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Full text of "Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society"


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[No. 36] 


of the 

Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society 


JULY 1901 

Agencies of the Society 

London and Anu*rica 

Truhnkr & Co 


Ernest Lkroux & Co. 


Otto 1 1 ark as sow it/., Leipzig. 



iHE American Mission Prkss 




[ No 3t ] 


July. lOOl 

AU«nt!i xf th« Hodety: 

Table of Contents. 

Nt>tes on the Milli])CHlos, Centipecles, »Scorpions, etc., 
of the Malay Peninsula and Siani, hy Cnptaiii 
^tauh'ii S. Fluivcr ... ... ... ... 1 

Notes of a Tour throu^li the Siamese Stntes on the 
West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, 11K)0, hy 
C. W. S. Kiftiiitrriflt'i/ ... ... ... ... 4[) 

The Kelati(ms lx»tween Southern India and the 

Stniits Settlements, by \\\ A. (/Su/linm ... ... \\7 

The Evolution of Malay Sj)elling". I>y JUr. 11'. (/. 

S/irilithnir ... ... ... ... ... 7.') 

Short Not«*s ... ... 137 

1 1 


Notes on the Millipedes, Centipedes. 

Scorpions, etc., of tlie Malay 

Peninsula and Siam, 

Bv Hai-tais STA.VLnV K Fl-OWEK, 5th FrRIMBHS. 

1. Introductory Remarks. 

The aDimats which thi.s paper is about, from tlidr strangf 

I shapes, curious habits and the power of ioHii.'ting' dangerous 

I WiiunAs wliich some possess, are of interest to moat people, but 

^e^pednlly to those who, having been brought up in England, 

1 wheiv none but very Muiall and harmless species exist, come to 

I live in the East ladies, where a wonderful variety of these 

I rreaturea Hourish. However little one may cBve for natui al 

1 biHtory, one must come in contact with them, millipedes, 

I ceodpedex, actir^Hons and npiders all entering houses and often 

riuniing up when* least wanted, even in one's batli-sponge and 

tieddii^r. \Vhen 1 arrivi^d in the Straits Settlements, in March 

181)5, 1 kiii-w practically nothing of these animali), how they 

were claasilied, how to distinguish between them, or which 

were poisonous and which harmless, and in no book or paper 

L could I find the information wanted, so I set to work to collect 

Uid examine specimens, and compare them with such literature 

on the subject as was available. Mr. K.J. Pocock, of the 

I British Museum of Natural Uistory, most kindly gave me in- 

rvahnble a.4sislance in identifying specimens, and answering 

Bquestions of all sorts about these animals, and finnlly has been 

Ho good as tti look through my notes made in the Peninsula and 

BSiam fn>ni Ifi'.lj m IR98. These notes, then, I venture to lay 

■beforo the Society , hoping they may bo of use to residents in 

fthe Straits, Native States and Siam, who are interested in these 

range animals, and also hoping that they may help some more 

Moipet^'iit writer tii compose a full catalogue. 

The specimeuH I collected were distributed between the 
I British Museum, and the Hoyal yiarueae Museum, Bangkok ; 
jBxci-pt some now iu thv Baflles Museum. 


II. Position in the Aniinal Kingdom. 

Millipedes, centipedes, scorpions and spiders all belong to 
the great collection of invertebrate animals with jointed legs 
which is for convenience grouped together and called the 
Sub-kingdom ARTHROPODA(orGNATHOPODA). Various opinions 
are held by naturalists as to the divisions into which this Sub- 
kingdom should be divided. Valuable papers on the subject ap- 
peared in " Natural Science" in 1897, by Mr. R. J. Pocock in 
the February number (p. 114), and by Prof. Ray Lankester in 
the April number (p. 267); from these the following provisional 
classification is adopted. 

Sub-kingdom A rthropocht. 

Section 1. Prototracheata {<>v Malacopoda). 

Glass (i). Prototracheata (or Perijuttoidea). 

Containing the single family Peripatidse, now divided 
into about four genera. A single specimen is on record 
from Sumatra, and Mr. II. N. Ridley informs me that 
the Skeat expedition recently obtained it in the Malay 
Peninsula. This very interesting animal has somewhat 
the general external appearance of a caterpillar, it has 
a pair of antennae, and in the Sumatran specimen 24 
pairs of legs (t. Sedgwick, Cambridge Xat. Hist., vol. 
V, 1895, p. 20). 

Section II. Tracheata (or Lipobranchia). 

Subdivision A. — Progoneata (or Prosthogonea). 
Class (ii). Diplopoda, " Millipedes " (vide post). 
Class (iii). Pauropoda. Containing the single family 


Minute creatures with twelve body segments and 

branched antennae ; which I believe have not so far 

been found in Malayu. 
Class (iv). Symphyla. Containing the single family 

Scolopendrellidte (vide post). 
Subdivision B. — Opisthogoneata (or Opisthogonea). 
Class (v). Cliilopoda, ** Centipedes" (vide post). 


Class (vi). Hej^nHiiUi {or Iiiseclu). The true insects, such 
aa wasps, flies, butterHies, beetles, grasshoppers, etc., 
etc. divided tiito several orders. 

t f$£i''TiON III. Branchtuta (or Acerata, or Sozo-branchia). 

Class (vii). Cnittiicw. Crabs, lobsters, shrimps, wood- 

liw, bftrnacliH, etc., etc.. divided into several orders. 
Class (viii), GigaHto»lraat, divided into 3 orders : — 

1st Order Xipfiusara. Containing the single family 

Liniulidse (vide post). 
i!nd order Merostomabi (or Em-iiptct-iilii), extinct, 
3rd order TrilMtii, extinct. [It is probable that the 
Trilobita !«liould form a distinct class]. 
Class (ix). Ayiwhnutn. Scorpions, spiders, etc., (vide post), 
(.'lass (x). Paiitti/mla (or PffVMogonida) " Sea-spiders," 

II. Dlplopoda. 
The Millipedes, (lass Dipl"pocta, are in\ert«brate animals 
found in all temperate and Iropiual reginns, herbivorous, slow- 
moving and incapable of biting a human being, some are nearly 
I 10 inches (2b4 mm.) in length, Ittad. The head is distinct 
[ and has a pair of short antennse (composed of seven or eight 
[ segments) in front and two pairs of jaws on its lower surface. 
I JloJy. The body is more or less elongated and consists of from 
9 to over 100 segments, all much alike in structure. ITie 
umjurity of species are nearly cylindrical in cross section (but 
Home arc llattcned), each segment being cfc^ed in a horny ring. 
/-^/». The ba-ses of the legs are almost in contact in the middle 
of the lower surface of the body, Uiere are two iwirs to moat of 
the segment'^, the last pair of legs are never elongated. 

NatUe Nam«9 for Mllllnedes. 

Maluy, Guiigol; (JUit-biilm. 

Siamese, King ktn. [181)4, p. 5G). 

Jnkan, Or-gok (Lake+Kelsall. J. S. B. K. A. S., No. 21;, 

Occasionally Millipedes are met with in very large numbers. 
The late Mr. Whitehead in his book "Kinabalu," p. 17, describ- 
ing his visit to Malacca, writes, " On the way down from Mount 
Ophir I saw a wonderful gathering of pale yellow Millipedes, 


about .six iiiclii^M long ; tliey were in a mass, one on ihe Uip of 
tim other, which must have numbered several hundreds, und 
reminded me of a hii^e dish of macaroni." And 1 myself tuiw 
enormous numbers on the island of Kosichang, in the Gulf 
of Siam, when visiting it on th-" 27tli and 28th of August 
1897; the followinjj extract from my diary may be of 
interest : — 

"The ctiief living feature of tlie inland was the Millipedes. 
From sea-level to the lop of the hill, all about the ground under 
the shade of tlie trees und in the hot midday sunshine they were 
crawling about in hundreds aud hundreds; the big red-brown 
ones (Thiiyopggiis) were parlicularly conjipicuous, o, G or 7 often 
to be seen crossing the path within a few yards: some of these 
were uniform in colour, others banded alternately lighter and 
darker ; then there were smaller Millipedes of a beautiful grey 
colour, and flattened ones (Ortkoiu'irpliii) : when we turned over 
dead leaves in the wood we found in the soil many small white- 
legged Millipedes, which when disturl^ed sprang about, very 
lively, hopjHug an inch or two off the ground, nnd were quite 
diflicult to catch; a contrast to the numberless "Tikal" Milli- 
pedes (ZfpliTonia\ which were exceedingly numerous on the 
artificial st^^ine work, and which when picked up always n)lled 
into a ball and remniiied i|uite quiet." At the end of February 
18!>8. I was again at Kosichang; not one eini/le MilUpetk wet lo 
lie neen abroad, but we found a few by searching in damp spots, 
utiderneath timber, old tins, etc. This shows how the different 
seasons affect these animals ; and how a locality where in the 
dry season there seem to ha none, in the wet season literally 
swarms with Millipedes, 

An anomymous writer in r Singapore paper of(V IStli) Octo- 
ber IH'J", gives the following Malay account of the evolution of 
Millipedes, etc. : — " There is a belief that if the vertebral bone of 
a fish is kept under a mattress for some time it becomes a centi- 
pede, and tiiat the strands which are found lietween the pulp and 
the rind of a plantain, commonly known as pisang klat. when 
necurely bottled up and kept in a dark corner become Millipedes. 
There is also a, belief that a fresh water tish, nut unlike thi- 
Kuropean sly, and known l« the natives as 'ekan klee,' IS 
generated from a tadpole." 


Key to Classification of Millipedes. 

I. Body furubbed with tufts of scale- like hairs. Antenna} 
eight jointed. Scent-glands absent Sub-class FSEL A I'lf 0- 
GNAT HA; contains the single f&mWy Folyxmidie, minute 
millipedes, "only about one tenth of an inch long" 
(Pocock, R. N. H. vol. vi, p. 209), so far not known from 
the Malay Peninsula. 

II. Body not furnished with tufts of scale-like hairs. Antenna3 
seven jointed. Scent-glands usually present. Sub-class 
CHILOG.VATHA ; divided into three orders. 

A. Body short and broad, 12 or 13 segments, second and 
last segments enormously enlarged, capable of being 
rolled into a ball, no scent-glands. Order Oniscomobpha. 

B. Body elongate, 19 or more segments, none of them very 
much larger than the rest, capable of being spirally coiled 
(except Sphceriodesinus), 

A. Last back plate forms a hood over the last pair of 
legs, 19 or 20 segments, no scent-glands, no known 
species exceeds a quarter of an inch (G mm.) in length. 
Order LiMACOMOHrilA, contains the single family 
GlomeridesmidiP ; a species occues in Sumatra. 

B, Last back plate forms a complete ring, enclosing the 
anal valves, 19 to over 100 segments, some species 
exceed 9J inches (say 250 mm. in length). Order 


a* Mandibles degenerate, from about 30 to over 100 
segments, species seldom exceed 1^ inch (38 mm.) in 
length. Sub-order Coloboynatha, 

b' Mandibles normal. 

a". Pedal laminse free, 30 to 32 segments. Sub-order 
Chordeumoidea, Small Millipede.s known from Sumatra, 
Burmah, etc., but so far not from the Malay Peninsula. 

b". Pedal lamina; united to the terga. 

^/'". From about 30 to over 70 segments. Sub-order 

b'*', 19 or 20 segments, Suborder Polt/desmoidea. 


Sub-clati£ ChilognuOi'i. 
Order Oniacomorpha. 
Short, rubtist Millipedes, couvex above aad fiat beluw, 
pable of rolling themijelveH iiito a ball, hence popularly called 1 
■■ 1111 Millipedes." The body conaiats of Vi or 13 segments, of J 
which the lirst is very 8mall, the second is enermously expended J 
at the sides, and the last expended laterally and posteriorly, bo | 
as to entirely cover the anal re^on. Each typical body segment i 
cunsistu of 7 jMeces ; a large vaulted semi-circular horny plat« 
forming the upper surface, and concealing the legs, beneath this 
oil each side a small pleural plat«, and between this and the two 
legs two still smaller tracheal plat^j^ U'aring the stigmata, one 
corresponding to each leg. The legs are in contactin the middle 
line of the body, and those of the laat pair, or last two pairs, are 
enlarged in the male and transformed into a pair of clas|MUg 
organs. The back plates are not furnished with aceut-pores. 
I'ill-millipedes are found in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia 
and Australasia : some species attain a length of over 2^ inches 
(or GO mm.) ; they are divided into two families : — 

A. 12 segments, antenna close together. GlumeiiJo!. 

B. 13 segments, antennse further spnit. Zrphroiiiiihr. 

Pill-millipedes may possibly be confounded at first sight 
witli W'oodlice, belonging to the L'rusljicea, and with certain 
wingie^ Cockroaches, belonging to tlie Ilexapods, which both 
occur in similar localities and surroundings ; the cockroach can 
be at once detected by having only 3 pairs of legs, and thf 
woodlouse by ita having only one pair of legs to each segment, 
instead of two pairs to niost segments as in the Millipedes. 
'■ Moreover, the hinder end of the body in the crustacean is com- 
posed of a number of small segments more or less closely 
crowded together, but in the Pill-millipede the last segment is 
much enlarged, and acts as a kiud of protective cover to the 
lower side of the body when it is spherically rolled. Of course 
there are other differential characteristics between the two not less 
striking than thiit already mentioned : but it is needless to enter 
iulo tliem here." Pocock, J. B. N. U. S. vol, xii, p. -zm (ISUltJ. 

mm» «K HILUPEnSf:. 

Family Glomeriila: 

PHI -millipedes with the anleiuife relatii^ely close toffether 
on the front of the head, eye^ with a single (lateral vertical) row 
of ocelli, a conspicuous horse-shoe shaped " sensory " organ 
between the eyes and the antenna, and the body consisiing of 
twelve segments: they are usually of small size, under fi of an 
inch (15 mm.) in length, and are found in England, Europe, 
North America, and parl» of Asia. Though species of Glouieii's 
are known from Tenasserim, Sumatra and Borneo, they have 
not yet, to my knowledge, been recorded from the Malay 

Family Zeji!i ■ nmiil<r. 

Pill-Millipedes with the antennie widely separated, sitnnted 
completely at the sides of tlie head, eye:^ composed of a spherical 
duster of ocelli, no "sensory" organ on the face between llit- 
eyes and the antennie. and the body consisting of thirteen sej;- 
nients; they attain a length of over 2J inches (say fid nun.), 
and are found in Africa. Madagascar, India, Ceylon, Sikkini, 
Hurum, Siam, Cocliin t'hina, the Malay Peninsula and Archipel- 
ago, Australia and New Zealand. Uver sixty species are known, 
divided into about seven genera. ^' A Klonograph of the Zephro- 
Tiiidai inhabiting India, Ceylon and fiuriiiah " by Pocock, will be 
found in the Journal of tlie Bombay Nat. His. Societv, vol. xii, 
(lUilll). pp. 2C9-28.'i and 4fi5-474. 

Denua Sp/ic-roiutnig, Brandt. 
Apex of the legs broad and truncate, the upper angle bear- 
ing a long spine above the claw, tJiere being a considerable 
space between the claw and the spine. 

1. .^p/iferupa-ouB toiialim. I'ocock, A. + M.N,U. Ser. G, vol. xvi, 

18'J5, p. 412. Itecorded from Malacca, 

2. .Sji/iwroptpiu bimacuhhm, Pocock. A. + M. S', II. Ser, (!, vol. 

xvi, 189,1, p, 412, Recorded from Singapore. 
Genua Zephrouiti, Gray. 
Apex of the legs narrowed and pointed, the spine and the 
claw nearly contiguous. 


3. Zephroma anthracina^ Pocock. A.-fM. N. H. Ser. G, vol. 

xvi, 1895, p. 413. Entirely black, shining; reaches a 
length of 52 mm. recorded from Perak. 

4. Zephronia tmjntnctataj Pocock. A +M. N. H. Ser. 6, vol. 

xvi, 1895, p. 41 3. Pitchy black hinder borders of terga 
obscurely ferruginous, legs olivaceous; length 36. mm. 
I found a single specimen (the type) in the jungle near 
the big waterfall in the Botanical Gardens, Penang, in 
March 1895. 

I got specimens of Zephronia also from Singapore, Selangor 
and Kosichang, of so far undetermined species. 

Order Helminthoworpha, 

Sub-order Colohognatha, 

Small Millepedes, largest about 1^ inches (or 40 mm.) in 
length, with elongate bodies composed of from about 30 to over 
100 segments; head often tucked under the first segment; 
mouth more or less adapted for sucking, the jaws being degene- 
rate ; known from England and also from most warm parts of 
the world ; divided into several families. 

Family Pseudodesmidce. 

5. Psetidodesmtts rernicosvs^ Pocock. A.+M. N. II. Sept.*87, 

p. 222. Originally described from a Perak specimen, 
34 mm. in length. In Sept. '97 I found one specimen of 
a beautiful pale cream colour at Dumdruan Estate, 700 
feet elevation, Gunong Pulai, Johore. 

6. Pseudodesmtts sp. Yellow millipedes, 23 mm. in length. 

Ten specimens found under logs, etc., in the jungle near 
Ilinlap, 700 feet elevation, and Muok Tek, 900 feet, in 
the Dong Phya Phai, Siam ; November 1897. 

Sub-order luloidea. 

This sub-order includes the most typical millipedes, and also 
the largest, some being nearly 10 inches (254 mm.) in length ; 
it is cosmopolitan. The mandibles are normal, the pedal lamina^ 
united to the terga, and there are from about 30 to over 70 


^'aulilie.H S/unuilri'filiti'r' ulul S/Mi'tilrulirdf. 
Till- Millipedi'sof ihese two familiPs ai-e aumcruus in ilie 
ICn-^t Indies both ill spedes and irididdiutb ; ihey may tte ihu^ 
di^tiiigutahed : — Spiri/ftifpti'l'T, lirst tliree segments with a psii- 
i)[ legs each, fourth leglpss. Spii-nholidir, first four seguients 
witli a pair of legs eacli. The collector will soon get tJi know 
the form of eye charnctfristlc of each family, a useful way of 
distinguishing them, bill not infallilile, some species having eyes 
of intermediate shape. 

K(i mi 1 y .'ijiirosl i-rpiiiitp. 
lien Its Si>irosrrr]>t'if. 

Ventnil groove,-* short i liisfaiice lietw-ppn eyes ah.-nt I'rjuni 
M hiilf the lung diameter of an eye. 

S/Hroitifitiiie fill 
I'ocook has giv'( 

i». Newport, 
a rolotired ligi 


Weber. Zoot. I'rgebnisse III, p. 'i^'i! . 
pble \xi 

This is a very handsome creature when alive, coloured in 
alternate bands of black and red-brown. Wlien walking it 
tarries the head low. and the anteniue are constantly employed 
feeling everythinjj the animal approaches. I'jich leg seems to 
move iiide|iendently. ihua crossing each other in tralking, and 
Appurenlly impuding any ra^Hd motion. They are usually found 
in jnngle, crawling ou tree trunks or on the ground, iu the 
middle of the day, ijuite fearless of any enemy, and as far as 
my experience goes submit quietly to lie pickeil up by a col- 
lwl«r. 1 have found them on I'eiiang Hill from 1100 to 2.j(lil 
feet elevation {March and Nov. 'tlCf, nenr Chumar, Penik 
(Dec. "JG), and on the Kual™ Kangsa Pass, Perak (May '98); 
this last was the largest s|>'-fiuii'n I have seen measuring in total 
length 0( inches (= 2-18 mm.). 

I also obtained a Siili-oilrtjilua of th'is. or an allied species, 
at Kulim, Kedah, in 181).') ; and two specimens near Mttok Lek, 
900 feet elBvntion, in the Po-ig Pliya Thai, ,Siam. hi Nov, 18Sir. 


( J enus Thtfropygua, 

Ventral grooves long and deep, distance between eyes 
about equal to or greater than the long diameter of an eye. 

8. Thyropygus jterakemis, Pocock. 

Spirostreptus perakensis, Pocock, Linn, S. J. Zool. xxiv, p. 
322 (lead figured). [1892]. 

The type specimen, from Perak, was presented to the 
British Museum by Mr. J. II. Leech ; it is described as a male, 
210 mm. in length, with Gl) segments, and in colour |x>lishod 
black, with antennae and legs reddish yellow. 

9. Thifvopygus bownngit, Pocock. 

Spirostreptus bowringi, Pocock. Linn. S. .1. Zool. xxiv, p. 
821 (head fig. p. 322) [1802]. 

During the rainy season this species is very plentiful in 
Siam, coming out usually towards evening and wandering about 
gardens and paths, and also occasionally entering houses ; 
during the rest of the year it seems to (juite disappear, presum- 
ably it hides away in holes. I have met it in the following 
localities : — 

Bangkok (May, June, July and .\ugust). 

Ayuthia (June). 

Pachim (April). 

Kosichang (August). 
Adults, of both sexes, have from 60 to 72 segments. The 
longest male I measured was about 5| inches (148 mm.), the 
longest female about 8 J inches (or 220 mm.). 

Colour (from life), drawn up from a large series of Bangkok 

The whole animal is of a very rich warm yellow ochre, with 
these exceptions : — the front surface of the head is a rich red- 
yellowish brown, sometimes darker between the eyes, it also 
gets darker towards the mouth shading into black on the upper 
lip. The antenna* are rich red-yellowish brown. The eyes 
black. The first segment behind the head is rich red-yellowish 
brown, getting darker towards its posterior edge. The remain- 
ing segments have each on their jX)sterior part a very dark 
brown band, in some individuals pure glistering black, this band 
gets narrower and lighter in colour underneath as it approaches 



ibc bnsps of llii- k-gs, auil \s bmudt^^t uu ihc cenirr of the back, 
wliere it is about Ivviue tlit? wiillli of the in tec veiling yellow 
KpBte*. The tail (last segment) is yellow, on lb bi-oader jmrliou 
obtcurely banded oacv with leddisb-browu. and the hinder 
jwrtioii («» for inHtaut-e the sides uf tbu anal vuIm'sI iti-o picked 
out wilii i-f^lili.-ih Ijrown, the aUaip lip of Lliu luil 1^, in »oine 
specimens, black. Tlje li^s ai'e mm-c m' Itan »huded with light- 
mJdish browu, differing in individuals. The position of the 
fonimeu-repngnatorum is marked Ju the sides of the somitf8 by 
n dark grey hulf-mooii ishaped line. 

These big Tliyropygi wheti caught In the hand do not 
)jasslvely ^ubmit as moat millipede!:' do, but twist about, rear up 
llieir heads, and bite one's lingers M'ith Iheir jaws, but of t;oui*si' 
without breaking the skin or liurtin;^ ui the least: but their show 
of resistaui^t* ia so ngorous that anyone uiiawiire of their liurm- 
leivt diara<:tvr would naturally not atti^mpt to toudi ihoui twict'. 

I liave ketit many individuals of this spedes in captivity: 
Ihev fwd retulily on bananas, etc., but never seem to stop eating 
»f fong «s food h available. One I noted (as far as I was able 
to attend to it) eat without stopping for Hfteen hours ou end. 
The difficulty of keeping theni alive is to strike the medium be- 
tween starving them and allowing them to overeat themselves, 
which results in a week or so in diarrhiM, and then death sunn 
superveuea. \\'liili' eating the tower jawa work away steadily 
witli a lat«rttl in and out motion, mid all the time the untcnme 
knvp moving, pxamiuiiig tivery bit of food just before it enters 
Uic mouth. The females seem always ready to rat. but the 
tiulea (in the early suunuer iu ItougkoU) suffer much fronj 
sexual excitement, refuse to fewl and becoue very pugnacious. 

In the jungle near Il:nlap. 7O0 feet elevation, in the Dong 
I'hyii Phai. Siaui, I obtained three sj^'imens of a Tbiiroinigut, 
T. htin-riiiijit or an allied form, in Noveml»er 18'J7. .\ male 
wus l!l.'i mm. in length, a female IttU. The feniule rolletl up 
•pnetly when picked up. tlio male struggled hard, rearing iUs 
"head up off the ground and Iryinj: to biR^ 
10, T/n/ropiif/iif s/i. 

\t about Shu feet t.*levati(m un Bukit Timah, Singapore, on 
liic 13th Jim. ISiiP, I found one crawling among dead leaves in 


the juugle at midday. It was about inches in length (230 mm.) 
I have also found large Thyropygi in Johore, from near sea- 
level near Johore Bahru. to l(HM) feet elevation on Gunong 

11. ThtirupyifHi* ftjt, 

yVnother species of this genus I have found very numerous 
on Penang llill from 2200 to 2500 feet elevation ; it reaches 
1 i inches in length ( 1 1 -1 mm.). Its colour, when alive, is as 
f<)llows : upper [xirts dark olive l-rown. with transverse bands of 
lighter and drirker brown, there is a pale yellowish-brawn verte- 
bi-al line, which interrupts the narrow dnrk brown bands but not 
the wider paler Ijands. The lower |>arts and legs are j)j\le red- 
dish veliow. 

Family .SpiroOolid'f, 

(jenus Tr'Hjouitilus. 
Labral peres 2-\-2, First dorsal plate acutely angled. 

12. Trigomulus goem (l*orat). 

This small round red Millipede is extensively distributed in 
the East and West Indies, and has got introduced into conser- 
vatories in England. I found it numerous in : — 

Singapore; Spring of 189C, October 1897. 
Penaug ; Botanical Gardens, March 1898. 
Penang; the Crag, 2260 feet elev., March and Nov. 1899, 

March 1898. 
Perak ; Taipeug, May 1898 ; Kuala Kangsa Pass and Batu 

Gaji*, Dec. 1896. 
Kedah ; Alor Star, June 1898: and I found an allied 

species near Kulim, Kedah, in May 1895. 

13. Triyoniulus sp. The red-legged Trigoniulus. 

This species was very numerous in Bangkok during the 
rainy season from April to August, and w^as also numerous on 
Kosichang. In Bangkok in June specimens were observed 

The number of segments of adults varies from 55 to 60. 
Males reach 74 mm. in length, females 80 mm. 




Culuar (from lif(^), drawn up fi'om uiaiiy Itnii^kok specimens. 
Head red, except foreliead lx>lwet"n llie eyes which is brown. 
Fire t segment (beliind bead), brown, anterior burder red, pos- 
terior biirder pale reddish brown, Uemaining: segments brown, 
posterior border very jiole brown, reddish on the bade, ycl- 
lotnsh at ihe t^ides. underneath (about buses i^f leg.s) pale 
yellow. Tail (/.c. last segment) red, shading to bi*own at the 
sides. Antcnnir, nioutli and legs, led. 'Hie red of the head, 
lega, etc.. is a rich brick red. Tbe brown of the body is a dark 
brown, dull iu some %ht». in othei>! more grey than brown wilh 
distinct purple shades iu it. In spirits the whole colouring 
becomew darker And less cons^euou?. At any rate, in some 
i-ases the males are more purplish-grey iu colour, and ihe female.-s 
(who are also larger) ai-e more reddish-brown. 
1 1, TrigoHintii' »p. Tin- blue-green and red Trigoniulus, 

Of tliia very beautiful species, appireiitly unueseribed but 
allied to T. catidultinns of Karsch, I got tiiree specimens iu the 
jungle south of Tahkamen. Siam. on the IDtii March lft97. 
The number of segments varied fixim 4rt to oi, and the largest 
individual was Hi mm. in length. 

Cuhiir (from life). I'pper snrfacei^ and sides ]«!<• bluish 
Iwttle green, each -segment with n broad, distinct, black trans- 
verse band: along each aide is a very narrow black line 
eularged int*) a black spot on each segment; from the eighth 
segment to the jjenultimate one the back is bright brick-red: 
Ihis red line is narrow anteriorly and gets lirondest about the 
Diiddte of the bock. The head between tJie eyes is darkish 
French grey ; tlie remninder of the head, anterior border of the 
segment oext behind the head, the whole of the legs, and the last 
segment and tail are bright brick-red, the lower surface of the 
liiidy (between the legs) isyellowiab-red. 
fienUH S/iirtiMrlli's. 

I.abral jx.'rcs 1+1. First dorswl plate very largv, 0N|iiiudcd 
15, SpiiobolMus .'/». The white-legged Millipede. 

This elegant, elongated Millipede, with il,s coiispieuous little 
white legs, is one of lln' most nctive membersi of the Cla^s. 


We found it fairly coimnou at Pachim in March and April 1897, 
and in Bangkok in May, June and July. This species is 
particularly addicted t4) walking up the vertical walls of houses 
at night. 

I also obtained a species of Spiroholcllns in »?ingai)ore 
in 18yfi. 

Sub-order Polf/dcsnoUlta, 

The Flu t- Millipedes are distributed all over the habitable 
world. They attain to a length of b^ inches (134 mm.), the num- 
ber of segments is always 19 or 20. They have no eyes. The 
pedal lamina* are united to the tert^fji. The large platelike 
proce^jses springing from the sides of the segments easily dis- 
tinguish these Milliixjdes from those of the other sub-orders. 

Family Platywhavhido:, 

Millipedes of large or medium size, in which tlie Ixniy is 
composed of 20 segments, each segment except the tirst and 
last being furnished on each side with a large, more or less 
square and horizontal plate, which bears the scent-pore ; they 
occur in tropical America and Asia, and attain a length of 
134 mm. 

IG. Acanthodesinus pinanfjeims, Pocock. A. + M. N. 11. Ser. vi 
1897, vol. 20. p. 433, Fig. G-f 6a, p. 431. 

The type specimen, a male, was obtained by Mr. 11. N. 
Ridley ; suhwerjuently in March 1898. I also caught a specimen 
at 1300 feet elevation on Penang Hill. 

17. Acanthodesmus perakensis^ Pocock l.c.s. p. 434, Fig. 7, p. 

431. Obtained in Perak by Mr. J. 11. Leech. 

18. Acanthodesmus peteraii^ Pocock, l.c.s. p. 434, Fig. 8, p 431. 
The type species, a male, is from the Malay Peninsula. 

19. Acanthodesmus Uneatus, Pocock, l.c.s. p. 434, Fig. 9, p. 431. 

This specimen was discovered by Mr. 11. N. Kidlev in 

When in the Larut Hills in April 1898 1 collected a large 
series of Millipedes of this family, representing two hitherto 
undescribed species of Acanthodesmus, and two species of a new 


fftitus nllii'd hi Aiii'if/iodfsm»s; all the speciiin'iis Lieiiig' now 
in the British Musenm I am unable to describe iheiii here. 
Kvery indhidual (thirteen were tiolleeled) of one species of 
Acaiithodeaiiiiis had a faint but dialinct Hnd pleasant smell, like 
"vanilla"* or "Wtter alraonda." These Millipedes are all very 
alow in their movemente and easily caught. 
20. Pmctodimus nillei/i. Pocock. I.c.s. p. 438. 

The type specimen, a female, was obtained by Mr. II. \. 
Kidley in Singapoi-e. .\nolher species of PhynctoiUsiiiii. J'. 
jniA;-i((rt(iw ( Peters) ha'' lieen recunled from the inland of Singa. 
a. Aiioplfiiteiiiiiug ii\h 

I fiiimd one six^-imcn of thiii g<>niM cm rotten wood in the 
Butouical (Jardens, I'eiiang, 21st Nov. 1891!. ('olour, upper 
(arts shiny blnck. (irotulieninces at sides bright yellow, Lowi-r 
Mirface and legs, reddish Imiwii. 

I'amily Sliiiarriil'ir><nii'Hidir. 

Millipedes of small size, reaching 3i> mm, in length, occur- 
ring; in tropical America, Africa and Asia, nnd also in Europe 
S3. Oi-tlioiiwrjifia cvaivtatit (Saussure). 

A widely distributed sjiecies in the East Indies, I have 
met with it in Singapore, Kednh and Bangkok. In the latter 
place during the month of May, June and July I had 
opportunities of watching the derelnpinent of individuals. Tbe 
smallest 1 got were 2 mm. in length, cyliiidrical in section, 
liftd 19 segments, were covf-red witli line bristles of hair and 
were pure u-hilt in colour, except for a [wir of reddish-brown 
spots above the bnse of the antcnnx?. As the animal ^rows 
tbe hind jMirfions become dark tirst, and upper greyish brown. 
then the head and forepart become a reddish-brown, the centre 
|»rtion gradually following: suit ; these changes of colour will 
beobservwi in animals of from 8 to 12 mm. in length. In 
individuals of 10 mm. long the body is still cylindrical but the 
lateral processes ere becoming pronounced, and the gei.erHl 
{ colour is now pale yelloa; the dorsal plates being pale reddish 
■ bmwn ; (here is alsii a reddish- brown patch on the head qI the 


base of the antenna'. The whole Millipede is still si>Rrsely clad 
witli hair, but the hairs are less numerous and much shorter in 
proportion to the bulk of the animal than in the 2 mm. stage. 
When the Millipede is about 18 mm. in lenp^th all the upper 
surface is a nch dark -reddish brown ^ the sides are a paler reddish 
brown, and the underneath, legs, antennse, tail and lateral 
processes are bright yellow. The whole animal looks neat 
and glossy, there are scarcely any hairs on the body except a 
few large ones under the twil, and many very short, fine hairs 
on the head, antenna' and legs ; and it is at this period that the 
body becomes slightly depressed. 

I observed this species in copula in Bangkok in May 1897, 
the males seem rather smaller than the females when they clasp 
by the forepart of the lx>dy, and sulTor themselves to lie dragged 

23. Orthomorplm ]'irarin, Karsch. 

I found large numbers of this S[)ecies on the walls of the 
Government Rest House, Kuala Kangsa, Perak, 10th Dec. 189fi. 

24. Orthomorpha crucifera^ Pocock. 

This species known from the Mergui Archipelago pro- 
bably also occurs in Penang ; I have collected Millipedes, 
apparently referable to it, on rocks near " the Crag," 2263 
feet elevation above sea, in March and November 1806. 
Specimens reached a length of 33 mm. (1^ inches); and their 
colour in life was, upper part« reddish brown, with dark brown 
centre line, and narrow transverse dark brown lines, three on 
each somite, one being central and two marginal. The lateral 
processes are rich very dark brown, their backward projecting 
spines being yellow. Sides of body very dark brown, under- 
neath of body buff. Legs yellow. 

25. Orthomorpha gracilis, 

I got one specimen at Ayuthia ; February 1888. 

Other specimens, some probably representing other species 
of Orthomorpha^ I have collected at Chantaboon, Tahkamen and 
in the Larut Hills of Perak up to 4000 feet elevation, but the 
most noticeable was a black and scarlet form I found in the 
jungle near Muok Lek, Dong Phya Phai, Siam, in November 1897 


IV. Class Symphylo. 
Fatuilj Seolu/tmilretHtiir. 
^••••Ifpnittitltii tp. inerrt. 

In Maj-. .lone ami July lJ*ft7. I finind Sciilnpi'iidn'liiv vfiy 
numptxtiis in th)- Wang Nn (>itrdcn nt Umi^tok ; \\icy toiiUl 
mlly be found iindiT How or- pot js. They were most elcgniit 
little creatures, about .'> mm. in len^lli (not including tlie an- 
tenna?), very sctive. and required careful catching to get tbeni 
alive and undamaged. We found llie best way was to drive 
then into a test-tube by nit-an^ of a i-aniel-hair paint brush. 

They were pure dead white in colour when alive. 

The antennie are long, slender and conspicuous; they 
naualty resemble a riiw of beads threaded on a string, but in 
line specimen I examined the left antenna was nonnal and ron- 
fisted of 23 bead-libe joints, but the right antenna was leas than 
half as long, af^rently unjointed, enlarged and rounded at the 
lip and covered with distally directed hairs (unlike the hairs on 
normal antenna- which rfcdiate from the centre of each " bi-ud " ), 
These little animals can suspend themselves in the air by a silk 
line, after the manner of spiders. 

On the 22nd November 18;i7, I found a Sioh.pfmhdl, 
under a log in the jungle near Muolc Lek, in the Dang I'hvn 

V. Chllopoda. 

The Centipedes, (.'lass Chilnpoila. are invertebrate i 
found in all t^-mperaleandtropicalregions.camivourous, active 
and capable iif giving a poi:sonous bite. Some are nearly one 
foot (305 mm.) in length. 

