
ply their places, and service may be commuted for the time it will 
occupy at the rate of 3 Dollars monthly to be pud in money or in kind. 
Th« number of slaves may be roughly estimated at 5 per cent of 
the population. The peasant cannot always afford the luxury of 
keeping slaves. The greatest number therefore falls to the share 
of men in power or office. These slaves constitute the principal 
part of their wealth. They are in fact retainers, who, when their 
masters have no employment for them, seek their own livelihood. 
Slaves of subjects do not all perform the 3 months service to the 
King. Those only who have engaged tliemselves, or attached t aem- 
selves temporarilj/ to an officer, or other person for maintenance 
only^ are at Uberty to go when they choose. Slaves of all classes may 
acquire and inherit property. But they are subject to the oppres- 
don of their masters, who find means to attach part of the inheri- 
tance left by a slave on pretence of debt incurred by him while alive. 
Slavery is chiefly of that kind which originates in Biniple debt. It 
also arises from selling of personal service, which last mode of losing 
liberty is well known to extend over all the IVfalayan States to such 
a degree that one fifth of the population may be presumed to be in 
the condition of slave-debtors. 

The trade of kidnapping the inhabitants of different paits of the 
coasts, and in the Islands, and selling them, is constantly plied by the 
Malayan pu*ates. 

Slavery in Siam is considered permanent and hereditary in some 
cases, such as where the slave was taken in war or where he des- 
cended to his master as a part of inheritance. Those taken in war 
belong of right to the King. He dbtributes them amongst his offi- 
cers. When slavery is thus incurred by war, the captive becomes 
ahtolutely a slave. But he may be ransomed, and it sometimes 
happens that a captive is admitted to certain domestic privileges 
which soften the severity of his fete ; but in general his case is hope- 

A soldier may not appropriate to his service a captive, unless per- 
mitted by the King to do so. 


386 «LAVKRY, 

Any one but a priest may be reduced to sUveryt he bduag prcscq)' 
posed to have no cause for incurring debt ; and H being well known 
that every thing given to him is looked on as charity. 

Slavery is caused by a failure in payment of debt, and by a seOiBg 
of personal service, which last is always for an onlimited time. Hie 
seller is liable for the expence attending the writing outof tiie agne^ 
ment. The condition of slave debtor may be oonndered as mating oa 
contract, since the person so ^sposing of his person may finee him- 
self by payment of the original sum for wluch he board himself. 
But the improridence which leads to servitude, and is afterwards 
betrayed in the general conduct of thb class of peq>le, joined to tbe 
arts by which their masters weave by degrees around them toib 
framed of gifts and extra luxuries, render it next to impoaabic, in 
most cases, that they should be ever able to effect their maaunuflsioD. 

Vagrants and persons of the lower rank, and who have avmded re- 
ceiving the impression upon thdr arms of the King's Seal, can be made 
slaves by any officer of Government, who may apprehend them, and 
are avulable for the service of government. These ciasaes are term- 
ed Lek, Tliat and Lek Som, terms also i^pplied to hereditafy skfw. 

Priests cannot be enslaved, as before noticed, nor can a sbve be- 
come a Priest unless he be manumitted for a limited period, or en- 
tirely. Those convicted of man-stealing are sentenced to peipfltaal 
slavery, and to provide grass for the King's elephant. Skfea con* 
stitute frequently the most valuable part of the property of a Siam- 
ese. Tlieir labor is to him always available in lieu of mainfeenanee, 
clothes, and lodging, and when he is not in immediate want of tiieir ser- 
vices, they must support themselves [like Malayan shive debtofs,] 
paying a small yearly sura to their master. ' Contracts are made ia 

Slaves whether reduced to slavery by fate oi war, or neceas^, or 
contract, are the property of their masters. 

The master possesses the power of inflictoig corporal pudtdmcDt 
on a slave for an offence ; but if with over severity, he is fiable to be 
fined on the complaint of the slave. 

Slaves of every dass, excepting that conristing of those who bav« 


sold their services, and can produce the original sum when demand- 
ed, are the actual property of their masters, may be sold and trans- 
ferred along with the soil, cattle &c., and may be given in payment 
of debt, even if that has been contracted at the gaming table. 

Children of slave-debtors must pay all the costs for their mainte- 
nance before they can be netftet^ If a married woman, being aware 
that her husbaiid frequents any one of the rang haiion or gaming 
houses, neglects to protest to the Chinese or other renter against be- 
ing made herself l&Me for any of his debts, she will be liable in most 
cases, [provided her husband liad, before witnesses, included her in the 
agreement to Uquidate his debts ;] and, if she cannot pay them, she is 
detained in the house of the creditor, till the husband appears. 

All renters, farmers, and collectors of revenue have a power of 
eeiiuig debtors which no other creditor can exert. In several Siam- 
ese and Bali books it is represented as the acme of devotion f jr the 
aspirant after Niphan* to sell his property and effects, and, having be- 
stowed the price in charity, to sell himself and dispose of the money 
for the same pious purposes. King Narinthom of Bali writ, and the 
famous Herischandra^ both of India, acted in this manner, the latter 
in order to pay a sacrificial fee. PMa Muha Wesantara of the Bali 
sold himself, children, and property, to obtain the means of being 

The reciprocal duties enj<Hned in the Bali Meeleenihara, on su- 
periors and dependants are as follows. The superior must be watchful 
over tlie interests and comfort of the inferiors, and his charity must be 
frequently exerted towards them. He mu:it supply tliem with good 
food and clothes, treat them with kindness always, and make good to 
them any loss accidentally sustained. 

The dependant will communicate to lus superior or master all in- 
formaUon which may affect the happiness or fortunes of the latter. 
He will assist him irith personal services when required. He will 
refresh \&i memory relative to duty or business of every kind. He 
will follow hhn equally in adversity and prosperity, and will be ever 
ready to anticipate his wants ! ! 

* A dhinc state orrc:}t and absorption, Nirun« 


It is to be feared tliat Uie humane maidins inculcated regar^ng 
the treatment of dependants and slaves in the Bali mond codes 
are considered ia Stam as fit objects for cold speculation only, vd 
are scarcely iufluencial on the 8ur£ace of private life ; much in the 
same manner as the moral axioms of the Chinese, and the common 
place moralities so rapidly and g^libly uttered by Mussulmans, nuke 
no part of iheir real mental creed. 

As before observed, the Siamese are exceedingly addicted to gBm* 
ing. The women are only restrained by a sense of decency from fre« 
quenttng the licensed gaming houses, for» during the two great Festi- 
vals called Troot and SoHgkJiraan^ they play with the utmost keen- 
ness at games of chance, meeting for the purpose in private houses. 
A sort uf coi-nival takes {dace at these periods, and gaming is oilov- 
edfrcc of duty, to all ranks, during two or three days at each of them. 


A Delilor, as has been stated, subjects himself to slavery by a ful* 
lire to pay wlien his debt becomes due. Should he have agreed to 
pay at the rate of 6 per cent per mensem (the highest rate) and 
thereafter have failed to pay ; the Creditor will receive, by the award 
uf a Court, at the rate of 6 per cent per mensem for the three first 
months, and at the medium legal rate of 3 per cent for the remain- 
ing months, and until the debt shall be pud ; but this bi die event 
only of its being proved that the debtor has not the means of paying 
at once. 

IVIonry lent on a mortgage of property which may be employed in 
the mean time to the advantage of the mortgagee, such as cattle, 
implements of agricultur.!, carts, &c., will not be charged with inter- 
est. Absence does not C4incel a debt however long that may be. A 
person who rents a slave pays one third of his value to the owner 
should the slave die. 

The children of a female slave, by a man who is ftoi her master, 
belong to her master. If a master cohabits with his female slaw, she 
will be entitled to manumission. 

In some caseb the bare act of incurring debt, without an attendiii^ 


Specification of servitude, beiag* the equivalent to be rendered in case 
of failure to pay, will not subject the debtor to slavery with his cre- 
ditor. He will often be retained by the judge if not bailed, and in 
tins case will be kept in irons ; or he will be punished by branding 
on the head, and often by being led through the streets while his 
offence is proclaimed by beat of gong. 

A slave debtor being a relative of the master is entitled to share 
in his estate at his death. If his debt falls short of his rightful share 
he will recdve the overplus, but if it exceeds he must make good 
by servitude or otherwise, to the nearest heirs. No interest is charge- 
able on debts of thb kind. 

Interest b generally stipulated for. The common medium rate 
amongst the lower classes being, as before stated, about 36 per cent 
per annum. 


Chaptbr XII. 

The Law as mcolcated in the Bali Code, JTiotiomeet Raeia' 
tJUtmf allows hut of a veiy low rate of mterest, and on tiie wbok 
discountenances tlie practice of taking any at all. But experience 
has taught the Siamese as well as other nations, that mon^ u itself 
a mere marketable commo^ty, and that trade cannot enst where iti 
Talue and uses are placed under permanent and inTariable restrictioos. 

The Bali Code enjoins it as a duty incumbent on Kings to lend 
money without interest to their subjects. The civil Codes admit 
and sanction the following rates, 75 per cent per annum where Go* 
▼emment money is concerned, and for subjects 371 per cent ; but 
the general run may be taken at 38 per cent per annum. Tbxtt 
percentpermonthisfizedbytheusury laws of China. [SirCStaon- 
ton's Penal Code of China.] Interest cannot bear interest, but until 
a debt b paid the simple interest continues on the original sum; the 
interest for the time first stipulated bdng previously paid. The in« 
terest can never exceed the principal ; when both are equal, the debt 
must be settled, or remidn as it is, unless another agreement is writ- 
ten out, making the principal and interest a new debt. 


Deposits are delivered in presence of witnesses. When given in 
cliarge to more than one person, much confusion generally ensues. 
But if one of the depositaries should be absent, and the other, when 
the deposit is demanded from him, should deckre that it is in the 
hands of that first, then he is put on his oath. However, unless in 
agreement has been made to the contrary, the owner can demand his 
property, and receive it from either depositaiy in absence of one of 
them. Deposits may not he placed in the hands of a slave. The 
goods are usually put into the hands of that bailee or depositary, when 
there are more than one, whose age or respectability is greatest. De- 
posits may be delivered to persons autiiorised by the owner to re- 
ceive them. If the goods should be lost by a depositary he is res- 



ponuble* But if he will swear that they were stolen or destroyed 
byineritiible aoddoitB, such as fire, war, inQndation» and the like, de« 
lifery b not always innsted on in a Coort. It will appear from the 
features of the case whether the depositary had lost any of lus own 
property at the same time, and his carelefisness in protecting the 
chargfe will be taken into account. 


For these a written agreement is made out, which must be sealed 
in presence of witnesses^ and it generally spei^fies what accidents 
will be considered as preventing restitution. But otherwise losses 
must be made good by the depontary. The rates of interest are 
not altered from those established by law, whether they are for loans 
on security of property, or personal security only. 

If the pledge is to be used by the Depodtary the debtor does not 
pay any interest If the pledge is a slave-debtor, the labor he af- 
fords is conndered sufficient to compensate for interest of money lent. 
As pledges are in most instances of greater value than the sums lent, 
it follows tiiat the deporftary has seldom occasion to sell them in 
de£Milt of payment by the debtor. 

Any injury sustained by a pledge which has been used by the de« 
positary most be made good by him. 

The depositary may not sell a deposit without consulting the debt- 
or. But ai any time he may mortgage or pledge the deposit to a 
third person, without infomung the debtor, he being himself respon* 
idble for any damage it may sustain. A debtor, by giving notice to 
the head man of the district, may take back his pledge when redeem- 
able, should the deporitary be absent. The first possessor of a pledge 
has tlie right to the greatest share of a debt, should die debtor have 
made a contract with a second person on the same pledge. But as the 
creditor is generally put in (tciual posMetsion of the pledge, it is the 
fault of the second person if he be deceived. The law however divides 
it betwixt them, the first receiving two thirds^ and the other one 
thirds while the debtor u punished with a cudgelling. But should 
the first depositary have received the cash in hand, then the second 

392 SALKS^ 

clttmant gds nothing, and should he even carry the matter before a 
court of law he cannot recover unlets tiie debtor baa property in« 
dependent of the pledge, which the fint depodtary oontinaea to hM 
in poaaesdon for the full amount of the debt, and to use it, should it 
be land, or other property which by use may not he dissipated. 


Rent of any kind is low in Siam, since rice is cheaper there than 
perhaps in any other country. 

The lure of a labourer for m month has been stated at ax rupees, 
but what it may be at the present time I cannot say. 


The King monopc^ixes the chief portion of the trade in his domi- 
i^ons, consequently there is tittle scope for the enterprise of hn sub- 
jects. None of the ^gests wluch have been procured contain laws 
specifically applicable to trading concerns. Port regulations do not 
come under the head of law. But in the digest are some demons, 
which are considered as precedents. These cannot well be here 

Copartners are liable for their own debts only. In fact Copart- 
nership b not controuled or affected by any laws save those wUch 
are i^^plicable to individuals, and this will be the case until the King 
and his oourders cease to monopolize the trade. . 


A purchaser haWng struck a bargdn deposits part of the price of 
the goods with the seller, agredng to return within a giren period. 
Should the seller in the interim dispose of the goods, he forfdts their 
value to the buyer. Should the buyer not arrive within the stipula- 
ted time, the seller has it in his option to sell the goods and retain 
the deposit of the intended buyer. A person who is found selliiig 
lost or stolen property is fined the value thereof, beades being pun- 
ished as the law may direct. Goods purchased openly without a war- 
ranty may not be returned for alleged deficiency, or inferiority of qual- 
ity. False sales are pumshed as theft. Sales and transfers of landed 


property are made by written deeds, or by the delivery of the pro- 
perty and title deeds to the buyer, or receiver, in presence of wit- 


A contract is made either in writing', or verbally, but in either case 
competent witnesses are required to give validity to the deed. A 
written contract cannot be entered into for a sum less than four baat 
(nearly four rupees.) A contract under any form is invalid if either 
party should have happened to lie under a l^al disability, or should 
have bee n under the influence of some powerful passion, or should 
have been coerced. A creditor must not write out the deed with 
his own hand, but have it written by a person unconcerned in the 
transaction. Tlie parties in a contract aflix their marks to the bot- 
tom of the deed, and then touch them with their open hands before 
the witnesses. 

The contracting party generally affixes a horizontal marlc, which 
IS crossed by the mark of the party to whom he engages. Deeds 
of sale of land are either committed to paper or made by delivery of 
the title deeds in presence of witnesses. Secret compacts are not 
uncommon both for friendly and evil purposes. But it does not ap- 
pear that the Siamese have any societies resembling those in Clilna 
as described by the late Dr. Milne.* 

'Wlien persons associate for the purpose of planning some despe- 
rate action they take arrack, salt, and chillies, which having mixed, 
they draw a small portion of blood from their arms and let it drop 
into the mixture. Tlieir swords, especially those which have been 
used in war and have been dyed in the blood of an enemy, are struck 
in the vessel holding Uie mixture. They next invoke all the Deities 
and Spirits within the ample range of Siamese mythology to witness 
the compact, and to visit the perjurer with interminable erils. The 
associates lastly taste of the mystic compound. When persons only 
swear to befriend each other on all occasions, the blood letting is 

* TraoTictioos ortbc Rojrat Asiatic Socielj of G. B. and I. Vol. i. p. 2. 

D » 




Chapter XIII. 

It is plaun, from tlie tenor of the enactments which have been made 
for the punisliment of corrupt judges and their officers, that great 
pervertion of the ends of justice is prevalent^ — while it can scarceh 
be less apparent that the harsh and expenstre forms which attend 
the administration of the law mit^ deter numbers from suing for 
their rights. By these combined causes the Siamese hare been lit- 
tle benrlited by the labors of their ancient lawgivers* 


First. — 0/ Judges and Ihtir corrupt practices — 1 1 Chapters m one 
Digest are dedicated to an exposition of the mal-practices in Courts 
of Justice, into inhich it would be useless here to enter. It is only 
curious to obi^erve such anxiety manifested by lawgivers of Siam 
in exposing the chicanery of these Courts to the public ere, while, 
at the same time, no effectual remedy is applied, however such may 
be abstractly inculcjitod and enacted to get rid of the mischief. 

The penal law is no respecter of persons. 

A judge must not allow himself to be swayed from the right path 
by any arguments, '* should they as plausible as those which 
Raja Seeng'fka, King of Lions, used when he seduced to his party 
the might}' Dog of the forest Cheeng Chatck, and persuaded him 
to assist ill destro}'ing P,hra Rdnasee (Benares.) For if he thus 
acts he will be equally confounded as that King of Dogs was when 
he entered that region (Benares) along i^ith Raja Seeng,ha. The 
King of that country having heard of the intended confederated at- 
tack, ordered all his subjects to stuff their ears with cotton tiiat they 
might not be stunned when they came to battle by the roaring of the 
Lion. But Cheeng Chawk neglected this precaution, and wasstut- 
ned to death by the terrific voice of the King of Beasts." 

A judge will be disgraced and suffer corporal punishment, with 
loss of office, who shall be convicted of compromising a suit, he being 
at the time aware that one or both of the parties have be en wrought 

Tamamo-av. 395 

t>n by fear to withdraw the suit, and any judge or officer of the state, 
^'ho does not cheerfully, as well as uprightly, discharge his duty, will 
be dismissed. AU such will be held strictly responsible for those they 
chose to employ or to recommend for public employment. 

An unjust judge will be branded on the forehead by several slight 
cuts of a sword, and will thereafter stand on the pillory [a sort of 
mock impalement.] Should a judge without cause delay to settle any 
matter at issue he will be liable for th^ value in ^spute and costs, 
and he will be disgraced should he entertain a suit, the parties in 
which reside beyond his jurisdiction. Should he falsify the original 
memorial of a party, he wHl forfeit the value of the property in dis- 
pute, and pay the costs, and thereafter be put in chains. 