UfaiL The head is distinct and has a pair of elongate 
autenniv in front and four pairs of jaws on its lower surface. 
The 4lh pair are large and powerful and project forward 
bt'low tlie other pairs of Jaws, so as to more or less concenl 
them from view. The last segment of this 4th pair forms a long 
fang with a minute hole in th^ tip, through which the poison is 

BtMl'i. The body is elongated, very flattened in section 
and consists of from 15 to over V2\ segments all much alike in 


Legs. The legs start from the sides of the lower surface 
of the body, there is only one pair to each segment, the last 
pair of legs is generally longer than the rest. The number of 
pairs of legs is invariably odd. 

Native Names for Centipedes. 
Malay, *'*J{(dipati*' or '^ Lipan'^ 

Siamese, " Takhapr 

Centipedes are divided into two sub-classes : — 
1st. Anartiostigma. 

1. eyes^ large, compound, faceted. 

2. antenniF, widely separated at bavse, very long, thread like. 

3. body^ composed of 15 segments, but only 8 dorsal plates, 

all of which, except the last, are furnished in the 
middle of the hinder border with a single large 
respiratory stigma. 

4. legsy very long, their tansi composed of a large number 

of minute segments. 

5. basal -segments of poison- jaws not united. 

Length of head and body (exclusive of antennae and legs)* 
reaches over 2 inches (or 55 mm.) contains only one genus 

2nd. ARTI08TI0MA. 

1. eyes J simple ocelli, or entirely absent. 

2. antenncr, shorter, stouter and not thread-like. 

3. body, composed of from 15 to over 121 segments, each 

having its own dorsal plate ; the stigmata are 
arranged in pairs and open on the sides of the body. 

4. legs, of moderate length, usually tipped with a claw.t 

5. basal -segments of poison- jaws united to form a coxal 

plate. Length of head and body (exclusive of antenna? 
and legs) reaches over 11 inches (or 281 mm.) divided 
into three orders, with many families and genera. 

• The«e dimensions only refer to the InrgCHt specimens I have myself 
measured ; they may grow larger. 

t In the family Cennatobiida (Order Lilhobiomorphs), known fron» a 
single species from Ilalmahira, the tansi of the legs are many jointed. 
Vide Pocock, Royal Nat. Hist. vi.. p. 205, 


Sub-'jl&iii< Aaaiali'/nCii/tim. 

Order Scuiiyritumn-plia. 

Family J^ulii/rridiF. 
1. Sciili'-jar luiir/icapiiiit, Fabr. The loiig-lionied Shield -bearer. 
L'Kxtlitica. I liave met \h\s fino spei^ies in tlirL-e localilieti, 
ill tiich L'asu ander quite difTc'reiit circuiu.sluTice.s. One wag 
ia'tide a rotteD. fallen tree-trunk near the fititt ')f (iuiioiig Pulia, 
.(obore, 13tb September, I8'J7. One I found ut night on the 
uutMdewaliof myhousfin Bangkok, on tlie :?7tli February 1897. 
And on the 28lh June IStlH, I sftwiurgu numbers of the t'eati- 
pedes, perhaps 30 or JU individuals in less than two hours, in deep 
i»vems (where nodaylight ever penetrates) of Ihe Hatu Cavea. 
neiir Kuala Lumpur, Selangor ; tlieae were easily caught in 
forceps, if one picked them up as H*xm as the torch-light showed 
Uiem, but once disturbed they diii not give u secund chance 
uf being captured but ran along the wall at imnionse speed. 
This Nptvies occurs in Java, as well as in Siani and the Malay 
C'llnnr (of Bangkok specimen mentioned above). 

I'pper surface of body moderately dark brown, at ihe 
)x)sterior end of each dorsal plate is a double s[X)t of light 
yellow (very distinct in life), liead yellowish brown with dark 
brown markings. Antenna- uniform yellowish brown. Legs 
yellow with narrow bands of dark bluish-grey. Lower surface 
of body pale yellow. In life the whole animal is slightly iridescent. 

l^-ngth, head and body 3i n 
„ antennte 
., hind- legs 
„ from tip of » 
an1«nn>e to endj- 1 
of hind-legs \ 

JliivijU-iii: gpcciiiic 

I. or l,2» 

i. fkutiytra bin 

at the "Crag, 

, I'u 

Until tai'es sjteciiiifii 
ich.* .Vinnn.or2.1(;iii 

e Shield -Bearer. 

On tht' 16tli March ISDG I caught two specimens 
I'enang III!!, elevation riMI foet; and subuo- 

• End nt Iwily proji-iils 'J mm. iM-j^mti baseuf hintl legs. 


q lently in March 1A98 obtained a third specimen at the same 
place. They are exceedingly acth'e, running so fast that unless 
you know them by sight it is hard to tell what sort of animals 
they are ; if found at rest they may be picked up with a pair 
of forceps or else made to walk into a wide-necked cyanide- 
of-potassium bottle, but if first frightened all you will probably 
see of them is a glimpse of (apparently) a spider with an impro- 
per number of very attenuated legs disappearing round the 
corner. It is very difticult to secure a perfect specimen, as 
when caught they seem to shed their legs voluntarily, almost as 
if to spite the collector. 

District. Burma and Penang. 

3. Scutiyem mavmovea^ Poc. The Marbled Shield-Bearer. 

Localities, On the 14th March I89G I caught one specimen 
under the bark of a tree at ** Richmond," Penang Hill, elevation 
about 2300 feet; its general colour was reddish-brown. In 
March 1898 I got another specimen also on Penang Hill at 
nearly the same height above sea-level. 

District, Burma and Penang. 

Sub-class A rtiostiyma, 

1st Order, LiTlloBlOMORPHA. 15 pairs of legs. 

Contains only the Family LitJiobiidte, Species of Lithohius 
are known to occur in Java, Sumatra, Burmah and possibly the 
Nicobar Islands, so will probably be eventually found in tiie 
Malay Peninsula ; the largest of the known S. E. Asian forms is 
only 12^ mm. long. 

2nd Order, Sc'olopkndkumorpiia. 21 or 23 pairs of legs. 

Eyes, either absent or consist of 4 ocelli on each side of 

the head. 

Antennw, 17 to 29 segments. 

Divided into several families. 

The usual centipedes met with in Malaya and Siam all come 
into the family ScolajKiidrid^e, which have 21 pairs of legs, 4 eyes 
on euch side of head, and reach nearly a foot (305 mm.) in 



3rJ Order, ilKtH'lllLuMOliPUA. 3'JtolOl (ur possibly more) 
pairs of legs. 

Kjed, abi>enl. 

Autemuv. U segments. 

Thif* order consists of loii-;, thin, worm-Mice ccnlijtede- ; 
Komtf it))«.'ies are at times himiiioiis ; tlit-y iirc divided into 
seveml families, aiid individuals readi 130 mm. in lenyrlli. 

U rder dcotn/ic mlionwi-pki. 
Family licotoiurn.lritlr. 

1. Siohpeiidi-a aubfjiini/ia, Leach. Common Centipede of 6. E, 

LfHxililirg. Of this species I got several specimens in Penaiig 
bolJi from near sea-level (Sepoy Lines) and from the hill 
("Crag"), one iu Singapore, one in Johore Bahni.dijc in Bangkok, 
and one received from Sourabaja, Java : it also occurs in 
Humatra and Fiores, and is found (possibly introduced) in tropical 
Africa and in the West Indies. 

Ciiiour. Most individuals I have seen were bright reddisli 
brown, but the Johore specimen (mentioned above) and ont- 
from Fenang Hill wore purplish- black above, pale reddish- 
bruwn below and had reddbh anteimi^ and legs. 

Siii: The red and the black individuals seem to attain ejual 
diinfiixions, tJic* largest I have measured was in length (exclusive 
(if antenna! and hind-legs) Ili*! mui. orG^in. 

h, Stolopemli-a de /maim, Brandt, De Ilaan's Centipede. 

This may be only a variety of S. fvbspinipe^ from which it 
difTers in the absence of aiftnea from the under surface of the 
anal femora. 

Lwalitirs. 1 got several specimens from the hills of 
Fenang, at about 23(10 feet elevation ; one from Batu Oajah, 
Ferak; four from Kulim, Kedah ; and about thirty from 
the following places in Siam — Bangkok, Ko-si-chang, Clianta- 
boon, Kabin and Muok Sek, in the Dong Fhay Phai : it also ix:- 
curs ill the Mei-gui Archipelago, Java and Sumatra, 

(,'aloiir (from life,) Above lich reddLsh-brown, antfiiniu 
|»iler reddish-brown: legs pale yellow, distally dark reddiah- 


brown, claws black ; hind-legs reddish brown, getting darker 
distally, last segments nearly black; underneath of head reddish 
brown, last joint of poison-fangs black ; lower surface of body 
brownish yellow. 

A young specimen from Kabin was black with orange-red 
legs and a broad orange-red band behind the head. 

A centipede 53 mm. (say 2 inches) in length (excluding 
antenna* or hindlegs), which l^ocock considers to be prol>ably the 
young of this species, had the upper part^ reddish-brown, but 
the posterior part of each segment very dark, nearly black : the 
antenna^ head and first two segments of body olive green ; 
legs on remaining segments pale red ; and the under surface 
pale reddish -brown. 

Size. The finest De liaan s Centipede I have measured 
was caught in our compound in Bangkok, 19th December, 181)7. 

Its dimensions were : — 
Total length, from tip of antenna to claw of hind foot 281 mm. 

Length, without antennro or hind legs 210 

antenna ... .. ... . ... ... 38 

nmci'ieg ... ... ... ... ... ... oo 

Width, 2nd segment ... ... ... 16 

^* X tJlill y^ ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •••!# 

«• mXoI/ «^ •■• ••■ ••• ••• ■•• •••A*" 

„ 22nd (last) ... ... ... 11 

These two species, supposing them to be distinct, seem simi- 
lar in habits ; they are for the most part nocturnal, but I have 
met them roaming abroad in the day time ; they are to be found 
in houses and gardens as well as in the jungle, and even on board 
ship. They run very swiftly, and try to bite fiercely when interfer- 
ed with ; what the effect of their bite on a man could be I do not 
know, I only once saw one bitten — Surgeon-Captain Smith at 
Penang in 1895. He felt no ill effects from the bite, but the centi- 
pede had previously been biting at some cord, in a loop of which 
we were trying to secure it, so had probably exhausted its sup- 
ply of poison. It is said that their claws are poisonous, and I 
have even b(»en told in Singapore that a centipede ran over a 
man's face and left a line of l>ad sores where its feet touched his 
skin. I cannot believe this — for I have seen Malays allowing a 
big centipede (with poison fangs extracted) to run about their 


l«ri' shouldois and nwk without recipvin^ any liann, and 1 lia 
mysplf liad llicm crawling ovpr mj hands a« an experiiiii'i 
wtthoiil beiii); able Ut see. or fi^l, the smslleHt wound. Niilliiu 
seemH to be known about Iheir breeding hat»t.s. In i'l- 
have Bppn « dpad i'f'nti|n'dp hunD; from the fnint SNlf-tr 
eliarry ; why this is done I have no idea ; perhaps otin'i 
berx of lUe Society have notiwHl this? 

fi. Sroloprndra Mm-niluui (Linn.) The Biting Centipede. 

I CMight specimensof this species BtGunangPulai InJohore. 
and at Kabin in Siain, received one from near Raheng, Siain. 
Tlie Kabin specimen was purplish-preen in colour, and nieasured 
in leagth (witJiout hind legs) 71 miu. (with hind leg.s) 82^ mm. 
I>r. Max Weber obtained this species in Celebes, ^sleyer and 
Florea. It is also found in uentral Africa and other tropical 

7. OliHiti'jnHS i'Siler, Porat. The liough ('entipede. 
'■ TakhBp-fai" (line-centipede) nf tlie Siamese, 

l.ocalilieg. I found this species numerous in Rangkok 
noder flower pot« in the garden of the Al'ang Na, and bIsi> 
gut specimens on Ounong Pulai, -Tohore. 

Colour (Bangkok specimens). Above reddish -brown, redder 
on the margins, browner in the vertebral line ; the anterior 
piirtioQ of the head iwjmetimes black ; lower surface of body jale 
rcddlsh-yelluw ; eyes black; antenna- light-red or else basal 
portion reddish -brown, turning darker distally till the tips »re 
nlmost black ; legs, Imsal segment and greater portion of ne\t 
.■"■gment buff, remainder rich dark blue, or in some spi'Liinens thf 
legs are grey, baaally bright blue, distally buff. Ihe hindmost 
pair of legs are blue banded with pole buff or wliiu* at the 

Sitf (Bangkok specimens). The largest I not*'d measured 
48 mm. in lengtii, without including the hind-legs. 

Another was : — 

lengtii, without antennn.' or hind legs, 31^ mm. 
„ antennie li ' ., 

,. hindtegs \i^ „ 


I also collected specimens of Otostigmm on Penang Hill, 
in the Larut Hills of Perak, in Johore, at Chantaboon 
(purplish- blue in colour) and at Paknam-Menam, which 
are difficult to determine specilicallj, as there are many 
species of this genus described from Ceylon, Japan, 
China, Mergui Archipelago, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, 
Flores, etc. 

8. RJnjmla longipes (Newport). 

I got two specimens at Tanglin, Singapore, one found 
under a flower-pot, one running about in my bathroom 
at night, and several from Siara, from near Raheng and 
from the island of Ko-si-chang. This centipede usually 
has its back coloured dark reddish or purplish-brown, the 
legs may be lighter ; it is of small size reaching a length 
of 68 mm. (2A\S inches). It is distributed in many parts 
of tropical Asia and America. 

9. Rhysida immarginata (Porat). 

Of this small species I got six specimens near A lor Star, 
Kedah ; one in Taipeng, Perak ; a friend found it climbing up his 
leg inside his trowsers ; and two in Singapore, one in the 
Officers' Mess, Tanglin, and one in a bathroom of Raffles Hotel. 
In these centipedes the antenna?, when not in use, are carried 
curled up very elegantly. Dr. Max Weber obtained this species 
in Sumatra, Java and Saleyer. 

10. Rhfsida carinulata (Haase.) 

In January 1896 Mr. Ridley and I found one of these rare 
centipedes on Bukit Timah, Singapore ; it was a female lying 
curled up round its eggs, hidden under a rock in the jungle. 
The species was previously known from Celebes. 

11. Rhysida rugulosa^ Pocock. 

This species is described and figured (nat-size) by Pocock 
in Max Weber's Zool. Ergebnisse HI, p. 314, PI. xix, Fig. 6. 
The type specimen is from Sumatra. In November 1896 I 
caught one in the garden of " the Crag," Penang Hill, 2200 
feet elevation ; its colours were : — back purplish black ; antenna? 

XOTRS (IN Mir.T,!l'KnF.S. 25 

mill legs Ixitlle green ; undenipatli pale olive frrci'n, Lpniftli 
(cxrludiDg nnteDDft; and hind feet) Af) uini. (3.;t:i inclie.s.) 

I also got Hpetimetw of Ulnjtiil'i from Blaltoti Mati, Singapore. 
anil from t'haiitaboon, ihftt apjierputly do not fall into any of 
thi' above speciPS, 

Order GeupliHomui-plio. 
Family Gfiiphiliihe. 
1 2. Orplinirus bi'rfilnbtaluii { Newport ). 'I'lie I.nniinoiis ( 'eiitiiwilc 

Malay Klamnun: 

I have rau^Eht this loop, thin red centipede at Talikaiuen. 
Siam. in Maroh li^!)7. iti (iovermiipiit House. Singapore, Oitobei 
1897. and in Itukar Knta Ilon.'^. K^-rlah. in May 1i4:M: iijwuys 
in roofs or upper storica of iiousea. Dn more than one occaMimi, 
I Iinve seen them at ni>;1it on my mos<|nito eurtains. hich 
time 1 l«(t«i their luniinomty ; when disturbed they give out a 
hriglil but lurid preen ■' phiiwpli(>rpspent" lifrlit, and as the 
centil^ede moves it leaves a trail of Ijglit behind it on the surfare 
il is crawling over ; this trail f^tinutierM for h moment or so. and 
then goes out. 

UesideH Siam and the Malay I'eninnulft this Hpe-cies occurs 
in other part* of the Oriental Region (>[ettrui Arcliiijelago, 
Java, Oleltes. Flores, eU'.) and also in tropical Au.erira. 

Family I)i<-ril.phHi,h: 
1.". .WrcintiH^'-ji/ialiiii iiuiii-lifrwi', Newport. 

Of this long, tliin centipede I got four specimens in (he 
i«rth at Chantftboun in January I>10« (no lumiuosity oliservedj. 
and also found a single individual under a piece of wood on tlie 
Inp of Wosteni Hill. I 'enang, elevation 2723 feet. This latter 
measured : — 
length (excluding antennie and hind legi) h-i mm. 
(including „ „ ., .. ) (>:) nun. 

This species is also recorded from ihe NferLfiij .XnhijX'iago. 
Sumatra. Java, Floi'es and Mauritiias, 

Family Eiia-aloni/f/iiiliF. 

Hpecies of Eiirratimiir may eventuljy lie found in Malaya as 
they occur in Burmese territory on the one side, nnd in islands 
at the (^tern end of the Malay Archipelago on the other. 


VL Class Gigantostraca. 

Order Xiphosura. 
Family Limiilidiv, 

The King Crabs, or Horse-shoe Grabs. 
** Mengda/ni-ndm " of the {Siamese. 
** Belangkas " of the Malays. 

1. Liiittilits molurcanus, 

I have got live specimens in the Singapore Market on the 
oth April, in the Rangkok Market 18th June, and in Brunei, 
Borneo, on the 2nd October. 

I was told in Siani that the King-Crabs usually frequent 
deep w«ter, but in June, July and August resort to the shallows 
at the head of the Gulf for breeding purposes ; they are then 
caught in large numbers for the markets. They will live for a 
few days in a tub of fresh water. 

In life the carapace is a beautiful, rich, dark, shining, olive 

The largest specimen I measured (at Bangkok) was : — 
Total length, 19.7 inches. == 5(K) mm. 

Length of carapace, 10.2 ,, = 259^ „ 

„ „ tail, 0.5 „ = 241 „ 

AVidth, „ carapace, 10.2 „ = 259 ,, 

2. Limvlus rotumUcavda, 

Easily distinguished from L, mohwcamis by the round shap- 
ed tail. 

To be seen for sale in the Bangkok Market with the alx>ve. 
The largest specimen I measured (at Bangkok) was : — 
Total length, 15.25 inches = 387 mm. 

Length of carapace. 8 .. = 203 ,, 

„ „ tail, 7.25 „ = 184 ., 

Width „ carapace, 7.75 ,, =197 „ 

3. LiiHulus tridentatus. Leach. 

Also known as Linndiis longispinia. Afr. A. C. Cluneis 
lioss gave me a large pair caught at Kudat, Brit. North Borneo: 
the female was the largest and measured : — total length 35.25 
inches =894 mm., width of cara|Mice 15 inches = 381 mm. 


VII. ClAss Arachnlda. 
[ III Uus ck«) uv iarlodval Uir :^im1(Ts •> 419, Mit^. IVk^ 

■ Hir^ HtuBMls Imw do dUliiici Imd. th>' lie*>l aud tbi<n\ 
J fti?4'(I bi^rvlber. sikI thi.' rvsutt uf iIim uuUni ^i-«Ued tin- 
■-cit)iMt<j(IxLiT«\'')«iid ttx* aUKtuieu luav tii- iimv n-t U' »»;- 

Krt«Uiiiig U i-arried im bv air-tiilics. luiig-lKKJcs or l«>(li. 

'Die Bi*iiw «rv distiuci indh-klii«L-'. 

Tlii-tv art' 111) ■utt-niin*. such >!< f.vist tii Uir iii^a.'cls. itiili- 
|H-iJt?» and luillipt^i^ 

TW cephalotliorax bMi? !si>L |Mir> of liiiiUs; — 

l^t pair I tltt> RMiidibltit) t-uuipuHxt uf i or 11 st'^uit'uLN. ui'tii)^: 
a:* ^I'txing ur bitiD^ ur^ans. 

^nd pair <lhe cbt*l<i>. or |Mlpi) cuiuposed of •'> or Ij M'^iiioiith : 
of whitb tlie baxal Hegioeute (tlif uia\i)l<c) aru used for iriiNhiii^' 
food, aud tbc rcuwiiHier rartouslv uiodiliinl as seixiiii;, fiftiiiff or 
oexuat orgaoa. 

•Ird pair, cuiu|)ikm.hI uf II or uuirv sfgint-nts, ii^cil r<.>r fit'liii); 
(a-s in the Pedipal{»), or fur walking- 

4tb. 5tb, and r.(b. composed of r. Ui -.i scgnu'nit., nsi'd for 

The abdomen bears no Inu' limbs. 

The class may \k diridcd into 8 orders, imo of ihiw con- 
tains the Mites. Ticks and a variod hoiit ofiiniAU formn. noiuc 
vcrv degenerate, in some variunii liHibs are lost, in somi' tlii'ii- 
arc apparently uo uiyanm of iv.-ipiratlon, autl in ihc " \\'ati>r 
Beam," or 7Viii/ii/i-(i[/<i, ttie nexca are iu>t ilUlint't but are unitc<l 
in each individual. 

The following tubk' may U; of n^e to the collcch-ir in 
<1i't<>rmiiiing to which Order an Arachnoid beast, he may hap- 
pen to have cRii^liI, belong;s. 
.^. iud pair uf limits modified hito i^reat seimjt urganM (i'ht'lii')< 

A. HO •' waist ■' between capbalothorax and abdounni. 

Llrd. Jlh, Mh and Gib pairs of limba of slmilur con- 
striR'lion and used for walki'ijt. 
". |x»stiJrior Hi'|riiient« of alxlomi'ii narrowed. fonniiiR 11 
dinliiift jointed tail. I'ndinjc in a poiMOU-slinjf. 


bi*OHthin^ by nutans of 4 |)airs ol hnnf book2>. 

abdominal roinljs presiMit. 

no silk-stH-n»tinjjf glands. 

some spi»cies attain a length of S inches. 

(Scorpions). Order Svorpioms. 

h, no tail. 

breathing bv means of air-tulx»s. 
no abdominal combs, 
silk-secretin^c {inlands pnisent. 
some sjxH-ies attain a length of | inch. 

( Falst» Scorpions). Order PseudosvorpioHt-.^, 

/A a " waist** bt»t\vi>en cephaK)thorax and alxlomen. 

;Jnl pair of limbs moilitied into fi»elei*s, the last si»gment 
lx»ing dawless and divideil into a nuinlN*r of si^condary 

Uh, .')th and (»(h \mi's of similar construction and usihI 
for walkinjr. 
c. no tail, or a thread like one. 

bn»athin^ by means of 2 jxiirs of lunj:- Uniks. 

no alHlomhial comlis. 

no silk-siH-reting jf lands. 

some s|XHMes attain a length ot 2 inches. 

( Wliip Scorpitms) Order /*rih'p*ilpi, 

]\, 2nd imir of limbs not mtxlitied into cheUe. 
(\ cephalothonix st^gmenttnl. 

mandibles form lar^e pincers, 
alxlomen with ten st»gments. 
palpi leg- like. 
ti, a long joint^nl tail. 

size niinut^^ : only one sjK»cies known, from South 

Order Palpigradi. 

f . no tail. 

reach nearly 2 inches in length : many genera and 
s|x»cies known from South Euro|X', .\frica, Asia and 



( h'alse Spider«). Order Soli/ti'jn: 
CTphalutliurax nut seg'iueiited. 
'. a " waut" botweeu cepbalulliurax aiid ikbdomeii. 
iiuiidibleii form a poi»jii fang, 
abdyineji not ai'gineut*^! (except hi sub-order Me&o- 

hrcatiiing by means of 2 pair of long books, or elsi' 
I pair luii^ books and 1 pair of air-tubes. 
N|Hnuin)f glaiidfj pre.teiit. 

(S|flderst. Order A ruiita: 
, DO " wabt " betwi-eti cephalothorax and abdomen. 
a.' abdoineu eomposed uf 3 to 8 segments. 
mandibles [Hncer-like. 
bniotl segment of 3rd pair of limbs always adiipltMi 

for masticatioD. 
breatbiag by means of air-tuU-^. 
no tipiniiing glands. 

(Harvest Spiders). Uid.-r lli,ili-i.:s. 
K' abduuien nut segmeuted. 

mandibles pincer-like, or .simply pointed. 

baaal segment of Ji-d pair of limbs never adupted 

fur uaMtication. 
breathing by means of air-tubes, or withuul 

distinct organs. 
MpinniDg glands ^unietime.s pre.senl. 
size usually minute. 
(Mites, Ticks etc.) Order Aciri. 
Order S'-uqiioHcs. 
The True Si-vrjiiiiiiii. 
Malay •' Ka!itj inking." 
Siumi'M' "Miit»iiiiij-pi)H" or more comnjoiily ■■.ycii'/-/mH." 
I'linUng Kapur •' ,Sim/iai." und "/"N/yic/," [ lake — Kelsull 

J. S. B. H. A. S. So. ify. 1894, p. 41.) 
Tbe true Scorpions have four pairs of legs, of similar con- 
slructJoii. wicli coniposod of seven se^meutsf, and naed for Iwo- 


motion, and two modified anterior pairs of limbs, one (the chelie) 
forming great pincers and composed of six segments, and one 
(the mandibles) forming small pincers and composed of only 
three segments. 

The abdomen is distinctly segmented, and the last six seg- 
ments, ire narrower than the rest, formhig a distinct tail ; the 
last segment of all (the telson) ends in a sharply pointed poison- 

On the lower surface of the second segment of the abdomen 
are a pair of comb-like organs (the pectines) ; the exact use of 
which does not seen to be known, but I have noticed scorpions 
are continually moving them about as if they were organs of 

Scorpions are divided into several familie^s ; two of which • 
occur in our region and may be thus distinguished : — 

1st. Bttt/iidiF, Sternum of the cephalothorax small and trian- 
gularly pointed in front. 

Two spurs on the articular membrane of the tarsus. 

2nd. Scorpt'oniihe. Sternum of the cephalothorax broad and 

One spur on the articular membrane of the tarsus. 

Family JJuthiiht. 
1. Aix'hUuinttrus luucronatus (Fabr.) The Sharp Scorpion. 

** }[cnijpon tahkepp " of the Siamese. 

This small yellowish scorpion is widely distributed in the 
East, being recorded from Burma, Siam, Cambodia, Cochin China. 
China, tFapan, Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Flores, Saleyer, and it 
is said from New Zealand and Madagascar. Pocock has given 
an excellent coloured figure of this species, natural size in Max 
Weber's Zool. Ergebnisse III, PI. vi, fig. 1, (published at Leyden, 

Scorpions of this species are to be found inside and outside 
houses, lx)th downstairs and upstairs, as well as in gardens and 
in the jungle ; they spend the day hidden in crevices, or under 
stones, rocks, etc., and at night roam about for food ; they run 
about the walls of houses with ease, but I doubt their being able 
to cross ceilings, as the house-lizards of the family (ieckonithv do. 



In Bangkok I fnond this -penes vrrr riwumm. mmI aI-ii) 
oHigkl iyyiww B M AvnllaK, to the Ikmp 'rti>-k rhii. tit Katvn. 
at (Inntakian and ua tbp b-Uni) o/ Ki>-«a-ohutj;. 

\Vben mddMtlj fiiimi] ubItt a stiinr ifapv :^-iu to !*^4: 
i»tfty nthpt m rHnwining ptn^n-tl<r n»)(i<w)r^«:i thftn in Ixbioi; 
in^ttil tlijrht. 

I faa\n> tMttiml Ibf m oatiiuF rrtrkrtN and Boths. pusNililv ihcv 
will «ai anj inscrbs tfapv c«n r«irh and nwrpitwvr. )wt I haw 
iralclwd lht>in iMkotunl^r and leave aniniil)>[«It^. tlvw^h ht)i)];rv. 
a lieetV |('<iraUil-t) and a small gn>)>o \yag. (hi »*v-eriit iHva- 
«wn» 1 ha»p plared tbi'?^ acoqikins *ilh whi[v«>«jiHms 

(Ttiflfpommt tctimlfwitrikfi) aad wiUl lar)rO l^k-tS (ttrtfiyilt—l>t 

rfuittann) in see tf tbfv wituM Ift t« lacklff oth^r Ararhntth. 
Imi I found tl)f iknv sorts all Ml one auolbiT al»itr. 1 
1»ve not ob(i«Twd tbem even att^utpt In fettd \m tiiMvtA thvy 
liav)> nol killed tli«u.sclv««. nor to pay any altwiliiMi to fniit, 1 
Ho not know if th^y evtr dhuk. 1 lind a» Mitry in aiv diary fur 
the 2(ilh December. I«9r : — "J. Mwrt-wKtw raugiit nn ife' 
|.'>th rtf this month is still alive and noil. It has had nn watm- 
all the time." i'Dfortunately I tind no note as (o the further 
career of thin scorjHon, or how loiig ii lived in rapti\ity, Whw) 
walkino; this species ofter has tlie ronil^s extended and i^iiiiled 
forward. It seems ijuiie blind (at any rate in a full lighll, it 
nms swiftly with both cheliv extended. l>nt if an upright thin([. 
such as a sticlc which the clieliv fm:^ on chch side of without 
lonrhing, i^ met with, the scor^iion nins right into it and is 
putted up alwrt ; just as a man feeling for the door in the dark 
witli oul^rt-tched arms may, if the door ln" standing open. 
Kuddrnly find himself hit in the fai-c by it ; but on the other 
hand I have seen a srorpion put^ue a Hutterinfr inncct. but this 
may have been by sound (or smell ':). 

The following extract from my diary of the ITith IWiMiilior 
lif'J7 will give some idea of how these animals feed, 

A. iiimroiuilHt : in the evemnff I watched it Hitting i]uili< 

still, Ijody ^■e^y flat on the ground, chela- extended, tiiil curved 

over back with the point of llie sting carefully protectiil in tlie 

lal manner; a f<ma1l moth settled near it, the scor|»on imme- 

I diat«ly seizKl the moth in botli chehv and nuick uh lightning 

, bnmght its tail over its head, stung Ihe uioth nud rncoveii-*! 



its tail to the ^rest' pnt^ition, it then placed the moth's hpsd to | 
its JAwa and at« it oEF, holding the moth in its chehe and tugging 
olT pieces with ita mandibles; aft«ra few bites the scorpion ran 
oFE holding the inotii in one chela? ; on the way another small 
moth came just bv it, the scorpii>n promptly seiKed it in the 
dUen^aged chelic, and again quick as a thought its tail wan 
thrown forward and again withdrawn ; it then ran on witli a 
moth in either hand, when it met a tliird moth the scorpion trans- 
ferred the Hritt moth to its mtmdibles and with the chelte thus 
disengaged it attempted to seize the lii'e moth but it fluttered 
on : the sc:orpion. pursuing with one moth in its jaws, one moth I 
in 'one hand and the other hand grabbing at the third moth, was 1 
de<rided1y comical ; it failed to catch the third moth, and after J 
running a little wjiy settled down to e^t its captives : the first I 
miilh was eaten wings and all. uiily one lower wing and four 1 
legs bi'ing left, which may have been dropped accidentally, icl 
then began eating the set-ond moth but after a time (whether f 
anything frightened it or not I do not know) the scorpion i 
dropped the moth and ran off: after some minutes another lire J 
moth came in its way which it seized and commenced eating ; 
while doing so it caught another, mid again ran off carrying one j 
moth in its jaws and one in its hand." 
Kpd of Stiwj. 

Two cases of scorpion sting have come imder my notice ; 
each time the scorpion was caught and identilied as ^1 riliinamflraii 

Ist 27tli Nov, 18117. Itesdeoh, a native of India, aeci- J 
dentally put his hand on a scorpion which stung him in the linger; 
he said he had very great pain all up the hand and arm as far 
as the shoulder; he applied n small native poultice which some- 
what relieved the pain. This happened at I", a.m. At T.30 a.m. 
the finger wa.s very swollen, but not appreciably dlwoloured, he 
said there was then no i»in above the elbow but. it was very bad 
in tlie forearm and hand; we got him to put the injured finger 
in a strong solution of permanganate of potash and keep it there 
for half an hour, first opening the wound by squeezing it ; by 
>*,3fl n. m. he wasall right again. 

2nd. 2Gth DecenibiT IS'.IT. Maa Deng, Siamese wc 
slungin her footinlheevening: the effect was at once a rathe* J 


swollen foot and mutli pain r wp were aljle t<i bathe tlio foot 
almost immediately in a very strong solution of permanganate 
of potanh and tbe pain subsided in n i|narter of an hour. 

Yellow niott!e<l wilh brown, the four point of breathing 
iii'illces on the abdomen lieinp verv eoiispicuoun as lemon yellow 
spots. A small speeimen (:!!■ hum. in length) was coloured 
pinki»th underneath. 


I have not been able to make out at what time.t of year 
these scorjMons breed. On the llth May in Hangknk I caught a 
young one (HI mm. in length) by it.self, and on the ;ird August 
also in Bangkok found one (II mm. in length) Ijeinij carried 
about on its mother's back. 

Mr. R. J. Pncock. in answer t^i fm^uiries, wrili's to nii- : 
■• In A. muri-nu'itiis the male has the lull stouter and thi- claws 
longer with sinuate linger!", an compared with the female." 

Length from front of mandibles to lip of sti-ig of ;1."* adult 
-.'^iamese specimens which I have examined: — 

average 44^ ujiu. smallest, 3C mm. 

largest, ■'i^ mm. (rou;;hly i\ inch.) 

P-u-fhiai Teft/i. 

I'sually about 21 on each comb, occnRsi<mally there i.i one 
more tooth on one side than on the other, and once 1 found a 
specimen wilh two more teeth on one side than the other i. e. 
1!) and 21. 

The fewest I have counted were in a IJangkok spednien. 
i. e. IH and 18 : the most I have counted were in a Dong Phya 
I'hai specimen, i. e. 24 and 24. 
2. Arrliiaomi-triix sailihift, C. K. 

This 13 is a small yellowish-brown scorpion with very long 
attenuated claws and tail ; I caught one specimen under the 
bark of a fallen tree in the Experimental (Jnrdens, I'enang Uill, 
about IDOU feet elevation, and one in the verandah of " the 
Crag," Penang Hill, 22fi() feet elevation, both in March IHIW. 
TbiR specie:* is also reirorded from TenasHerin, Selangor, Singa- 
pore, Snmatra and .lava. 


i\, fftoNUtnts iHiir Hiatus (De Geer). 

Xhis is another small yellowish brown scorpion ; it has 
been found in Spain, Africa, India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula, 
Siam, Hongkong, Java, Timor, Mauritius, Madagascar, Sandwich 
Islands, West Indies and South America. I caught two speci- 
mens in the Officer's Mess, Sepoy Lines, I^enang ; one in the 
Officer's Mess, Tanglin, Singajx^re; one in liaffles Hotel, Singa- 
pore ; and two in Hakar Bata House, Kedah. I was given two 
specimens in J^angkok said to have been caught there, but I 
never myself came across it alive in that city. This species, 
when suddenly found, will often lie still as if feigning to Ix'dead, 
till tou(^hed, when it tries to run away. 

** In / muculutiis the tail and pincers of the male are very 
V)X\y^ and thin as comi>ared with the female." Pocock. 

Family Scot-piouid^r, 

4. Clurnhis offih\<i, Pocock. The Agile Scorpion. 

This sj)ecies was discovered by Mr. H. \. Uidley at the 
Iktu Caves, Selangor, and described by Mr. H. J. Pocock (Annals 
4. Mag. Nat. Hist. Series vii, vol. iii. No. 17, May 1890, p. 
410). The general colour is dark reddish brown, not distinctly 
variegated. Pectinal teeth 4. Length 50 mm. 
i). Chnjvilus recti ma tins, Pocock. The Straight-handed Scorpion. 

Mr. H. N. Kidley discovered this species in Singapore, and 
it has been described by Pocock (loc. cit. supra, p. 418). 

The general colour is ferruginous, variegated with black. 

Pectinal teeth 3 (?). Length 24 mm. 

Other species of tliis genus will probably Ix* eventually found 
in the Malay Peninsula. 

0. Palamn(vu8 oatesii, Pocock. Gates' Scorpion. 

This large s|x?cies, known as " Kala " by the Kedah Malays, 
is often identified as Palaimnens spinifer (Hempr. 4. Ehrenberg). 
L. NVray, jun., J. S. H. K. A. S. No. 21, 1890, p. 148, mentions 
'*a large dark metallic green scorpion {But/iiis spimgery in 
Batang Padang, Perak ; he probably refers to this specie.s. 

I obtained one specimen from near .Jenan, Kedah ; four 
from Kulim, Kedah; two from Penang Hill (one at ^.jOO feet 

^uTI■;^i u.\ .MIl.l.ll'EHKS. 3! 

clrvaiiMii, givfii uii- by Mr. L. Biuwii); lliiw from .luliw 
iSulini. mi Iwu frum Uic fcxjtliills uf Oruiiuiig' Pului, JolKin.-. 

'.W«Mr(iu life): vi-ry rich duik olive grei-ii. 'l'l»' jx'iwin 
vi'sick's ill the Liunong I'ulai specimpiis were whltf. 

^. fruDi rriiiit tif luaiidiblei^ tu tip of nihtg. UfJ mm 
Pwiinal tcfih. 1(1+17. 

? , fmui front of maiidibl(« U^ fiid of ix-milliumU.- siij;uR'iit 
1117 min. IVctiwal teeth. 17+17. 

Iturtua, Malay Peiiiiittula. Suiimtm (?). 



', tiiniun. 

AiftmuMP. "MfiirrjHiii f/iiiiiy," ^ Klepliaiit lHttr[)iuii. 
(If \hy fine Mpecieu I obtained four tipv^imeiis from Itany;- 
kuk. thrw from Tahkaiuen. one from iieai Kabiu. one from near 
Kaheiij;, and thirty one from Chantaboun. It seeiuH lo U- 
ntrictly nocturnHl; at night roaming about for food, and lyinc; 
hid by day: at L'huntabuun I found iniiHt by d\gfi'»ig iii ihf soil 
4 or (i inches deep, under fallen logs, to find their bnrr<i»s, 
which the Mcorpiun^ oflen tried to escape along, but we followed 
them (diicgiD]; up the soil) and eventually Hecuied them. In 
one spot (in Jan. IttUl*) we found about ten individual.i, all of 
about the same .>i/e, huddled up close together in a hole iti llie 

Culour (hi life.) Bhining rich dark green. 
.Sr;f. X good wpeciuien li&d tlie following dimensions : — 
Length, from front of mandible to |x>int of stiug — iy."i 
uiu. (about 5i inches). 

Leiigtii, of cepbalothorax (in mediuii liiii-j— 1« lijiu. 
Width of cepbalothorax \:> mm. 

Length of tail 
„ „ humerui^ 
„ .. brachium 
,. .. piacer (to 

.. moveable digit 
^Vidlh of hand 
I'frlinid Tnth vary in numbi-f 
UQ each aide. 


The usual numbers seem to be 1G-|-1G, or 1(>+17. 

Seu'tii, " In J\danwa'us silenus and Ilormurus the male has 
the two halves of the genital operculum separated so that this 
can be pulled apart, while in the female, though the suture 
remains, the two are inseparable. The combs are also larger in 
the male." Pocock. 

DiairicU Siam, and Cochin China. 
8. Jlormurtis auatraldsiw (Fabr.) 

Siamese ** Menypon-toh'' = Tree »Scoipion. 

This is a small dark brown scorpion with large pincers, a 
comparatively short, slender tail and a very small sting, com- 
monly to be found under the bark of trees, but I have also 
obtained it among a pile of logs, and under dead leaves on the 
ground. Pocock says ** this species is found in 8. East Asia and 
all over the Islands of the Indo-Malayan, A ustro- Malayan and 
Australian Region," and mentions it being recorded from the 
Himalayas, Corea, Sumatra, Java, Flores, Saleyer, New Britain, 
Solomon, Loyalty and Fiji Islands. 

Personally I have caught seven specimens on Penang Hill, 
at elevations of 1800 to 2300 feet; three in Bangkok; one at 
Chantaboon ; and two on the island of Kosichang. I also re- 
ceived one from near Raheng, Siam. 

A Ilonmirtis, probably of this species, is found on Maxwell's 
llill, Perak ; I found the remains of one inside a frog {liana 
tnacrodoii) caught at 3,300 feet elevation in April 1808. 

The hirgest specimen I have measured was from the front 
of the mandibles to the tip of the sting, 43 mm. 

The pectinal teeth in four Siamese specimens examined 
were:— + 7, G+7, 7+7 and 7+7. 

Order Paeudoscoi-piunes, 

The False Scorpions, 

These are the minute and harmless animals sometimes called 
** Book Scorpions." At Chantaboon I found a species of the 
genus C/tdiftr ; and also in Bangkok under the bark of trees, 
under Hag-stones and in packing cases. 

Order Pcilipatpi. 

(sw PoL'ock, Koyat Natural History, Vul. vi, p. 217). 

Sub-order (.'rojisyi (Taili'd f'cdipalpsj. 

twclion Ojo/i'fi. 

I''miiily Tlitl-iphtiiwii!. (Whip Suorpious). 

ri,cl,ii.lwnua akimLr'nitvhH, TariiiHii. 

Siamese ".Ut'i'jpoii-iiunni" i. e. Stinking .Scorpion. 
'Militiee. I met tbia apecies iu Itauj^kuk, (.'hautAboui 


Koyichang. Focock records it from ■■ Lacao, via Kaheii^, 
Siam" (A.+M. N. H. Ser. 7. Vol. v, Mardi lUtPO. p. 21*8,. 

Description of bjdy from n Itiiiigkok specimeu; — 

Cepbalothura.t ttlightly L-oiu'es, considerably narrowed 
aiitttriurly. The uuterior i-yeH are black, they are separated by 
a prumioeut elougatt^ smooth tubercle which extends Iu tlie 
aalerior edge of the cephalothorax, which coDsists of a sharp 
ridge which curves Ijnck on each side ns far as the lateral eye where 
it di3a[^>ara ; the three lateral eyes are pale yellow, the dorsal 
pair being very conspicuous in the live aniumi. The whuli.' 
surface of the cephalothorax is roughly granulated, on the 
whole more coartieiy anteriorly ; the cephalic and thui-acic 
grooves are well marked. Abdomen nioderatt-ly depressed, 
eloiigat«ly uval, at its widest part 1/7 wider than the widest pari 
iif the cei^alothorax ; upper surface granulsr, with the [xisterkn 
edge of each segment -crenulated" ; "the muscular pouils " 
are round and well inarkvd on the second to eighth segments. 

Colour (in hfe) ; drawn up from several dozen Bangkok 

Adults : — L"pper surfaces of chelir, cephalothorax, abdomen, 
two joints of legs nearest body and lower surface of abdomen 
very dark brown, almost black, but sometimes the greater purt 
of the lower surface of the abdomen is reddish -brown. Along 
either side of the ubdoinen there is a broad pale yellow longi- 
tudinal line. Tlu' tail, limbs (wheix- not dark brown), lower 
surface of cephalothorax, and the fir^t two segments on the 
uudenieatli of the abdomen ate a rich red-brown. 















Youu^ : — Specimens of about S uiin. in length have the 
cephalothorax and abdomen of the usual dark brown colour, but 
have pale yellowish red cheloe. 

JSizt, of three typical Bangkok spt»cimens, in millimetres ; — 
Total length of cephalothorax and abdomen. 28 29 28 

Length of cephalothorax, 1 1 

abdomen, including terminal joints, 17 

„ the narrow tail, 20 

tive terminal joints of cheloe, in articulation. 13 
,, lirst leg, excluding the coxal joint, 3') 

second leg, 
Width of cephalothorax. 

Habits, Strictly nocturnal ; hiding by day under logs, 
stones, etc. and at night roaming about for food. They are 
chieHy to be seen during the rainy season from April to August. 
In January and December I have sometimes noticed a very faint 
and peculiar smell given off by the^je creatures, but have not 
been able to detect it at other times of year. 

To collect — when found they can easily be picked up by a 
pair of forceps, the points placed on either side of the hard 
cephalothorax, and they quickly die in a cyanide of potassium 
** insect killing bottle.*' When placed on their back on a sliei^t 
of glass or other Hat surface these Thdypltoni seem very helpless 
and unable to right themselves. 

Food. In captivity they feetl readily on dead insecfe:* : they 
lirst carefully and slowly examine the object, then take it up in 
their cheUe, and in the case of a moth almost completely devour 
it, or if a dragon Hy eat all but the wings : very rarely I have 
seen a Thdiiplioims catch a live insect in its cheloe and eat it : 
they do not attempt to interfere with beetles or grasshoppers 
larger than themselves. Besides insects they will eat very small 
bits of over-ripe bananas. 

One that I caught with a broken tail lived 24 days, during 
this time there was no sign of a reproduced tail growing. 

Effects of SttHfj, These animals an* usually supposed to lx» 
harmless to man, but in Bangkok on the 30th April 181)7 I had 
a curious experience with one. Seeing a Tlwhiphonuss of this 
species, running on the ground I picked k up by the cephalo- 
thorax between the lir^t linger and thumb of my left hand ; it 



al once bent ilt* I bread -shaped tail over itii back (as a scorpion 
Aoeri) and also scratolied about civ lingers wilh its legs, but the 
pincers did not touch dip: I thought notiilng of ita tail, etc., till 
1 felt a sharp pain and found the animal ImJ somehow stung me. 
1 went straight into my house, and already the first joint of uiy 
linger waa very swollen and inflamed, there being a rafMdly 
grnwitig white lump, and the rest was red ; at one spot was a 
fresh puncture as if a needle had been driven in, in a hori/.Dntal 
direction, and gone some little way under the shin. After cut- 
ting and siiuee/.ing the wound, 1 put tny linger into a strong 
solution nf permanganate of potash, which at once relieved the 
pain and stopped the swelling, but the little wound continued to 
smart for some hours. Since then I lia\'e Ix^n '■ai'efnl never tn 
let a Thtli/pliiiHug touch me. 

■SwM. "You can tell the male of this species at once by 
the presence of a shallow circular pit upon the fourth ventral 
plate of the abdomen, by the different shape and sixt" of the lirst 
plate, and by the simple structure of the small segments of the 
tarsus of the lirst pair of legs, that ie> tu say of the antenniforui 
legs; tlie tarsal segments of the adult female being peculiarly 
modified." (H. [, Poeock). 

2. Thetuphonus Jn/wrfnuis. Date*. 

■' Toong-gee" of the Malays of Johore. 
I have caught this species in Jolmre Bahru, and up to about 
TilMt feet elevation on IJunong I'ulai. One specimen, out of three 
caught Sept. '97, sinelt sligntly. Two Thehiplwni, probably of 
this species, caught in the Botanical (Jardens in Mutch '!IS 
smelt slightly but perceptibly. A specimen obtained at about 
a4U0 feet elevation in the I.arut Hills, I'erak. in .April '118, is 
referred doubtfully to this species. 

T/ieli/plwi'Ui tail 
Biarch \W 

. I'ocock (A. I-M. N". U. S.T. 7, V..I. v, 
p. 205). 

round by Mr, Herbert W. I„ VVny in Battambanff. Siaui. 

TupoiKltU ilih/i. I'ocock. (loc. cit. supra, p. 2!t7), 

Kound by Mr, Alahon Daly at " liacan, Via Raheng. Sinm." 


5. Hjfpoctonus fovmosua (Butler). 

This species found iu Burma and on Owen's Island, Mergui, 
(Pocock, Linn. Soc. Jour. Zoology, Vol. xxxvi, p. SIG ); Ls pro- 
bably the same as that recorded from Penang as Thelqphonm 
inigustua, Lucas by St^iliczka, J. A. S. B. Vol. xlii. Part 2, 1873, 
p. 134. 

Sub-order A inhb/pygi (Tailless Pedipalps). 
Family Tarantulidoe, 

0. 'raranUda 2}hip8oni (Pocock) Phipson's Tarantula. 

This species is named after the able Honorary Secretary of 
the Bombay Natural History Society. The genus Tarantula 
has also been called Phrynus and Phri/nickus, 

At Chantaboon iu January 1898 I found fifteen individuals 
of this species on one small hill, by turning over some piles of logs : 
they can run very swiftly, and rapidly efface themselves from 
\new by going into crevices ; but usually, like scorpions, they 
seem to seek concealment by squatting quite still among their 
natural surroundings. Daylight seems to confuse them, and 
when caught they move their pincers wildly about in a most 
aimless manner. 

Dimensions of a Chantaboon specimen : — 

Length, from front of mandible (folded at rest) to end of abdo- 
men, 40 millimeters. 

Width of cephalothorax, 19 „ 

„ „ „ abdomen, 17| ,. 

Total length of chela limb, 110 „ 

„ ,, „ antenniform limb, 128 „ 

„ „ „ 1st walking leg, 5.5 „ 

,, V .»* 5>nd „ „ GO „ 

„ M )9 •>ra ,, ,, «>8 „ 

Span from tip to tip of outstretched chela, 220 mm. 

An animal allied to Phipson's Tarantula inhabits the Batu 
Caves, Selangor ; I saw one specimens far into the caves in June 
1898 but failed to catch it 


Thf True or mb-Spi'lcry 

Ualay "Luiia-tuhd" 
Siamese " Mnitg-muiing " 
Jakun n-.n;-.!," (Uke-I-Kelsall. .I.:?.B.I{.A.S. 
Nu. if., la'J-i, p. JG.) 

The true Spidi-rs hnvo fuur pain:* of legs, of similar coii- 
Htructioii, t«eh comiwsed of seven segments, and used for locomo- 
tion, and two modified anterior pairs of limbs, one (tlie palpi) 
leg-like and compow>d of sL\ segiuente, including the basal 
segment or maxilla, and one {the mandibles) composed of only 
two segments and containing a poison-gland which opena at 
the tip of the second segment which forms the poison-fang. 
llie S{unning mamilla;, upon which open the silk glands, an' 
situated on the lower eiurface of the abdojnen, and are a. charae- 
teristio feature of the true Spiders. 

Th» sexes of spiders may be distinguished by the last seg- 
ment of the palp which is mi>dified into an intromittent organ in 
the male, while the female, in most families, has a horny plate 
(vulva) on the forepart of the lower surface of the abdomen. 

The true Spiders are divided into two Sub-orders : — 
1. Uttb-urder Memllielw. Abdomen segmented, its upper surface 
covered with eleven dorsal plates. Eight spinning 
niamniilliv pluced iu the middle of the lower surface 
of the abdomen. This sub-order contains only one 
family LiphuliUtu-. and one genus Lijihistim, knuwn 
from Burma, Sumatra, I'eaang and Selangor, where 
it has been recently discovered by Mr. II. N. Kidley. 
i, .Sub-oitkf (ipielhothelte. Abdomen not segmented. Six, or 
fewer, sfHnning mammilUv placed near the hinder 
extremity of the lower surface of the ubdonien. 
This Sub-order contains ii host of forms, divided into 
two sections of many families: only a few of the 
more noticeable can be uieutiwned in the limits of 
this pti|)er. 


Section Mt/(/alotuoi-phiv, 

Family Thtraplamdiv, 

These are the very large hairy spiders commonly called by 
the English in the Straits Settlements " Tarantulas ", and called 
by the Siamese ** Boum,'* what the effect of their bite on a man 
would be I cannot say ; it is commonly supposed that the 
consequences would be very serious, if not fatal. 

1. Coremiocnemid cnntctdanKS, Simon. 

These large dark brown and very hairy spiders are numer- 
ous on Penang Uill ; most of my specimens were obtained near 
" the Crag " at an elevation of about 2200 feet. They make 
burrows, sometimes a couple of feet deep, in the steep banks at 
the side of the hill paths ; the round entrance hole of these 
burrows is easily seen, and then the spider, if at home, may be 
carefully dug out. The Kling coolies I employed to help me 
digging were extremely afraid of these spiders, which they 
called (in Malay) '^ Laba-laba guji sakit" (= the spider with 
the poisonous teeth). These spiders are fierce, very strong and 
difficult to kill without damaging them ; I have found a specimen 
after three or four hours immersion in spirits of wine still to 
be so lively that it had to be handled with caution. The length 
of the caphalothorax and abdomen of one I measured was 
4(3 mm. (1.8 inches), its huid-leg measuring G8 mm. (2.7 

2. Melopivtts (dbvstrlatus, Simon. 

This species occurs in Siam ; I was given a specimen said 
to have been caught at Ayuthia, but never came across it alive 

Fanii ly Bart/c/telida\ 

3. Knct/ovri/jft(t tfj), tnccrt. 

I got this spider near the foot of Gunong Pulai, Johore, in 
September, 181>7, but did not observe whether it had a ** trap- 
door '* home or not. 

Section A racing nnorptnv. 

Family PhulckUv, 


I. Arh;„>, .ill.a.Ui. Walck. 

This elegant sp<l«r, better known a» Pholcwt borlnuiici'n, 
with exceedingly long and slender legs is common in disuse<l 
buildings in Bangkok, it is pale reddish brown in colour, ex- 
cept tlie abdomen which is grey. They apimreittly make im 
webs ; tliey can rim very fast, but, «a long as these is no crevice 
to dart BTv&y into, are e-asily caught in the hand. They mar 
be from the tip of one extended fore-leg to the other as laucli 
as 140 ram. (or 5| inches); though the length of the cephalotho- 
rax and abdomen is only 10 mm. (or .4 of an Inch). 

Family Arijiopidtv, 
Ti, Avgiope ermiilii, Walck. 

This species, which is widely distributed throughout the 
Oriental regien, I obtained in liangkok. 

<i. Arniitus dr hannii, Do!. 

Collected in a house in Bangkok in July lft9>*, 



Ntpkiln 11. 

Hultipujirla, Dol. 

m I'enang Hill in March WM\. 

xcuUiUi, Fabr. 

This Ls the most striking in appearance of the Malay sjHder.a 
I have come across, and is by no means rare. It lives on trees 
both in gardens and in the jungle, but occasionally wanders 
into buildings, a-s I got a specimen iti the Officer's Mess at 
Tanglin in April 18i)fi, Its large web, constructed of beautiful 
yellow silk, is usually -spread between two trees, and the great 
black and yellow spider sitting motionless, with legs spread out 
in the middle of it. in bright sunshine makes a line picture. If 
taken in the hand, the collector will find this spider can bite 
hard with its powerful nippers. Resides Singapore I have noted 
tliw species in Taiping, Perak. in Bangkok and at Mook I#k in 
the Dong Phya Phai, Siam : it also occurs in Borneo, C'eleljes, 
Ilalmahera. Ternat#, liatchian, Xow Itrit^in. Solomon Islands, etc. 

.\ Bangkok specimen was coloured as follows : — 



cephalothorax, shining intense black. 

abdomen, various shades of brown, with black marks 

and two conspicuous yellow spots, 
limbs, red brown, black at the joints. 
This species attains a great size ; in an individual I meas- 
ured the length of the cephalothorax and abdomen was 30 
mm. (1.4 inches). 

9. Nejihila malabarensis^ Walck. 

This prettily marked spider is very common, especially 
about houses, making large webs under the eaves of roofs, in 
verandahs, etc ; when houses are not at hand it seems equally 
content with rocks. I have noticed this species in Penang 
(especially near " the Crag '*), in Singapore, in Alor Star, Redah, 
in Bangkok and in Chantaboon : it also occurs in Java, Hal- 
mahera and other places in the East Indies. Quite small spiders 
will nearly always be found living in the webs of this species. 
I have not been able to make out so far if they belong to a 
different species, or if they are the males of the big females 
which construct the webs. 

Colour (in life.) Upper surface of cephalothorax dark brown 
or dark red ; upper surface of abdomen mottled olive brown, 
or whitey buff with brown marks. The specimens with the 
brown cephalothorax usually have red or rich orange mark- 
ings underneath the cephalothorax and abdomen, those with red 
above have bright yellow markings underneath. The legs are 
pale yellow, black about the joints, and the last segment in each 
leg is brown. 

10. Gasteracantha sp, incorU 

This curious looking spider, with hard transversely dilated 
six-spined abdomen, is not uncommon in the jungle on Penang 
Hill. I have found it at elevation of from 2000 to 2400 feet 
during March 1898, It makes a very large, strong, geo- 
metrically arranged web of white silk between the stems or 
branches of trees ; this web it keeps very tidy. One web, which 
I particularly noted, was situated between branches of trees 
over 15 feet apart, and was about 1) feet from the ground. The 
transverse width of its abdomen from point to point may exceed 
one inch (one line specimen measured 28^ mm.) 


11. /'-. 


h'amily P.'rrliiiilii: 
. Thor. 

Ill tliP Batu Caves, Selangor. in Jimp 1S98, in caverns 
iLTiiot^ from daylight, Mr. A. L. Butler and myself found certain 
wpidera numerouH, which makp strong, unlidy webs in crevices 
of the rocks. Specimens of the spiders were sent to Mr. Pocock 
who considers they probably beloDg to this wpecien. 

Family CT'iiirhr. 
12. CUnui fiingijh; Thor. 

Known from Penan^. (F.O.l*. ("ambridfre. A. -|- M. \. II, 
[vi] XX, 1897. p. 334). 
1.1. Cteiiiit fiotrci-i, (.'ambridge {loc. cit. .supra, p. 3-lfi). 

The types of this species I got on Penang Hill in March IBini. 

Family llHernpoiinlie. 
l\. lUteropoda remiforea (Ii.) The Hunting Spider. 

Nearly every resident in the East Indies must know this 
line spider which runs about houaea, in tlie evening, catching its 
insect prey ; it makes no web, but the female spins a whitish 
.lilk cocoon in which she carries abfiut her eggs, which she looks 
after with great care and vigorously defends from enemies. 
What the effect of the bite of tihi.s spider on a human being would 
be I do not know, but it Is certainly not prone to bite and 1 
have never heard of its doing so, while as it ia known to be very 
useful to mankind in destroyinir superabundant insects, it certain- 
ly ought to be encouraged and native servants should not be 
allowed to carelessly or wantonly kill them. It feeds on moths, 
crickets, etc., especially tlie big rod cockroaches, which are such 
a nuisance in some places in the Straits Settlements. In a hous<- 
individual spiders will often take up particular beat«, which they 
occupy regularly night after night ; in Bangkok one lived for 
many months behind my dreasing table. Every evening when I 
placed a lamp on the table the spider came out from its retreat 
and took up his position by the light ; at lirst we rather mlstrust- 
i»d each other — I Ix-lng afraid the spider might some day bite me, 
and hecnrefullyavoiding my coming too close to him, but as the 



weeks went by auch niutua! confidence sprung up that even 
when I touched him the spider would hardly shift his position. 

I have noted thLs species in t^ingapore, Johore, Georgetown 
(Penang), Kedah, Bangkok, Ayuthia, Tahkamen, Chantalxran 
and also on board local coasting steamers. 

It is also recorded from .la^-a, iJorneo, Celebes, Ilalmaheia, 
Ternate, Batchian, New Britain, Solomon Islands, tropical 
Africa, et«., etc. 

A specimen I kept for a time in captivity in a large glass 
jar together with a small scorpion Archisomrtnix viiwroiiatut, and 
'a T/iflifphoiiui did not interfere with them in any way or they 
with it. Whenever the spider rested on the glass sides of the 
vessel it put its spinnarets in rapid motion and formed a small 
anchor of white silk and then let down one fine silk thread as if 
to help support itself : in a few days it had to some extent 
obscured the whole surface of the glass by the number of these 
anchors it had made and abandoned. 

15, llttfropotUt Ihorneiea (C. Koch). 

I caught specimens of this very handsome spider in Ihe 
inner, deepest caves, far from daylight, over an hour's walk from 
the entrance in the hill side, tiunoug Gajah, Kedah, in June 
189K They ran with great agility over the rough walla of 
rock, and also when we tried to catch them sprang away from 
the rocks into the air ; the Malays were very frightened of 
them. Although living in darkness the spiders did not seem at 
all confused by the light of the lamp and torches. On the two 
occassions I have collected in these cavea, in April 189.T and 
June IRllR, we only met these spiders in one part of the cave.'4, 
the deepest part. 

Colour, yellow ochro, marked with rich dark brown. 
5iVf, Oephalothorax, length, IG mm. 
„ width 12.5 „ 

Abdomen, length 17 „ 

width 8 
Palp, length 27 „ 



Notes us millipedes. 



k'Ugth 73 mm. 

Total sp»n (across ind pair of legs from tip lo ti|i) 

194 mni. ( = 7| inclie.>^). 
This species has been recorded From t^umatra. Java. Am- 
boina. iitc 

IC. Thehlic'ipia iiioiUiila. ThoivU. 

I obtained this species iii Penang in l(i9(l. 
(h-diT Oi>Uio>Ki,. 
The Harvest Spders. 

Auiiuals superHcially resembliug the true Spiders : like them 
they have four pairs of legs, of similar construction, and two 
niudified anterior pairs of limbs ; one (the palpi) not pincer-like, 
but Homctimei^ capHble of folding back ou themselves, sometimeM 
armed with spinels, and composed of nix segments, including the 
t»«i! segment or maxilla, except in the Itkimiki whitli have live 
segment* ; and one (the mandibles) [nncer-like and composed of 
three segments, except in the liicimitei which have but two. 

The abdomen is segmented, composed of from 3 to 8 seg- 
ments. In Ihe true spiders the breathing spptiratus consists 
sometimes of four pairs of lunff-sacs, but generally the hinder 
p«ir are replaced by tracheal tubes ; in the harvest sfMders the 
breathing apparatus consists of tracheal tubes, opening by one 
pair of orifices situated on the sternal plate of the abdomen. 

There are no spinning glands. 

Family Ohl-uj/oJhUi: 
1. 'i«omiihif crw'rudM, Thorell. (.Vnn. Mus. lieuov. x,\x, p. 378. 

18V0); found in IVnang. 
i. Omvp'tt J'mt, Thorell. (Ann. Mus. Ueno\-. xx.\, p. 37.>, 

[1800]); found in Penang. 

;i. Oii'.-opiiti (cHiiiKdM, Thorell. (Ann. Mus. (jenov, xxx, p. 7ljl. 
[18U0]); found in Singapore. 
■' The Uritish Museum has from time to time received u 
number of specimens from Mr. H. S. Itidley " (A. + M. N. U. 


Ser. G, xix, p. 288). I obtained one individual of this species in 
the jungle at the foot of Gunong Pulai, Johore, in iSeptember, 

4, Oncopus alticeps, Pocock (A. + M. X. II. Ser. 0, vol. xix, 

1897, p. 287). 

The type specimen I found on Penang Ilill, about 2200 
feet elevation ; 29th November, 1896. 

Family PhalniKjidw, 

5, Gajrella sp. tncert, 

I obtained specimens of these very long legged beasts in 
Bangkok and at Bortong Kabin ; at the latter place in March 
1897 there were countless thousands of them collected in certain 
spots, a wonderful sight. 


Notes of a Tour through the Siamese 

States on the West Coast of the 

Malay Peninsula, 1900. 

K\ C. W. fi. K.VN.Vb:hsi.];v. 

llHving^ aFiauiiii.-d t-'tiurgL- uf till' Cuiit^ululi.' in April thia year 
ajid HJisliin^ Uj becumt! a(.'<|uaiiitMl with soniv uf the Wpsk-ru 
SiitiiH'w rjutfs wlik-li have nut been visilwl Biiict^ IStf4, I left 
I'l-iiuii^ iu till' culuiiiiil bunch .Smt/iril ut lU I', N. uii 

tmt't"!! 11th Dfcembci; tiikiiig with iiie Ml-. I'KLl., District 
(ll)icfr, Itulcit Merlajam. 1 elected tu go iu Deceiuber as the 
weutlier at this seaisou i« settled with a N. K. wiud bluwing 
fruui the land. It was a fine u]tx>iiliglit aiglit and we reached 
tlie mouth of the Kedah river before daybi'eak, 

U'tiliieadiifi t3lh Diceiiiiei: — The t>iiltan's Secretary came mi 
board at the entrance to the river and we reached the landing 
place at. Aluretor about (i.ll A. M. Here I was receiviil by suuie 
of tlie leading uRicials and a guartl of honour and wi- drove in a 
carriage and pair to the Snllan's country house at .'lii<rit £hi(i7. 
II. n. the Kaja MiDjI accomiiaTiied us. I arranged tfl be at 
the Cousulale at 0.0. previous notice having been given of my 
intended visit some lime Ix'fore. After breakfsNt we drove to 
the Consulate which ha.s been lately repaired. Every assiMtiuce 
waa given to me by the Kedah Officials. I eii<iuired into several 
laoes ui minor imporlaiice and a considerable number of British 
subjectd pre.sented themselves for registration. Having deis- 
patched t^ie business in hand and arranged to attend the next 
day, we drove baclc to Aaal- hidit where I discussed various 
iiuestions with the Mma MrnA. At 3.0 p.m. I paid an official 
visit to H. II. the Sultan who in in very feeble. health and ut 
timeM hardly eijual tu transact public business. Having t^keu 
leave of the Sultan we proceeded with the Raja Mida to in- 
spect the I'ublic Ollicea, The buildings aix- excellently adaptetl 
fur the pur|)oM' uiid present ipiile an iiuiwsing appearance, though 


the style of architecture may uot be of the highe^st order. 
They were completed about four years ago and reflect great 
credit on the designer who carried out the work — Mahomed 
Lbbhy Tambi, formerly employed under me in the Police 
Court, Penang. lie is now building a fine new house for the 
Raja Muda. 

The offices are admirably arranged — Treasury, Land and 
Survey, Courts of f^aw, and lastly an office for the Auditor lieu- 
eral. The various officials, including the Judge, were introduced. 
We were shewn a survey map of the town with all the various 
lots marked on it The offices are open from lO.U to 4.0, 
Malays being exclusively employed, and in outward appearance 
at all events our colonial system is followed. So far as we 
could ascertain the office of Auditor-! Jeneral is somewhat of a 
sinecure. He is said to query and examine accounts but there 
were no papers or books in his office. A census has lately been 
taken and we were shewn the figures which, however, are still 
incomplete for some of the up-country MuUms. I have on form- 
er occasions inspected the gaol, but did not do so on this visit 
I noticed that the outside wall was beautifully white but the in- 
terior arrangements are I fancy what they have always been 
and are hardly up to date. Prisoners in chains are employed on 
outside labour in the town. A Kling dobt prisoner sent me a 
petition complaining that he was kept in gaol beyond the term 
of his sentence, biit his warrant of commitment, which was pro- 
duced, proved that his statement was incorrect. The Raja 
Muda, his younger brother, a son of Tungku Dia Udin, the 
Auditor- Genera I and two others dined at Anak hukit. We were 
the guests of the Raja Muda. 

Thursdatf ISth December. — The Raja Muda came at 7.30 
A. M. and we went down the river to the Consulate in a house 
boat, the RAJA MUDA pointing oat the place where Lieut. 
TiiUKHUKM, R. N., of H. M. S. Hyacinth, was drowned when 
crossing the river at night after snipe shooting in October, 1891. 
The current here is strong and the boat must have struck a snag 
and capsized. The body was recovered opposite the Consulate 
1^ miles down the river. The grave in the consular grounds, 
which has a stone cross over it, is kept in good order. En(iuired 
into a number of cases including a complaint by a Penang China- 



man as t.i llii- (IpeiKion nf tlip Keclnii fJovprnmetit with rfgavl to 
:i giant i^f land nt Kiilini. Ti^AN Bri..\T, rollcrtor of Lnnd 
ItPvcnui', prtirtiif^ the plans and the dofUtnPtitw and after a full 
explHtiatiou of the case I came to the cnnelusion that the K«dah 
authuritien were jiistilieil in their action. A certificate had been 
ffr<tnted ta a Malny mi>n in f'eiwng who claimed tji have Vieen 
born in I'roi'lnce W'elWley, alleging that his father moved to 
Kedah when he was (i years old. (Jnod evidence beinji produc- 
ed that he was born in Kedah territory I cancelled the certi- 
(ioate. A large number of British subjects wei-e regLitered. 
The consular husine^Q beitig concluded we drove back to Aiiol^ 
huh't. At 4.0 we went by invitation to tea at the ItA.fA 
Mrr-A's and found a garden jiarty assembled, all the leading 
oflicivilt* having been invited. Having jwrtaken of coffee, ices, 
etc.. in the garden wf adjourned to the i)illiard room. Itetuming 
to Aiiiii- IihUi for dinner we left al ill. I', going on board the 
SeabiriL The It.i.iA MriiA and others saw us off and we drop- 
lied down .'«lream slowly, anchoring about midnight inside the biir, 
I have TOit«i Redah at intervals since 1 ft73 when I spent some 
weeks there learning Malay and I have always met with the 
utmost hosjMtality and kindness on the part of the reigning fami- 
ly and officials. 

f'riil'iii, 14th llei-riiilirr. — Having crossed the bar at high 
tide about 4.0 a.m. we had a calm voyage with a light cool 
breeze from the shore. \\> passed numerous limestone islets 
and rocks of i^uaint shapes. At timea it came on to blow fresh 
from the N. K. and the spmy from the whit* waves broke over 
our bows. Passing Cone Island near which the S. S. Pa-s' re- 
cently struck an uncharted rot^k and went down, ■' Cut Islands " 
and tiie twin rocks called in the chart " Darby and .Ii>an" we 
mftde for the entrance of the Trang River which for half an hour 
was hidden from us by a heavy rain squall which came on from 
the N, E. The Trang River is like the majority of those along 
this coast, broad and fringed with mangroves, with many chan- 
nels. I^a^'ing taken a pilot from Fenang we were successful in 
reaching our de.stination without grounding on the mud batikii. 
The seat of fiovernment is by no means imposing. There is no 
T'lwn. At the landing place we were met by Mr. KllAW JiT 
Kkat — the flovemor's nephew — two pony-traps lieing sent 


down to convey u« to the (irovernor's house which is situated 
about a quarter of a mile from the jetty. There is a Custom 
House and a few Chinese shops. AVe were not exi)ected so early. 
Mr. Khaw Sim Bkp:, whose Siamese title is Phya Rasdanupradit, 
et^'., the Governor, received us most cordially and after giving: 
us tea drove us along a new road which he has made round a 
wooded hill on which his house stands. On the way he pointed 
out the new Government Offices consisting of Treasury, Court 
and Land Office which have been commenced opposite the gaol. 
The prisoners, (,'hinese and Siamese, are employed in making 
bricks and on road work. Mr. Khaw Sim Bee belongs to a 
wealthy Penang family and is an admirable administrator. Be- 
ing intimately connected with Penang he can do much in the 
way of extending the trade of that Settlement with Tra ng and 
the neighbouring Siamese States. lie owns a Steamer which 
runs regularly between Trang, Pung-a, I'enang and Deli. 

The old town and mines, where some hundreds of ('antones(» 
and Khehs are employed, are situated some miles up the river 
and the tin is brought down to the river on elephants four miles 
by a bad road. We had not time to visit them. Mr. Khaw 
Sim Bee described how he had effectually suppressed the 
Secret Societies some years ago, since when there have been no 
signs of their revival. He also informed me that the Siamese 
Government had decided to abolish the (iambling Farms and 
this was gradually being done. There is only one Sikh in the 
place, who is employed as a detective to see that no Government 
employee attends the Gambling Farm. 