A judge will be dismissed for incapacity, if it sliall be proved 
agunst him« 

^^lien the King suspects that imy of hb I:<aw Officers are ignorant 
of the Codes of the Kingdom he directs the P,hra K,hlang to call 
them« In one digest it is related that Uie chief judge Mdhosot was 
summoned to answer for alleged incapacity. lie tried to get off by 
observing that he ought to. be judged by a reference to his former 
recorded decisions. Before the Council he was forced to hear a num- 
ber of cases stated, and ordered to decide agreeably to the Code of 
the Kingdom. He failed in one or two instances to decide according 
to law. The next day he was again called on, but he sent notice 
that lie was not accustomed to carry law books in his hands, and that 
he had therefore sent in his place the Lo-ung Racha tyhada, the 
AUj^iya^ the KJioon see^ and Sangkdn^ Officers of the Tribunal. 
When the officers had reached tlie Council they declared that they 
had never studied the Kot P,hro Ayakaan '" The Chief Code". His 
Majesty thereafter expressed his surprise at the ignorance of his 
functionaries, and directed copies of the Code to be made out for 
general distribution. * * 

As there is no School of Law in Slam it will often happen that 
an oflEurer on receiving an appointment is quite ignorant of his duty. 
The King orders copies to be given to his officers, and it is through 
Ihese officers that the people procure copies. 

396 TATSIAM0-A!7. 

If a Complainaiit's second deposition in a Criminal Case contradtet* 
the original memorial presented by htm to the judge, he will be 
branded on the forehead and be gonged through the Streets. In a 
Civil Case he will only forfeit his suit. 

Parties may compromise a suit already commenced, provided the 
proposition for it has been made by the Defendant, otherwise the 
suit goes on, and judgment b passed, and the Complainant who thus 
proposed a compromise wilf be precluded from again produdng his 
suit in Court. 

Complaints will be rejected should it appear that an uncalled for 
delay of three months, or longer, has been incurred in filing Ihem. 
Forty days will in all ordinary cases be deemed a sufficient interval, 
and in extraordinary cases three years will be admitted. Hie law 
varies on this head, and it opens a path of corruption and diicaoery 
which its officers know how to take fuU advantage of. 

Persons having had complaints or suits settled in a competent Court 
will be fined if they take them to one within another jurisdictioD, the 
right of appeal being still available. 

Persons having lost property by thieves must prefer their com- 
plaints within ten months at farthest after the loss has been sustiifl* 

A female suitor may employ as agents or advocates any one within 
the 32 degrees of kin. 

If married, the husband^s relatives connot act for her, and in like 
manner the husband requiring an advocate may not employ any one 
of his wife's relations, but one from amongst the 32 degrees of kin 
on his own side. 

If either Complainant or Defendant in a suit shall be found wear- 
ing a talisman or charm he will forfeit his suit. A Defendant will 
not be permitted to parry a complaint by a counter one. The ori- 
ginal matter having been discussed, liis will be attended to. 

Tlie parties' names are written down and decisions recorded, as a 
person who should appear offcener than thrice as a complainant is 
treated as a litigious person. Should either party call a competent 
decision in question he will be punished, that is to say, should supe* 


rk)r authority adjudge it. [But appeals are not barred where al- 

A P,biik,hoo or Priest haviog a dispute with a brother of the or- 
der must prefer his memorial in Court while his opponent is yet a 
member of it, and not afterwards, when he may have become a Lay- 
man : — and a Layman who neglects to prefer a suit against another 
Layman until he has put on the sacerdotal g^arments will be non- 

' Chamopi ChakyUta and TjMtsh or necromancers and magiciani 
* will not be heard in Court as accusers of tliose who have reason to 
' complain against them.' A person having a cause in Court and 
not attending on prescribed occasions will forfeit his suit, or if it be 
a criminal matter, he will be fined. A contempt of Court is pun- 
nished by fining. 

Parties in a suit, or any persons connected with a cause or a trial 
will not be permitted to stay, during the progress of either, in the 
house of the judge, nor will they be aUowed to have free intercourse 
with each other. In all suits and trials, judges are to throw out ir- ' 
relevant matter, and to adhere to the facts chiefly bearing on the 

Relatives of a party may council him in a suit at issue. 

Should a judge deem it advisable to refer a suit to a higher juris- 
diction than his own, and should one of the parties decline appear- 
ing before lY, he forfeits his suit. 

A priority of right to be heard is acquired by a priority in filing of 
a suit. But in general a judge must attend to the Ekkyhusam a^a or 
matters of weighty import in preference to the Kyhwam hakyhdn 
baanpyhen or inferior matters. 

In a smt which respects property the admission of being in the 
wrong by one party does not lessen the necessity which the other s 
under of proving himself to be in the right, and if he cannot prov« 
his right Uie King takes one third of the issue. 



The Siamese have presidents over the decisions and consultations 
of the various Courts. But they have no distinct Courts for tiie in- 
vestigation of criminal cases. The King who is Chau Mti-ung or 
lord of the country is also its chief judge. To him appeals can be 
made from any court, and before passing sentence he hears the de- 
bates of the law officers.* Governors of provinces exercise the three- 
fold duty of rulers, judges, and magistrates, but they cannot prevent 
appeab and complunts from reaching the King, unless with the con- 
nivance of their Coundls, which is not likely to hs^ipen often, since 
these la^t are established checks on their conduct, and in fact, ^ies. 

These Governors are called Chad Mh-ungf or lord of the dis- 
tricts or Countries. They govern by right, partidpate with the King 
in the revenues, impose fines, levy extraorduiary taxes, and are, in 
fact, despotic to such an extent as shall not, they believe, subject them 
to punishment from the court. When they disgrace themselves, thej 
are frequently supplanted by Porang^ who are officers of an inferior 
rank, and who govern agreeably to positive and specific instnicttons 
transmitted from court. They have fixed salaries. 

The late raja of Ligor, was a Chcdt Mi-ung^ which may account 
for the general independence he displayed since the invaaon by him 
of Ked&h in 1822. 

A Chad Mh-ung is considered as lowering himself if he trades. 

But he evades it by trading in the name of one of his household. 

The titles of the officers oSf Justice vary considerably at different 

The following list has been made out from statements in the di- 
gests of the number and rank of officers who at various periods bare 

* » The Ring is chief fudge In his Capital 

''All appeals go to the Resident of the tribunal there, the Tnmrat [Ton- 
roarat] be sits in the King palace, he Judges in the king's absence, an appetl 
lying to the king. In the case of the kings absence the proceedings resem- 
ble those in the provincial courts ; the king examines all the opinions wi 
questions and then relevance before he passes Judgment.**— M. de la Loq- 
bere*s Siam, p. 68. 

t Loubere chap. I?. 


held courts. There are no schools for law in Slam, any officer of 
the required rank may become a judge, however ignorant he may be 
of the law, and accordingly the King finds it requimte to issue fre- 
quent orders to enforce the study of the Koipfhrd ayakaan on all 
engaged in distributing justice. Many of the officers noted in this 
list occasionally held appointments unconnected inth law, but the 
truth is, a Siamese officer must do iPf hat he is ordered, however in« 
congruous with his previous habits the specific avocation may be. 
The two great law officers are 

2 \ P,hra Satsadee, or judges of the right and left hand. 

Chad P,hreea Yommaraat is supreme judge under the King in 
criminal matters. 

P,hra P,hoottha-ong, supreme judge in the ecclesiastical court. 
P,hra Sadet, Governor of the dty ; who settles common matters re* 
lating to the Priesthood. 

A bench in the San Loang or supreme court is seldom composed 
of more than eight judges, and Councillors.* Those which follow 
are noticed in the Kot Pfira Ayakaan (digest) after it has been 
ordered that the Chau Krom and Palat Krom, two officers of high 
rank, *'will see that the nation is made acquainted with the laws,** 

Assembled in the S<tn Loang. 

1. P,hra K,hro P,hee raam. President 

2. Lo-ang Yaana p,hak,kaat 

3. Lo-ang Tliepp,ha Rachada 

4. Lo-ang T,hummasaat 

5. K,hun Raat P,haiilt chai 

6. K,hun Ayachak 

7. K,hun Loang P,hra krai see 

8. K,hun Ratcha rectharion 

9. K,hun T,heppha aya 

* ^ The whole tribnnal properly consists only of a single officer, for he 
alone has the deliberate voice, while all counsellors have only a consultative 

'^ The President is life Governor, and after the Commander of the Garri- 
sons of his district (Commanding in Chief.**}— M. dc la Loubere, p. 82. 


Officers assembled in an inferior Court, P,hra see Mahosot, Pre- 
sident, — 

1 . Lo-ang Racha Thada 

2. Lo-angf Atthaym 

3. K,hdn P,hetchana thep 

4. Kyhiin see Sangkan 

5. The Kyhdm or Recorder, or Reporter. 

The P,hreea Maha dpparaat Chattee Siireewong P,hongsa p,]iak- 
dee badeen thftn. 

He guides the helm of state when the King b absent. 

At a term held in the year of the Siamese Era Chdnla Saklcaraat 
1146 [A. D. 1788] the following officers were present. 

1. Chau P,Iiriya P,het pliee chai 

2. P,hra Laksa Montheeyan 

3. K,hiin see Rachabdt K,hum or Reporter. 

And on another occasion were assembled in the supreme Coarf. 
P,hreea I\faha Rachakhro, President, 

1. Pjhra k,hro wccchet 

2. P,hra K,hro p,hee raam 

3. P,hra See Mahosot 

4. Lo-ang S,hammasaat 

5. Lo-ang Yaa Prakaat 

Tlie Khdm or Reporter. 
In M. De La Loubere^s Hist. Relat. of Siam are the following 
names and titles,^ of officers of a tribunal of justice, to wliich have 
been added some explanations by me. 