Pepper thrives well in Trang, 25,000 pikuls being produced 
in a year valued at $2H a pikul. The soil is said to be excellent. 
Mr. Khaw Sim Bee pointed out a new elephant-road to Nakon 
on the East coast 70 miles distant. It is dignified by the name 
of a road but at present hardly deserves the title. About 15 
years ago orders were i^iven from Bangkok to connect these 
Western States by telegraph. Poles were prepared for the con- 
nection between Trang and Ghirbi and the wire has been lying 
at Trang ever since. Many reforms are being introduced by 
the Siamese Government in these States. The officials of the 
old school have been removed and are replaced by young men 
trom Bangkok who have had some training in their duties. The 


latest innovation is the introduction of the Burma villao^e system 
of headmen under which police and paid oflicials are dispensed 
with up country. Ten houses elect a headman. A group of ten 
villages has a representative headman. All occurrences such as 
births, deaths, fires, disturbances, crimes, etc., are reported and 
no one can move from one village to another without the fact 
being reported and some one found responsible for him. 
Mr. Khaw Sim Bke says that since the introduction of this 
system crime has practically disappeared. The Siamese he 
says as a rule are well behaved but when they are bad they are 
desperately bad. The Treasury accounts are kept in the Eng- 
lish fashion. The law is framed on European models and every- 
thing is up to date. The Opium Farm is run on the same lines 
as in Penang, the retail prices being the same. Living is 
apparently very cheap and prices are very much lower than in 
the Colony. Fowls are 25 cents, buffaloes :i;3l) to $.-^5. A 
certain amount of timber is exported besides tin and pepper. 
Giani (used for boat building and other purposes) is exported 
to Penang and Calcutta. Peacocks and teal are plentiful within 
easy reach of the Governor's place, also green pigeon, and 
pergant. The revenue is paid as in the other AVestern States 
through the Siamese Consul-Cieueral in IVnang, G()% going to 
Bangkok. This is a considerable drain on the resources of the 
States and may help to explain why so many useful public 
works, which are projected, are not carried out. 

There are few British subjects in the place and their inter- 
ests may safely be entrusted to Mr. Khaw SfM Bee who is 
himself a British subject. 

The Governors of Tongkah and Cihirbi, who were leaving 
for Bangkok to take jxirt in cremation ceremonies, dined 
with Mr. Khavv Sim Bee that night as well as two other offi- 
cials. The Governor of (ihirbi speaks p]nglish. I explained to 
him that I had intended to visit (ihirbi on my return journey but 
would postpone my visit as he would be absent. Ghibri pro- 
duces an inferior quality of coal or rather lignite of no commer- 
cial value though it is used with other fuel by small steamers. 

Mr. Kll;\w Sim Bee entertained us most hospitably and 
we slept at his house that night. 



Siiliiiilaii, lot/i Drremlmr. — Mr, Khaw Sim Bef when in 
IVnnii^ liad kindly placed at my di^poHal the small steamer 
Uiimn'ii!/ lliit, so I left orders foi- tlie Snibinl to meet ua 
nS Telibon Island on our return from Tongkah. Mr. 
KHAW Sim BKE also very kindly sent li 13 nephew Mr. Khaw 
.In KkaT, who speaks Englisli and Siaiiiese, with nn and he 
iwoved of the greatest awsifitance. A Marine Police Uuiird 
(8iameae) was drawn up at tho jetty when we drove down 
and we took leave of the g'overnor about 7.0 a. M,, the Da- 
mriiiig E'lt flying the conaular Hag. Outside the mouth of 
the Trang Hlver we found the S- S. Aiixadoiig, the small uteamer 
that runs between I'enang and I'ung-a ownodby Mr. KllAAV SlM 
1il':E. hi((h and dry on a sand bank. She had left I'rang for 
I'lmg-a at night and not being able to make out the narrow 
chainiel marked by stakes had got on the liank about 2.0 A. M. 
on the 14th. After passing round Telibon Island the sea got 
rougher with a strong breeze from the land. The long island 
of I'ulau l>onttti sheltered us part of tlia way. After passing 
I'ulau Lontar the sea got rougher as we got further from the 
land. Then after rounding a smnll island we altered our course 
for Tongkah with a following sea. The anchorage at Puket 
reseuiUea that of Malacca during the S. \\. monsoon. The 
harbour is very shallow and is exposed to the N. H. The 
Siamese gunboat Itait Jliit and S S. PetrH were l.ying a mile or 
K(i from the shore. (!aplain UlNu of the Itun If'il kindly sent a 
boat oil' at once, and owing lo the heavy sea running we had 
some difficulty in getting off. Ilowever we got ashore in 
safety about Ti.O P.M. (.'aptain l{lNi: met us at the jetty, took us 
to his house, which is near, and introduced us to his wife, the 
daughter of Captain Wereh of 'J'ougkah. The Chief (Jommis- 
sioner of tlie Western Siamese States had sent hia carria>>e for 
us and we were met by the Acting Superintendent of Police 
(Siamese) who talks English well, having been foimerly employ- 
ed in the Penang Land Ollice. \Ve were recei^'ed by the Chief 
Cammtssioner who introduced us to his wife in a large reception 
room furnished in European style. He hospitably placed rooms 
at our disposal and oaked us to make ourselves at home. His 
Escellency did nut understand English but with the help of the 
Superintendent of Police and Mr. ,Il' Keat we got on very-well 



duiiug iliiini>r. Ills wife kiifw u few wurds uf Eiiglich It-iiriit iti 
Penaiig wli^rt- their sou is being educated at tli<> lirolhi-i'!i' 
Schcx)!. Tlie Odrimiasioiier is a person of gri-at iiuptirtanec 
being over Uie local goveruors and correapundiiig wilb Bangkok 

Siimltu/, JUi/i UKuiiiliei: — We had ikrrangad In gu cuily 
witli Mr. HtjKS ULiKIKw, Siipui-iuteudent of Mines, to see a new 
coad. l>ut we fuund eikrringus re*<ly and l.lie OonnuLssiotiet' pre- 
[ared U> tihuw uti round bimsclf. We were driven about a niil<- 
»long a grass covered road till we were brought to a stop by an 
iinbridged stream. This afTorded a goixl example of what we 
found very common in these Siamese places. Hoads. bridges, 
and iiiipruvement« generally are talked of but not liiade. Kvery- 
tliiiig bad is attributed to the late (Joveruor. All sorts ".if 
wonderful schemes are going to be carried imt by the preseni 
man. The old Governor for instance allowi-d Chinese to bury 
whi'iv lliey liked. The hills were allowed to be cleared of 
jungle for liill pndi. Anyone could dig for tin anywhere, et«. 
Tbi' old Governor iw said to be renptxisible for the tumble down 
building which servea aa tlie Post Office and ao on, 

ITie explanation for allowing this stream to be uubridged 
waatltatall tlie timber bblained from PenHUg and Singapore 
which was lying ready was burnt one night owing to a lamp 
falling. We were told there was no stiine available though I 
MKw plenty witliin n ijnarter of a mile. We pas.sed the lionse of 
the Superintendent of Police, Mr, llAliTMiLt,, lent from the 
Burma Police, who is at present on leave in Kngland. 
Mr. t'l.l'.viKs was also to have a house there and we climbed a 
ainall bill chosen aa the site for a house for the King of Siain. 
It is nice open grass country interspersed witli Ncrub The 
plans are said t<i lie all rtudy but it i» very doubtful if the housi- 
will be built or the road ever completed as tliere is a newer 
wiiemi' for moving the town al>out two miles further away to 
the bay near the LighthouRv island which is sheltered and is 
said to have deep water. If this scheme is ever carried out 
the site of the present town will be given up to mining as it is 
known to be rich in tin. We then drove to the Central Police 
Station which was prepared fi>i' me to hold a ('onsular Court 
and 1 arrnugcd to be there ut 1 1.3U. From there we drove to 


the mines. 'I'hese are interesting from tlie fact tbat they are in 
tlie former bed of the sea, an embankment being carried a 
(juarter of a mile or so out to sea so as to enclose the mine. 
Two or three thousand Chinese miners, all llokkiens, are em- 
ployed here and there must be quite as many pigs as Chinese. 
These pigs are exported to I'enang. AN'ithin the embankment 
which keeps the sea out the sand and clay have been excavated 
to a depth of some 50 or 00 feet below sea level. It is an 
enormous work which may or may not be rewarded by success. 
1 was told that there was a loss of ,*i?r)0,000 during the present 
year but this may not be true. We sjiw some tin sand Ixnng 
washed in the usual way. At present the average yield is 1 2 
pikuls a day but it is hoped soon to reach a richer stratum. The 
particles of tin are very small whereas in the mines near the 
hills large bijt are said to be found. After inspecting the mines 
we drove to the Government Offices and were introduced to the 
Treasurer and a youthful looking Chief Justice aged between 
30 and 35. 1 wanted to post a letter but we were not taken 
to see the Post Office, which being a relic of the old Governor's 
regime is not one of the show places. The Chief Commissioner 
has a good Office. Here we saw several typewriters in Siamese 
character at work. On the walls were some recent Siamese 
mai>s. During the day we received typewritten formal invita- 
tions to dine with our host. After breakfast at 10.0 we drove 
to the Central Police Station where I was presented with two 
petitions from K lings. One was about the division of some pro- 
perty of a deceased Kling man. It appeared that he traded in 
cattle and several persons were indebted to him. Before his 
death he called his friends and told them to bury him decently 
and have a feast, collect what was due to him and keep the 
money for his widow in India. They appear to have carried out 
part of the trust and the recollection of the goats and 
fowls slaughtered in honour of deceased was still in their 
minds. So far as I could ascertain there remained a 
sum of about $2.50 for the relatives, deposited with a 
Siamese official. The other p(»tition related to a matti'r which 
is still sub JHiUa', Two Kling British subjects had a difference 
about some accounts and one was alleged to have assaulted the 
other. The case came before the judge and one was mulcted 


Id damages and ordered to pay $30 or some such amount. 
Against this decision he had appealed to the Council-General at 
Bangkok and an answer was expected in a few weeks. K lings 
cannot exist without litigation and I should think that the 
Siamese judicial system is well calculated to satisfy them. It 
must be a great luxury to be able to appeal to Bangkok in any 
trivial matter even if there are no results. While waiting I 
noticed a bikh orderly being measured against the wall for his 
descriptive roll as a British subject lie was wearing a specially 
high turban and I asked what his height for the Register was. 
I was told 5 feet 8 inches, but having removed his turban and 
boots he only reached 5 feet 4 inches. A large number of 
Sikhs were formerly employed at Tongkah but they were found 
troublesome and have been replaced by Siamese, only a few 
orderlies being retained. When the consular business was 
finished we inspected the Club where we saw some new Penang 
papers brought by the Petrd. We then paid a surreptitious 
visit to the office of ** the Royal Siamese Posts and Telegraphs," 
I asked for stamps but was informed that they were not kept 
and letters must be forwarded on board. We did not ask to 
telegraph anywhere as we had been told that^he telegraph 
posts and wires which run along the new road lead nowhere. 
In the afternoon Mr. Clunies came and fetched us with a buggy 
and dogcart. He drove me while Mr. Peel followed in his 
pony cart. We drove through the principal streets of the town. 
We passed over one new plank bridge but all the rest were 
rotten and there were great pits in the road. Bridges are said 
to be repaired only on the occasion of a wedding. We drove 
some distance along the projected new road to the town of the 
future on raised turfy land through brushwood. Everywhere 
were excavations for tin. Chinese graves, some newly dug — in 
spite of the new r<5gime — were also plentiful in the brushwood. 
We then walked half a mile till we came to a mangrove swamp 
— then back along a cart track with the deepest ruts I ever saw 
till we struck the main road to the up-country mines. This 
road might easily be put in good order but nothing- is done t>o it 
and there are deep holes in it. Up the valley is a wonderful 
aqueduct built of scaffold poles by Chinese some years ago which 
is said to be seven miles long and 100 feet high. We were 




sbewn a photograph of this and I should Lave liked lo have seen 
it. [laving driven through the town we called on Captain KlNu 
and found a gale blowing'. The weather looked very bad and 
it was suggeated that we had better delay our departure till 
next morning. There was a dinner party in our houour that 
night. Captain KiNii and two Danish officers of the ll'in h'lii; 
the Chief Justice. Treasurer, Mr. t'j.rNiES and others, about 14 
in all. A Siamese band played during dinner, Siamese and 
Chinese tunei4. Hutes aud tiddler 1 took the OonitniSbioner's 
wife down and she was the only lady. The Coroniissioner after 
'■ the King" proposed our health and I replied. A\'e left about 
'J.3I1 and went on board the Diimrong Hal in Captain KlNii's lx>at. 
Happily the wind had gone down. It was pretty rough outside 
with a head wind and the boat pitched and rolled, the sea com- 
ing over the bows. We got into smooth water under Pulau 
Panjang about 3.0 or 4.0 A. M. and anchored in t]ie Pung-a 

MuikI'iji, 17th iJecciiibni: — A lovely cool morning and tlie 
view beautiful beyond description with numberless limestoiie 
iaiefc* and rocks some rising to the height of four or five hun- 
dred feet with precipitous sides clothed with verdure, Mr. 
Ju KKAT ha<f started at 5.31) up the river to convey a letter 
from tlie Commissioner to the Governor. We were told that 
he could not be back for an hour or so and we therefore went 
in a boat — a very leaky one — to explore the river, taking the 
camera and Mr. Ci'iiTifl's orchid and plant collector. The 
Pung-a lliver forms part of a network of broad channels 
among mangroves out of which rise at intervals great isolattHl 
limestone crags and preci|ntous rocka. some riwng to 801,1 or 
1,000 feet in height. Our men climbing up the steep rocks 
got a miscellaneous collection of plants and orchids which half 
tilled our small boat. We also took several photographs of 
liictureaque rocks and caves. Then we returned to breakfast 
on the launch. Mr, .Ju K eat having returned we went in a 
boat nbout two miles up the river, taking a rille in ca.^' tliere 
were any crocodiles on the mud banks. We did not see one 
though the tide was low. The stream or rather uiangruve creek 
got very narrow and at length we reached tlie landing stage 
where a Police guard was drawn up. aud we were met hy 


the Governor's Secretary with a pony carriage. The Secretary 
did not speak English but we learnt through Mr. Ji: Kgat 
that this was a new road to take the place of the former (lov- 
ernor's road, which (of course) was bad. Like all the other 
roads we saw except that at Traiig it was in an unfinished state 
completely grassed over with big holes in it, but further on it 
was much better. The scenery was very pretty. The road 
runs through an avenue of ansenas which at this season up north 
shed all their leaves. The road being covered with dead leaves 
reminded one of an English lane in autumn. There was noth- 
ing tropical about it but an occasional palm in the distance. On 
either side were broad stretches of tine turf with clumps of 
brushwood. Through the valley which is about two miles wide 
meanders the Pung-a River in a sandy bed. The valley is 
entirely hemmed in by precipitous limestone cliffs some 1,500 
feet high. On the left going to Pung-a is a huge block shap- 
ed like an elephant. After passing several houses and the gaol 
enclosed by a palisade, we reached the Governor's place. The 
Governor received us most warmly and offered us tea and cigar- 
ettes in his verandah. lie is a most genial man but unfor- 
tunately he upset our gravity by his first remark which was 
translated to us by Mr. Jv Keat with a smile : *• This is a poor 
house to receive you in. It was built by the late Governor. I 
have plans all ready for a new house ". The cigarettes made in 
Siamese fashion were excellent and the Governor told me they 
were made of Pung-a tobacco. The soil he says is very rich 
and will grow anything — 100 pikuls of tobacco a year are pro- 
duced, value $5,000. I asked him to send some tobacco, cigar- 
ettes, etc., to the Agricultural Show. He is very anxious to 
make known the resources of his district and said he was pre- 
paring a report which he promised to send to me. He said 
there was great difficulty in procuring labour for planting. The 
Chinese all go to the mines. 5,000 pikuls of tin are got — 
brought in by elephants which only carry 4 or 5 slabs. He is 
very anxious to get some natives of India for planting. In one 
island he said there were 500 deer which he hunts with a pack 
of dogs. Peacocks he said were very plentiful. It is certainly 
a lovely place — very cool at this time of year and, I should say, 
extremely healthy. The lunch was so excellent that I asked if 



Iio had a French cook. Flo laid his ciok was » Chinaman whom 
hi? brought from Bangkok. The (lovernor has a, daughter being 
t^Jocated in the IVnaug Convent. He had been to Perak where 
Mr. ItnltnKK had been very good to him he said. Just as we 
finished lunch three elephnntB arrived and the Governor asked 
if wo would ride round and see the town, Rest House, etc. I 
mounted the leading one with the Governor and Mr. Peel and 
Mr. Jt* KeaT followed. My elephant was valued at *1,200, 
A good number are sold to Burma, We first went along the 
road, the Goveroor who knows a few words of KnglUh point- 
ing out the present very unpretending Government Offices and 
saying " no good house — next year estiinat*'." The elephants, 
ta is their wont, left the road wherever a bridge appeared and 
made a detour. There is only one narrow street in the " town." 
I notice<l a pillar box close to the Post and Telegraph Office. 
The people are half Siamese and half Chiiiese and a goixl many 
of tli(> houses are dilapidated. After passing through the 
" town " we struck the river bed and went down some distance. 
It ha» a biimd sandy bed. In the rainy seaaon it become,^ a 
swollen torrent which at times Hoods the town. Passing round 
by the Governor's house we went some distance above the road 
leading to the river and came to a hill on which n Rest House 
has been built— a lovely sil* comnianding a new of the valley. 
The Rest House is comuiodious but unfurnished. The Governor 
said that even at that season there were fretjuent showers 
which keep the place cool. There was a shower while we were 
there. The high cliffs clad with jungle no doubt attract the 
clo'jds. We were quite sorry to lea\e and 1 expressed my 
regret tliat as there were no firitish subjectn 1 could not repeat 
my \-iait as Consul. The Governor saw us off at the landing 
place and ns we passed I noticed two men mending some of the 
worst holes on the road. We found the Dawntiir/ lint liad left 
her anchorage and gone to the mouth i.if the river to take in 
firewood. Thi.s entailed an extra two miles pull for the men. 
We lay that night ofl' the Custom House and slept on the deck 

Tiieirhiy, ISlli DfL-riiibei: — A pilot came off early and we left 
at (i.O to visit Uie Kesum cave. This is some miles up a river 
similar to the Pung-a River with limestone rocks rising out of 



the mangrove. Fallowing one branch the river i 
pMHes through a great liiuestone rock — fnriuiug a natural Hi'cli 
fringed with stalactites. It was ao beautiful with the sun shin- 
ing on the water Been through the arch tliat we took several 
|)hotogra{)ha Having passed under the rock and admired die 
Ncene we returned to the mouth of the river leaving fur 
Trang about '.l.l> a.m. It was blowing fresh and the sea was 
[iretty rough — n glorious morning with a cool breeze from the 
land. I'assing nuuiberleiiS limestone rocky islands we got under 
the lee of Pulau Lontar and liefore dark sighted Telibon Island. 
Off the Custom Uouae we found the Smibii-d lying together with 
the Aftsadong which had only just floated off the bant on which 
we found her when we first arrived at Trang. We slejit on 
deck and hod a cool i)eaceful night. 

M'rtlaeBiIiiff, 19th Dr.cewbri; — At daylight we started in a 
house boat to see some caves up a river which were said by Mr. 
Kii.uv biM Hke t^^ Hurposs those of Kedah. Thecave.s are very 
(iisappointingnnd as we had no torches we could not osplore 
tlietii except by match light. It took us three hours to go and 
return and we regretted the delay as we could not reach the 
l.angkawii before dark. Uaring taken leave of Mr. Ju KlCAT 
who had proved moat invaluable to u-s we made for Pulu Terutau 
and anchored about .i.n r. m. under the shelter of a small rocky 
island separated from the shore, where there were a few native 
hutJ*, by a narrow channel. \\'e were glad to get into smooth 
water for the night. We landed and searched for orchids till it 
got dark but the rock proved barren and uncliuibable. Noticing 
after dinner that we were dragging our anchor and drifting into 
n)ug)i water I got the I'aptain t-i let out two fathoms more of 

T/iimihi;/, 20lh Dtcfmber.—i/ihAc an early start for Kimh 
where we had arranged to meet Uis Uighness the Ka.ta MiTiA. 
It was still bhiwing fresh from the land. We reached Kuah 
aboutli.U and found the Ra.ia Ml'tiA who had expected us the 
night before had gone on to Doyang Hunting so we followed. 
Uis small steamer was at anchor, lie came on Isoard and we 
went throu;>h an inland sea of wooded islands till we came to a 
small boy where we anchored and went ashore in boat-i to a long 
temporary jetty put up years ago for the King of Siam. We 



thou followed a good jtmgrle path through a plantatuih of duriHn 
and other fruit trees planted by the late Was Mat. ilaWn^ 
mounted to the top of a. low ridge we descendf^i to the shore of 
Uie lake Daj-ang iJuuting where a long Malay house has been 
built on piles on the edge of the lake. Ilere elaborate prepara- 
tions were made for a feast, tabie-s, chairs and everything being 
brought by the numerous Malays who accompanied us. Mr, 
I'keL ventured on the lake in a small canoe. We then sent a 
mauoutto takeRoundiug^ with the Sciimfa lead. In the two 
placea selected it was found to be 9 fathoms deep. 

The lake is surrounded by jungle-clad limestoue cliffs some 
.'ii.HI to 1,01111 feet high which enclose tJie lake except at the 
lower end where a low rocky ridge separates it from the sea. 
The lake ( water) is about 500 yards long. We took a 
sample of the water which I brought to Penang for analysis. 
After an excellent meal we went round by boat to what once 
must have formed the inlet to the present lake from the sea. 
Masses of limestone rock have blocked the entrance so that tliere 
is now no connection between lake and sea. After climbing 
some rocks about 40 feet high we looked right down on the lake 
the surface of which, so far as we could judge, appeared to be 
some 10 feet above the (ten level. This is a mere conjecture. 
From Dayang Bunting we should have gone to Tttat/it tnjoh but 
the Haja Muda wanted to show us the (Joa t'herita (Legend 
Cave) which they said could be reached in an hour. As a matter 
of fact it took us 2j hours to get there. The scenery of this 
Archii)elago is lovely as you wind about among the wooded hills. 
The liighest hill is tiunong Haya which is over 3,000 feet high. 
.\ striking feature in the distance is the serrated rauge known as 
(lunong (.'hinchang. Once more we were destined to be disap- 
pointed in the matter of caves. The cave is a very ordinary 
limetntone cave and the only interest that attaches t<) it is an iu- 
acriptioii in Arabic character high on the limestone cliff at the 
entrance. Certain Arabic words and names can be made out 
but whether it is ancient as the Malays like to believe or only 
some hundred years old it is impossible to say. Below Maliiys 
and English visitors have inscribed their initials with charcoal 
and we were told to do the same. It was nearly dark when we 
started to return t^i Kuah. Fortunately we had a [Hlot who was 


able to direct our course through the winding channels some- 
times very narrow and between hijfh rocks. It was intricate 
navigation in the dark but we Kot safely back to Kuah about 8.0. 
We then landed and had dinner in a house built by Wan 
Mat after which we left with a Kedah pilot kindly lent by the 
Raja Muda. 

Fndaij^ 2l8t Dtceinber, — Reached Penang about 7.0 A. M, 

General Remarks. 

The best season to visit these States is undoubtedly Decem- 
ber-January when delightful weather may Ije counted on. It is 
the dry season and a cool breeze blows continuously off the land. 
The Seabird is not tit for such a trip. The Damvung Rat though 
not much bigger is a better sea boat. When I describe the sea 
as " rough " I mean for a launch. In the Sea Belle the trip at 
this time of year would be a delightful one, Pung-a especially 
being worth a visit for its lovely scenery. 

One thing that struck us was that during all the while we 
were at sea — always in sight of land — we hardly saw a junk, 
boat or sign of population. In Trang and to the Northward the 
Malays or Samsains re^^emble the Siamese. Tbey do not speak 
Malay but are said to be Mohamedans. Mr. Maxwkll*s remark 
in 1889 that the Siamese Government neither makes nor main- 
tains roads is true now. Neither has the telegraph made any 
progress since that time. Mr. Maxwell remarks further that 
these States all suffer from being regarded in Bangkok not as 
provinces to be developed but as mere sources of revenue to be 
spent at the capital. Sixty per cent, of the revenue still goes to 
Bangkok. There is evidently now a desire on the part of the 
Government at Bangkok to improve the local administration of 
these Western provinces and no doubt many reforms have been 
carried out in the last few 'years. At Trang there were many 
signs of progress visible. This I attribute to Mr. KllAW SiM 
Bee*s energy and good administration. 

Tongkah is a land of promise. A large number of schemes 
are going to lx» carried out but these promises evoke a smile 
from those who have been used t^) the administration of the 
palace. The country is evidently full of tin but the (government 
does nothhig to improve the roads or open up the place. The 


Iiarlxiur lia? silled up and a vesst-l of any si/.o lian l*j aui'lmi' a 
lung way out. I cannot »ay whether the new Imrbuur will be 
adopted and the town moved as i» talked of. 

J'ldet. by Ihc way. is the name ot the town, I'oiiijhi/i boinjf 
tlie name of theiylaod or whati^ really a peninsula a.s the narrow 
strait (Pa Prait) ia only half a mile across wid fordable by ele- 
phants at low tide. 

The Strait is between Siiliiiii/ and Tuhuilintfi on the niaiulAnd 
heuce the Malay name for Tongkah I'jvng Siilumj corrupted to 
Jutik Ceylon, Nu one can visit these places without seeing how 
dependent ihey are on I'enang-. I'nder a Uoverninent such as 
llmt of the Federated Malay States they could soon be changed 
into ricli pro\-ince,s and trade would expand in a wonderful man- 
ner. With mineral wealth and a fertile soil the population would 
increase and Chinese would be attracted to luve^it capital there. 
I'nder the present regime iu spite of many reforms in the selec- 
tion of officers, the administration of justice, etc., it may lie 
doubted whether any substantial progress will be made toward 
opening up tlie country, at all events unless the revenue is spent 
on public works and improvements. Formerly when the miue.s 
were iiU)re prosperous (JO Sikhs were employed under Captain 
W'KKbit but these have been dispensed with and the only Hritj^h 
subjects beyond a few I'enan(;-born Chinese appear to be Klings 
who trade in cattle with Penang. Capital punishment is not in- 
liicted iu these States — those convicted of capital offences being 
sent to Bangkok. 

From the islands in t^iis archipelago which are scarcely in- 
habit^>d are procured edible birds' nests and guano. 

Captain lliNd of tlie Royal Siamese Navy showed us a ctil- 
lection of small clay figures of Buddha said to have been found 
by the collectors of guano buried in caves. Whether these are 
ancient as supposed or modern I am unable to say. Mr. KllAW 
Jtr KEiT promised to send meaome which I will forward to the 
Curator of the KalHes Museum. 

The long wooded island of I'ulau Loutar (ssid to lje coveted 
by the Germans) lyiiip to the North Traiig fringed on tite west by 
a sandy shore appears to be scarcely inhabited except by a few 
lishernien. The Iiangkawi group of islands are sparsely inhiiliited 
by Malays and there are said to be about lUU Chinese. Achiuesc 


are planting pepper in one place. Pulau Adang, one uf the Butong 
group lying to the North of the Langkawi:?; and further out to sea, 
is visible on a clear day from Penang Hill. This lies near the track 
of the British India boat^s on the way to Rangoon and would be 
worth a visit. 

I enquired into the health of the place we touched at. In 
Kedah there is a Eurasian doctor (BoYEB) who told me that 
there was little sickness. The drinking water is derived from 
the Kedah river which passers the Consulate and Atuik bukit. 
The water is somewhat brackish and must be much polluted. 
Trang was said to be very healthy. In the early part of the 
year a few cases of plague occurred among the miners in Tong- 
kah but this appears to have died out soon and the health of the 
place is now said to be good. The Siamese Government on the 
representation of our .Government decided to appoint a Medical 
Officer to reside there. No one has yet been appointed and the 
Commissioner consulted me as to whether a Dr. AMNER who has 
been residing there for some time was fitted for the place. I 
could only say that I believed he had the necessary qualifica- 
tions but could not be sure. The Governor of Pung-a assured 
me that his place was extremely healthy and that there was no 

I had not visited Kedah. with which I was formerly well 
acquainted, for many years. It is a tine country — a vast tract 
of padi land interspersed with low hills. The revenue has in- 
creased very considerably of late. The Sultan spends the re- 
venue as he likes, sending the '" Bunga mas " to the King of 
Siam as Suzerain. A Penang Chinaman advances money to the 
Malay cultivators and mills the rice purchased from them. 
Another Chinaman has opened up a sugar estate on the banks 
of the river below Alur star. The Sinkep Tin Minhig Company 
are working with succe^ss near the base of Kedah Peak while 
there are large tapioca plantations near the Muda. Kulim at the 
back of Bukit Mertajaui is a thriving place with Chinese tin 
mines and plantations. It would be an advantage if the rail- 
way were extended from Bukit Mertajam to Kulim as has long 
been proposed but the Sultan of Kedah is at present in such a 
feeble state of health that he hesitates to take any action in the 
matter though he says he will not object to the railway. 


It is interesting tu see how a purely Malay Government 
without European interference or guidance has endeavoured to 
model the administration on our colonial lines even to the ap- 
pointment of an Auditor General. Only Malays are employed 
in the public offices most of them being men of good position. 
Here there is a real Post and Telegraph Office, the Telegraph 
Department being superintended by a son of the Government 
Munshi at Singapore. 

I cannot conclude without referring to the hospitable and 
kind way in which we were everywhere received, the authori- 
ties doing everything that could be done to make our visit 
agreeable and assisting me in my consular work. 

The Relations between Southern India 
and the Straits Settlements. 

By W. a. O'Sullivan. 

A few years ago, a very able paper was read by Mr. C. 0. 
Blagden before the Straits Philosophical Society, on the subject 
of "Arabian Influences in the Far East," and evoked a warm 
discussion. I thought with others at the time that Mr. Blagden 
claimed too great an influence for the Arabs, both as a convert- 
ing and civilizing agency in the Far East. I have since so far 
modified that opinion, from wider reading, that I am now fully 
convinced that it was the Arab traders, or rather the Arab 
bandits whom they brout^ht in their train, who effected the con- 
version to Islam of the vast majority of the people inhabiting 
the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago. To this 
belief I have been induced, not so much by the discovery of any 
additional historical data beyond what the essayist put for- 
ward, as by the living testimony afforded by language, a proof 
more to be relied ojj than a thousand traditions. Almost every 
word in Malay connect**d with religious worship is pure Arabic, 
only modified by the difficulty the converts experienced in pro- 
nouncing the language of their teachers. The same is the case 
with the Achinese, Sundanese, Javanese — in a word, with all the 
languages of the Archipelago whose speakers have embraced 
Islam : the Malays, it may be added, have also adopted the Ara- 
bic character. 

It is not, then, to India that we have to look as having im- 
parted to Malaya the present religion of its inhabitants, or such 
elements of its civilization as are bound up with their creed. But 
civilization and social development, much as they may owe to 
religion, are not coincident with it, and I think still that Mr. Blag- 
den went too far in claiminor for the Arabs the lion's share of 
influence on the social life of the Malays. Right throughout the 
Indian Arcliipelago (which I take for convenience sake to include 
this Peninsula) there co-exists with hukum, or religious law, a 
great unwritten code of native custom, known as adnt. This 


not only flourishes side by side with the hulimi^ but often over- 
rides it when the two come into conflict. Of this adat, part is 
immemorial usage, with its roots so deep in the past that they 
may not be uncovered. Part, however, is of more modern 
growth, and under this I should class all that these peoples have 
derived from foreign influence. We have no historical data full 
enough to enable us to separate these with accuracy ; yet to pre- 
sume that the present civilization of Malays, over and above 
what is included in their religion, was wholly indigenous and 
pristine, is to reject such data as we do possess, to scorn the 
testimony of language, and to assume that the Malayan races 
possessed an ancient civilization of their own. of which there is 
not a particle of evidence. 

The Arabs came to the Far East purely as traders accom- 
panied, no doubt, by a few pandits or religious teachers, to 
whose proselytizing agency was due the establishment of the 
Mohammedan religion in the Archipelago. Some few woald 
seem to have settled down, but, beyond the teaching which 
found such ready listeners, they appear to have had little in- 
fluence on native social life, and especially on the adaL Indeed 
as good Moslems, they would feel bound to uphold the hukum 
in oppasition to the latter. Whence, then, did the Malays get 
the balance of their civilization, from the simpler arts which 
separate them from the rudest of savages to the code of native 
custom which, just as much as the Arab creed, gives them a right 
to be regarded as a civilized race ? I unhesitatingly reply, from 
India, and probably, by virtue of its proximity, from Southern 

There are abundant traces, both in Sumatra and Java, but 
especially in the latter, of the existence, long anterior to 
Mohammedanism, of a very complete Hindu civilization. IIow 
this came about, whether by conquest or j^acific conversion, it is 
now impossible to say. Nor have we any historical records to 
show us what Hindu nation it was that exercised the first civilizing 
influence. In Java, indeed, a gre^t Hindu empire continued 
right down to the 3'ear 1475 A. D., when the conversion to 
Mohammedanism took place, and numerous runied shriftes testify 
how widespread was the earlier faith. But the conriuering or 
proselytizing Hindu stranger has entirely disappeared, for al- 


though the kings of Manjapahit claimed to be descended from 
princes of Hindustan, the purely Javan appearance of their de- 
scendants somewhat belies this tradition. The visible traces of 
such a civilization in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula are much 
more feeble than in Java ; they are, indeed, confined to a few 
ruins and inscriptions on stones and rocks, the former of doubt- 
ful import and the latter practically undecipherable, though the 
character is either Sanskrit or Pali. 

In the absence of such visible tokens, we turn again to that 
infallible guide, the language of the people. As I have said 
above, the influence of the A nibs on the Malay language is al- 
most confined to religion and religious law, but does not other- 
wise enter into the social life of the people. Far otherwise is it 
with the influence of the Hindus. Marsden (Asiatic Researches, 
vol. iv, pp. 223-7) writes as follows : — ** The language (i.e. Malay), 
it is true, abounds at pre.sent with Arabic words, which their 
writers affect to introduce, because this display of literary skill 
is at the same time a proof of their religious knowledge ; but 
they are generally legal or metaphysical terms borrowed from 
t^e Koran or its commentaries, are never expressive of simple 
ideas, have not been incorporated into the language (a few 
excepted), and are rarely made use of in conversation. The 
Uindu words, on the contrary, are such as the progress of civiliza- 
tion must soon have rendered necessary, being frequently ex- 
pressive of the feelings of the mind, or denoting those ordinary 
modes of thought which result from the social habits of man- 
kind, or from the wills that tend to interrupt them." 

Of a truth Malay abounds in Sanskrit words, the significance 
of which Ls ably traced in the preface to MaxwelTs Malay 
Manual. To go no further, the fact that the common Malay 
words for '* religion *' (agama), *• a plough " (tenggala), •* time *' 
(kali, masa), with many others of the same kind, are derived 
from Sanskrit, points to Hindu influence as having first raised the 
Malay from barbarism, taught him some of the very crudest 
arts of civilization, and supplied him with a religion. Now, the 
Sanskrit element hi Malay can only have come from India, and 
it fully justifies us, taking also into consideration the existence 
of a complete Hindu ci\nlization proved by historical data to have 
subsisted in Java, in concluding that there must have been in 


earlier a^es a domination of intellect, if not of conquest, b}- some 
Hindu jx>wer of Hindustan over the whole of Malaya. 

The defect of the langnao:e-test is that it does not aid us, 
except inferentially, in fixing the date of the commencement of 
this domination or in determining the length of its existence : 
but it may help us to decide from what part of Hindustan the 
civilizing influence proceeded. As to the former, all we know 
for certain is that the Hindu influence was antecedent to that of 
Islam ; while as to the latter, in addition to the verv slender 
evidence ot history and tradition, and comparison with the rela- 
tions of India with neighbouring countries, we CBn take as our 
guide the vnrious Indian elements which have found their way 
into the Malayan tongue. 

Sanskrit — that is, the pure Sanskrit of the Vedas — ceased 
to exist as a li\ing language about 300 B.C. Various dialects, 
however, more or less debased from Sanskrit, but having a 
vocabulary largely identical with the parent tongue, continued 
to subsist as spoken languages. It is not inconceivable that the 
Hindu influence on Malaya may have begun when Sanskrit was 
yet a living language. As regards Java however, the Dutch 
scholars have fixed the introduction of Hinduism at the begin- 
ning of the fith century A.D., and it would seem probable that 
its extensiim to Malnya took place about the same epoch or 
even later. Be this as it may, it is most unlikely that this early 
civilization of the Malays, which coloured their language «o 
strongly with Sanskrit words, proceeded from any other than 
a genuine Aryan race, of Hindustan, s[)eaking Sanskrit or a 
dialect closely akin to it. But within historic times the South 
of India has been inhabited by Tamulic or Dravidian races ; and 
had their first civilization been imparted to the Malaya by 
Hindus of this stock, the Sanskrit words would have been filter- 
ed through a Dravidian medium, and appeared in Malay in 
a quite different form from that which they have actually 
ajisumed. It must be t^ken for granted, than, that this earliest 
influence proceeded from a genuine Hindu race inhabiting 
central or northern India, and perhaps commanding a part of 
its seaboard in the South by \irtue of conquest or commerce, 
and who made this the starting-point for their pioneering work 
in the Far East. 


I think we may entirely reject Crawfurds' theory that these 
firat civilizers were Tele^us. Had it been so, they must have 
left traces of their own vernacular on the Malayan speech, 
for it is inconceivable that the priests, as Crawfurd thinks, 
could have introduced into Malay elements of a dead lan- 
guag;e, used only for sacred purposes, as part of tlie common 
speech, while not a word of their own colloquial crept in to 
testity to the identity of the dominating race. For I think I 
am right in saying that there are few or no Telugu words in 
Mala}', or. at all events, not one which might not equally well 
have come from Tamil. 

None the less is it true a Dravidian race has had a very im- 
portant nitluence on the language and social life of the MaUys. 
and this in spite of Marsden's statement that *' from the Telinga 
or the Tamool the Malayan has not received any portion of its 
improvement." This intlueuce was probably brought to bear on 
Malaya a good deal later than the Sanskrit, and was, without 
doubt, the direct result of trade. Commercial intercourse was 
maintained from a very early date between the South of India 
and the trading towns which formed the eniporia of the spice 
islands, notably Johor, 8inga|M)re, and Malacca. When the 
PortUiTuese, at the coiniuencenient of the DUh century, (irst 
visited these places, they were amazed at the concourse of 
foreign vessels assembled there. When this intercourse beo^an 
it is impossible to say, but it was probably much earlier than 
the above. Snouck-Ilurgronje, writing of Acheh, says that the 
settlement of Klinjrs from Southern India in that countrv is of 
great anti(|uitv : and that the Tamils were the leaders in this 
commercial enterprise in Malaya is clearly shown by the pure 
Tamil words — chieHy connected with commerce, though not alto- 
gether so — which have found their way into Malay. 

These words are not numerous, but they are names of 
familiar objects, and we must remember that, as a test of the 
social influence of one race on another, the presence of one 
common word for some necessary thing is of more significance 
than a thousand technical or scientific terms, which are reallv 
only a part of the language of books, and do not enter into 
daily life. The Malay for '"ship," Kaptd, is pure Tamil, so are 
Kedei, *' a shop," and ijedony, '* a storehouse." Pitt, *' a box." 


thouj^li ii hua a Sanskrit e*|uiva]t;nt Ua>- al^ prubably l'oiup 
through Tamil, forin Sauskiit it means "bag" or "basket," whilp 
in Taiiiit it has e>Lactty tlie same meaiiiug as iu Malay, U'hat can 
be cleaier evidence of commercial intercourse — iiay, of the 
Tamils haviug actually iutroduced the Ualuys to trade in bulk ? 
They also imported and brouu:ht into use certain (irticles of 
commerce and animals with which the Malays wet'e previously 
unacquainted, as is shown by the wards cliemtu, "a cigar:" 
bndaiM, "an almond:" hililn. "an ass;" the iru'it Mimhiug : beludu 
"velvet;" i«(/i, "agun" (from the Tamil word "vedi," an ex- 
plosion or report). All the above are pure Tamil. Tlie deriva- 
tion of kiida, '"a horse," from kiilhirui is not certain; but the 
pure Tamil ^urfu^H, "boat," may reasonably be taken to be the 
parent of the Malay jualiu. If this be so. it would seeru as if 
the Tamils first introduced the JIalays to even the most elemen- 
tary navigation, and, as they also gave them iopiil. taught them 
to " go down to the sea in sliips." A large number of words 
derived from the Sauskrit are common to both Tamil and Malay, 
the t;reater number of which were aciiuired independently by ' 
the two languages. The following are examples: — Mai. Kali, 
lnui. L<iht,H\ Ma), di-mhi, Tarn. rl"-iuUtm\ Mai. bahmia. Tarn. 
hui/im: MbI. iHid-u. Tarn, luiii/uiii. Ac. In uearly all these the 
terminal " ra " is cliai-act«ristic of Tamil ; and where we find 
words derived from the .Sanskrit which ha^e this termination iu 
Malay as well as in Tamil, we may fairly conclude that they 
come tliruugh the latter language and iii>t direct from Sanakrit: 
e. g. jiWdiii, "a pond" Tam. hiUiiii. Sanij. l-oht\ and maHujam, 
"a ruby," 1'am. niaiiikkam and Sanskrit uuinihiu. Maiiipelum, 
" a mango," is said by Maxwell to be derived from the Sans. 
mahA pala= "great fruit," through Telegu: but the Tamil for 
mango Is also induipuliiiii. and I can see no reason for assuming 
it to be derived fi-om the Telegu. Some other words deri\'ed 
from various languages, such as Persian. Hindustani, and Arabic. 
would seem to hu\-c also coine through the 'famil, whose in- 
Huence on Malay was undoubtedly antecedent to that of 
Aralnc. As examples I may rjuote njyu. "a table" (I'ers.), Tam. 
rriiaai or nienn; bali, "balance "or "remainder" (Ar.), Tamil 
bak-ki: kiipi (lieng.),"a pulley," Tamil ka/tjii; topi (Ueng.), 
"ahat," Tamil toppi: ff;«fwi. "acaltp" (given by Marsden as 



fiiini iliutIii»Uni). Tarn, •ijipum. Tn theabovr UhI mny be ttddetl 
ihc ['iirioiis Malay wurd for ■• a bridt^rooiu, " num/ielai. which i^ 
derived from tiie pure Taiuil ludjiillai, " a bridegroom. " This, 
again, is indicative of a very early Dravidian intlueDCP ou Ihe 
Malay-s. Their previous Uiadu civiliyAtioii had ^iven tJieiii the 
cerciuoTiy of insi-riugti, bill it wa'' lef I for the Tamils t« super add 
a .special title fur the mau on llie eve of marriage, to whose 
[KKiitioii Bri such the Dravidisu^ atbuh an unusual amount of 
di);nity aud importance. 

I think 1 have said euoujrb to ^luiw the fallacy into whicli 
.Marsdeii fell in refusing to ascribe Xa> the DravidJans of Southern 
India any intlueuee on the langua^ie of the Malays, and to make 
it plain that the inHuence of the former [leople oi-er the speech 
and ttovial life of the latler began at a very early date, though 
iiol so early ao that of the unknown I'ace of Uindus who re- 
claimed Malaya from its pristine barbarism. The Southern In- 
diau.s came as traders pure and simple, bartering for the wealth 
of the rich Irojric forests the products of civiliiaitioii. They do 
not seem to Iia\'e settled down or intermarried with the Malays 
to any great extent — not. certainly, so much as in Aeheh, where 
conidderable colonies of Tamils took up their permanent abode. 
Their objwct being merely commerce, they went as they came, 
returning year by year as the inomMou favoured. Intheearlier 
tUges of U)is iotercourse tlie Malays were probably Hindus like 
(liem»elveH, and would thus have admitted their visitors to a 
greater def;ree of familiarity and fellowship than is now the 
case. Then came the Arab com-ersioii, favoured, no doubt, by 
such Tamils att had already embraL-ed lalam ; but from that time 
forth the Hindus tn'canie i-jii-t to ihe Malays, and the clo»enes.s 
of their intei-course declined. Tlir citinmerce, however, con - 
liuued as before, and tin- n-lalions which (he Portuguese fouud 
esieting in the Ijeginniiig of t!ic I'Jlli century were practi- 
cally Ihose which sul)»isted until the iulinx of Kuiopeau trade 
imported a new factor into the i|nr>stion. and the esUblishmenl 
of British settleuieutH on the shores of Malaya rrystuliized the 
• oniiection between Sontlierii India and the .Struilfl into what 
it is at the pieoent day. 

Uud it not bc'ii for [he successful inUoducliou of Islam in- 
to llie Far Kast by ihe proselytiiring Arabs, we may supjjose tlmt 



the Tamil influence would have grown in strength, and perhaps 
eventually have led to a considerable fusion of the races, es- 
pecially along the coasts. Some such fusion has in later times 
produced the mixed race known as Jawi Pekan ; but in this the 
Bengali element is quite as strong as the Tamil, owing to the 
large number of north Indians who came to the Straits, either 
as voluntary immigrants or against their will as convicts, in 
the days when the Straits Settlements still formed an appanage 
'of the East India Company. 

The Evolution of Malay Spelling. 

By Kkv. W. G. Shetj.ahkar. 

Much has been written in the last hundred years on the 
theory of Malay spelling. Europeans, both Dutch and English, 
have worked out elaborate systems of orthography, and have 
laid down what they considered the proper rules to be followed, 
but the Malays have continued to spell as they please in spite of 
the efforts of the foreign scholars. 

There is, hr)wever, at the present time so much diversity and 
inconsistency among the Malays themselves in regard to the 
spelling of even the commonest words, that it is very widely felt 
that a recognized system of orthography is most desirable ; but 
Europeans have hitherto made the mistake of trying to bend the 
Malays to an elaborate, scientific system of foreign manufacture, 
the beauties of which the Malays are unable to appreciate. 

A more practicable plan would seem to be to make a thorough 
historical investigation of the evoluti<»n of the art of spelling 
anions: the >[alays, with a view to determining: what is the natural 
trend of the changes which have taken place in the {)ast. It seems 
not unreas<mable to expect that such an investigation may pro- 
vide a clue to the poasibilities of such spelling reform as will not 
be distasteful to the Malays themselves, and may therefore even- 
tually commend itself to them for universal adoption. 

The materials available in Singapore are not by any means 
adequate for a complete and exhaustive investigation of the his- 
tory of Malay spelling, hut it is hoped that the following contri- 
bution to the study of this subject will at least establish some im- 
portant principles of spelling reform, and will if necessary stimu- 
late others to further search. 

It is generally agreed that the Arabs gained their religious 
ascendancy over the Malays during the 13th century, and that it 
was from them that the Malays received their present written 
character. The earliest Malay manuscripts now extant, however, 
do not date back more than half of that period. In No. .31 of this 


•lournal I have already descrilx^d some of the luost iiiterestiiiji' 
of these MSS., and jiarticidar care was taken to reprodnre as 
exactU' as |X)ssible the sibling of the originals, (hi i>age 1(^7 of 
the paper alx)ve referred to, will bt» found a reference to certahi 
MSS. l^elonging to the Cambridge Tniversity Library and described 
by Dr. van Uonkel in Part 2 ojf Series fi of Bijilra(jeu tot de Tnal- 
Loud' *>n Volhfnhiin(hr(m XederhnidscJt'Indii', Thispa|ierbv Dr. van 
Ronkel provides valuable material for the present investigation, 
the spelling of his extracts having also l)een reproduced with consid- 
erable accuracy. The Cambridge MSS. were taken to Europe 
from the Kast in the first decade of the 17th century, and one of 
them bears the date 1604. The €*arlieat of the Oxfi^rd MSS. 
bears a Mohammedan date (A. II. 1011) equivalent to the year 
1602 of our ere, another is almost certainly of the same date, a 
third is dated 1612, and a C(»py of the lit hit/at Srt Ranut was 
probably also obtained at that time, as it belonged to the same 
collection, and came into the Bodleian library in 163.*^. For in- 
formation in regard to the two Leiden MSS. and the Harleian MS., 
which I have also made use of though they are of a somewhat 
later date, the reader is referred to my paper in Journal Xo. .-U. 
I have also in my possession careful copies of four other mnnu- 
script letters belonging to the Leiden University, but for the pur- 
poses of this paper I will ctmfine myself to the manuscripts men- 
tioned above, which have already l)een fully described by Dr. 
van Ronkel and myself and are available to the reader in the 
Journals referred to. 

As compared with the changes which have taken place in 
the spelling of the English language since the days of Queen 
Elizabeth (to whom the oldest of the Oxford MSS. was addressed) 
it must be said that the differences between the Malay spelling of 
to-day and that of three hundred years ago are very few and very 
insignificant indeed — an exemplification of the well-know^n fact 
that the Oriental is slow to change. Manuscripts and even 
printed documents of the date of Queen Elizabeth nre so entire- 
ly different from modern English writings and lx)oks that they 
can only be read by those who have made them a special study. 
Our oldest Malay manuscripts, however, could be read to-day 
by any school boy with the greatest ease, with the exception of 
perhaps an unusual word or an obsolete spelling here and there. 


It is remarkable that these Malay MSS., written in manv 
different places and an far apart as Acheen and ('elebes, exhiint 
far lesH diverg-ence from one another in regard to s|)elling than 
can now be found in native letters and even in print.ed works 
from different parts of the Archi|)elauro. In those days, no 
doubt, the art of writing was practised by comparatively few 
l>ersons, and they may have been scril^es specially instructed in 
the art, whereas to-day thousands of comjiaratively uneducated 
natives write letters in Malay, and even print commercial and 
other documents in any kind of sj)elling. Moreover, the old 
manuscripts which have survived to tell us how the Malays wrote 
their lang'uage in those days are mostly olHcial d<x^uments or 
religious and literary productions, all of which would naturally 
be written bv the best educated natives of the time. These con- 
siderations will in a great measure account for the greater diver- 
sity of Malay spelling which now exists, but the remarkable uni- 
formity in the s{)elling of the MSS. of the 17th century can only 
be ade<(uately explained by the existence of some lixed standard 
of spelling to which the scribes felt it necessary to confomi. 
That fixed standard, we may presume, was the Arabic system of 
orthography. It was undoubtedly directly from the Arabs 
that the Malays received their present written character, and 
it is (|uite probable that for many ye«rs, jK»rhaps for centuries, 
the art of writing may have b^en almost entirely confined to 
those A rails who had learned the Malay language. 

It should moreover be remeinl)ered that at the time of the 
advent of the Aralw the Malavs were alreadv scattered all over 
the Archijx*lago, from the north of Sumatra to the extreme east 
of Java, and even as far as <Vlel:)es and the Moluccas, and must 
be regarded as having been at that time nierelv a numlx'r of in- 
dependent units divided up under the rule of a great nund)er of 
petty chiefs or rajas, who were often at war with one another, and 
none of whom were sufficiently pow»»rful to exercise any com- 
manding influence over the remainder. This makes it even more 
remarkable that there should b* such strikincr uniformitv in the 
spelling of the Mala}^ language throughout the Archipelago at 
the period with which we are dealin;^. If the Arabs had at- 
tempted to make an adaptation of their own system of spelling 
to suit the peculiarities of the Malay language, the result would 


undoubt-edly have been that in different parts of the Archipelago 
there would have been different modifications of the Arabic spell- 
ing", and a variety of >ralay spellings would have been unavoid- 
able. The uniformity in the spelling of the earliest manuscripts 
would therefore lead us to expect that the system of orthogra- 
phy according to which the Arabs originally I egan to write the 
Malay language and which they subsecjuently taught to the 
Malays, was precisely the same as they themselves used in 
writing their own language. Whether this was so or not is the 
first point which we will examine. 

It should first be stated, that Arabic can be written either 
with or without vowel points, and books are printed at the pre- 
sent time in both styles. The plain or un vowel led style is the 
more common, but as the entire omission of vowel jioints would 
frequently cause ambiguity, the Arabs find it necessary in cer- 
tain words to use one or more vowel ix)ints. This description of 
the way in which modern Arabic is printed applies exactly to the 
way in which Malay was written 800 years ago. Several vowel- 
led Malay MSS. are extant. One of the old Cambridge AfSS. con- 
tains twelve pages of Malay fully vowel led, and in the other 
MSS. mentioned above, vowels are used in isolated words. In com- 
mitting an unknown language to writing, it is pretty certain 
that the Arabs would at first use all the vowel |ioints, if only for 
the purpose of recording for their own use the sounds of the new 
language, and in aM probability Malay would continue to Ix* 
written with vowels for many years, until the scrilieshad liecome 
thoroughly familiar with the forms of all the common words, after 
which they would lx»gin to drop the vowels from such words, 
retaining them only in the case of unusual words or j)eculiar 
derivatives. This is precisely the way in which we find that 
Malay was actually written at the beginning of the 17th century. 

\Ve will now proceed to show* (I) that at the time when 
our MSS. were written the spelling af* a (fetu'vul rule conform- 
ed exactly to the rules of Arabic orthography; tifter which it 
will l)e shown (II) that words which. at that time were some- 
times written otherwise than in strict accordance with Arabic 
orthography were being gradually introduced with the deliberate 
intention of doing away with the necessity for the use of vowel 
points and orthographical signs, and for the purpt^se of making 



suth wul■t^^ uiurt- lei^iblf: am! liLstJy we will wntnider (III I 
whiil atlt^catiuiia ctiulJ bt> iirndt- in iiiudern Molay s]^IIiiig: which 
would pi\KiUL-f uiiifiiiiiiily wiilmiit ili-atruyiuj^ llie Malay ideal vi 
nbUun'mg legibility wiilir.ul \hf iiw uf vuwels, that is tu way 
withuiit a lvlT^^gl•^i^\'■ iiimv.-iiii-i.i in llie liiivrtioii of Aralriu urlhu- 
jtraplty sufli usiiasliillii'ilii Ix-i'ij udvucatwl by Kiiri.i]n-aii xdiolarn. 

I. With few exceptions the spelling of manuscripts 300 years 
oM ctmfortns exactly to the rules nf Arabic orttiography, 


III Utit' i>r llii' Ml 
by a per.Moii only *i;i(iu 
Hual u-j» and ,vu art- m 
furuiiug' the diplil liuiig;! 
wiirds. wliic-h I havt; tuk(;ii fr 
out linal mm or t 

ell wntild !*• iiijiii:"'d 
.Mulay s|)i'llitig m ihat 
IN i!i.-ie .\|,-;S. ill.' piirpuM' of 
,u. Thus «-.■ (iiid tiK' MIowiiifr 
all l!iedin'<iHi,t M.SS. :'i>elt with- 

•<>!/• ' 


J^iSToV ^^ 

iht' i-aw tuay Yif :- 

ilhuU, ,l„h. 




But the following words endiug in a diphthong are s|x»lt 
with final ivtiu and i/a in every case in which thev occur in these 

aii/kau atati bwjai htrchrai biran hat harau hijau jikalau hahiii 


I'trbtitf litiHtu pnsai rambai nntUti nuttau sinyni tnjuii 

We find however that the scrilx? who wrote* AIS. (i. had a 
strong prejudice in favour of final ivau and //ci, t»ven in words 
which do not end in a diphthong, for he writes : — 

An* bnini binli rhuchii h'lri histiiri lembu mtittri nnidcli nnjiri 

nvyri pri jmtri sid'ti itvndiri sri bahrii 

(S^ i^j* iSji^ i^ ci>.-^^ t^^ ^jh". 

But he also s|k»11s huii without the //<i, and all other words 
of this kind are spt^lt without the //a as aku, httlt, lain, ktinball, 
meiijainpH^ tttaift\ etc. 

The Leiden MSS. K. and !>., which were written at the end 
of the 17th century, contain five of such words written with 
final lean or i/a^ and F., which is also of a later date, contains 
three. In all tht» other MSS. the only instances are katt, which 
is found once, and ncyn\ which is soiuetiiues spelt with the f/a 
and sometiuu»s without, and a few names of places in MS. ('. 
which being unvowelled would liardly be recognized with<.)Ut 
the final weak U»tters. 

It should U* riMuarkeil that some of the words given above 
are spt»lt in a way which would be quite inexplicable on any 
other supposition than that they were originally vowelled. and 
these peculiar sjk»1 lings are just the ones which never vary in 
any of the M»SS. and are still in use at the present day. as f(»r 
instance : 

im EvuLunoN oi- Malay si'Hi.MNii 

^ o> 


Itiit tliuugh thfir spelling apjinirs at iirst siglit sii peculiar, it 
iiiui^l be reriifuibereil ihat Hii-uiding to ibe ruWa uf Arabic or- 
thogra|)hr these words could tiot be 9,\*-\t in any other way, ex- 
cept ibiit i)ei'liait.-> £^ iiiiglit Ix- spi'lt J'&a- but it will Ix- 
iioliciHl laltT un that unl.v uiii- wt-ak li-l.ier appears lu liave liwii 
UHfd iu any word, and time iherefoii', llie w.ih being rei|mred lo 
r<irm tlie liiinl diplitliuiig 'm, tlie ■itij whicli would utlierwiM.' be 
iiiiierted ta Diat* tlie Htres,s lias l>een muitt'tl. 

It is interesting to mite lliat tin- Dutcliniau van Klhinck, 
who with his own hand oopiwl portions of the Caiiibiiilgr SI.S.*^.. 
adhered rigidly t*i the Ai-aWc orthogniphy uf the uririimU fvnni 
which he wast copying, but when left tu his own unaidi.'d ^^i-niun 
in writing out it li.nt of Malay words with their meanings in 
Dutch, he followed the more natural method of spelling to which 
the Malays have now attuined, as will be seen from the following 
examples taken from his vocabulary, dated 1st .June, K'.Olt— 

■A \U 





:> ^\ jT ;^ j\ 

At the present t 
almost universal, and i 

lie nse of iinal ii-tin and ;iu hus become 
iiy Malays would be ijuile unable 1o 
read Ihe worils given above if they were spelt tlnis. 

2. In modem Malay, for the sake of legibility, a Iinal idij 
in usually written in »uch words as bttuiu, "ni, etc. In the Arabic 
syateiu of orthography, the sound of the short Iinal u as it h pro- 
Dounced in must Malay words is represented merely by the 
vuwel ,/«(/(» A placed over the preceding consonant : the addition 
of nil/ would indicate a lengtheiiinjT of the vowel. The number 
of Malay words, however, which have the long 'i .sound in the Uisi 
aylhvble is very small, the folhiwing being a few of them : — 




%. V U. \f 


These and a few Ambic wiirds such as 

Vjj Uj^ V>i- 

are the only ones which by the rules of Aral)ic orthiijjfiiiphy will 
allow a final tdif. In modern Malay, however, the followinu- 
forms are comruim : — 

ara autara bawa bivlmm hilu btttu balnra dim join 

y \>\ \>. \M ^. ^^. w \j^ ^^ 

jawa jua ktda koUi k'uda lada tnulta pala perl ara piata roda 

\,W \y: SV^ \if \j/ \:H \L SU \jCj U \^^j 

sabda aafii/a sedia siyra aeiia tara tanda tna 

\Jl- \j^ Iju- \^ U- \^ \ju; \y 

This spelling: will not bt* found in these ancient MSS. It is then»- 
fore very evident that in this respect the Malay has a tendtMicy 
to depart from the strict Arabic spelling of former times. Such 
words as the following, on the other hand, continue to Ix* s^x^lt 
without the final alifx — 

oila aiiyaya apu apabtla bapa biasa binasa daya dia hamba ia 

^S t^Vj\ J\ JJ\ J^\ ^\^ ^^L 4^\j 4^j ^ ^^\ 

■ jikn kacka lata lai/a Iwrja L'liasa lanui mafa ntasa manusia mula 

^J^ ^^ 4/^ -^^ KJ^f ^ vl^U ^ ^U J^ 

nauM, puda puasa pala raja rasa ntpa Sf^rta suara suka sayala tauf/a 
f^ -Xi ^j-y J^t ^j ^jr*'j ^^j 0^^ ^y. jSy. Jx-- jl- 

{:)) In the old Malay MSS. the weak letters ali/, tmu and 
t/a are not usetl in tin* middle of a closed svllable to lenj^theii 
the vowel sound, except in words of Arabic origin, such as : — 


fakir hvruj tslam jaxrah kitnh maidan miakiu 

These words are pronounced by the Arabs with the stress on 
the last syllable, but the Malays, though retaining this spelling, 
put the stress on the penultimate, where it is found in the great 
majority of Malay roots. There are quite a number of wordi^ 
in the Malay language which have the stress upon the final syl 
lable, and in many cases this final syllable which bears the stress 
is a closed syllable, but the long vowel sound which the Arab 
gives to the words quoted alx>vo is never heard in a Malay 
word, it is therefore not to be expected that the Arabs would 
teach the Malays to write the (juiescent weak letter in such 
words as s^hot^ retiotg^ pf^^^ffo (fras, kntf/^ etc. As a matter of 
fact we never find the weak letter in such words in the old MSS.* 
though in modt-rn Malay these words are frequently written 


.\.^ t\} 

and we now even find such forms as the following, where the 
stress is distinctly on the penultimnte : — 

ek'or ftaifis tuewngi.^ sah't siaiiur tanjotg tiilus tik'ua 

The nearest approach to the long vowel sound in a closed 
syllable in j\[alay, is to be found in the two mono-syllables 
piih and (/////, and it is a remarkable thing that these two 
words are invariably written with the weak lett«^rs wan and (dif 
respectively in all of our old MS.S. and are so written up to the 
present time. Kobinson in his '• Malayan Orthography " rejects 
this method of sj^elling ptm and dun, which he ccmsiders ought 

to be sjvlt -^ and -.j: the evidence of the old M8S. is, 

♦ The spelling l^ymp on p. 116, line 12, R. A. S. Journal Str. Br. 

No. 81 will be found on reference to tlie photographic reprtnlucticn of MS. 
A . to be a misprint. 


however, strongly in favour of the received method of spelling: 
these words, 

(4) Another remarkable difference between the spelling of 
our MSS. and modern Malay spelling is in the use of the ortho- 
graphiciil sign tashdid, which means *' strengthening/' and indicates 
that the letter over which it is placed is to be doubled or sounded 
twice. This sign is now hardly ever used by Malays, except in 

Arabic projier names, such as Allah ^\and Muhammad j,^ but in 

our MSS. it is used with great fre(|uency. 

(a) It is used over the weak letters wan and yu whenever 
the preceding consonant bears the corresponding vowel sound, 
thereby showing that the said weak letter answers the double 
purpase of vowel and consonant. Thus the word din is con- 
sidercni as consisting of the two syllables di-ifa, and is written 

not (J J but -r J and hmtt is considered as consisting of the two 


syllables bu-infi and is written not Jj.*) but ^y This use 

(^f tnshdid appears to be precisely the same as is found in the 
Arabic words v/nl' i\\ niijat 2^ and in the terminnticm <j 

This appears to he sufficient to account for this method of sj^el- 
ling, which is found in the following words in the old MSS., 

hunt dia diam dna ia jun Imiv imiat 

o^ </^ p i^ «/l j>^ jy '^»' 

This double use of the weak letter, first as vowel and then 
as consonant, finds its counterpart in the Dutch language, where 
one meets such words as hmcetu vrouwen^ etc., and it is therefore 
not unnatural that the Dutch have adopted this peculiar spelling 
of Malay, even in the roman character, thus : — dit/a^ buwat, 
diffatii, duuui, jifa^ jfutuf, linear, mfnrat, (^tc,^ though one or twoof 
the Dut<*h scholars have protested aorainst the use of the ?r and // 
as being redundant. For instance Dr. (ierth v. Wijk writes in 
his grammar, p. 21: "Although in th(» Javanese, for instance. 



'• owing to tip nature of its I'p^lling'. in s'lch words ns 
" fnxiniui/, tijang. tlie ic and,/ are written, and miLit Vic nswl in 
• traiilitfratin^ ihf m in tmr chamcffr, if one wisbfs t'l rfpriKluof 
■■ the ori^nal spelling exactly, lliese letf^Tn arpf|uit* snpcvHuous 
■■ in Malay transliteration. Tlie union of nt and i wilti the follow- 
■■ ing II, I, Of, fnkes place of it-self in the proniinHatjon : we do not 
•■ writp botra, hntrjni, bul simply I'lii, hiirm ; and even less is ir 
•• or j necessary in fmenni;, Hung, etc. If the Malay wrote the 
" Uiiktliil, it would be reasonable to represent it in the transliter- 
" at ion. Being opix>sed to supertliinus letters, I writf in, tviji, 
" Innir, etc., whidi sofui to me i|iiit« suflident. as this method of 
"spelling repr8»nl« Ihe proniin nation asrlearly as one can de- 

The Malays a[^ar to prefer 
follows: — bii-nt, ilii-ti. ili-iim, J'l-tt. n 
Nfalar spelling of snch wnrdu is 

iv liable.- 







(/,) .Another frC'iuent use of inslitlM m the old .MS^. isi for 
the purpose of donblinp the I'oa'wiiiant which follows tlie short 
vowel, calleil by the Javanese prprl^ the sound of which may bi- 
deacribed as ei]uivalent to the short a m the Kngliiih words ■• bv- 
lijon," ''machine," etc. 

Among our old MSS. we find that li. (i. 4.i of the (.Cam- 
bridge MSS. ia the most consistent in this use of the tan/nliil, the 
following word« which contain short vowels being thns spelt in 
the brief extract given by v. Ronk^l. 

btifiii-n bfKiir hriitii- ilenini' Mnl h-a>i Irlith telitli 

A portion of another CaiiibriUgeMH.. lig. (1. 40, in 
writing of the Dutchman v. Klbiiick. has the followir 

^^ >. ^j J^ f_rf *^ 


(II- bflnh •jiitiiHiir ifi'hil . 


and Dd. 5. 37 of the Cambridge collection, which is in the same 
hand- writing, has sa-hltta tehiia 

but also bahwa derymi leheh telah without the tashtlid. 

The only other Cambridge MS. in which I have found the 

taahdid used in this way is LI. 6. 5, which has opj once, and 

• ^^ 

In the Oxford MSS. marked A. \\, and C. in my paper 
in No. 31 of this Journal, we find the following words : 

hi'i hhun Chehnr/ Deli dergar deir/an ghiv kapal kapitan 

hdi I'ekmg kejt megnt memegmg metneli meli uegri tietiasti 

^ ^ i; "^ ^ S^ S ^^ cr-^ 

pem\i pftrnna Rekmi imka suka-clntn Samudnra sfidah sent ftlok 
« . « fi^ "tf* *^ ^.^^^ . * * • • 

Hut these MSS. have also some of these very words, and 
several others of the same kind, spelt without the tas/idid, 
Deigan has the tashdid only once, in R. liidnca^ which almost 
always has tashdid in the Cambridge MSS., never has it in the 
Oxford MSS. Dergar is spelt without tashdid in A. 

The Oxford MS. of ^'Jlikatfat Sri Rmiia'* has the following 

bias besar betnl gennp kediil selang sa'telah sudah 

v^ j^, v3^ •-t^ Jr ^ ^^ •-^ 


Init uiK» or two of t]i€»M» are also found witlioiit the Ui:shiliil^ as 
well a« some which have it in the other M^SS., as. 

It is a remarkable* fact that the early Dutch translators of 
the Bible made a wide use of the tiuthduL and even when spelling 
such words in the roman character they were in the habit of 
placing a stroke over a letter in place of the taMvL Thus we 
tiiid : ""sudilah^ kennn^'* etc . and even the following words, which 
are not found in our MSS. viz.. 

"' iiuikLa^ jmdila^ (ltrn\ mgalfa, adda, ojpjm, iagijij^ 

Curiously enough the use of taa/tdid with the short vowel, 
after having completely gone out of use, was intnxluciHl once 
more in the middle of last century by the lexicographer van de 
Wall. This writer, however, does not use the Uishdid indiscri- 
minately with all words contaimng the short vowel, as appears 
to have been done in the old MSS., but confines its use to those 
words which have the acccMit on the short vowel. Such W(»rds 
for instance, as, 

k'i'as kfUal futul bbnn peymij hli ktji ylar blah 

which carry the tushdid in the old MSS., are written by van de 
Wall witliout it, and we find him using this sign only in such 
words as: — 

In regard to this use of Uvthdid he himself says in his intro- 
duction to the first volume k\{ his unconipletJHi* dictionary, p. 
xvi : " As in the cas<» of the vowel points and other signs, the 
"Malays in their ordinary writing disregard the t^uhdid, \sign of 
*• strengthening.' whirh whcMi placed over a letter shows that that 
*• letter must lx» doubl<»d: but that is no indication of its uon-exis- 


" tence or of its being unnecessary. The Malay who has learnt 
** to read the Koran, not only knc»ws what the Uishdid is, but also 
** feels the advantage of it in Malay, for if one gets him into a cor- 
** ner he will at last say : buboh-lah tash(M, * just put a tashdid 
" over it.* 

** The non-use of the tashdid leads the Malay sometimes to 
" the most pecu liar spel ling. For instance he is conscious that in the 
" word I'idiht, ' to abate' (as a storm or sickness) the accent lies 
** on the first syllable and ought to be expressed, which it is not by 

u.>, <^r \j ; therefore he lengthens the vowel of the (e) and 

** writes j\ , without troubling himself aboui the fact that it is 

*Vabsurdto lengthen the 6. Some words, which are written with 

*' the same letters and vowel points, could not be distinguished 

• -^-^ 

** from each other without the /(i5/<(/tV/,as i;J l^talc (accent on the 

• <?" 
'* 2nd syllable) interj. for a certain clinking sound, and ^l^ttak 

** to place. I therefore use the tashdid everywhere in my diction- 

"ary, where the pronunciation demands it, and write j. r(fddi;^ 

'*^j d^nyityau, ^^^ mctta * raging.' And do we not ourselves 

** write for instance Icml-de^ knu-ne, indifferent as to the reason 
** for doing so. It should be noted that in Malay words the 
'* double consonants only api)ear after the 6." 

From this it is evident that the Malay writers of the begin- 
ning of the 17th century used the tashdid in a different way to 
that advocated by Werndly, Robinson and van der Wall, and 
moreover none of these methods of using this sign can be regard- 
ed a.s being directly based upon the Arabic system of ortho- 
graphy. The methods invented and used by Werndly, Robinson 
and van der Wall were purely arbitrary, and soon fell into disuse, 
and there seems to be every reason to believe that the use of tash- 
did as found in our MSS. was also purely local and arbitrary, 
for it is a remarkable fact that all the MSS. in which this usc^ 
of tashdid is found almost certainly came from Acheen, and I 
have not been able to find the tashdid used with the short vowel 


ill any of i\w MSJ*». which we know to have Ixhmi written else- 
where. The Oxford MSS. A. H. C. have already been proved 
to have come from Acheen ; of the Cambridge MSS. Gg. 0. 40 
contains a voi'^bulary written by Pieter Willemsz. van Elbinck, 
and dated Acheen, Ist June, 1004 : I)d. 5. 37, and the 2ud part 
of iig. <). 40, which contains the writing in question, arc botli 
written by the same hand as the vocabulary, and the former 
closes thus (in Dutch) *' end of the Story of Jos<»ph, written the 
1st October, 1G04, by Pieter Willems." The only MjS. therefore 
alx>ut which there remains any uncertainty as to whether or 
not it was written at Acheen, is LI. 0. '). of the Cambridge MS»S. 
but there seems, from what Dr. v. Konkel says, to be no reasim- 
able doubt that this MS. came into tlie hands of Erpenius 
with those bearing the name of the same Pieter NVillems, 
whom he believes to have brought all these MS»S. from the 
East, with the exception of Dd. 1). .').'»., which never belonged to 

It should not be forgotten that, at the time when these MS»S. 
were written, Acheen was one of the most j)()werful Malay 
States. In his letter to King James (Oxford MS. C.) the King of 
Acheen claims sovereignty over all the rajas in Sumatra as well 
as Pcrak and Pahang on the Peninsula, and from the accounts 
of Ijancaster's vovagres he seems t<^) liave been able to enforci' 
his authority at least as far south as Piuiman (near Padang). In 
this connection I was interested to find the statem(»nt made by 
van de Wall, in his introduction mentioned above*, that the 
original Malay spelling is known as " Achinese spt»lling." 
Where van der Wall obtained his information in re^rard to the 
name hejn Avheh I have not been able to discover, but if it is a 
fact that this method of spelling, found in all its purity in our 
Acheen MSS. of 300 years ago, is still know^n by tradition among 
the Malays as *' Achine^je spelling," this would seem to point to 
Acheen as having been the chief centre of learning and litera- 
ture at that time, and i^erhaps even earlier. This would entirely 
airree with the accounts of Lancaster's tirst vovayres, which 
state that the educated Malays at Acheen s|3<jk<5 Arabic lluently, 
and Lancaster himself held intercourse with th<» Malavs at that 
place in* the Arabic languages having as his interpreter a Jew 
who spoke Arabic. 