1. " Ocya tchaou menang*^ (President.) 

2. " Ocpra belar [ak p,hra palat.] 

3. " Oc prajokehatesV^ [&k p,hra yokkabaat] a kind of Attor- 
ney General and spy on the Governor. 

4. " Oc yra pguu" [4k p,hra pun] Commands the Garrison. 

5. ^* Ocpra maha tar [kk p,hra malia t,hai] Keeper of the 
Military census. 

6. " Oc pra sassedV* [ak p,hra satsadee] Keeper of the census 

* Ph. 111. c. 4. 


of the people. He begins to write down the names of cliildren 
when they are 3 or 4 years old. 

7. " Oc lotwng meuang'^ [dk lo-ang muung] Superintendent of 

8. " Oc louang vang*^ [&k b-angwang] Governor of the Palace. 

9. " Oc lo^uang peng'*^ [iUc lo-ang p^heng] Keepec of Criminal 
Law records and pronouncer of a judge's sentence on a convicted 

10. " Ak lo^ung clang^^ Store keeper. Agent for the Kmg in 
private mercantile transactions. 

11. ^*' Oc louang cauca*^ Inspector of foreigners. '* Oc counne 
coeng^^ Provost. 

12. " Oc Coumie prayabaaV^ Keeper of Uie Prisons or Cages 
of bamboo. 

13. " Oc eowme tiarinC* Governor of the Elephant Tndn. 

14. '' Oc counne ncu rang^^ Surveyor for Elephants. 

Officers of a Tribunal* at the capital take precedence of those of 
all other Courts in the kingdom. 


The Justiciary forms in Siam have been in part correctly defined 
by " Loubere." Tlie whole are as follows : — 

A Petition or Memorial is presented to the judge, who gives it to 
his clerk to read. The Petition Ls copied and read to the Com* 
plunant. The original is sealed with prepared clay, and an impres- 
sion made on the clay by the nail of the Complainant's finger. It is 
then laid a^de. The clerk makes another copy, or rather aii ex- 
tract or a sort of Subpoena, and sends it to the Defendant. 

The case is reported to the superior judges ; they attend whc^ tlie 
case comes on ; and the Defendant is examined to see how near his 

* Because ^ the right hand is more honorable than the left, the floor op- 
posite to the door more honorable than the sides , the sides more than the 
wall where the door is, and the wall which is on the right hand of him that sits 
on the floor, more honorable than that on his left hand ; in the tribunals no 
persons sit on the bench which is fiicd to the wall directly opposite to the 
door, except the President who alone has a dclerminalive voice. 

^ The Councillors (Counsellors) who only have a consallaltve voice are 
seated on the lower benches along the side walls, and the other officers along 
the wall of the side where the door is." — M. de la Loubere biam, p. 56. 

£ 3 


deposition cutncides, or if it disagrees with, tbe origirutl deposidoo 
by tlie Complainant. Tlie defendant's depodtion beinn;' finished and 
written down, it is sealed in the same way as the Petitbn of tiie 
Complainant. The Defendant is then cross-questioned to see if he 
will contradict himself. Parties are advised to reconcile matters. 
No recondliation taldng pkce, the depositions are read aloud. 

If the Defendant pleads in the wrong the matter b immediatdy 
decided on ; if not, copies of the depontions are taken by a proper 
officer to the houses of the witnesses, and these haying been taken 
to a Bhoodliist Temple and duly sworn m there by a Prkti^ they 
are examined by the officer in presence, generally, of the Compbun- 
ant, and such persons as he may have brought with him. The par- 
ties are kept near the Court House and strictly watched. On tiie 
day appointed the depositions of the parties who are present are resd 
before the judges. They put such questions to the parties as tfacj 
think fit ; but the litnesses are not called on again. The inferior 
judges give their opinions in writing ; and the chief judge pastes sen- 
tence after having examined thdr grounds of deddon. Aj^msIs 
may be made to tlie Kmg, and from one Provincial Court to another 
and liigher one.* 

* ^ Tbe Siamese have only one style for both Civil and Crtmintl law. 

^ All processes are in writing. g 

^ Governors of provinces examine the Petition and reject It or admit it I 

as it may appear to him Just or unjust He can even chastise the Petitioner. ^ 

This is to prevent any rash process being begun. 

^ The Governor does not appear until all preliminaries have been a4ia^ 

^ The opinions which are all consultative are written down 5 the Qerk 
reads Oie depositions and evidence In absence of the Governor. 

^ The process being thus prepared and the council standing in presence 
of the Governor, the Clerk reads to him the process and the opinions of the 
dilTerent officers. The Governor, if he thinks proper, takes objection to opi- 
nions and questions the authors of them as to the reasons for their opini- 
ons. Then he pronounces in general terms tbe judgment according to Law: 

^ Then Oc Lo-uang Peng reads aloud the law of the case. But they ne- 
ver follow the law, and prefer the eqnity side of the case. The judgment is 
set down in writing. But the King's Attorney General or Joksbat [Tok- 
khabat] states to the Court when he thinks fit his opinion of the justice or 
otherwise of the decision. 

^ A Law Agent or person assisting a suitor must be at least his eoosia 

** Torture is used where proof is awanting. 

" Appeals arc made from Province to Province occasionally. Tbesi 
arc alwa}!) allowed; but were very expensive. 



In ordinary cases the expenoes attending a suit amount to from 
12 to 30 baat or firom 15 to 37j^ rupees. 

Hie person non^suited pajs all expences. 

Tlie items or fises are collected on memorials — ^the sealing of these 
*-— permia^on to give security-— on receiving of evidences — examina- 
tion of witnesses — and to the judges /or their personal ejepences 
while a suit endures. 

Bat/ is not admisdble in criminal cases. But hy payment of cer- 
tain fises the accused may relieve lumself from some of the sufferings to 
which aH indicted persons are ex|)osed previous to trial, not except- 
ing torture to extort confession. 

The fees noted are 

Rupees or 

1. Permission to find bail (in civil cases, 4 Baat. 


2. Exemption from leg irons, 4 „ 

3. Do. from body chains, 4 „ 

4. Do, from the iron neck collar, . . 4 „ 

5. Registrar's fee, .T H >» * 

tt The proofs where the other evidence is insafficient are hj fire, water, 
vomits, tigers. The king onlf posses sentence of death, or bis special con- 
ferences.**— M. De la Loubere, p. 87. 

* H. Oe la Loubere in his Hist. Relet, of Siam p. 168 of Appendix, gives 
the following " aeconnt of the charges of Justice" in his time. 

1. When the Judge receives the first Petition, .. .. llivre.* 

2. The judge Tchaou Menang [Chau Muangi counts the lines 

and the cancellings and afixes his seal to the Petition, . 3 „ 
8. He sends the Petition to one of the Councillors hut gen- 
erally totheNal of the parties to examine, and to shew 
the dwelling places of both the sureties of the parties. . . I „ 
4. To the person who goes to summon parties to attend tt the 

Hall of Justice, 3 9 

-5. If he most stop a night on the road, 4 n 

6. Parties ifallowed to give hail, one sscuriiy for each (or 

surety.) The Judge geU, 16 > . a 

The Clerk, 8{ *^ " 

7. Copying the reasons of the two parties to present to the 

judge. To the Judge, 3i ^ 

To the Clerk, S] ^ ^ 

* Nearly 10 pence. 




The gfovernment of Siam is wholly despotic and Uie nod of ii»i 
jesty 19 sufficient to abrogate the wisest laws aod to seal the &le of 
a victim ; nor can justice there, from the laxity ai principle esostiii; 
amonifst the men in authority, flow in a smooth channd ercn where 
not checked by any politic or malignant feelinga artiiating the So?e- 

The Chinese are notorious in the east for the exerdse ofja&ial 
cruelties, inconnstent certainly in some measure with the state of 
civilization to which they have arrired, and with their freedom from 
fanaticism, but perfectly according with the placid selfi^ness wfaicb 
marks every feature of tlieir character. 

The Siamese are a far less refined people, but their punishmeDls 
do not on the whole appear of quite so devilisli a charact^, and It is 
known that pride has not yet steeled their minds against many hu- 
mane feelings. We must lay the formation of the criminal code and 
its punishments to the charge of their more barbarous ancestors, 

8. To the Clerk who goes to hear the depositions and note 

thera down. •.« •• •. '.. •• .. S^, 

If he should have to slop a day or a night on the road, . . 4 ^ 

9. If several witnesses are examioed for each party, he takes, 

lor each, •• •• .. ., ..iji 

10. Copies of the depositions or examinations of the two parties 

for handing up to the Judge. To the Judge, At » 

Cleric, 4 5 •• » » 

1 1 . The Governor or Judge to sit in the Hall of Justice, •• b „ 

12. Each of the other individuals on the bench or Oc prSy .. 5 » 

13. TheOkLouang, 3 » 

14. The Registrar, 8 « 

15. Collation for the Coancillors. 3 » 


16. When the law has to be consulted. 

To the Councillor expounding or reading it, called Pang, 3 » 

17. Articles expended during the suit, 

^^ . 1. White cloth, all 5 ells long. 
^TS i 2. 5 lbs. of Rice, 
c"? f 3. A taper of yellow wax. 
XI a \ 4. Five quids of areca and betel leaf. 
J w k 5. One fowl. 
* g" \ 6. Two jars of arrack. 
^ ^ 7 6ome flowers and a mat. 
^ I have not put this part of the subject under a separate part becansf 
the Civil apd Criminal laws of Slam are mixed up together. 


whose system was afterwards to be softened and corrected by the 
mild and merdful tenet of Booddhlsm. 