My contention therefore w, that the use of tishdid to indi- 
cate the short vowel sound was merely a local custom at Acheen, 
which the iniluence of even such a comparatively powerful 
State did not avail to bring into general use in the Archipelago. 
If this usage had been in accord with the Arabic orthography, 
it would undoubtedly have 1 een universally adopted in the same 
way as tlie taahdid over ivau and ya mentioned in the last para- 
graph (4. a.)* 

(7)) We next come to the use of the weak letters idij\ itum, 
and //n in open syllables. Their use at the end of a word has al- 
ready been considered in (I ) and (2). We wi^l now in(]uire when 
and for what pur|X)se these weak letters were u^hI in the old MSS. 
in the middle of (</) root words, (b) derivatives. 

(a) In root words, the weak letters are found in the optMi 
syllaole upcm which the accent falls, except in the case of the 
short vowel. The accent being usually on the penultimate, that 
is the syllable in whicli the weak letter is usually found. 

Ill accordance with the rule« of Arabic orthography, a weak 
letter when thus placed in an open syllable after a corre^jxMid- 
ing vowel is ** (]uiescent and then serves only to lengthen the 

vowel which precedes it." * Thus in the word jVJ ** sufficient," 

the vowel of the pt»nultimate is lengthened by the alif. The 

prepasition jj is, however, never spelt with an ali/\ not that 

there is any very appreciable difference in the pronunciation of 
these two words, but rather |)erhaps on account of the fact that 
in conversation less stress will naturally fall upon a preposition 
than upon a noun, adjective or verb. This seems to be the 
only |x>ssible way to account for the absence of the alij, wan 
and //a in such words as 

sudidi maka pada dvri sayula 

which in our MSS , as far as 1 have noticed, are the only words 
which do not have the lengthening weak letters in the accented 
syllable, with the exception of the foreign word sandnt/nr which 

♦ Furib' Arabic (inuuiuur. 

TIIR FVMl.rTKlV l)F MAI.AV Sl'Kl.f.lM!, 

..,..1, /^^ 

r pTiinps i.iiiiiU'.l ii 
wi^k letter 

till- |Hiiu1tiiiiikb> on wi'inint of llti?n> Ijeiiig alri'ad,v 
in tin- tirst syllable to form the diphthong att. 

Tlie folltiwing ars wmiis uf twn or inore syllablcis liiving 
the weak letfer in the pciiultimaU', 
heai'ijn r/ii/ata s'ini /laiifn Hit J.ilnu kliliig /ill'mra nuufi 

iiL. i%. 'j;^ iu l:.i % ^ >iii li;-- 

idicatf that tliin 
lith the acct'iit 

invarialily sjielt /) 16 wliich would i 

n throe syHahle word 
MiHiietiiiifN pn 

wiird was at that time a 
ii|Km thif Urdt syllable 
Wire a two Kvllable wnni. 

{/i) In (lerivativp wimls formed by iht- juKla|)>u<itinn (if two 
~ riKilj', the length Ptiiti<^ wealc lett^i- is alinrnf invariably fiJiinrl 
iinly ill the [x-ii ultimate, lieing; enlin-ly oniill^ in tbi' (irsr of 
the two words forming' ihe ciimpoiitid. «» : 

^\ ^lU ^ 

■r the -iiyhi ihut 


The omiHsion of the weak letter in the lirst word in sneh 
I C"!*e» is undoubtedly phonetie, Ih>' stress Ix-ing slrong on Ihe 
pennltininle of the eoitipuund. 

When, however, we come to ihe case of derivative words 
formed by the addition of suffixes, we in, mediately meet with a 
difficulty which.asfaras my reading has gone, has never yet been 
explaim><l by any European writer, aamely that when the suDix, 
pronoun or other [larliile is added to the root, the position of- 
the lengthening weak letter is rhanged, and \a found in the 
_ penaltimate fif the derivative word thns formed. For inatance : 


^S by the addition of the preposition k becomes in the old 
MSS. ^^ although the pronunciation is n(»t kmld-ut/a, but 
hUla-niia; and 2^^ becomes jV^Jc>" although the word is 

pronounced jddikati and not jadikan. 

The first of the Dutch scholars to point out this discrepancy 
between the spelling of derived Malay words and their actual 
pronunciation appears to have been van de Wall, who in the year 
1859 wrote as follows in the TiidschviJ\ voor lyilischa 7W/-, lAiiid- 
en Volkenk'viidt', — " Hut the change of position of the lengthen- 
" ing letter to, or its appearance in the penultimate of 
" root words, has in most words no influence upon the 
"accent, or at least very little ? that is to say, the accent 
** is in such cases not inherent in the long vowel. In 
" general, thi» Malay retains in such cases the original accent, and 
"says; himtu, hnu(ni^ perhnntitan, b()nttt'Htfa^ etc., ,«^?«vi, setrakiw, 
^' seiva/^ persetranti, .<teira-ni/<t^ etc. But as the literary Malay al- 
" ways has an inclination to modify the pronunciation of the 
" people according to the way a word is written, he also lays a 
" stress to some extent on the syllable which has the long vowel, 
** 80 that there come to be, as it were, two accents — a strong or 
** commanding one, the natural accent of the root, and a weak one, 
" the grammatical accent on the long vowel. The variations be- 
" tween strong and weak are very numerous, in different words 
** and with different individuals, and there exists no fixed rule ; 
" there are even words, though very few, in which owing to the 
" change in the positicm of the long vowel the natural accent of 
" the root is entirely lost and only the grammatical accent re- 
" mains ; e.g. kata-ni/tt, from kitta ; tamhingan from tiunhani ; 
" though one jilso hears taiubmgiu'^ 

Three years later, in Vol. XII of the sjime Journal, A. B. 
Cohen Stuart raises a somewhat half-hearted protest against 
van de Wall's statement in regard to the pronunciation of such 
words. lie says (i>age GH) : " It is not without hesitation that 
** I venture some objections to this proposition. I feel how 
'* unfavourably I am situated as compared with Mr. van de Wall 


^ ki r^fu^ to a subject about wlotb he t« e& f9K& aft iai£llEtb^{!T 
^^ better positioo to form a correct ofiaia^jG. I w:^^ ikeni^jv^ as 
^ first iuclined sHeotiv to accept a?^ mf'-^rasaki&yei Is^ <o4Ei!i^r7:UMS» 
^ as to accent ; after further coi»deffat»oci, h'^WfUr^^tr, I f-jasi<! ct 
** preferable to come forward fe»rle34j with aiT djQiijC<^. aad v> 
^^ expose myself if need \^ to a rro^hssf: repr^>j^. if fha^ 
** be able to brinor ro^. and perhaps oA^v^ *h^K tr> a i3f^fy» 
" on the subject. 

"* I confess then that I hare hitbieTtf> l^im owbr thfir ^Kjaror- 
*" tion that in Malav the accent in denv-«pd a^ w^£ a;^ in n^A 
" words fell as a nilf ofjiin the pp^aftiEnai^ : that lOO the adfi- 
** tion of a suffix the prj^iti-jti of the ac«rteiit clKiA[;?iHj a^ a niB^ 
*' from that which was or^nalij the penii!!tiant#- tr> that whirh 
^ was ori^nally the la^st srclal^e : a£»d that the pt^m^satMi'm 
*- which accordinor to Mr. van de WaEi t« th^ tri>- afid oaisisral 
'• one, was ijuite peculiar to Eur^if^^ifc^. It U ^». I Wi^T*^. ia 
*' Javanesv^. It is true' that there the acr^tit drwr* nrA trmtP' *mi m9 
** clearly as in 1 hitch, and in th^ Jaraoe^ie grammar ^4 T. KriiOiffda 
" (§ >*7) the very existence of any acc*^t in Jaraw';*^ i» dmned : 
'• but what is there called *a slow»-r or Ear>re ^^^'py pmftBBF'iatkio 
•• of the two last svllaWe^ of everv polr<<v Italic wicrtd ' i* mo«^ txjr- 
" rectly interpreted, as it -s^^ems to m***. a** hf-mg a r»f^I ai?*r>^tat on 
** the penultimate, and a drawing *>ut *fT hsn^*^ lK>Idi&^ oci to 
•• the last syllable. Iwieed. if oi.e pr»rf*»>onc*^ fW//*. ffnf ifit^tar>c«^. 
•• in the pure Dutch style wiih a clear accent *'>© th^ p^^alticoate, 
'• though this may not give ib*^ exact Javane?^ prf:^anccatirfri. it 
" Is certainlv much nearer to it than if one -^K^ald sav /*>i>. with 
••an ei)ually plain accent on the la>t syllable: and •similarly the 
•• pronunciati«>n i*( the Tfamf wonl with thf* affix "m, wrjuld. I 
'• believe, be better r*^>resi^fited by ttlt^paM or im'tsum than by 
•• tdlimH or tultJtnM. If thf* word l> acfain increa^^ed bv the addi- 
•• tion of another suffix. s*> that the orisrinal acr^ented svlbble U 
'• separated from the new >uffix by one or morp syllables, th#»n 
'• besides the principal accent, whi'-h jroes oi'*»'r to the last, th** 
•' original accent again makes its appearance to Si-mie extent, as 
•' in tt'tli^iH^. tgifnrfU-en. In a word, without distressing further. 
'• my proposition in the main Ls thU : that in Javanese at any 
'• rate th**re actually Ls in the pn>nnnciation of every word of 
•• two or more syllables a s<>rt of stress, which can properly be 


•' called an accent, and is usually situated in the penultimate, 
** and with the addition of an affix changes its position to the 
*' new penultimate. The fact that Europeans pronounce both 
'* Javanese and Malay words so frequently, I might say almost 
'* always, with the accent on the ante-penultimate, even when 
" this is merely a grammatical prefix, and say for instance 
" tulimn^ PmgeraUy Kdlitaiiy Pdchitan, would surely be the 
*' strongest argument against that assertion, if that pronunciation 
** must ice considered as having its origin in an unprejudiced con- 
'* ception of the native pronunciation. Hut the Javanese and 
" Malay words which are most used by Europeans are generally 
" learned not so much by conversation with the natives as from 
•* writings, in which owing to faulty transliteration the exact 
" pronunciation and particularly the accent are left quite uncer- 
*• tain. For one European who first learns to pronounce sny th(» 
** word Pmgeran from the Javanese, there are |x*rhnj>t twenty 
*r who became acquainted with it only or in the first place 
'' through European conversation or writings ; and even if one 
'* afterwards had the opportunity of hearing it pronounced by 
'* natives, then (me would have to pay a good deal of attention 
** and must have some interest in the subject in order to re- 
" cognize and to abandon a wrong pronunciation which one has 
'* once appropriated ; esj^cially when it is so generally accepted 
** among our fellow countrymen that it would appear to l)e 
" pedantic or eccentric to deviate therefrom. If one considers 
*'that in Dutch and kindred languages the accent, far from 
** having any preference for the i)enultimate, usually falls fur- 
*' ther back, one will not be surprised to see this tendency in the 
"European pronunciation of native words. This phenomenon 
*' therefore has in my opinion no more value in deciding the true 
" native pronunciation, than one would be justified in doubting 
"that the nan^e Palembang should projx»rly be proiiounciHl 
" Pai^mbang (Javanese pa-lem-banq) because the majority of 
*' Europeans, even if they have lived there for years, called it 
" PalSmbkng ; or that the place where I am writing this is called 
" Sili, because Europeans, although they know lx»tter, never 
" call it anything but Solo among themselves. 

" As regards Malay, no one is less able than myself, espec- 
"ially in opposition to Mr. v. d. Wall, to refer to my own 



ubnei vail tils uu tlit i)ati%c pr iiiuiiciatiun Su let va rather 

(. iiisidt r wliut others lia^f naiU im the lubjeit In Marsden 

t F luut s trtiiisl«tiuti p ^11') I onh hnd ihi^ geiifiul ntatemeut. 

Ihnt (hi itLieiit usually niiliitides with tlic loii^ icwFl,and 

fulls by pr(>tereiK.e upun tlie penultimate? but without Further 

eluiidatiun of peciilmiittes De ILilUtider {U intleiili»<i M 

il« hewffHtnj ill- Mill bud et. UurtkiiHilr Jiid ed Breda, 

Irtob) ssyti on the atieut m words Imvin^ only one sullix 

(ptl^t :!} $7) that the} are pronouHcod both wavs, either 

with llif aitpiit uQ the syllable whuh had the acient iu the 

■Tout (iiirmldpiillini. l:iiriUtj'iO<i) or on the iiemiltiniate of the 

■■(li*fivedword<i"<'n(/'i/inV)(irw. i'lirtijd'iu), aiidnothiu^ further. Hv 

■■ W'eriKlly {.Uiil. tipr-i'iH-M»sl, Amst, 173*!) the subject is treJit- 

'ed more fully (p. 45 el »n/.). and in the folU)wiiig manner, 

"namely that the suffixes kan, i*, an, hi, mn, Nyu alwBy.seauise the 

"ateentto change it« position to the syllable iinuiediatety jirt'- 

"cedin^ Uwra. whether that syllnble be open or elosed : that 

"tlie sttnie thiujt takes plaee before iiili. t<th. tali, if a vowel. 

"diplithong or h precede them; while un the uther band, if 

■■armtber consonant precedes one of these three siilhxeii. the 

"accent shifts to the preceding syllable or rptnains nn- 

"chang^ at will {eniiMt-luh or sdiiihi,(-Uili): and that 

" the cliange of accent results iu the cliBUKe fmui lim^ 

"to short vowel and vice vprsn, except when the liiml 

"cunsunaui meel.s the initial eonsonunt of the suffix, as 

"jdliiHtttn. In the new edition of Werndly'a grammar bv 

•■ .Angelbeek ( Katavia l»i3. p. 38) it is only stated in general 

" that in words of two or more syllables, whether they Ix- ruots, 

'■iir comixiiiiLd or derived words, the accent falls usually ujxm 

"Mk' |>eniillinLatc, and that 'the syllabic on which tlie accent 

" falls must naturally be pronounced longer than the others.' 1 

'■ do nut know how mucli reliance can be placed iiixm the toali- 

" luuuy of these writers ou such u jxiiut as this; certainly undtr 

" the most favourable circumstances they can hardly outweigh 

•' the dictum of Mr. van de \V»U : but their rule, as regards the 

" cardinal points seems Ui me tu tind auchstrongsupporl.ontlip 

"inieliand in the analogy of the Javanese language, and on the 

"other in the indictilions given by ihi- spelling uf Malay in the 

"Arabic character, that eveu ih? dictum uf Mr. van de Wall, 


'*>vliile it «liake.s my lx»lief in their accuracy, lias nut Ix^en able to 
** destroy it ; and so much the less because Mr. van de Wall's 
** presentation of the subject is itself not quile clear. lie s<iys 
''(7;J, 391)) * the first result of the suffixes kaii, t, an, nifa, -(w, /t///, 
** /(f//, hih^on roots which end in an oj)en syllable is, that they leng- 
** then the vowel of that syllable and cause the orio^inal lonjc 

** vowel of the root to drop out ; the suffixes an and 

"I, since they bt*gin with a vowel, cause the same result in 
** words which end in a closed syllable, and in that case the tinal 
** consonant of the root becomes the initial letter of the suffix 

** with tlie corresponding vowel while the other 

** suffixes leave such words unchanged ....■..; but th<» 
•• chanfice of position of the lengthening letter to or its appear- 
**ance in the penultimate of root words (read, of thrived words ? 
**or in the Utst syllable of root words) has in most words no in- 
'* Huence upon the accent, or at least very little ; that is to say, 
*• the accent is in such cases not inherent in the long vowel.' 

'' Here first of all the question arises : is the change of |X)si- 
** tion of the lengthening letter a mere graphic phenomenon, 
'* does it only exist in the Malayo- Arabic character and the trans- 
" literations thereof, or does the same change in the length of 
*• the vowels take place in the pronunciation ? If this is maintain- 
*'ed, 1 must then further ask how such a rule can have arisen in 
** the written character, a character which so to speak does not 
" belong to the language, and if such were the case niight be 
** expected to have preserved in this respect the traces of a long 
*' obsolete condition of the language or perhaps of some kindred 
*• dialect, but which, borrowed from an entirely foreign language 
** and probably first applied to the Malay in comparatively recent 
** times, must be reckoned as rendering the native pronunciation in 
** common use as accurately as the foreign characters will allow ? 
" I could understand that the retention of the original spelling of 
'* a root ending in a consonant when followed by a suffix beginning 
** with a consonant, might arise from an idea of producing legi- 
** bility, so as not to entirely deprive the word of vowel signs, 

**and that one might therefore wiite for instance ^xif\ju* 
** although pc^rhaps (according to Werudly ) -^^jc^ might better 



'• represent the pFuiiuuciutiuii ; but how could ftiiyuliP think of 
■• writiiig^\SjJ if III this derivative, as in tie root, the lirst « i:^ 

" t*» be pioBouiiced long and the serund abort, or above all tiling.'^ 
" liiiw could this wpelliiig come into general use ? If, however, iu 
'' this respect the pronunciation agrees with the spellin^r. 
" then though allowing that the length of the vowi-l iu soine- 
" thing i|nil# different from the accent, it would be difficult for uie 
" t() imagine such a change in the tirstsyllBble and in tlie division 
"of the syllables otherwise than in coniiectiou with and a result 
" of a corre^Kinding chniige in the position of the accent. Even 
" if it be ftduiitt«d that the lirst change could be iinagined with- 
" out the last, and that it actually exists in Malay, how can one 
" conceive that the • inclination to modify the pronunciation of 
" the people according to the way a word is written, ' could lead 
" to the alleged tendency of literary Malays to place, in addition 
'* to the natural accent, a second, grammatical accent on a syl- 
" lable which properly had no claim whatever to any accent at 
" all ? Indeed in that case the wLitten word is ali'eadj, without 
" tliat misplaced accent, in entire agreement with the true pro- 
" nunciation : but then the Malay himself must comprehend too 
" well the difference between length and accent to confuse th^ 
" one witii the other and thus to let himself be uiisled into such 
" an unnatural pronunciation. 

*' Moreover, thitt the Arabic character, by its imperfect re- 
" presentation of tlie pronunciation and ejipecially owing to the 
" habit of omitting the vowel points, has really exercised .some 
■■ influence upon the pronunciation, can, I believe, be properly in- 
" ferred from sorae corruptions which find therein a complete ex- 

■■ planation. I tind a strong example of this in the word , - , ?v , 
" which is pronunced miinjaatmtni. in--ilead of iiire/fii-naltrnr. as it 
■■ should be somidi-d according t<J the Sanskrit siiellirnr. There 
'■ Would certainly be nollmig astoiiiwhing alxmt this cornipliim 
"in it«t'lf : but it is difficult to ascribe to mere cliarice the fact 
" that the corniplioii is jur>t of sucli a kind, as is fnvoiired by the 
■■ illegible manner of writing without vowels ; to which the fact 
" thttt it is probably not an everyday word may also have con- 
"tributed. The same thin^, though with leas foundation, may 


*' be supposed in regard to ^..^^ z^ pronounced s<(tta, manttsia, 

** with three and four syllables, in place of saO/a^ tmniuiti/a^'with two 
"and three syllables. Perhaps in the same way the spelling 

*'^^ui\ja4 might have caused the change in the pronunciation 

" from meti ill pdt kiln to nicHdnpnUan ; but in grammatical forms it 
"is more difficult to admit that much an influence \\p(m t^e 
" pronunciation of the people could have come from a compara- 
"tively recent written character. And for the influence which 
" Mr. van de Wall ascribes to it, I can not even find a reason- 
"able cause." '' 

These extracts have been translated from the Dutch, and 
are given here at such great length for the benefit of those to 
whom the Dutch Journals are not available. Before stating 
my own views on this question of the spelling and pronunciation 
of derived words, it seemed only fair to give the reader the 
facts and arguments which have already been used on both 

There can be no (juestion but that, as stated by ( 'ohen Stuart, 
the Dutch scholars up to the time of van de Wall universally held 
that the Malays actually pronounce such words as they are 
written. How they can have been led to this conclusion can 
perhaps be understood when it is considered that their study of 
the Malay language was prosecuted for the most part in Java or 
in places which are under strong Javanese influence. Robinson 
formed this opinion because he learnt the language in Ratavia 
and Bencoolen. Marsden also studied at Hencoolen, and wrote 
his grammar and dictionary in England, where of course he had 
not the advant'ige of native help.* 

♦The Dutch j*chohir II. N. van dcr Tuuk soeniH to have had no personal 
knowledge of the way in which the MalayH of the Peninsula pronounce 
derivetl woHh, for he wrote in 1860 in hi» notes to Abdullahs l*(invha 

/a/irAi;r/«:— ♦ 4l^^a;5j The writer always spalls thus, and not 
•* <i\*.^^Oj ''Mid M) he i<\w\\> aJjU ''"'1 ""* ^iji* <X.\>. and nut 
" ^U^;OsiU«« and no! ^\ij^ • In the Menanjrkabau dialect the nccenl 


Whether the Dutch scholars of the present generation have 
universally accepted van de WalTs dictum in re^'ard to the 
change of accent in derived words, I am unfortunately not in a 
position to know, the Library here not being very well supplied 
with the latest Dutch works on the Malay lan;;uage, but as far 
as I am able to discover, the grammar of Gerth v. Wijk, pub- 
lished in 1893, is now considered the best Dutch work on the 
Malay language. This author is in entire agreement with van 
de Wall, for on page 46, para. 96, he writes : " The original, 
^' natural accent (of the root word) is usually retained when the 
" word takes a ^ufiix, e. g., hamlity^ hhndhigim ; kumpoiy kumpoUm ; 
** (lap*it, mendiijHiti ; lempnr^ melemparkan, A nd the phenomenon here 
" presents itself, that if the accent is not very easily distinguishable 
" in the root word, it sometimes comes out clearer in the derived 
" word, e. g., beiigis^ kub^if/i'san." 

After quoting from van de Wall part of the passage which 
we have given above, Gerth v. Wijk adds : ** The tendency 
*' to change the position of the accent more or less is chiefly 
*• noticeable, as it seems U^ me, in W(»rd3 which have the a sound 
"in the last syllable: such a pronunciation, however, ashtd*)- 
" iiifa from I'uUu pndn-njia from junla, whereby the first syllable 
•* of the root entirely loses its accent, which falls wholly upon 
" the second, as is the case with bita-m/a,^ can only be attribut- 
••edto European- Javanese iiilluence ; one never bears it from 
•* the iMjilav." 

We shall see later on that van Wijk is probably correct 
in attributing to Javanese influence this mistaken idea about 
the change of the accent to the penultimate in all derived words. 
It seems necessary, however, before going into that question, 
to inquire first of all which are the words in the Malay language 
that actually do undergfo a change of accent. In order to 
make an independent investigation of this subject I have 
written out a list of derived words and have caused them to 

'* of a won) (loeft not change its position on the aiMition of the particles lah, 
'* Irak and tah. Prom tli» spelling of Abdullah it would appear that thi» in 
•• al!*o the caw? in the Malay of Malacca." 

t Where van de Wall and van Wijk came acro<«H tliLs pronunciation of 
kntn-njffi I cannot imagine. The Malacca and «)ohor pronunciation 
certainly given an accent identical with khitii-nf/ti, ^ - 


be read in my hearing by a number of Malays, with the result 
that I have only been able to detect an entire change of accent 
in the following classes of words : 

(A ) In some words derived from roots ending in (ng by the 
addition of the prefix an, as timbaig, timbdfrfan ; Mrmg, lavmgan ; 
bilaig, biidtgan ; ddgarr/y dagdtgau ; pdndarg, pemanddigan, 

(B) In some derived words formed by the addition of the 
suffix t, as: buk(u biiku^t; serta, sertdi ; mula^ miild^i; turun^ 
turiifii ; tdhan, taJidni; kdsehan^ meigasehdni.* 

(C) In some polysyllabic derived words formed with the 
suffix t, the accent is carried forward to the suffix t on 
the addition of the possessive pronoun uya^ as, jdlam\ di-jalam- 
nya ; meigdbatij di-obati-nya-lah. This should probably be 
attributed to the difficulty of pronouncing the consonant nijn 
following the vowel i , which necessitates a pause. 

In the majority of words the root most distinctly re- 
tains the original accent, as for instance jddi^ jddiknn ; wdkou, 
mdkauan ; de'fgar, Wdeigaran ; 6hat^ mogobati ; sdlah^ kesdlahnti ; 
sHvat^ di'Siirat-fUfa-iafi, It would be ridiculous to pronounce 
these w^ords,7<if//Xaw, makdnan^ kedergdvau^ metgobdtt^ kesaldhnu. 

There are, however, a large number of derived words, chieHy 
words of four or more syllables, in which the original accent 
almost or perhaps entirely disappears, without, however, any 
particular accentuation of any other syllable, the word being 
pronounced with an equal stress on all the syllables. »Such 
words are: />«rX*a<a«/j, kekayaan^ menjalani. 

Taking the pronunciation of the above-mentioned words 
into consideration, it would be easy in the case of the words in 
(A) and (Ji) to account for the position of the strengthening let- 
ters, alij\ wau and ya ; and even in the case of the words given 
above where the stress is ecjual on all the syllables, one could 
understand the omission of the strengthening letter from its 
proper place in the root, though its transference to the pen- 
ultimate would be difficult to explain ; but when we come to 
such a spelling as, 

♦ It HhoiiM Ik* notcMl that in such roots ns tnnin arnl hihu» tlie Htress in 
nonrly oqiml on tin* rwo j»yllahlo8. the clinnfrc of hXxvuh In tumni. hifmui is 
•thert'foiv vory Hllght. 


cr^yJ Sj> oV^ J^^ S^ JX> 

it b ccooie a sbaplT impcHsible lo Accacafi f :c ^ :& uix tbMiirr 

of phooetka. nnkas indeed cee i§ pr?pu*>ii v* adact tL!> 
poflsibUirT of a oompiece c^aag^ cc pr:r.m«rar^:cL 3i lie 9b:«t 
space of SOU jear^ vbjch appemi^ to sue Vj :«• yn if aift> 

!*. It seess tc- »e. a a 
explmnatinn of thi< pecniiu' di$««pa&r j bprv««^ ibe* 
and the prooimeiatioQ cf th -^e v-:«d:^. ai]»i liat i^ Vj ^xj^ f«:«Dd 
in the eiusteoce of a co^nat^ iaas^a^. i2y>- Ja-raaese. z. v^at^ 
it is admitted tbat tbe accent in d^v^civ«^ art^zallr <^-.«>-4 f^mxegy 
its positioo and fall npxi tbe pPcuItia:AT«r. M'/Cv^ tw^ t^ pr-> 
baUlitr that Javanese va> thr* pattr-iT: fr -m tl>^ tLi* pHruar 
Malay spelling was cvipied Leo~4D^^ <L1 ^r^c^aner vl^ it S9 
pointed oat tbat Javane^ vr*rd^ *-4 i^^ kiz^ ar*>> vTTn*>« in t^ 
Javanese cliaiacter in a way whi>.-fa ha«> ^\\2Xifr a ?tr:«q^ aia^^rj 
to this pecoliar a-se • ^f ihe strenst fce^iiri^r l^ttrr^ in tb?- ppn-:iliL- 
mate. As the Javar^ese chara<.-tr-r« an^ r» 4 '^.caiisALi^ \ii rwra- 
pore it ha5 be*n ne«>^sarv !-• r*^ rt t. ■ ib> arrar.-r-^ayT.t ai^irti 
below, which ivpresfr-nt* a> ia^\\\ as it > p:«*^r-*^ in K'^cLan 
characters tbe way in whi^.L <^*-\i ar*- '^It in tbi* Java- 
nese character. 




<ut„-Ti g 

a nl: 

it r ^y 

a-Hal a-j 


P i-rr/y 

•.f'l-» l«7->jrf\ 




^f i^^ 


It will be seen from the above that in Javanese the addition 
of the suffix ait, a, e or / doubles the preceding hotter. Thus, 
the addition of c to atud- produc>es not attaHe, but analle, tlie 
accent being shown in this way to be on the penultimate. VVhen 
.Javanese is written with Arabic characters, the weak letter al{J\ 
wau or tf(i is substituted for one of the double letters used in the 
Javanese character. 

The resemblance between these Javanese fornis* and the 
spelling of Malay derivatives is so close that it amounts almost 
to a demonstration that the Javanese or some similar character 
was the medium through which the use of the strengthening 
letter in the penultimate came into Malay spelling, regardless 
of the pronunciation. The (juestion has been raised before 
whether the Malays had a written character of tlieir own, 
before they adopt^^d the Arabic character. If that were s<^), 
analogy would naturally lead us to supjx)se that such a charac- 
ter would, like the Javanese, Ix^ l)ased upon the iSanskrit, and 
that would make the st^p from the .Javanese to the Malay spell- 
ing of derivatives which has been outlined above still easier, f 

♦ Tlu'sc .Iavnncj*o<loiil>lo-lutt(T forms can Htill Ik» tnice<l in NLnhiv in the 
iloul>le /', wfiich han no iloiibt Kurvivcd onin^ to tlu* cxlHtomM' of tlic t\v<i 
Ifttern ////and ////i Tims we find that tlu» Malavs invariahlv \ifv this an'- 
t\un\ o( sJM lling the words given hehm- : 

J^k'^\J Ja.L. jlU JH^ 

although the Dutch scholan" have endeavoured for more than a oentury to 
intriMluct* what they consic'er more correct forms of si)elling, namely : 

c^. ^^^j ify^ ifi^ c^/ 

The fnet that the Malays refuse to adopt these European spellings and 
retain the doubl.»- letter forms, is to my mind at once a strong argun»ent in 
favour of their retention and an additional evidence in favour of the tlioory 
that the spelling of Malay derivatives can only be explaine<l as being based 
uiion the .Javanese system of spelling. 

t Werndly, in the introduciirn to his grammar, written 170 years ago, 

says on page »0 : •' The first language from which the Malay language has 

*' iKirrowcHl some wonls is her neighbouring and kindred friend and sister the 

;** Javanese language, with which many pnsonx conjecture that sh*- fui- 


We will now proceed to in«|uire : 

11. What changes have the Malays introduced iu their 
speilins during the last 300 years with a view to greater 

It has already bet»n poiiit*^! out in 1.(1) that it is now 
the almoHt invariable custom of the Malays to write Hnal trau 
and //a in words which end in the vowels f and /. o and w. as well 
08 in tho^fe which end in ai and an. This change has Ijeen accept- 
ed by van de Wall, Fijnappel. Kliukert, v. Wijk, Wilkinson, and 
all other modern European authorities. 

(2) The use of final a/if for words endinjjc in the a sound, 
has not, however, been accepted by any of the above-mentioned 
lexicosrraphers, except in those words which have the stress on 
the final syllable, as seh, Im, etc. The extent to which the 
final a/i/is now used appears, however, to justify the practice, 
in view of the fact that it renders a large number of words far 
more legible, and in the abst»nce of any counteracting disadvant- 
aga In the new Malay Spelling Book, No. 1, now used in the 
vernacular schools of this Colony, the following words are found 
with final afif: 

batijsa Ifatca bisa htntta fmhi rhinn cituba ritita dmht 

VJd \X V*^ \jai \;v \;mc>> Vi^>. U.>. \^\j 

dcmhi df-pn ijHa Juittta htbt hijn kt na kuda luda I it^a 

Uj Ui "AT U-* ^ W» iT \j/ \si Lji 

nuufa II If (da msa stduia sim s*iihki 

Whereas the following are wiitten without final idif: 
ad'i iifiit barha b^ipn hutjiimvni biit;<n buka cbobn din 

j\ _i\ ^V. ^l j\S>. ^W ^ s-»yr ls^ 

** fhrr/jif had nuf nuil tin* sit.ur H'iifl*'n r/ionnfrr in rtuHmon^ rik) now still lini« 
**ni ctMiiiiioii a larj:i* i»n»|M»rti.'n of wonN. which ciiMnot well hi.- (Ii>tin{;iti!«h- 
'• III i'xei'pl hv thoM* wlio kiiou ht»w to c(Mii|inn' thnn. and by >oiiic <leriv- 
'* Ationsi which Hn> |>c*cii1iir to thv one* langiia^u mthvr than to the otlaT." 


(jHua hitmhit hergu hevta kata kerja ktnia kita hoUi 

^f .^ ^j^ ^j^ j^ ^ jX ^ ^f 

lama lima lnk'a litpa mana masa mata mttla nama 

fS ^ i^; ^) j\. ^U oV. ^ fV; 

tit/ata pada punt/a ruba rmja rasa rata sana serba 

^\ -^ ^^ J^j «i^j ^^j '^^ o^ vv- 

siapa snka we ma ivtrta 

In the lithographed Ist editions of the J/iLai/nt Abtlttlla/i, 
and Pancha Tamlaran, which Munshi Abdullah wrote with his 
own hand, such wordis are in almost every instance spelt in 
precisely the same way as the Spelling Book, as the following 
will show : 

batgsa baxca bichara bila bhut/a blanja bimja china chtiuhua 

La \,V. \> ^ M,% UH U-y \i* \i\x>. 

ihula dtpa dosa dna eja kapala Lena nama nyali onta 
perkara pinia peiylima penjara preksa sabdu sa/it/a seLsa 

\J^J \xJ Ui» \jU? Li/ \ju-. W- Ui 

aenjukala sinja ieliuja 

• • • 

and without alit\ 

ada apa baclia bidtaaa btrniaya bcnc/tana chcrana dtr/taka 

<//(« 7«.7" /.«<<• i:erj-i Lcriiu kilii Ln-lu mana mala iiiiiita 



,-ill n 

r pioccwl to iiiijMi 

If. What changes have the Malays Introduced In their 
spelling during the last 3O0 years with a view to greater 

It )ia!^ ali'cadv li(<<-u iKiiiiti'il out itil. (I) tlinl ll is now 
tlir almiMt in\Tiriabli? eustoui of (lie MatavM to wril« liiwl ipiiu 
and ;/a in words whkli end in the vowpIs e aod ', « and n, as well 
iiii in those which end in ui anil aii. This change has ixH'n acccpt- 
tti \>y vande Wall. t'ijn&p)M>l, Kliiikert, v. Wijt, Wilkinson, and 
all ulher modern Kuropean stilhoritiey. 

(2) The tt«H uf linal ii/i/for words ending in ihr « sound, 
has not. huwevtr. lieeu accepted by any of the above-inentiuiied 
leMcr>2raphers, exct'pt in tlimte wurdts which have the stress on 
the final syllable, as «'», iiii, etc. The extent to which llie 
final iilifi^ now used appears, liiiwever, t« justify the practice, 
in view of the fwcl lliat il rendeiii n Urge number of words far 
wore legible, and in ihe absence of any counteracting disadvant- 
age. In the new Malay Spelling IJook, No. 1. now used hi the 
verttacular schools of this Colony, the following woi'ds are found 
with final iilif: 



/.i>i *,■ 

</U /., 

/,' -.•/. 







U 1^ t 

y W 





i/ilil /irl.if. 









l.ixtll llf/(tll 







b^ ^V 






. Ihf fullow 

»S arc 



nt final iiHf; 


A^. -<y 


lie rctaiiuH:!, however, the old form of six'lliii*!: in the words : 
btilck' (janhmj hnbis liidup hiinjutuj JM*ff/f/il puUh Idok titf/t/al 

j\V ^ ^U -Ij^ ^ J^ *:,i jk ^ 

The new* Spelling Book referred to above goes even further 
than Abdullah, giving 

(Of/in buHjan bfum tjautouj t/mttiiff mi mi in p^'liouj 

runipul Siihit snlikit fulat t"ifjoif/ tiilor ff/it/Zmf fini/'/ul 

oy^j <SL- <^Ju- 0^^ t^ j^SZ <^y J^y 

(iimjHih viiipat 
.* • i- \ 

But retaining the old forms 

bintwij habis kaiiipoiff J*(fff/;/fl ff'f/f/itl 

^. ^\m ^ Jii Juj 

(1) As stated above, the tmlulid is now never used. 

(.")) The insertion of the lengthening letters in the penulti- 
mate of derived words appears to have becom(» lirmly (ixed 
in the mind of the Malay, and is still very generally practised. 
We find the following in the new Sp(*lling Hook: 

int/L'atun bucket hh makaiian pemiuuUnyaii ptmblian 

ptrkuiaan tanaman OmjKvfHUi 
which are absolutely in accord with the spi'lling of our MJ6S. 


But we also find sovoral words which are not writton in the 
same wav, o.jj. 

1hu(ju)hih mimimfw pntf/tp'/ttt* pfmlnnmhtni pnirhaniin pt'udtipalnn 

v>'/V cy'r^ o^ o^x^ otj^ o^^jJ 

jyigharnjwfi pf^rglihuiiin pf^taro/ittu petutonni ptikohni lulisnn 
which according to the old s|x»lling should \ie. 

cr^. o^y^. J^f^ o^r^ cx-^ J^^ a*l^ 

dr^ ^^/i ^jy^ Jif^ ^j^ 

The new sjielling" of these words is certainly a very stronpr 
confirmation of what is stated al)ove in regard to the position of 
the accent, and surel}' no one can deny that the new s|)elling is 
very much more legible than the old. 

Abdullah writes : 

-^^^ LT-WV o""^. ^^. cf^.^ 

(li imnui'hih jHinm lnnUipan Immpiri in pun jnmlmtaii 

^U^ ol^ a'-^^ ^A^ OA^ CrW 

khilnisan L'erjtt'tufa huhif^fmnt ledmlohni h'^eAokau 

cA^ ij^f j/"^ K^^^-^ c^X 

If'hd'Htfn Miftnttin hsfihi/fOti Lfse»Kiripiii hvtunhihnn k(*fHiSiihnu 

;}f^ j:\^ 0^'%^ C^\^ O^^^ cA^y-^ 

lurotr/'in vn'mlat4nffL'nit pnhainn ptn-anabiu pf'rJtniiati ppnnuhnin 

J.^J' ^\x^ j€i ^\J ocU^ ok.> 


lie retained, however, the old form of siK»lliiij^ in the words : 
bitlvk' ynnUn(j hnbis hUlop kumpniij jnff[/f/il pittch Idok thf/f/al 

The new Spelling Book referred to above goes even further 
than Abdullah, giving 

lOf/in baiyan blum tjutitoif/ ijtiittiiij iiumiin p**^'/oif/ 

rtiHipfil no/, ft svtliktt tidttf tttitjotf/ tit/nr loHjhut ftttf/'/al 

oyi*j oL- <SuJu- oyVl i'yk j^^ <^J ij^^ 

tniiipah vinpat 
.* - ::- \ 

But retaining the old forms 

bintaifj hubis kantpottj p(tff/*/il tiiyifal 
^\m ^ J^ ^ 

(4) As stated above, the ta^hdid is now never used. 

(.")) The insertion of the lengthening letters in the penulti- 
mate of derived words appt»ars to have lecome firmly fixed 
in the mind of the Malay, and is still very generally practised. 
We find the following in the new Spelling Book: 

cnykaUni bucket an makaiiaii pematnUnyau ptmblian 

perkataait twiaman t'tft/La/nt/i 
which are absolutely in accord with the s|X'lling of our MSS. 


But we also find sovoral words which aro not writton in the 
same wav,, 

1nn(jUH(ni unmiuiau patt/f/ihtu p*'iiihnnohiiii pmrhnntin ppinhtptttun 

v>'^V o^r^ o^ o^r^ ckJ^ c^i^-xJ 

p«*fgharapau prrgWnit'in pelnrohtn* pctiiloran pHkolnu tulisnn 

which arcording to the old sjielling: should \)e 

Cr^. Cr-y* lAA* o^yJ O'-/? Cr^-^ C^W^ 

v>^ O^^A Ojr^ J^ O-^ 

The new sj^ellino: of these words is certainly a very stronof 
confirmation of what is stated alx)ve in regard to the position of 
the accent, and surely no one can deny that the new s|^)eHing is 
very much more legible than the old. 

Abdullah writes : 

-^^^ ilrWV a»^ ^^. J^.^ 

ih' nttnut'lti/t fikiniu luulapan /mmpiri in puif jnmlnitau 

<^U^ ol^ a'-^^ isA^ oyi^ i>W 

kfteftftsmi ket'jn-tnfti Lfthifjartni IftJmlohiH h'^esiol'nu 

Cr-Vs^ OWX 0>^ ^^3^ C^-\^ 

kvUthum L't'lihntan h^mhilmn hcaeiKngaii Ivsuthihan kf.'insn/iaii 

c}f^ CrW^ c/^ l/^ O^^^ cA^y-^ 

lurorg>in hunuhitnnfh'nn piihiunii prranahm pevhntian ppnniiln\iu 

J^^jf ^\x^ J^ J^\J ovV.> o^v 


pffffiVinn pua^a-hih ruptt'Uffti tani/*ahitn 

o:Ui AL.y ^\ij^ ^Vi 

It will Ik* s*»on that th«» s|xMlin)»; of many of those words is 
noarer to tho s|M*llin^ of tho 17th century than the* now Si^Mlinjr 
liook, but tho stronjf tondoncy to chanjfo tho s)M*lIin^ in the* 
dinH*tion of tho pronunoiation is vory ovidont. 

III. Is It possible to formulate rules which will fix the 
spelling of Malay according to the modern native ideal, i. e., 
legitrillty without vowel points? 

rndouht4Klly it should Ix* arooptod as an axiom tliat tht* 
Malays should rontinuo to s|m»11 tho oonnnon words as thoy liave 
l)oon acoustomod to do for oonturii»s; tho s))ollin^ of thos<» fi'w 
words is oasily loarnt, and it wo»dd now Im» noxt t<» imjx»ssil»lo 
to <'han}2:o thom, o. ^., 

I/// ftu jik'iihni Irrna sof/nhi .*tjnv1i ftinitu ilm'-fnnfn 

^\ ^\ j^ ^J^ J$l j4» ^\^. aJ^j 

Als<» Amhio words, whirh havo rotnimMl tho original s|)i»llin^ 
Rlthoup^h thf» pnmunriatitm has ohauginl, sh<Mild not now have 
thoir s|)i»llinjr altonnK as, 

tliniia Jtnisih nn'sh'n uwuv 

Tho first nilo (1) wmdd U\ s|)i»ll with final mm and //// ro- 
spi»rtivi»ly all words wliioh ond in any of tlu» sounds r, / and ai or 
N, o and <nf. 

(2) All words ondin^ in th<» u sound should U* sp«'lt with 
linal aUj\ oxn^pt thoso w<»nls in whirh th«» last (M»nsonant is 

^ — — ^ ^ ». and a f«»w roninrm wonis such as 


ada afia aftahila (fia itt l-ermi mnHusitt inula fhala pnla 

PnnndcHi. h*>wever, tlmt the final »i/»7' niav alsio bo omittiH) 
"when the last consc^nant is j^ ^ ^ ^ or ^ whenever thase 
consonants are precedtxi by an »i/iy*, as in the following words : 
htiffihtaua /tVi^orf ihttfa tata hnt*' hnmi ttmmi mastt mnt'i mntui 

J^. cr-W «/^-> vi*^ t5^ f*^ O^ tr^ ^^ f^ 
tif/tUa y»M'i.«n n/.^a r«?/## ,*^w##i .«i#/#»i snjMtfa 

(J^) The following rules are siigf^esteil t4) i^overn I he ins*»r- 
tion of the weak letters ir^tu and v" in i*Ios«hI syllabh»s (it lx*injr 
nnderstiHxl of r*>iu*se that ah'f'U ii»»ver thu'< ust^l ex<*ept in the 
nionasvllable «/<i/»). 

(»i) In two->v liable nH»is, whtMi one >vllabh* is ojvn and 
the other cK»se<l. the weak hitters irau and if i shall U» insertt^l 
in the chased syllable, exeept when the vowel sounds of the two 
syllables an^ similar. Kxamples i»f wonls vith similar vowels : — 

/»////* hinU'h Munif hottjUH huHitli ihisun tH'iv miiHpi sorouj ausuit 
jL ojy ^y y^m^ <y O^^^ ^ J^ 5?^ O^^ 

tnijiji tittk tn/ntif tfilus tnr»iu 

Kxaniph^ of wruiK with dissimilar vowels: — 

4iH/tn htutn fjtulnh hithtfh il ill Itt.^itt Lt'rhil I'rpiig 

o^\ f>. ._,j)r _i,ju» 0^^ i^^ ji. ^ 


hriiij pf^j/^'f'/ tnroh iitlor timpa touihi /i//i> 

Ci/ b*-^ •^^ j^-^ ^ ^-^y u-^y 

(b) When lx)tb are closed syllables, the weak letter should 
only be inserted in the second syllable if the v<nvel sounds of 
the two syllables are similar. 
Examples : — 

heutenj dhuUrff riir/git tindf/i ttnuhoh tintdok tiifggul nujnk 

&. f 



A^l^ AiA:; o^i J^^ ^pi Jy|C\ 

(r) If the sounds are dissimilar, one being the a sound and 
the other wau or //«, the wmi or //// must be written in which- 
ever syllable it occurs. Thus : 

himhdHf hiihtivi hittUiyf himbinj Ivnibnni torggonj tinpgatg 
^. ^. ^. ^ ^f "^f& ^y 

(//) If the vowel sound in one syllable corresponds to trau, 

and in the other t-o ya, then lx)th should he written, as : k^S^ 

It will, of course, be understood that it is quite impossible 
in this way to represent all the jx)ssible permutations of vowel 
sounds that may be formed with the same consonants. This 
could only be done with vowel points. The great majority of 
words in ordinary use will however be covered by the above 
rules, and something must be left to the imagination of the 

(e) In such common words as tirgffal and pmggii, it is doubt- 
ful whether the insertion of the ifa would be of any use. 1'he 

Malays are so accustomed to the spelling J^ and ^Sj^i 

for these words that careless readers invariably pronounce these 
forms tltg^tal suid p^nggil even when they stand for Unggal and 
pnggnL and would certainly continue to do so even if thggal and 

ptnggil were spelt ApUi J^UJ an^^ as most Malays strongly ob- 
ject to the insertion of the tfa in these words, I would advocate 


its> uiuissiou, for tlie presiMit at auy rate. SiiiiiUrly a ffw uIIht 
very coinuioii words might be s|x.»lt without the wiiik h*tterr<, as : 

miiiUl piitUl piutu Jttutjnt rhinUl hnbi$ pui*h timhul Imhh itltU 

U^ UJ _^ \iir U:^ ^U 4:y Ji .J^ ^^ 

rat Its mttliti himifon iffuL lebfU 

(4) The «/// slioiild Ih» u>ecl, as e\|>laiii<*(l ali«»v«'. in all 
word.s where in the old M»*?js. a taehdul i.«i found ovit iruti, as in 

huah IfUiit ilitd jt*n prfiitpmni tumi Ituiv 

o^y 5^y ^^j ^^ ^^} j\y ^\^ 

This use of «/t/'does not a|>|)»*ar t* U' iie(:<*ssary wImtp ^/-y//- 
</if/ is found over //« in the old M.Sr>., for the Malays n«'ver sjx'll 
otherwise than 

O^ Crr^ O^ 

(')) (a) 1q root \v(jrds, the use of the weak h*tt4'rs to len;,**- 
tlien the vowel sound in o|x.mi syllables requires but few t*Miiarks. 
In words of two syllables, thes<» lengthening letters an» Hlnjost 
invariably found in th«* Hrst syllable, th<' ex<-<*plions bi*injr thoM* 
words in which the accent falls on the last syllable, th<* tirst 
syllable having" the short vow<»l sound, as : 

hUi km Mt,'ia tni 

In three-syllable roots, the lengthening h'tt«»r is plac(*d in 
the penultimate ; but in one or two words which have final /////* 
the lengthening letter is onutt(*d from the |XMiultiniat4% as 

(A) In dcrivfMl words the aim should undoubtedly U* to 
briuj^ the s|n»llin)^ into a;jirecmeut with the proiuniciation as far 
as iiossible without making an entire rev(jlutioii in the present 


system of spelling. As a general rule, the spelling of tlie rout 
should remain the same as it was before the addition of the pre- 
fixes and suffixes. No change of spelling is necessary when the 
vowel sound of the last syllable of the root is c, t, o, or ti. This 
will be made plain by the following three sets of examples: 

b^. The final syllable open : 

f/anti yautikan ganilan lain hdti'Hj/a lakukun 

b^. Final syllable closed and containing a weak letter : 

kast'h kastli-nya kast'hi nnjok' uujokkan itnjoki * 

l)^. Final syllable closed but without a weak letter : 

Jikiv Jiktrkan Jikiran biiuoli bunuhkan jtembuno/utn 

(r.) If the last syllable of the root has the open a sound, 
the a/i/ must always be written when a sul!ix is added, even if 
the root does not retjuire final alij\ as, 

adu adu'lali rasa rasa-mja raja rajakan 

((() If the last syllable of the root is closed and has the a 
sound, the addition of a suihx commencing with a consonant 
produces no change in the spelling of the root, as, 

ihipat dapatkan sufta/t susaftkan susah-nifu 

but if the suffix commence with a vowel sound, the a/Z/is usually 
written in the last syllable of the root : 

♦ Unjoki may al»o be »|K;lt ^jJ^V ^'w iKige 1U2, footnote. 


dajHit daputi kras mergrasi aenaiy kesenatf/an amah kesiimUan 

<J\j J\J\j lT^ l^\A* A^ o^^^ ^^T^ o^y^ 

(e) When both syllabh?s of the root liav<* the // soiiiul, and 
the addition of a suffix retjiiires in the last syllable an extra alil\ 
the Malays invariably omit the aUf of the tirst syllable of the 

root, unless it follows one of the letters . 3 <jr 5 » thus, 
biicha hachakan di-barha-mia bapa bttjHt-nt/a lata katakun 

pevkataan Laratg karaujan mahni mukanan nama namakan 
nautai sidah kt'saluhau tnuam tanaman 

But with words commencing with j or ^ the s|)(*lling is, 
lUida-uifa dagwijtin d^dnm-nt/ci perdftf/akan rma-infa tVin/tfif/nn 

With roots in which t/a is u consonant, the omission of r////' 
would cause ambiguity ; it should therefon* lj<; retained, as, 

^LL ^L J^J iSTu^ jlVjy i5VJ^\ ^U\ ^^U\ 

(j) The suffix a/i re<iuires (i///'when the root ends with the 
letters » ^ or ^ 

JiLiran kaUnj intii kclakuan pctiiton(u 

o\^ j^j.^ j\f% j\jyi 

In such words, tli(» ^//// which would otherwise Ije re<|uired 
by rule(.')) (</) in the last syllabh? of the root must Xx* omitted, as. 


{(j) The further addition of ssuftixes or particles to derived 
words should cause no change in spelling. Some persons write 
a///* after the possessive pronoun nija when it is followed by the 
particles /<///, la/t, etc., but this appears to l>e unnecessary. Ex- 
amples : 

bapa-iii/a bapa-tnia-kah laachi di'laschi'tiyti'lah 

vaniai iu-riai/iu^i'nt/a-lah 
» ft 

,c\i aLjUj 

(C) The orthographical sign hamza * , which was very 
seldom written in the manuscripts of the 17th century, is now in 
common use among the Malays, chiefly for the purpose of in- 
troducing a syllable which commences with a vowel ; they never 
employ it however for this purpose at the beginning of a word. 
The hamza is placed over nlif, won or //« according to the vowel 
sound of the syllable in which it is used. 

{a) Koot words commencing with the vowels correspond- 
ing to trau and ya are written with an initial al{t\ but this nH/ 
drops out on the addition of the prefix s</, its place being taken 
by the hawza ; with the prefix ke the alif is retained and hamza 
written over it. 

saoravj saoluh-olah saisl saelor sa umpama kthginan 

P" %^*^ I ^^**> lS""*'*^ JlrS*** ^vL^^Mf CA^'VJ^^ 

In the following words the alif is the lengthening letter of 
the preceding syllable, 

ia*ita Jiu^il raeh ihtirah 


(h) In similar derivatives formed from words cunimencing 
with the a sound, the f////'is retained and the hamza written over 
it, as, 

kf'aihiau kvitm/tat kantfot sfCakan-aknu 


Jfam:a is used in the samo way with tho sulix an following an 
alif\ as, 

(c) Jfamzii is also usod with tho suftix i when it follows an 
alif\ but not when it follows mmm, as, 

Miihi*i namn' srrtai hhanti ketiiJiui lalui tutqfjui 

^^y 45^ t^^l^ ^^}^- ^yic^ ^^^ iSy^ 

(fl) IfuiHca is sometimes placed at the end of a word in- 
stead of fmal s to indicate a shortening of the Hnal syllable, as 

heii/hti datit' inr/n-' ma pol'o tCiTjit 
(/») It also appt»ars in a few Arabic words : 

imdaikat oja lb inn ml n 

IV. For the sake of brevity and clearness the proposed 
rules for Malay speUinf; are now recapitulated, without the 
explanations which were necessary above. 


(1) Final wnti and //n must be used in all words endino^ in 
the sounds n, o, <///, and /, e^ al, respi^ctively, except 

l^ slJ^y^ Ni^.V ^.Vi ^i^J ^\ 

(2) Final fi/?7'must be uscni in all words ending in the « 
sound, except (a) when the final consonant is ^ ^ »• ^ ..^ 

^ ; (A) when the final consonant is ^ lT ^ r il) lS P^*** 
ceded by ahj\ or (r) one of the following exceptions: 

J^ j\ ^ c5-> ^ Jy oX J^^ ^.^ c5-^^ Jr 


(3) (a) In two -syllable roots having one syllable open and the 
other closed, the weak letters icau and //a are to be inserted in the 
closed syllable having the e, i, or o, u sound respectively, except 
when the sounds of the two syllables are of the same class (o and 
«, o and o, ?/ and it ; or i and e, e and <?, t and ?). (b) When both 
syllables are closed and have similar sounds, the weak letter 
must only be used in the second syllable ; but (c) if the sounds 
are dissimilar, one being the a sound and the other wau or //o, 
the tvftu or tfa must be written in whichever syllable it occurs ; 
and {(I) if the sound in one syllable is tcau and the other //ri, both 
must be written, (e) The following common words are exceptions 
to this rule, being written without the weak letters, 

Vua yjj \x^ ^y^\ VjL ^\j aJ J ASy ^\a J^' J^^ ^^^ 

Three-syllable roots must be treated similarly. 

(4) Where a syllable commencing with the a sound follows 

a syllable ending in the letter % ^ ^^ 5 ^^^^ "''/ "^^^st 
always be written. Examples: 

^y, ^^^ o\y^ •^y. ^^ sV jV 

('») (a) In r(X)t words, bngthening letters are used in those 
open syllables on which the accent falls. Several words of 
Arabic origin, however, are exceptions to this rul(\ and a few 
other words, such as, 

^S^ ^:^Si. ^^\^ JCj ^^ jC ^ CX-- aJ vil* 

(/>) In derived words, when the vowel sound of the last 
syllable of the root is e, i, o or ?/, the spelling of the root 
remains unchanged, (r) If the root ends with the open a sound, 
an alif must be written in the last syllable of the root when a 
suflix is added, {d) If the last syllable of the root is closed and 
has the a sound, an alif is usually written in the last syllable of 
the root on the addition of a suffix commencing with a vowel 
sound, but if the suffix commence with a consonant the ali/ is 
not required, and the spelling of the root remains unchanged. 


(e) When lx)th syllables of the r(X)t have the a sound, and the 
addition of a suffix r»^quires an extra alif in the last syllable, 
then if there is an alif in the first syllable of the root it should 

be omitted, unless it follows one of the letters » J 5 ^^ ^ 

(fj When the root ends with one of the lett<?rs . J ^ an alif must 

be written before the suffix an, the ri/i/re(|uired by rule (r)d) is 
then omitted. (//) The further addition of suffixes or particles 
to derived words causes no change in the spelling. 

(fi) (//) When sa is prefixed U) a root commencing with a 
vowel sound corresponding to irau or t/a, the alif drops out, and 
hamza takes its place; with the prefix he the <////' Ls retained and 
haiiizn is written over it. (/>) When the root commences with 
the ii sound, the alif is retained and the ham:a written over it. 
Ifamza is also employed in the same way with the suflix nu 
following an alif, (<•) It is used with the suffi'x / following an 
alif but not when it follows wau, (</) At the end of a word, 

hamza sometimes takes the place of final s . (e) It also ap- 
pears in a few Arabic words. 

In order to show the application of the principles of Malay 
spelling reform suggested in this pai^er, the first chapter of 
Jlikaifat xXhdnUah^ spelt according to the above rules, is h(M'(» 
appended, with a few notes on words which are spt»lt in an un- 
usual way. A glossary of the words us(hI in this [uij^cr ns ex- 
amples is also apixMidiHl. The* root words are arrangtHl in tin- 
order of the Malay alphal>et, and, wherever n(»cessary, the 
spt^lling of one or more derivatives is given after the root. In 
order to make this list more complete, several words have Ikhmi 
inserted in the glossary which will not be found among the 
examples : these include a numlxr of words in the spelling of 
which the Malavs are verv inconsistent, so that it seemed desir- 
able to sugg(»st a fixed standard of spelling in such cases. 

It will be seen that this method of spelling is essentially 
the same as is at present in use among educated Malays through- 
out the Malay Peninsula, which is admitted, even by the Dutch 
scholars, to lx» the home of the purest form of the Malay 


In this pai^^r but little more has been done than to explain 
the rationale of this modern Malay spelling, and to reduce it to 
a system which would enable those who are pr(»pared to adopt 
it to spell uniformly and consistently with tlu»mselves. It has 
l)een sought to adhere as closely as |^>ssil»le to the s|)elling em- 
ployed by the b<»st educated Malays at the present time in 
writing their own language, in the firm lx»lief that it is very 
much more feasible for the few Europeans who use the Malay 
character to accommodate themselves to the native way of 
spelling, than for them to attempt to coerce a whole nation of 
intelligent and self-reliant men into a return to the anticjuated 
Arabian syst^Mn of orthography illustrated in the manuscripts 
of the 17th century, which the Malays have been doing their 
best to improve for hundreds of y(»ars past. 



f^ d^ J' ^^ ^^^^ fi O V 0^^^ t^ ^ ^ P^ 
^\ 5^>. \/j ^ ^-^ .ij\ Ju 1 ^\^ ^W>J ^\^ 

jU <k,\ .^^ dJu ^V ^^ ^V- Oi^ J^4- o!/r^ cA-> 

3:^ y^y. •^^. Jri ff j^^ cA^Jy i^^-^ o>^ ^y^ o^.^^ 

1. Till' h{M'lliii^ «»f tlii.N won] /</M'.//'//< is soiiiowhut :inil>i|:iioiis, :iii«l tin* 
Monl i.s Miiiii'tinu's i»nmounoMl //////^//i l»y ignorant iktmimj^, l>iit this .sjk'II- 
injr aj:n.t.'» witli Kulr (;'») (»•). 

2. Many Malays sik'II tlic atfinnativc nion(»>y liable //// in tlio saini' 
way as tlu' !wo-m llal»K' pronoun in. hut llii.s siH'llin;; s<vnis In-ttcT. 

.t. To (Ii>tin;;uisli /;»//'*// fro-n Imhh^ it in heller to insi'rt the wnn in the 
lai*t syllable of thia woni, through contrary to Hule (l; ( /). 


■^ Jy ^^^^ jI. ^L Jxi- ^ Syr i/j^jr 6-^ -»j^ -^'^ 

oy I'W o^-^ cl*^^^ ^ c!^- </.^ ^-^^ <*' -^ o^t>:^ o^ 
oy^^ Jy^ ^^)3' ^"^ *^ oy c^W 0^^ ^^^/i^->^ ^' 

Uj» _jS^ iiL ^;k^ W-s \i>> ^,-r- iSj-^ -^J o-^ --r".^ J^- cA>3^ 

J\j\ J^_^r- J5^ Wv" i/V^ '^^^. ■'^ J^'-'- U- J^-i ti-iJ jl^ 
fy.^ S\ "> J^^/iV -.^ o"^; 0^^ > O^- 0^> J^ 

t^<>rP ^. >^ CK^ /^ ^'O-^ /V jl. ^ l,f 

,)S^ j\ji lAA jj «1W^ l-» fs\ ^\yf y^ o^-i tiJ^ Ji< 

jiS <L^y jv(y» fjf ^or o^-^ i/" c- "^ *^^ i:^^* /-s-^ 

^^^^ kiL ij\j** ^;^\ ^\ Vii^ «i _»V™frj\* ti^-/^ '^- i>'y 



» B. 

1. From tlu» exfiinph*?* jiivon in iIik jrl<»*»s:iry (wliich wns completoil 
tifu*r tho paper wnf« alroaily in print) it woni«l ^vni |XHHil>lo to mako IJiilo 
(.'>)(«]) tiiori' UrHnite a» !•) wlictluT or not tlio ///// slionld l)c inwTtotl in a 
cIomcmI Hnal hvllablo liavin^ tiu> a !Mmn«i. on tliccnMition of a suffix commom?- 
inf; with a vowel. It app<*ars that iho Malays usually Insert the ulif when 
the Inst confM>nant of the n;ot is 0<»r o hut not, unless the 
stn^w in (llstinetlv on that svHahle. Thus : 

cA^J o^^ lA-'x^ cA^J a*^ L>*^ (/^. cAh^ 

cA^^ Aj^ i/^^^ o^^ 

Rootft ending in ^ and o which are exceptions to this rule are : 

The followind an* examples of roots en«lin<i in other consonants, the 
<l(»rivatives iK'Injr written without ///»/: 

But tlie following;; have tli(> accent on the la^^t syllable of the r(N)t and 
take///;/ : 




oy ris? o^-> ^ls^^ ^ c5^. c/>^ c5^\^ ^^' ^ J!^ Cr3 o^ 

Vufc ^^!^ viL ^.\ U3 \5^ w,.^ c5^3 cns;^ ^:^ u^.\^ J^ ^^\ 

4i\:>\ J^^^ iS^ UjAj: j^W \;y|^. ^U JV.1 U. j\ j ^5 jJ ^ 
^XoV/* ji >\ o:^ /6^. U-\ro\3 f^ j\^ ^ ^^/ 

^ j\3 UA Ji 4\W^ VxjA ^\ j^jf ^ O^^ O^. J5^<^- 
Ai^AlL;^y ^ ^^f ^9: j\3 450 ii jJ 4\\;J C;^!^ ^^ 

4. 1 have H|K.'U tilib wunl in the ^uiik- wa>- uh hunt. 


j\3\ ^.\ ;^ ju- ^ jU^i ^•\ 


» ft 

1. From till* examples jrivcn in iliis }rl<w*sary (which wnn completoil 
after the paper wnf* !iln':nh" in print) it \v<nil«l mvui p»)!*Kil»le tci make Rule 
(.'>)(il) iiion* ileflnito as to wheihfr or not the nlij shonhl l>c inMTtetl in a 
elo^tetl Hnal Kyllahh> having the '/ M)unil. on thea«Mition of a sufllx cominone- 
infr witli A vciwel. It appears that the Malays nsiinlly insert the nlij when 
tlie Inst eonnonant of the n;ot is O <>r o Itiit ntit otlierwine, unk'Hs the 
streHH in diHtinetiv on that svIlahU>. Thus : 

d^} d^ d^y^ d^J d^ d^ J''^. td'^J^ 

Rof)t8 emlinp in O an«l e which are exceptions to this rule are : 

Tlie following an* examples of r<K)ts (>n«1in<r in other con»onants, the 
tlerivativin* iK'inir written withont ///»/": 

<}h^ c-^^j J^^ J^ cr-^V o-^^ 

But the foUowinjj have the accent i>n the last syllahle of tlie nM)t an<l 
lake/i/// : 






,iW .^^^^ 





(3) ^\ 

• \ • \ 

2. Sec fdotnote p. 102. 

3. Three wonU in this lint are almost invariably j»pclt with tlio weak 
letter yn in both \vllable8, contrary to Knle {'\)(n) : 

fj$ oA^ ^, 



• • 

^<\ i^\ 

A^. 'X 




^1, ->!, 




J^^J i^:^. 



4\;i\ ^j,\ 






o->V oy-V 


4^\i, ^u. w»\. 


lt^^- lt h 








oUV ^.V 



^V-i. ^Vi. 


jaVH/» t#^. *^. 

i)y^ jx"' 



J-y ^y 






o---*^ «/-»V 

<^> C/jy^iSy^^Oi^ 





Cr-^^ ^^ O^V 





^>*iy/ ^y 











(») i^ 

7. This 8|H!lliiiguf iuruni ducit nut fulluw Kulc (3)(a), but t J is 
not easily read, and as the accent is turuni it seems better tu insert the mv/u. 

8, This word is often »i)eU ^ 





(1"» r^J^jl^^^^ 

(iM^lT:*^ i$Sl^ 





j:\^\J^^i ii\:> 





J^}^ ./^-i 






j\jk»^j jjjj 


^iC^i i^U^i 











0. Tlie fonu *%OU>- which would be in acco^lllnco with Rule (."i) (e), 

ift unuf^ual and not oa!«ily rond. 
10. SeoNote(6). 


.Wl/c^H^ ^- 

,/Uj J^j 







- J 


Cr^j Kjr^j 



0-j3^ ^j^^ 



^-^ ^Jj^jS' J 3^3 









^^j i<^ J 


<\\;3 j^.> 








0^t\, 0\, 

<l;V^.> jL 


^fe Noto(l). 




• •w 











*-V^ 4^ v^/*- w->^ 


C^*-^ ^^^ Ji^ iJu. 

O^^-y^ <-^ 





Cr^V^/ 4^ 








Vkw ^■,'^xw 





& . t .1 

^Vx-5 ix- 

Vi, The ^i^ullillg of the nxit is irreguhir. tiiid wluTever iM^iHiiile tlie 
iKTivHtive> are »*|)eltin tlie wtnie wa> a^ the nH>t. 



• • 







o^jy-^ 0^^ 


(H) ^}j^<\i 


]•>. 'I1ii> ir« the iiMiiil s]K'lling. 
I ». Si'c Nolo ;l). 






c;» W *^y 







m 1 








fiUfLtn ^\J\A ^^ 


puna <L.\ J ^^'y 


















6V-\/ cr^/ 








c^^.0 bf 












15. Ry \\\\\v (r>)(o) (his hIioiiM 1h> 

•j\;00 •»»»t t'Jt' word is alwAV< 

(i|ipU an it iH horo given. 

• * 

• » • * 
• • •• 




oU^ ^.^ 




4^-^ cr^i 

(Ifi) J^^ 

O^ ^ 


o-^ ^ 











J.\j_^ .J_^ 




:.^; ^9 

o^^.-^ b^ 











cr^^^ 0^^ 

Irt. SooNote(l). 








<p^U j_^V. 








. ^h 











^\iu _JU. 



Cr-. V* ^.^ 


oi^WAi -i> 


^yUii wi^U 











• ^^ 

J-%^ ^ 



v^yi^^ o^i* 


OV^ y:*^ 



JjAH^ J^ 



. V 



Short Notes. 

On the Occurrence of Mus. surifer, G. S. Miller, 

IN Perak. 

In the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washing- 
ton, vol. xiii, April 21, 1900, Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, of the U. S. • 
National Museum, describes no less than seven new species of 
Rats collected in 1899 by Dr. W. L. Abbott in the mountains of 
Trong, a small Siamese State on the west side of the Peninsula, 
about 500 miles north of Singapore. 

This paper should not be overlooked by students of the 
smaller Malayan mammals, and Mr. Miller would probably 
kindly supply any one interested in the subject with a copy on 
application. The new rats described are Mua rocijhrans, At. 
ferreocnnus^ M. mlidus^ M, crpnioviventei\ M, asper, M, pelUix^ 
and M, sunjer. I am able to record the last of these new 
species from the Larut Hills, Perak, and it is probable that at 
least some of the others follow the main range down the Pen- 
insula. Mtiit. Aurifrr vfSLS obtained by Dr. Abbott in February 
1899. 1 first met with it in February 1898, catching a single 
example in a steel trap near the Hut, Maxwell's Hill. Un- 
fortunately the hinder portion of the specimen had been eaten 
by some small cariuvoroiis creature, and, after noting its 
appearance 1 threw it away. Last year on revisiting the hills 
I remembered this rat and succeeded in trapping: a specimen 
alive. It was a charmingly pretty and fearless little creature, 
quite tame from the time of capture, and I was overruled by 
feminine influence into keeping it alive, with the result that it 
escaped eventually in Kwala Lumpur I At the same time I got a 
very damaged specimen from same C(x>lies, and sent it in spirit to 
Mr. Oldfleld Thomas, who identified it as the newly described 
At, surifer, 

Mr. Miller's paper above referred to is a good example of 
the exceedingly thorough and careful work of the new school 
of American uiammalogists. 

A. L. Butler, F. Z. S. 
4th July, 1901 Khartoum. Soudan. 


Rambong Beetle. 

From two localities in Selangor specimens of a common 
longicorn beetle Butocera octomaculata and its grub have been 
sent, as serious pests destroying the India-rubber tree, Rambong, 
Ficus elasticiu The grub over two inches long bores up the 
stem of the tree, while the beetle itself gnaws the bark bites 
off the buds and then proeeeds to demolish the leaves, eating 
them quite voraciously. The grub is when full grown about 
two inches and a half long and a quarter of an inch wide, 
flattened soft and white except for its hard brown chitinous 
head and the upper surface of the first two segments. Like all 
longicorn grubs it has no feet. It makes the usual tunnels 
elliptic in section through the length of the larger boughs and 
trunk of the tree, and also attacks in the same way Ficus iudica 
and the VVaringin, /'. Benjamina, and prolmbly others of our 
w^ild figs. It pupates in the tube it has made, and eventually 
hatches out into a handsome large beetle, one and a half to two 
inches long, without the antennae. The head is brown, with 
larvae eyes and powerful jaws. The antennae, fairly stout, 
longer than the body, dark brown, and rough with short pro- 
cesses in the lower surface. The thorax, short and broad with 
a conic thorn on each side, is dark brown with two red crescents 
in the centre. The elytra three quarU»rs to an inch and a 
quarter long, oblong, blunt, broadest at the shoulder, dark brown 
with black raised dots in the up^^er part near the shoul- 
der, smooth below. There are four pair of white spots on the 
elytia, the uppermost pair small and round, the next larger and 
more or less obloFig sometimes with an extra white spot near 
the upper edge, the next pair nearly as large, the lowest pair 
much smaller. The form and size of the spots vary, but iippear 
to be always eight. The scutellum is also white. The under 
surface of the body is light brown and a brond white stri[x* runs 
on each side, from behind the eye to the tail. The legs are 
powerful, over an inch long, and brown. The l>eetle feeds 
during the day, and also moves about at night. It is attracted 
by light and often files into the house after dark. Like most 
longicorn beetles it stjueaks loudly when caught and it can also 
bite severely. 'I'he amount of injury a beetle of this kind could 


do in a plantation of large sized trees would be very great. 
Fortunately it is easily caught and very conspicuous, and by 
abolishing all unnecessary fig trees from the neighbourhood of a 
plantation and carefully attending to the young plants, the pest 
out to be easily kept in check. H V R 

In Memoriam 

Allan Maclean Skinner, C. M. G. 

The death of Mr. Skinner will be deeply regretted by 
all who knew him, and as one of the original members of the 
Society it is lilting that some special notice of the loss the 
Society has sustained by his death should appear in the Jour- 
nal. At the preliminary meeting held on 4th November 1877, 
it was Mr. Skinner who proposed that the gentlemen present 
should form themselves into a Society to promote the collec- 
tion and record of information relating to the Straits Settle- 
ments and neighlx)uring countries. Of those present at the 
first meeting the majority have died and the Bishop of Singa- 
pore and Sarawak, the first President, is the only one still 
resident in the East. 

At a meeting hold in February 1878, was exhibited a skel- 
eton map of the Malay Peninsula showing how little was then 
known of the Native States. Under the personal direction of 
Mr. Skinner the blank s^xices were partially filled in and the 
first map of the Peninsula was published by the Society. 