As before observed the course of justice is nearly alike in both 
cinl and and criminal matters, as observed by M. D. L. Loubere in 
his day. 

The Kmg is the supreme judg^e in his dominions, and his fiat 
alone sanctions the sentence of death pronounced by a judge, and in 
general sentence is pronounced by him. But he may delegate his 
power of life and death to a viceroy or comnussioner, and as the 
latter has two associates in his power he is somewliat restrained by 

Their principle is to connder the accused as guilty until proved 
innocent, and therefore their prisoners are treated with tlie utmost 

Various unjustifiable methods are resorted to in order to induce 
confession, such as gagging, tlmmb screwing, squeezing of the head 
betwixt blocks, and pummelling with the elbows. 


May respectively challenge witnesses mutual eiidences having beeu 
once questioned by' either of the parties, or on the behalf of either, 
may not thereafter be challenged. He who challenges will general- 
iy be nonsuited. The law inculcates the expediency of the least 
possible delay in the examination of witnesses in civil as well as cri- 
minal cases. Witnesses not being ohtainabley t&e law ordains proof 
by various ordeals as before stated, and a party refusing such tests is 
generflly non-suited, such are the ordeal by fire, where the person 
passes over a ditch filled with live embers, with uncovered feet ; by 
melted lead, or boiling oil, into which he thrusts his hand ; by water, 
into which the parties plunge, he being successful who remains long- 
est under it, if indeed they be not both actually suffocated ; exposure 
to wild beasts ; administering of drugs and watching their effects. 
But women in a pregnant state are not subjected to ordeab until af- 


ter delivery. 
It seems only in special cases that witnesses are subject to ordeal, 


and where apparent or confBctiii^ testimony is diseorered, tlie merr 
circumstance of ao evidence not corroboradng tbe statement of a 
party will not subject him to the ordeal. Cases are howerer often 
postponed where eridenoes are awaatinf . 

A party in a suit or action who is found to hare tampered wMiaa 
evidence is nonsuited, and punished by fine» to the amount of tiie 
suit, and attendant costs. 

A party who declines entering a pagoda to take an oaHi^ is deem- 
ed to have lost his suit, or, if a criminai matter, to be culpable. 

P^ee kjhoo^ or priests, when called on as witnesses do not take 
an oath, prorided they are reipeetahle in ekaraeter. lliey seldoia 
make verbal replies but merely affirm or deny set questiona by mo- 
tions of the taraphat, or fan of palm leaves, one of the badges of the 
order ; they raise it in affirming and drop it in denying. 

Any judge or officer concerned in administering justice will be 
degraded and punished should it be proved that he had uaoked 
opium and drunk spirituous liquors with a person detained in a suit 
or action, because parties are kept near the Court and watched 
that they may have as little intercourse before trial as posnUe with 
others concerned. Confosrion in dvil and criminal cases snpereedes 
the necessity of trial; but in criminal actions, not being for a eopt- 
ial qfeucef or one of magnitude, it entitles the person oonfesn^ to 
have a induction of one half made in the fine commensurate mth 
his offence. 



Persons excluded. 

Reasons for Exclusion. 









Persons reftisittg to 

give evidence. 



Opium smokers dr 


Virgins or unmar- 
ried persons. 


Notorionsly bad 








Pregnant Women 

Women irhose pro- 
fession is dancing and 
sUge playing. 

Widow of a third 

Deaf persons. 

The blind. 
Persons who have 

Bnt he Is detained and punished should it be 
proved that he knows any thing about the mat-i 
ter at issue. 

Sufficiently obvious. 

Because they are all addicted to pilfering 
part of the gold entrusted to them. 

Virgins and unmarried women. Because 
their minds are wandering in quest of a husband 
and therefore apt to i>e swayed inaoy direciion. 

Clear enough. 

Because they are considered as having no 
controul over their speech. 

Because of mean degree in society [a rule dl- 
realy derived nrom the Hindoos.] 

Because cruel. 

Because being in want they are obious to 

On account of a story in the Bali work Chun- 
oa Khosokka of a Prince who having «n un-* 
dutiftil son sent him with a note to a Potter 
directing him to kill the bearer. The latter 
gave the note to his brother who took it and was 
seixedby the Potter and slain. The son who 
escaped was a Deva who had risen by his vir- 
tue from the state of a beggar. 

Because their minds are not at rest and they 
are subject to sadden affections mental and bo- 

Because all their actions and words are for 

Not clearly explained. Seems to have arisen 
from some superstitious belief, or prejudice of 
the Hindus against a widow marrying again. 

Not explained, otherwise than because they 
cannot hear questions. 

Because considered as in their dotage. Na- 

reached 70 years of tives of the East appear sooner to feel the effects 


Children under se- 
ven years of age. 

Persons at the 
point of or near their 

of old age than those of Europe. 
Obvious enough. 


* The Siamese say that P,hra Phoott,ha Kosa ; who I find to be the Bud- 
dha Gosa of the Ceylonese Mabawanso^ introduced these prohibHioos into 



Persons exdttded. 

Reason^ for Exclusion. 



Because when convicted of the offence ofa- 

dnltery are disgraced by having their beads sha- 
ved, being dressed in a fish net, and haviag 
bunches of scarlet flowers stuck above their ears 
and then being gonged or drummed through the 



Because they will do any thing for mooey. 


Fatherless children, 
or rather children who 
cannot tell who their 
father was. 

Kot explained. 


Persons who can- 
not count or reckon 
up flgures to 10. 



Those who are ig- 
ooranl of the Ave and 

Obvious enough. 


iho eight olTences. 


Those who cannot 
discriminate hetwiit 
good and evil in so- 



Persons who speak 



Persons engaged in 

For the same cause as women performeis 

stage performances. 

are excluded. 


Persons who are not 
sufficiently instructed 
in the duties of life as 
to be admissahle into 
the order of Priests. 

Obvious as in Nos. 24 and 25. 


Persons who can- 

Not explained. The evil of such a strange 

not read. 

exception is not felt much in Siam since almost 
all can read. 



The same perhaps as for Nos. 23 and 27. 


Persons who give 
medicine to create a- 



Undutiftil children 
who give abusive lan- 
guage or beat their 






Vtbm dia preoMfing table U will be seen that tiieSiamefledlgaita 
4MAgall1i widi gfreat stateness and no mean degree of sense and 
jusdee, the elasses of persons to whose testimony credit can most 
safely be giren, and those against which ?aUd exceptions will be held 
good In law. 

Those who are most competent are, priests, who are vened tk 
BaU learnings this quali/icaHon bang a consequence of the ease widi 
which laymen can gain admission to the priesthood. Chrammana- 
chan, or persons of the Brahmimcal tribe who are skilled in the 
adences (by which are here meant astrology and arithmetic) ; spirit* 
ual guides ; men of burth and rank, of reputed good character ; lay« 
men who have lieen priests ; and in general any subject (against 
whom the law does not take exception) of good character ; and who 
b punctual in his performance of religious duties. 

The following is another list of incompetent iritnesses ; it does not 
differ much from that already giren. 

1. Contemners of religion. 

8. Debtors; under the supposition tiiat their poverty lays them 
open to bribery. 

3. Slaves, and near relatives of parties Interested in a suit. 

4. Intimate fiiends of parties. 

5. Inmates in the house- of a party concerned. 

6. Idiots, and persons mentally imbedle, whether naturally so or 
from the effects of diseiise. 

7- Those who do not abhor and refrain from the commission of 
the following cardinal sins, viz. Murder; theft; adultery ; lying ; 
drunkenness ; breaking of prescribed fasts ; and lastly, the sin of re« 
dining or reposing on the mat or eoudi of a priest, a parent, or a 
spiritual guide ; or general)^ of treatbg these in a manner in any 
wi|^ dlsrespectfrd. 

o* uanesven* 

9. Vagahonds, vagrants, persons having no fixed donudle. 


10. Phedchakhaat or execationen, because hard hearted and 

1 1. Empirics. We may judge by this term of the degree of im- 
portance which the Siamese Facai//y of medidae attach to'them- 
selires. The most sUlful of the body cannot armd the ehaige of ar- 
rant emperidsm, although had the genius for the science of phync 
existed, the Siamese might have used their text books, which are of 
ancient origin, with more advantage to their patients than tliey have 
done. There are no Schools for medicine in Siam ; and so long as 
superstition places more faith in astrological mummery than in phy- 
sic, there is no temptations to lead the practitioner from his easy 
course, in which study and reflection have scarcely any share. . 

12. Performers iii theatrical exhiUtions. Their profesuoa be* 
iBg deemed rather disreputable. 

13. Kathh^e or hermi^phrodites. I suppose as they cannot be 
sworn either as a male or female. 

14. Strolling musidans, and singers for the reasons given on* 
der class 12/ 

15. Strolling shampooing Doctors, do. ftc.t 

16. Women of bad fame, cause obvious. 

17. Blacksmiths. It ts rather singular to find so impoitant a 
class of handicraftsmen excluded from a right of this nature* But it 
would seem that the exclusion is founded on a belief in Siam that 
most of their blacksmiths are dishonest. 

18. Kok,ha p,hayat. Persons labouring under any loathsome 
and incurable disease. Here superstition has overbalanced reason. 
For the Siamese cannot otherwise account for this excluaaon than by 
aflirmini^ that those labouring under a cruel malady are suffering the 
just punishment due for offences committed in a prior state of exii- 

Etvpiatiott does not form a part of the moral or civil code, for 
Pyhra Phom Chau tjiee or the Ood of earthy the recording ^pm(, 
writes the evil actions of men on a dogskin parchment, and their 
virtuous deeds on a golden scroll, and when their immortal aoulBare 
just separating from their bodies, the two volumes are opened. Should 


the good deeds outweigh the evil ones, the happy spirit ascends to 
one of the twenty two heavenly spheres ; if they should prove light- 
er, it falls down to hell or narok. But if its sins have been of no 
great magnitude, yet not counterbalanced by a sufficiency of good 
actions, it migrates into the body of some human being, or animal. 
. In the latter case it is believed that the soul chooses that sort of ani- 
mal for which it had the the greatest liking during life, or to which 
it assimilated in character. 

19. Personal enemies to accused persons [cause evident,] or to 
one or both parties in a suit. 

20. Children under 7 years of age. 

21. Persons whose age exceeds 70 years, probably from supposed 
imperfection of memory. 

22. Tradacers of the characters of others, same as tlars, 

23. Persons labouring under aiij sort of temporary derangement 
of miod, [whether violent passions are included is not specefied.] 

24. [Chang Koe-ak. Shoemakers, are excluded for the same 
reason that blacksmiths are. Perhaps the prejudice came ftom Hin- 
doostan where it prevails In force. 

25. Beggars. Sinc« open to corruption from their poverty, 

26. Braziers. 

27- Persons convicted of thefts 

28. Obstetricians. 

29. Those who use KJiat^ha aud Montra or incantations and 
sorcery are to be rejected. 

The following is the Civil and Criminal oath administered to wit- 
nesses, with the mode of administering it. It has been noticed be- 
fore that persons of different nations residing in Siam ; are sworn 
agreeably to their religious tenets. The forms attending on the ad- 
ministering the oath of fidelity to the king are different in some de- 
gree from those, to which it is here only requisite to allude although 
all foreigners are amenable to the laws of the kingdom. 

It Is imposed annually on all officers during the 5th. month at the 
ceremony of bathing the king.* The practice of weighing the king 

* The Ring bathes in his palace and cut bis own hair. Priests are 


it not extant in Siam. Buttbey bare an idea in geaend in tbeeovw 
trjf as the Chinese ha^e also, that the heaviest man is tiie hiddesl^ 
and this induces many to wdgh themselves. The same fiuM^ afftoBtw 
the Cliinese in their strenuous efforts to become obese, by a adcrtjea 
of the grossest aliments. The Malays adopt the same nodoo, aad it 
certainly is in many cases a symptom both of competence and cam* 
pbMsency. Bat with all this panting and toiling after nnwieldinesi 
these several people do not like that a stranger should pointed^ no- 
tice it, for they have a strong dread of the elFects of the evil c^e. The 
ceremony of wdghing was formerly in vogue amongst Mohametan 
princes in India. 

The Chinese sacrifice a dunghill cock after examinations ha^ve beea 
gone through and when they aie to take a solemn oath, aad bani 
papers on wluch gold leaf has been put with certain written charns. 

But the first practice is aspedes of ordeal, or divination^ intended 
to detect perjury. The swearer takes an axe or laige knife and en- 
deavours at one bbw to sever the head of the bird firom its body. 
If he should &il in doing this perfectly a presumption of his gult is 
the consequence* The parties in a suit; and the prosecutor sod 
defendent in every criminal case; are not allowed to take an oath, 
idnee tiieir assertions would merely be opposed to each, otiier. But 
these are subject to the prdesis, which ^en demand^ by a paity 
and granted often supersede all other evidence. A person kwi^ 
money or property must make an affidavit or oath of the amount. 

When the dvil and ctiminal oath is to be tendered to awitneishe 
is taken to a monestery. Five incense tapers and five waxen candles 
are Hghted, and placed before the shrine of Booddjm,; — also five 
bunches of flowers, besides parched rice. He makes three obdsances 
to the image of that deified mortal. The invocation of tlie chi^ 
deities follows, and is repeated thrice viz., namo, tatsa, B|Iiakk,bawato 

bathed by the pious parents by their ehiidreo, and all nnMs iodudiog wo- 
men and children, throw water over their freinds and even on strangers 
and passengers in the Streets. It is said that the water used fbr this oc- 
casion by the King is brought from a sacred tanli near the sam r&e y&t in 
Ralphree province on the west shore of the gulf of Siam. This custom is 
of lUndu origin. 


Amhstto. Srnnnmgmii, P.hoot.t<iatBft« P.hootthaiur Samnung kf^ hynrfft 
Tyhamniaoff ttanouut kyBchameOy swuFykhanff swuuBg khw^ftlmiwffi ^ 
■od perhaps the priest i^ives him asort of absoluttoo, eonnsting io hfs 
rqieatiiig after him in BaH the seenha or pit.Been^ or the eight ob» 
servaaoes ordained for priest and snch of the Laity as. aspire to lead 
hpljr lives* 

Panatee pata» wera manee rikk,ha pat»hang Sainat»hee yanee; not 
to murder or concdve malioe« 

2. Afheena t,haiia, not to steal. 

3. Kam^ soomeecha chara to a?oid adniterj ApthramaMi- ehiriyn 
fomieation with a virgin prohibited. 

4. Mooaa wat»ha &c. To avoid fidsdiood. 

6. Soora Meraya maehapama t,liathana» drinking ofqdritaons 
lifoors forbidden. 

6* Weelcara BJbochana, not to eat at idglit. 

7. Natehakee tara teet ta weesookatyhatsaaa mala k,hand«haweeli 
panad^hara namandana weebho sana tjiana &c.» not to visit dances 
or attend at theatrical exhibitions, not to wear flowers, or hold them 
in. the hand, or nse perfumes. 

8. Gotcha sayanamaha sayana, weraaamee &c., not to sit on the 
place, or couch of a parent, or sfriritual guide. Tlien from the HaU 
taainan is repeated the invocation of all the ddties and spirits in 
their mythology bcf^ning Sak,he kam^ charoop^ kheereeseek,ha 
rattat^ &e. There is no holy water swallowed, as is customary amongst 
the Hmdus. But it is administered when the oathof fidelity to the 
king ia to be tendered. 

The witness then repeats in the manner he best can the following 
oath or imprecations either in whole or in part as the case may 
seem to require, which a priest runs over inith peculiar, and what in 
British Courts of Justice would be deemed indecorous volubility. 
By the way it may here be remarked that the length and nature of 
this oath is the best posrible comment on that part of the Siamese 

* The triad namely 1. Buddha. 2. The word or Scriptures. 8. The 


chsracter which respects yeracity ; and joined to the gpraduated scale 
of punishments for breaches of it, according^ to the rank of the per- 
son who safFers by the breach, is not calculated to impress us with 
a befief that thej adhere to the truth unless for the sake of conre- 
nience or when actuated by fear. 

It appears likewise that parts only of the oath are deemed snflB- 
dent in particular cases. 


■« who haTe been brought here as an evidence in tUs 

matter, do now in presence of the divine PJ^ra PJiooii^kee rop 
[meaning Budd,ha] declare that I am wholly unprejudiced against 
either party, and uiunfluenced in any way by the opinions or ad?iee 
of others, and that no prospects of pecuniary advantage or of ad- 
vancement to office have been held out to me. I also declare that I 
have not reo^ved any bribe on this occasion. If what I have now 
spoken be false, or if in my further averments, I should color or pre- 
vert the truth so as to lead the judgment of others astray, may the 
three holy existences viz., Buddjka^ the Bali [personified] and the 
Hierarchy f before whom I now stand, together with the gldriaiis 
Devattas of the twenty two firmaments, punish me. 

If I have not seen, yet shall say that I have seen, if I shdl say 
that I know that which I do not know, then may I be thus punished. 
Should innumerable descents of the ddity happen for the regenera- 
tion and salvation of mankind may my erring and migrating soul be 
/ound beyond the pale of then* mercy. • Wherever I go may I be en« 
compassed- with dangers, and not escape from them, whether arimng 
from murderers, robbers, spirits of the ground, of the wood, of wa- 
ter, or of ur, or from all the T,hewatda or Divinities who adore 
Buddha, or from the Gods of the four elements, and all other spirits. 

May blood flow out of every pore of my body that my crime nay 
he made manifest to the world. May all or any of these evils over- 
tokc me three days hence. Or may I never stir from the spot on 
which I now stand ; or may the fHaisaneeJ ''lash of the sky^ [viz., 
lightening] cut me in twain, so that I may be exposed to the deri- 


sion of the people, or, if I should be walking abroad may I be torn 
to pieces by dther of the four pretematurally endowed Lions, or 
destroyed by poisonous herbs, or venomous snakes. If when in the 
water of the rivers or Ocean may Ch&r&k,h^ [or Alligators] Hera 
(the fabubus horned alligator) Mangk&n [a fabulous animal which 
in Siamese Astronomy represents Capricorn] Mach^ (or large fishes) 
devour me ; or may the winds or waves overwhelm me ; or may 
the dread of such evils keep me during life a prisoner, at home 
estranged from every pleasure, or may I be afflicted by the intoler- 
able oppressions of my superiors ; or may Cholera Morbus cause 
my death ; after which may 1 be precipitated into hell, there to go 
through innumerable stages of torture, amongst which may I be 
condemned to carry water over the flaming regions, in open wicker 
baskets, to assuage the heat felt by Y^&aan WeUoowan when he en- 
ters the infernal hall of justice, [He is one of the 30 judges in hell 
who relieve each other alternately ; and was once a king on earth] 
and thereafter may I fall into the lowest pit of hell. Or if these 
miseries should not ensue may I after death migrate into the body of 
ft cdave, and suffer all the hardships and pains attendipg the worst 
state of such a being during a period of years measured by the sand 
of four seas. Or may I animate the body of an animal, or beast 
during five hundred generations ; or be born a hermaphrodite five 
hundred times ; or endure in the body of a deaf, blind, dumb, house- 
less beggar every species of loathsome disease during the same num- 
ber of generations ; and then may I be hurried to Narok or hell and 
there be crucified by P,hreea ydm (one of the Idngs of hell.) 


Craptbii XV. 

The soeDesitffil candidnte fai a difepated sacoettion to die criHnr, 
generaUy begins his rdgn by a dispky of rebkien cntelCieB. He 
wiU be found geBerafly to eooUjr rid bfaneelf of thoee ecioiia of *llie 
rojml stock who might Awart Us riewi. This is effected bjr indodiig 
them in saeloi and throwing tbein into flie river» or hj beidlng them 
to death with 'clubs of sandal wood ; or when afndd of pnbBdrjr, bf 
elarfing them, or suffocating them privately. Siamese punishments 
fbrcrimes are» — melted silverorleadispoured down the eolpritediroat^ 
or his mouth is slit, perhaps sowed up, leering only a small sper* 
ture sufficient to admit fluids.* Sometimes a oocoannt is drirea hrto 
his mottthf thereby soon choking him, beheading with a sword, cipo- 
tare in an iron cage, or to wild animals, the [nllorf , in wluch the 
culprits head is ftxed betwixt two bars of an upright ladder, wfafle 
his feet barely reach the ground, partial inhumation, the persons 
head merely appearing above ground. 

Also exposure to be tossed by buU, or trodden down by elephsofs^ 
and bran^ng by slight cuts of a sword. 


The Laws of the country have been too firmly framed to pat the 
power of avenging blood in the hands of indiriduak. 

The King (or a special commission) only, passes sentence of deslh. 
Tliree or four witnesses are sufficient to conrict for this crime. Con« 
fesflion is sufficient to conrict the accused, or if he should admit ^ 
testimony of only one witness agunst him, retting his de/emee ihere^ 
Off, he will be adjudged by hU original deposition. 

* An exsmple of this last sort occurred in the Province of Kedah. But 
the imposter was the Malayan R^a. The man came to Penang many years 
after and a medfcal gentleman operated on his month and gave him a new 
one to his infinite delight. 

t M. De la Loabere relates that one of the Siamese Ambassadors who 
went to Paris before his visit to Siam wss so (mprodent on bis return to 
the letter country ss to affirm thst the stsbles of the King of France eieeed- 
ed in splendoar the Royal Palace of Bankokt His audacity was punished 
with death in the manner here described. 

An alibi is always attempted to be proved by the accused. 

The charges for certain exemptions from torture, have been men« 
tioned. Death and fine rarely go together, murder is punished by 
death. The P^tehak^haat or execntioner asks forgiveness of the 
culfHrit, the hitter repeats a few prayers in presence of a Priest, and 
his head is then severed from his body by the stroke of a 

One or more of the higher officers of justice act the SherilTs part 
on this oceaMon. Respecting Inquests^ when the body of a murder- 
ed person is found, the nearest officers of Police assemble and in- 
spect It. They seize all tlie bad suspected characters in the vicini- 
ty and cross question them. They are confined until it may appear 
to the judge expedient to liberate them. The heads of Police are 
responsible for murders and robberies committed within their wards 
and if they cannot within a given time, (generally seven days,) pro- 
duce the murderers or robbers or afford some information regarding 
them they are fined and perhaps dismissed. No subject is allowed 
to go armed in the country, a sign that the laws are coercive enough 
and it is beUeved sufficientiy protective also. 

The Tongok is a simple and very effectual way of securing crimi- 
nals. A piece of wood is selected from which two prongs branch 
off at a slight angle, a sqiure hole is formed in the handle or low- 
er part, into which the hands of the prisoner being placed, they are 
secured by a cross bar passing betwixt them. The fork embraces 
his neck, and is kept firm by another cross bar. In this manner he 
may be marched about without trouble to those who watc!i him. 

The common mode of treating prisoners of war until delivered 
over as slaves to the officers, is by fixing their heads betwixt two 
bamboos, formed with cross bars like a ladder ; one man with this 
machine can manage many unruly fellows, for they arc compelled to 
go straightforward, and the keeper retains over them the full power 
of a lever.* 

' On one occasion about half a dozen convicts who escaped from Pro- 
vince Wellesley into Kedah were brou{;ht back in this raaoncr and deliver- 
ed over to me by the Siamese, 

418 THKPT. 

The mat neep mo? are two platn pieces of wood betwixt wluch ^ 
fingers of the accused are put. Two corresponding ends of the sticks 
are tied together, and the process of torture consists in fordblf en* 
deavouring to nialce the two other ends join. 

Mai keep kamap, another instrument of torture, or head prtsf^ 
is nice the one preceding used in cases of suspected treason, rebel* 
Hon, or where the accused in face of competent witnesses steadilf 
denies the crime hiid to his charge. It consists of two bars of tough 
wood, having Icnobs on them to fit to the temples. Thef are appli* 
ed somewhat in the manner of the thumb screws. 

The extremities behind the head are joined by a rope, and the ex- 
ecutioner exerts his main force to draw the other two ends toge^er, 
while the assistants strike the implement with hardened bufbIotfaoD|;s 
to increase the pain. Branding of the feet, and hands with a red 
hot iron is employed to punish great offenders, especially these gmk 
ty of impiety or sacrilege. 

Khai are stocks for the feet. 

tSai so waist and neck chains. 

TrO'Vn are leg irons. 

Por offences agunst decorum and breach of filial du^, and abu- 
sive language, the slipper is freely applied to the moutii, and if the 
offence should have been great, rattaning, and beadng with a ooeoa- 
nut shell fastened to a stick are added fthe slipper is a Mussulman 
instrument of opprobrious punishment.) 


Is punished agreeably to the enormity of the offence, by stnpes 
imprisonment, and fining. 

If the fine is not liquidated the prisoner becomes a slave. 

The receiver of stolen goods is punished with the same severity, 
nearly, as the actual thief. For stealing certain kinds of property, 
such as slaves, or for inveigling children from their parents, the of- 
fender is severely fined and has one hundred hishes of the buffiyo 
skin thong inflicted on his back. He is then marked with indclibk 
red or black ink on his breastj care being commonly taken to make 

THSFT. 419 

that mark correspoud with the thing, or object stolen ; should a sla^e 
hare gone away willingly, he will receive thirty lashes.^ 

A thief will not be allowed to prosecute the person at whose suit 
he has been convicted* 

A person who without just reason or cause accuses another of 
theft, and who fcdls to prove his charge will be fined to the amount of 
value of the stolen property ; one half of the fine goes to the king, 
the other half to the injured party ; and should the latter have been 
maltreated he recdves }ds. of it. 

Stolen goods are procUimed by beat of gong, and by information 
given to persons residing near the place where they were stolen ; any 
person who secretes property after such information is of course 
deemed a thief. When a householder misses property he instantly 
attaches criminality to the last person seen in or about the premises ; 
hence the Siamese are extremely cautious not to enter a house with- 
out givmg due notice beforehand. 

The head men of compartments of towns and divisions of districts, 
are held responsible for property stolen within their wards, which is 
a very old regulation also of Indian governments. But in order to 
make the whole community watch in some measure over its interests, 
the inhabitants of the district where the theft was committed are 
linked with the Police in responsibility. 

The head man pays three parts of the stolen property, neighbours 
within 50 yards or thereabout, two parts, and those within 150 yards 
one part. 

llie Police establishments of Indian states, and of the organized go- 
vemmehtt beyond the Ganges have generally been tolerably efRcient. 

Thus it is obvious that freedom, is in many respects incompatible 
wl^ the full exercise of those powers, which alone can make a Po- 
lice system formidable and perfectly efficient. 

France in Buonaparte's time furnished a memorable example of 
the improvement of a Police Department in the exact degree in 
which the liberties of the people were encroached upon and military 
despotism prevailed. 

* In the Burroan country a thief is branded or tattooed ^ith red or black 
ink in a particular manner on the face or neck. 

420 THErr. 

Nothing' IS more dmple, under an irresponsible governmenty tloo 
to create an uncompromising, merciless, and keenly semtinixing sy»* 
(cm of espionage and to derive from the passiire subject that aid 
towards its ediciency which alike contributes to his personal exemp* 
tion from danger and loss, and to rivet hb own political eliains. 

Such is the case in Siam where the 5ac{it or Department of Pirfice 
may be considered sufficiently coercive, where every man is oom- 
mamied to be a spy on his iieigfhbour, and where he is punished if 
he is known to luive concealed what he ought by the laws to have 

The whole male population is portioned out into bands, under 
Nai or heads who are responsible- for them, a certain number watch 
and continue on duty for one day, being relieved by a similar muaber. 

'I hey go rounds at night lieating a small gong, and reoonsmending 
people to beware of fire, no one must be seen out after 10 o'doek 
at niglit, under pain of being without full cause shewn imprisoned 
until next morning. A watchman who should suspect the owner of 
a house of being engaged in gaming or other forbidden pnetices, 
cannot enter by force himself. He must go for an officer, and wit- 
nesses, and bring them to enter the premises along with hiai. 

Each Iftfge village his its Kamnan or Nai Bmn who b the head. 
He is assisted by the 2 officers or Kweng and a P^han Nai frcn, ser- 
vants of Government. Small vilbiges have each one officer of Police. 
The doty of the chief consists in superintending^ cultivation, assistiog 
in the collection of the revenue, and taking the census of the people 
along with the P,hra Satsadee, and in settling petty causes aod.dis* 
putes. From his decisions appeals may be made to the nearest Court. 
There is nothing like the little republican S3rsteni by whidi a Hindoo 
village is regulated, to be found in a Siamese one. The Siamese 
Government is afraid of tntsting the most limited degree of aatho- 
rity to persons not Erectly in its employment. 

Informers are rewarded, and severe punishments inflicted on those 
who do not give information of consequence. 

Thieves use charms to impose, as they fancy, silence on watchmen, 
and dogb. One used by other persons runs thus, it is from the 

THEFT. 421 

Bali of Lanca or Ceylon but it is considered to be of no efficacy in 
the ayocations of a thief. Soonak, k,hatang soomang k,hanyang soo- 
patee tyheetang sapp,ha mok,hang p,haDtare8o. 

Thieves use sharp spikes of bamboo so joined together that when 
cast down one or two points always remain upright. These they 
throw in their retreat, so that pursuers may be wounded in the feet. 
Pit falls must not be dug without due notice having been given.* 

In cases of assault and affrays where indinduals may receive wounds, 
the judges are recommended to confine their examination to the most 
prominent parts of a charge. Thus if a man be beaten, and wound- 
ed with a weapon at the same time, the injury sustained by the last 
infliction will be principally attended to. 

Where there are many defendants, which is likely to happen in 
the cases just mentioned, one of them may advocate the cause of the 
rest. By advocating is not meant pleadings but merely giving in a 
written statement of circumstances. 

The fines for assault, correspond with the rank of the offender, 
since the Idng would otherwise gain little by his share of fines. 

Amongst the recorded cases a Chinese trader is fined 13 Rs. 
for cutting another on the head, and a women for an assault and for 
maiming another is sentenced to pay 105,000 bea or cowries only, 
became she had tried to compromise matters. 

A threat to strike with a weapon will expose the threatener to a 
fine of one half the value of that weapon. 

A persoa who strikes a parent or other very near relative is pun- 
ished by branding and amputation of the hands, or if he used his feet 
against thetn, by their amputation. 

As may be supposed these last noticed severe laws defeat them- 
selves, as the affection will almost always exceed the sense of injury, 
and prevent redress being sought for. 

Abusive language to parents, or near relatives is followed by the 
offender receiving a beating on the mouth with a cocoanut shell or 

t This plan is frequcnlly adopted by Pcnaog thieves. 


Chapter XVI. 


should, according to the letter of the law be punished in every in" 
stance by death. But in general its infliction is not insisted on, be* 
ing commuted by a heavy mulct, and minor punishments, which last 
are suffered almost exclusively by the woman. 

The Adulteress is decked out in garlands of bright coloured flow* 
ers, and a mask of basket work is drawn over her foce. In this at- 
tire she is led through the streets. Should however her age be un- 
der sU'teen years, she can escape this degradation by payment of a 
fine of about 20 dollars, which will be appropriated to fumbh pro- 
vender for the King's Elephants [as if the crime contaminated the 

While a faithless wife is thus liable to a severer punishment than 
the partner in her crime, the chasto one has no recourse at law a- 
gainst a faithless husband, but if he acts otherwise contrary to law, 
she may complun against him. A husband will also stand excnsed 
in the eye of the law shoidd he kill his wife and her paramour, un- 
der circumstances sufficiently decisive of her guilt. But he may not 
do so having once allowed the man to escape, and it may presumed, 
where the offender has power on his side, that the inferior will* not 
venture on a step which must end in his ruin. The Siamese men 
are not remarkable for jealousy, and owing to this circumstance the 
women are disposed to chastity. 

The Kot Pyhra Jyakaan contains numerous passages illustrative 
of the law as applicable to specific instances of Adultery ; the princi- 
pal of which it will only be requisite to notice. 

It is stated tliat a PJireea Thai nam (the title of an officer who 
waits on the King's person when he goes abroad) had seduced the 
wife of Kyhoon Ampjian ya iong k^hraan, and that the defendant 
had been sentenced to pay a fine of 20 chaang of silver or about £200* 
Thb sentence the King pronounced to be too lenient, and to prevent 
such a recurrence ordered a scale of fines to be drawn out which 
should be applicable to all ranks m the state. The Chau Krom, and 

ADirwiny. . 223 

Palat Krora were ordered to promulgate the act. But in this list, 
from a culpable feeling probably, the great officers wt not specified, 
the enactment only applying in its letter to their children. Howe* 
Ter it is known that the officers are themselves exposed to its penal- 
ties ; the sense of justice in the judges so far counteracting the evil 
which would arise from the false delicacy shewn towards their men 
of rank, — 

Sons of, Chaangs of Silver.* 

Ist A P,hra Maha Rachak,hro of 10,000 Naa, or 
Fields, if convicted of Crim. Con. pays, . . . . 25 

2nd. Botta Chau P,hreea of the same rank, . . 25 

3rd. The P,hra and tEe Lo-ung respectively of the 

rank of 5000 fields, 15 

4*. Do. do. of 3000 do 12 

5th. Lo-ung Mtl-ung of 2000 do. .. .. 10 


1400 y 


fMiin of 10001 
6th. <^ Do. of 800 } Do. . T , / 6 

LDo. of 600 J 

8th. P,han t,harai or inferior officers and their adherents of any 
intermediate rank betwixt that of 500 and of 200 naa, 2 Chaang. 

9th. All of the rank of 5 fields, 2 Chaang. 

10th. Other subjects according to their means. 

The King professes to take one-half of a mulct and to leave the 
other half to the husband of the Adulteress. 

A judge or officer of a Court of Justice who is guilty of fornica- 
tion with a woman who is a party in or connected with a suit at is« 
sue, will be chastised by thirty stripes of the buffalo skin thong, at 
three several consecutive periods and be disgraced, besides being fined 
according to his rank. If he confesses, one half of the fine is remitted. 

* A Chang is 80 haat, the latter being in value nearly l^th sicea rupee. 

{K,hoon of .vrww . 
Do. of 1400 ^fields, each . . . . 8 

Do. of 



If the parties mutuaDy agree to a separadon tlie elders of Uie Til- 
lage or ndghbourhood are a8S8embled and a nangsuya or written 
deed is executed in tbeir presence. It is of course according to the 
wishes of the parties, but generally the portion which the woman 
brought is divided. The sons go with the mother, the daughters with 
the father, because the father would else be deprived of that female 
assistance in conducting household affairs which it is not requisite 
that the mother should have, she being herself capable. If Loabere 
was correct "the mother" in his time ''took the alternate children 
begining with the eldest ; and the husband the rest " a practice still 
retained in some of the provinces. 

If the husband sues for a divorce he cannot have it unless he 
can prove his wife to have been guUty of adultery. Should he run 
away from her, she takes his estate. 

A wife may sue for a divorce for bad treatment from a vicions 
husband, this term however not being applicable to him as a poly- 
gamist. She takes in this case her original dowry. Polygamy may 
be chiefly attributed to the service a man owes his prince, whicfi re- 
quires him to have many females to assbt him in his household. 
Barreness is not productive of divorce. 

A man may beat his wife if unruly, and put her in chains if her 
&ult be great. A divorce for impotency is proved by an ordeal natu- 
rally enough suggested in a case of this kind. 


A man who elopes with a virgin must afterwards endeavour to ef- 
fect a