In the first number of the Journal is a valuable paper 
by Mr. Skinner on tb.e (Geography of the Peninsula, with 

In 1883 Mr. Skinner wus Vice President and in the Jour- 
nal published in l)ecemlx»r 1H82, appeared his ^Outline History 
of the British Connection with Malaya,' a most useful compila- 
tion which is reproduced in the Singnpore and Straits DirectDry. 

Amoi.g his other contributions may be mentioned papers 
on *The Java S>sU»in' and \Straits Meteorology'. In 1885 Mr. 
Skinner was elected Presid ent. lie received the cordial thanks 


of the (jovernment for the valuable results of the action of the 
Society with regard to the publication of * Eastern Geography,' 
which he edited. 

In 1888 he was again elected President, but from the time 
of his transfer to Penang in the following year as Resident 
Councillor, he ceased to take an active part in the work of the 
Society. Since his retirement in 1897 Mr. Skinner was engaged 
in writing a History of the Straits Settlements. 

(;. W. S. K. 
Singajx^re, 17th August, 19U1. 


!No. 37] 


January, 1902 

AK«ntn tir the Smrlot^ i 
U.».l -i \ a I I 

[No. 37] 


of the 

Straits Branch 

uf the 

Royal Asiatic Society 


Agencies of the Societies. 

London md Aiiicrka ... Trubner t^ Co. 

Parib ICRNRbi LhKOUX \: Co. 

Gcnnany Otto H.\rrassowitz, I^ipzig. 


pRlNTtD .\l lUli AMKR1C.\.N MI-VjIuN TrLnS 


Table of Contents. 


(Joimcil for VM)'J 
liist of Members for llMj2... 
Proceedings of Annual Generul Meetin^r 
Annual Keix)rt of the (.'ouncil 
Trea:surer's Cash Account for IVMHi... 




• • 


• fl • 


Kelantan and my Trip to iiunong Tahan. by Mr, John 

On tlie liymenoptera collected by Uolxat Slielford at 
Sarawak, and on the Ilymenopti'ra of the Sarawak 
Museum, bv Mr, P. f'ttmtruH ... 



Occasional Note? 



List of Members for 1902. 



Bampfylde, Hon'ble ('. A. 
Banks, J. E. 
Barker, Dr. A. J. (r. 
IUrnard, B. II. F. 
Barnes, NV. D. 


Bi dwell, H. a. J. 
BiNTARA LrAK, Hon. Dato. 
BlRrii, Hon. J. K. 
BlSHOl\ J. K. 

BLAiJOEN, ('. (). M.A.. 

Bland, lion. H. N. 
Brn'RKE, II. Walter. 
Brandt, D. vox 
Brockman, K. L. 
Brown, Hon. Dr. \V. ('. 
Bryant, A. T. 
Buckley, ('. K. 
Burgess, P, J. 
BrTLER, A. L. 

Kuching, Sarawak, 
r. S. A. Life Membor. 
s.P.M.J. Batii J*ahat. 
Pekan, Pahang. 

London,* England. Life M'b«»r. 

Puket, Siani. Life Meniljer. 
Kartoum, Egypt. 

(/'AMI'S, M. de 
CERRUTI, (i. B. 

Clifford, IL (\, r.M.<;. 
(Jollyer, Hon. NV. IL 
('onlay, NV. 
(.•00 k, Kev. .LA. B. 

Tapah, Perak. 
Kuantan, Paliang. 


VI 1 

Dane, Dr. K. .Singapt)ri\ 

Dent, Sir Alfked. k.c.m.g. London. 
Dew, a. T. Krian, Ferak. 

Dickson, E. A. Kwala Langat, Sulangor. 

DinvEK, James Kwala Luiupor, Selangor. 

DUNKEULEY, Rev. W. 11. C, M.A. Singapore. 

Eduau, Dr. P. (i. 

Edmunds, R. C. 
EuEirroN, Waltek, r.M.«;. 
Elcum, J. B. 
EscBKE, H. H. 
e\t2hett, h. h. 

Fleming, T. C. 
Fluwek, S. S. 
FoKT, Hugh 
FUEEK, Dr. G. D. 

GEHiNl, Lt. Col. (t. E. 
Gumes, Rev. Edwin 
Gkaham, James 

Ipoh, Perak. 
Jugra, Selangor. 
Santubong, Sarawak. 

Pekau, Pahang. 

Cairo, Egypt. Life Member. 



Siani. Life Member. 




Uaines, Rev. F. NV. 

llALE, A. 
llANlTSt'H, Dr. R. 

llELLiER, Maurice 
Uervey, D. F. a , c.m.g 
Hill, Hon. E. C. 



Kent, England. 



Aldeburgh. Life Member. 


Hose, Rt Rev. BiSHur G. F., >j.a., d.d. S'pore. Hon. Member. 
Hose, Dr. Charles l^ram, Sarawak. 

Hose, E. S. Taiping, Perak. 

UoYNCK van Patendrecht, p. C. Rotterdam, Holland. 
Uullett, R. W., M.A., F.L.S. Singapore. 


Johnston, L. A. M. 


Butter worth, P. \V. 



Kehding, Dr. 


Kloss, C. Hudex 
Knight, Akthuu 
Knuckeb, Frei». NV. 
Kynneksley, lion. C. NV. 

Johore Bahru. 

riu Beranan^, Nuj^ri SeuiMlan. 
S., C'.M.G. Penang. 

Laidlaw, (i. M. Taiping, Perak. 

Lawes, Rev. VV. G. Port Moresby, N. Guinea, lion. M'ber. 

liEASK, Dr. J. T. 

Lemon, A. H. 

Leumit, a. \V. 

Lewis, J. E. A., \\,a. 

LiM Boon Keng, Hon. Dr. 

LUEKING, Rev. Dr. U. L. E. 

Lyons, Rev. Ernest 

Machado, a. D. 
Maclaren, J. W. B. 
Marriott, U. 
Mason, J. S. 
McCausland, C. F. 
Meldrum, Dato James. 
Merewether, E. M. 






Ipoh, Perak. 


Batu Pahat, Johore. 



Raub, Pahang. 

Kwala Lumpor, Seiangor. 



Nansun, VV., B.A., f.s.a. Singapore. 

Napier, lion. \V. J., d.c.l. Singapore. 
Norman, Henry Kwala Lipis, Pahang. 



Pears, Francis Muar. 

Perak Government Museum Taiping, Perak. 

Periiam, The Ven'ble Archdeacon England. Hon. Member. 

Pustal', R. von Singapore. 

Rankin, H. F. 

Ridley, II. N., m.a., f.l.s. 

Roberts, J. A., m.a. 

A mo v. 



MEMBERS FOR 1902. ix 

ROREBTS, B. (;. North Raub, Pahan^. 

RODr.ER, J. P., r.M.G. Taiping, Perak. 

RoSTADOs, E. Bundi, Trenggfanu. 

RnwT,AND, W. K. Negri Sembilan. 

Sarawak, H. H. The Rajah of, o.c.m.g. Sarawak. Hon. M'ber. 

Sarawak, H. H. The Ranee of Sarawak. 

Satow, Sir E. M., K.r.M.c;. Peking, China. Hon. Member. 

Saunders, C. J. Singapore. 

Seab Lianq Sear Singapore. 

Seah Song Seah Singapore. 

Shelford, R. Sarawak. 

SHKI.FORD, \V. H. Singapore. 

Shellabear, Rev. W. O. Singapore. 

Skeat, W. W. London. 

Smith, Sir Cecit. C, g.p.m g. London. lion. Member. 

SoHST, Theo. Singapore. 

St. Clair, W. G. Singapore. 

Stringer, Hon. Charles Singapore. 

Sugars, J. C. Telok Anson, Perak. 

TaTLOCK, J. n. Ipoh, Perak. 

Van Beuningen vox Hklsdixger, Dr. R. 

Tandjong Pandan, Billiton. 
Vermont, Hon. J. M., <'.m.g. Province Wellesley. 

Walker, Lt. Col. R.S. F.,r'.M.o. Kwala Lumpor, Selangor. 

Walter, W. O. C. Klang, Selangor. 

Waterbtradt, J. Ternate, Dutch East Indies. 

W ATKINS, A. J. W. Kwala Lumpor, Selauf^or. 

West, Rev. Benj. Fraxklix Singapore. 

WlOKETT, Fred., M.l.r.K. fiahat, Perak. 

Wise, D. U. Pekan, Pahang. 

Wood, C. (t. Hatu Gajah, Perak. 


of the 

Annual General Heeting: 

The Annual General Meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society 
was held on the 12th of February, 1902. 

There were present : — Right Reverend Bishop Hose, 
Hon'ble C. \V. S. Kynnersley, Rev. W. U. C. Dunkerley, 
Rev. VV. G. Shrllabear, Rev. Dr. B. P. West, Messrs. A. W. 
O'SuLLiVAN, H. H. EscHKE, LiM BooN Keng, C. J. Saunders, 
A. Knight, M. Hellier, P. J. Burgess. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The* Right Reverend Bishop IIo6e proposed that His 
Excellency Sir Frank Swettenham should be elected Patron 
of the Society. This was seconded by the Hon. C. W. S. 
Kynnersley and carried unanimously. 

The elections of members who had joined the Society during 
the previous year were confirmed. 

The Annual Report of the Council was read and its adoption 
carried, on the proposition of Mr. II. Eschke seconded by 
Mr. Saunders. 

The Treasurer's Report audited by Mr. Knight was read, 
and the Rev. W. II. C. Dunkerley proposed its adoption, which 
was seconded by Mr. A. W. O'Sullivan and carried. 

Mr. Shellabear proposed that the Council be requested to 
take steps during the year for the promotion of the study of 
Malay literature and to expend a portion of the funds in hand 
for that purpose. This was seconded by Mr. A. \V. 0*Sullivan. 

Mr. Eschke proposed to add as an amendment by collecting 
and publishing manuscripts of value. The amendment was 
seconded by Dr. Lim Boon Keng and carried. 

Proceepinor. xi 

The Council and Officers for the following year were then 
elected, viz : — 

Presidefit: The Right Rev. Bishop Hose. 

Vice President for Singapore : lion. W. R. CoiJ.YER. 

Vice President for Penang : Dr. Brown. 

Hon. Seeretart/: H. N. RIDLEY, Esq. 

Hon. Treasurer: DR. Hanitscit. 

Conncillors elected hy ballot were: — II. Eschke, Esq., 
A. W. O'Sullivan, Esq., A. Knight, Es(i., Lini Boon Keng, Esq., 
P. J. Burgess, Esq. 

Notes of thanks were then proposed to the Prasident, Sec- 
retary, Treasurer, and Auditor. 

Annual Report for 1901. 

The Council are gratified to be able to state that the finan- 
cial condition of the Society continues to be very favour- 

The following new members have been elected since the 
last general annual meeting : — 

Mr. R. a. J. Bl DWELL 

Dr. p. Galistan Eixur 
Mr. J. B. Elcum 
Mr. M. Hellier 
Mr. F. W. Knocker 
Mr. G. M. Laidlaw 

Mr. a. W. Lermit 
Rev. E. S. Lyons 
Mr. J. A. Roberts, m. a. 
Mr. J. H. Tatlock 
Mr. Waterstrapt 
Mr. F. Wickett 

One journal (No. 36) has been published during the year, 
and material for No. 37 is in the printer's hands. 

A number of journals and pamphlets from various other 
societies have been received during the year and added to the 
library of the society. 

It is to be greatly regretted that more material for publica- 
tion is not available in spite of the large number of members of 
the society. This deficiency is particularly noticeable in the 
absence of contributions of short notes of features and occur- 
rences of interest which must be frequent in and around the 
Malay Peninsula. 

A statement of accounts of the Treasurer is appended. 

i« •■« 5 

I E I. ill " s t S 

lF|lisi K^tiV. 

It |illplllil|1 

■ -c ■ -J 

1 i 

il il 


Kelantan and my trip to Gunong Tahan 

Bv Mr. John WATKUfSTHAr'T. 

Gunong Tahan, the supposed highest uiouiituiu in the Malay 
Peninsula had always a great attraction for me, ever jjince 
I had ascended the Kina Balu mountain in Borneo, situated in 
about the same latitude, as I wanted to compare the fauna of 
the former with that of the latter. However it was not until 
ten years after my first ascent of Kina Halu, that I found an 
opportunity of undertaking the journey to Gunong Tahan. My 
plans for the trip had been laid long beforehand, and I had 
decided to take the Kelantan route in preference to that of 
Pahang, as several expeditions which had tried to reach the 
mountain by the latter route had failed, mostly I believe owing 
to the difficulty of obtaining food supplies. I decided to aban- 
don everything in the shape of comforts ft^r this trip, taking 
with me only things that were absolutely necessary, and utilising 
all the coolies I could get for carrying provisions. Leaving 
Singapore towards the end of April in a small coasting steamer, 
I arrived in Kelantan four days later, the steamer calling at 
most of the ports along the coast, on the way up. The mouth 
of the Kelantan river i^ on the map given as farther south than 
it really is. but that entranct* has long ago sanded up, and ships 
have now to enter by tlu* northern entrance. Lately a fairly 
good light house has bi*en (»rected by the Siamese, and a 
Siamese gunboat is always stationed there. Owing to the shal- 
lowness of the river all steamers are obliged to anchor just 
inside the bar, Ijehind a sand spit that affords good shelter ; and 
passengers and cargo are taken up to Kota Bahru in small 
native boats. 

Kota Bahru, the capital of Kelantan, is situated about eight 

miles from the mouth of the river, on the right bank of the 

same, and contains according to the KajaJi's account, about 

; 2i>,CH)0 inhabitants. The town consists renlly of two villages: 


uiie ur tbtnii called 't'amlt^liiii. U di\-ide(l frDiu tin- ullier by a 
brancb of the river, and is chieHj' iuhabitetl by Ckinese. Form- 
erly uearly nil tbe buaioe^is wun done in tliia place, but the ever 
clianging ricei silted up just there, and now nearly all business 
is ti'ansnc-tt^ in the native Mwn. a little farther up river, when* | 
there is deep water close in to the hank. The Kajah at the insti- 
gatiou of the Siamese is now making' fairly good roads in every 
direction through the town. Just before I arrived, there had 
been a treiuenduus i'm in the L'tiinew village, half of nliich 
was burned dowu one night, when most of the inhabitants were i 
attending a fute •'iven by the Rajah uu account of his marriage 
witli the Rajah of Siugora's daughter ; and u number of young 
children who were left alone in the hotises were burnt to death. 
The Kajah used this opportunity tm make a broad street right 
tliroU{^t] the whole village, where there formerly had bt*en only 
iiitrrow crooked paths. During my stay in Rota llahru, before 
going up stream. I was the guest of the ?^iamelje (.'onimissioner 
and was iutioduced by him to the Rajah, who immediutely 
offered to provide inu willi boats and njen for the trip op tlie 
river. 'I'he present Rajah is a young man of about thirty-five 
years, and owes liis position to the Siamese, who ou the deaUi of , 
the old Kajah installed him as such, in prefereuee to the rightlul 
heir, on the supixtsilioo that he would conform to their wihIhw. 
So far the Siamese have intt^rfered very little in tbe internal I 
aCf^rs of Kclantun, keeping only a Commissioner there, who i 
acts as a sort of adviser to the Rajah, mid a small garrison; but i 
signs are not wanting thiit tliey want to get a more direct con- i 
trol of affairs, and probably before very long Kelautaii will be , 
to all purposes, except in name, a Suimese proviuce. Tbe 
Rajah's palace is just in the middle of the town, and every 
forenoon from about 10 to 1 o'clock he holds his court there, 
aftej-wards going for a drive out to his villa, that lie has built 
in a garden outside tbe town. 1 visited him there one 
afU'rnoon. and found workmen everywhere building cages for 
wild animals, and the Rajub tuld nic he intended to start a small 
Zoological Garden there. 

tt was the dry season wlicii I urrixed in Kota I {ah ru and ] 
the heat was very intense, the ihertuomeler seldom going below ■ 
iwy in tile daytime and tm' al night. The Kelantuu river, 


which ill llin laiiij .-.i-awn oftJ'ii overllows its bank^, was innv 
n*«rl,v dried up, so we had great difficulty in getting up wtreani 
with the three large house boat*" that the Rajah supplied for rae 
and my men. The river is abnut 2j0 yards wide at Knta Bahru, 
and continues to be about the Hame width up to Simgie I^ebeh, 
which river falls into the Kelantan river from the right, thirty to 
forty miles up stream. The bank-; of the river up to Quala Lebeh 
are pretty thickly populated, and are lined with coconut 
gro%-«t most of the way- It took us four days to reai^h Quala 
fiebpb. us we had only one gang of meu to polo the boats, and 
conseiiuently had to stop at night. I decided to try first to 
get to liunsng Tuhan by the I.ebeh river, as that, iiccording to 
my idea, was the nearest way. and we therefore pro<*eded up 
that river for another day, when the rapids were reached, and 
we hart to sltip, as if was iTiipupu^lile to get our heavy boats over 

Uu the way up tite river we had passed a niunber uf Imtuboij 
niftfi, with small huts built on Uiem, either moored along the 
lunks, or drifting slowly down i5treiim. They were inlmbited by 
MalavH from Kota Hahru. who go up streaui to trade or U- 
plant paddy, and prefer living on the river rather than ashore. 
When therefore a suitable place is found, these people make a 
nift. and build a hut thereon, wherein they live until they have 
traded away or exchanged all their goods for jungle produce, 
whereon they drift down sti-eaiu witii their barter or their 

Just below the ra[nds a Dumber oF these raftJ* were moored, 
forming a floating village on the river; and as I had to 
wait there some days before I could get smaller boats to tHke 
me up river one of huts was given up to me, and I dis- 
charged the tliree large boats and sent tbein back to Kota Bahru. 
afl diey were uf no further use to me, I had to wait a 
week at this place before I got smaller boats and other men, to 
lake me further up river, and in the meantime. I and ray col- 
lectors that I had brought with me from Borneo, did a little 
collecting; but the species found there were of little interest 
being the same as are found everywhere in the low land of the 
Peninsula. At last we got away again in three smaller boats, ail 
heavily loaded : and for the next few days we had a ('ery rough 


job [Hilling tile Iwafe nver the nipitls, of whii'Ii thi- rWiyt was 
full. U> had to stop at each village wp passtvl on the w»j". 
to get frp»h boatmen, as uone of theiw would go any farther 
*vith me than to the uext \illage, and this continual stopfnng 
and changing men delayed us a good deal. On llie third day 
Quala Aring n-as reached ; and a» it wa<4 my intention It] go up 
that river, ire had again to wait to procure still smaller boats, 
but we soon managi'd »o get six of these and plenty of men, so 
were able to proceed the next day. It was at Qitaln Aring tJiat 
ilip Skeat expedition stopped, wliile Mr. Skeat went across to 
I'ahang and tried to get up the Tahan From that side, but failed, 
I be!ie\-e owini; t" want of provisions, tlie wnne as Me^isrs. 
Ridley and David.son before biuo, 'Hie river 4ring is of course 
much smaller than the l.ebeh. and in full of rapids, but it wat< 
not very difiicult to get the iRwts over them, 1 counted them 
several times, and found that on an average we passed over 
about ten of them an hour the ivhole way up. There are very 
few people living on this river, there being only one tillage of 
any size, about three days up stream, so I liad not to stop on the 
way to change men, as thoise from the IJuala took me right up 
to that village. The village is tilled Huntie. and is t)ie last 
inhabited place in Kelantan. >«o I had to halt there to get to* . 
gather cotiliea and to tind out the bent way of ascending the 
mountain, of which [ got a good view away Ut the southward 
on clear days. The natives there called it tJunong Siam. There 
is plenty of game to be had round the village, as there are lots 
of old clearings, where deer and pigs are plentiful, and tigers 
are also found in numbers. On the very first day I stayed 
there, while out collecting butterflies close to the house, I 
heard a noise in the thick low jungle close by, resembling the 
purring of a cat. only louder, but took no notice uf this until 
a couple of Klalays came running after me telling me to (!ome 
back at once, as there was a tiger quite close by. Ah I had 
then about forty Malays with me I wanted them to go into the 
jungle and drive the tiger out into the open, a distance of not 
more than twenty or thirty yards, where I could get a shot at 
him; but though ^ey wereall aimed with spears and I offered them 
some of my guns also, they were afraid of doing so, and 
I did not get a sight of the brute though he stayed in that 


thicket i)c)t 150 yards from the hous** the whole clay. On my 
return from the mountain however I tjfot him, as he had just 
then killed a buffalo, and came back in the afternoon to have 
another meaU 

About a day's journey to the westward of the village at an- 
other tributary to the Lebeh river, called Sungei Aring, waa 
situated a small encampment of Sakais and as I wanted these 
men to show me the way to the mountain, I pfot the headman of 
the village to send word to them to join me at once. The 
whole tribe of SakaLs living there are considered to be the pro- 
perty of a Malay living half way up the Aring ; and this man 
brought all the full grown men to me a couple of days later. 
There is only this one settlement of Sakais in this part of the 
country, whereas there are said to be thousands of them living up 
the Ulu Kelantan river. Those that I had with me (ten or eleven 
men), were all remarkably strong and healthy looking, and were 
not so much troubled by skin diseases as is usually the case 
with the Sakais. After getting all the information I could 
about the Gunong Tahan or Gunong Siam, I decided to follow 
the Aring as far as it was possible to go with the native boats, 
and then strike across country straight for it. We therefore 
loaded the provisions in eight or nine small dug-outs, and went up 
stream with these, most of the coolies following us along the bank. 
After going on in tliis way for a couple of days I found it im- 
possible to get any farther with the lx)at«?, as the river was get- 
ting too small, and the boats had continually to be hauled over 
trees that had fallen across the river and barred the passage. 
We therefore stopix^d at a small tributary called Sungei Tamu^ 
and while my Malays made everything ready for the march in- 
land, I sent the >Sakais in the jungle to cut a path for us along 
the bank of the Tamu, which I had decided to follow seeing 
that it seemed to come from the direction that I wanted to take. 
The Sakais came back in the evening of the same day and re^ 
ported having found an elephant track, which they had followed 
up a high ridge, and they were of the opinion that by following 
this track we should reach the foot of the mountain. They 
had come up with the elephants about half way up the mountain, 
there being seven of them, but as there were no tuskers amongst 
them, they had not Gred on them, and the elephants continued 


ol tlie ridge and Lheii disappenred 
? haltod two days wliile the different 
packages were dirided the wiolies. The rest of the 
provisiona which we could not take with ua were hoisted up in 
a high tree, for fear of the elephants getting at them, and well 
covered with mats to protect them against rain, and then we 
started. In the heginTiing we got on very well, the ground ris- 
ing gently the whole time, but as we gut higher up on the spui. 
walliing became more difficult, and we had to catch liold of 
roots and branches to help us in getting up, and liad it not been 
for the deep footprints made in the soil by the elephants it 
would liave been nearly inipofwible for the coolies to get up 
with their heavy burdens. I reached the top of the ridge, 
whinh proved to be about S^iW high, about noon, together wiih 
a few of my Borneo men and a couple of Sakais, and wanted to 
proceed along the comb of Ihe ridge, which was running in the 
direction I wanted to take, but the Sakais insisted on our going 
down the slope on the other side, as they said we should find ' 
no water near the top ; ao I had to give in, and we went down 
about IfMtti' till we came to a tiny stream, where I decided to 
camp for the night. I had not taken any tent with me, but my 
men soon made a shelter wilh some large palm leaves, some three 
feet broad and seven feet long, which we found growing in 
abundance in altitudes from h<»)' up to 4jO(»', None of the 
other coolies reached our camp that night, and next morning we 
went farther down the slop<> till we reached a stream, which the 
Sskais declared to be the l^ungei Tahan, and waited there until 
all the coolies had arrived. From the river bed we got a fine 
view of a mountain, that I judged to be about ;iOOO' high, sand- 
ing straight up and Icxiking very formidable and iuaccet^ble 
with a magnificent waterfall near the top. The natives declar- 
ed that this mountain, which was not more tlian l^ miles distant, 
was part of Ounong Tahan, the higher part of which was shut 
out from sight by the high ridges running parallel with the 
river. \\'e followed up the river for some lime, but it was very 
diflicult climbing and when we had reached an altitude of 2500' 
the coolies declared that tliey would not go jiny farther, ao I 
had to make my camp there. Most of the coolies then returned 
to their villages ; but 1 kept the Sakais and my collectora vrith 



iiie. ikiiil uiib Llioso I asceiidixl Ui the tup of the lU'iuiiUiiii that 
we IimI seen from llie river. The ascent whs however so diffi- 
KU\t. that it was i[u)>uKsib1e to L-arry auything with um, aud we 
had therefore to nttiiru to our old nimi> every night Kspei^iiil- 
ly the last olKt' proved to lie very difficult to neg'otiate, lut there 
was a sheer wall of rock about aiHi' in height, down which llie 
TahaD river come thundering, forming the splendid waterfall 
that we Uud seen from the bottom, and which 1 chri^ened the 
Laina FulU. .Xfter several failures we at last found a way to 
the top of the falls and were then roufronted by two peaks, 
nearly inaucessil>ie. and the river seemed to wind itu way in be- 
tween them. ^\'e li-icd to follow up the river, but soon had to 
stop, on account of huge Ixtulders and deep por^ls, with sheer 
walU on each side, making it impossible for us to get through : so 
we had to give it up, and atl«.'tupted instead to scale the least 
forUddiug looking of the two peaks. 

In tbi(< we succeeded at last, only to Uud however the lop 
involved in thick miHt, so that it was impott^ble U> see anything 
and to ascertAiu whether we were really on a spur of the 'i'ahan 
range or nut. M it wa« impossible to stay up there fur the 
night without any food or shelter, we bad to return Ut our camp, 
my intention being to get np there again early the next day and 
have a good look at the surrouudhi^ country before the clouds 
commenced Uj gather round llie uiomitain tops, as they always 
do iu the afternoon. In the night howe^e^ I got an attack of 
fever and was unable to walk for some days. >im> [ sent ujy men 
up to try and tiud out the whcreabuut.s of Uunong Tahan. and 
tiey returned with the iufornmtiou that the mountain that we 
were on was in no way connected with the Tahun, which tliey 
said they had seen a long way to the westward, but acc-ording 
to them it wouid be impossible to get up that mountain from 
that Bide, o.^ we were separated from it by a deep chasm, which 
ran along for many milen, with slieer walk of rock on the other 
fdde, up which they declared it impossible fur anylxxly to get. 
The Sakais stat«^«l that they had seen aiiolhei- nver comiug near- 
ly from the top of the mounlaiii, and this iJiey t*>ok to bc^ a 
branch of the IJalas river, auot'bcr tributary of tlie Kelantau 
rivci' : aud ihey strongly udvised me to go bock, and try to get 
up the mouutiiiu by tlml routi'. Ah they absolutely refused to 


fullow me wlieii I wanted to try and «<*( tip from wIkti- 
iverc, 1 )um1 to ^ive it up, thoujfh 1 myself lx>li(>ved it tu be pcM- 
NJbk' ; aud. as after pveiits sliowed me. it |)ruved to have bet- ii llie 
rosiest and iieai-est ruute to tiie top. lluwevfr I iiiadt' up my 
miud tu return lii Kutn llaliru iirid t^vl up aiioiher i-\)<(HJitii>i 
up ill*; Galas rivui*: sii I I'eturiR'd tu tin- villup- liuiitii- with t 
few of tlie rSakui^. leuviii)( llii' rest uf llieni togiMlir-r with my 1 
Malays aud all uur piiivi^ion^i im ttie mouutiiTu; as wt.- had fuund 
a. iiuuber uf raiv Urds theie, aud I wiis deHirou!« uf gettme J 
iwiut! uiore of them. I tuld my uieu Uiat they must try andf 
iiiid an Basier way to Tahaii. and if tliey suoceedtKt in tills they 1 
were to wut for me near the top uf tlie mountain. I may aal 
well mention here that some time after 1 left, my men did Hud »i 
way up (Juuong Tafaan, and i^tayed there fur »oiue time waiting J 
furmu; but I never met tlieui, as it took uie a much longer I 
time to get up tho mountain by the Galais route than I expected, 
and ao at last tliey returned down towards tlie coa^t by the siime 
way as they got there. The trip Ijack to Kota Bahru occupied 
ten days, and I liad ti> wait there another month before I got 
new provisions and material up from Singapi >re for my next ex- 
{ledition. When these at last arrived a new start wad nmde but 
Ihis time I got rather a poor lot of boatmen, the Ifaiuh having 
lent moat uf his bewt men to Mi^ms. Ouff and Ijilhyen who went 
up Btreani just before mi.- to prospect fur gold. It therefore 
look mt! six dayii to gel up to Ijuala Lelx-)i, and lliere I found the 
aboVe gentlemen busy prospeetiug the river bed, havin;; with 
them a great number of eoolies. This time I went |)B»t Quala 
I,ebeh. following the true Kelantan river, and in four days reached 
(Juala 'fulas. wheix* wc were detained a short time, owing to the 
river being in (lotMi. We passed several small tiibutaiies on the 
way, moot ol them being uninhabited, Ijeing the Rajah's rattan 
prt^serves. Once in five to six years he farmw each of these rivers 
out to some uf the Chinese traders in Kola Bahru, who then collect 
all tlie rattans aud other jungle produce, and after that nobody 
is allowed to touch anything for tlie next live to six years, thus 
giving the rattans a chance of growing to a fair sixe before 
they are again cut down. We then proceeded up the Galao, 
which a short distance from itis (juala is only about 50 yards | 
wide, utid fT'-t* narrower farther up. iiiid full of rapids. Ther*! \ 



iiTL- u nimilx-r of small villugt^s on its bauks, from which I 
obtained relays of bontinen, Qiose I had with me from Kota 
Kabru having by this time all got fever, or were at least pretending: 
tu have. As we got farther up, the river got very shallow, and 
I liatl to leave the big boats behind, and go on in auial! dug-outs. 
We (lussivl a few ('binaiiien on the way, washing gold, and th^y 
told me they could make about 7o centw a day. when workiog 
Imrd, At other places where the Chinamen were working 
farther ioland, they had dannned up the river to obtain ttuRicient 
water, causing us a lot of trouble, as we bad to unload tlie hoots 
before we could haul tliem over these obstacles. 

At last the village of Pulal was reached, and there I had 
Ui stop, as it was impossible to proceed any farther by boat. 
The village ctintainH a i-ouple of hundred inliabitants, nearly all 
I'hint'-M!, tliere being only a few Malay traders there, who occa- 
sionally come up from Kuta Itahrii and stAy there a montb or 
two, until they have have bartered all their goods away for 
gold. Formerly all the Chinese living there were gold miners, 
but now that all the gold-bearing saud in tlie rit'er bed has 
been washed over and over again and the returns are getting 
li«is. many of them have settled down as agriculturiiit» and have 
large {xuldy lields all round the village. Formerly there must 
liave been a much larger Chinese population in tliese part^, as 
traces of very large alluvial workings are found up nearly all 
the small creeks, being now overgrown and covered with dense 
jungle. At present there are only a couple of Chinese Kongsis 
working on anything like a large scale, and I believe they arc 
doing fairly well. Lode working has also been tried by the 
Malays, but tliough the ore obtained was of very good 'fuality 
lliey soon gave it up, the work proving too hard for them. The 
formation of the country about there is raostly hard blue lime- 
«toue which crops through everywhere, the hilla in some plac^ ris- 
ing to a considerable height, mostly impossible to ascend owing to 
their stee[) or overhanging walls. All these limestone hills are 
full of caves and passages made by the wat<?r in bygone days, 
and in places some very curious dripstones' are formed, the liest 
specituen of which is found in u cave close to the village, about 



Ultl' up in a hill, aiid tiie (.'hinesi'. on account of tlii« Ix'uriiig 
suuii! n^st-uiblaiice ti> one of their deities, f<jnii«lj( uspd it as a 
t«?mple, and tliere is still an old rotten table up therf witli «oinf 
candlesticks full uf burned joss sticks, and reiuains of lialf- 
burned paper. It has bowever uot been used for a loiig time, 
and the ladders that led up to it have long since rott«d away, 
so I had to climb the face of the roclc to get up ; but I should 
not recommend anybody to try that experiment, unless he is a 
good climber. My men that were wiUi me looked at it. and 
decided that it was Hafer to stop at the bott^im: so 1 lot theai 
remain there, while I went up witli a young M^Uy who had 
l3een up there once before. The Chinese are rather afraid to go 
near these limestone hills as they say that the tiger.s use Uie 
caves as sleeping apartments, and this is very likely, though I 
never found tractis of them in any of the many caves tJiat I 
visib^, whereas I found plenty of traces of elephants in the 
larger caves that were level with the ground, and the Malays 
told me that these animals often made them their homes tor 
months at a time. The floors of the cave.s were often strewn 
with the remRins of dead and broken suail -shells, which had 
fallen down from the roof in the dry season, when most of the 
snails die. Ilowever I also found a number of live shells hidden 
away in the dark aud moist crevices of the rock, among them 
several new and rare species. Most of the snails have a great 
liking for limestone rucks, and the collector will hnd more speci- 
mens in one hour on these rocks than in the jungle for one 

from the top of some of these cliffs 1 got a good view of 
the suProundiiig country, but I looked in vain for a mountain 
that looked anything like 10,000' high. Towards the f-^st 
were two mountain ranges which I supposed to be about 6,000' 
high, the natives calling the most northern l.iunong Siam, and the 
otiier Tulang Uabong. Uunong Siam appeared tt> be slightly 
higher than the other, and the Malays stated that this was the 
same mountain that the Malays of I'ahanjr called (innong Tahan. 
1 did not believe this possible, but seeing that the pi'ople on the 
Artng river also culled Tahan the (iunoiig Siaui. I decided to 
arcend the mountain to make sure of it. I had great dilticulty 
in obtaining any coolies to go with me owing to the rivalry 


liptween two of the native cliipfw, and had at last t-o be cniitented 
wilh eight I'ahaiig Malays: *" we wfve uiily able to carry provi- 
sions with u» for ten flays. The lirst jmrt of the road lay through 
fairly Hat country and we had no difHculty in cutting a path 
through. — going northeast by the compass, for none of the Malays 
had been in that part of tlie country before, Al night we 
i-auiped on the banks of a fairly large river, which prov«l to bi> 
ihf Kateh, a tributary of the Ualas : and next day we followed 
this up till vff got into tha hills, pa.ssing an o)d desert^ mining 
cauip on thp way. We only hod one glimpse of the mountain 
on our journey, though we climbed several hills to obtain a 
good view, but n!wa>-s found other hills in front of us obstruct- 
ing the view towards the niotmtain. That night we also camped 
on tJie bankii of the ri\'er. which here reaches an altitude of 
MOO' above sea level, the men making a rude shelter of paliu 
leaves, under which we slept undisturbed, tltough we that day 
liad come across several tracks of tigers. Next day we started 
up a ridge which we thought sprung from thi.' mountain, but 
when we at last reached the top of it 25W>' up, it proved to be 
separated from the mountain by another branch of the ICateh 
river, and so we had to climb down again on the other side. 
The descent proved to be very difficult, especially the last 
.'too' to40U'.and I have no idea how the coolies came down,a3each 
man choee his own way over the face of the cliffs, where over- 
hanging boughs and root4^ afforded the only support for lower- 
ing oneself. All got donn wilhout any mishap, and we 
all collei't*^ together in the river bed, which was only 
about 20' wide, and commenced to look for a way out of the 
caflon or gully that we had got into, and this we found to be no 
easy task. It was impossible to ^et up on the other side of the 
strt>am. the walls of rock there being even more forbidding 
looking than those we had descended; and to get up by follow- 
ing the stream was equally impossible as there was a waterfall 
about 100' in height in front of us, from whicli the water came 
rushing down with a deafening noise. 'I'here was therefore no 
alternative left un but to go down stream; and this we did for a 
short distance, scrambling over huge boulders, wading through 
deep po<ils of water, and clinging to narrow ledges of rock 
where tlie |v>ol3 were too deep to wade through ; but at last we 



got to a place where it was impossible to pass through, the bed 
of the stream being only about four feet wide, and through tliU 
narrow passage the water came rushing down over boulders and 
falls, making it impossible for any living thing to gpt through. 
Luckily we found a place where the rocts were less precijHtous 
and we managed to get op these, following the direction of tlie 
river till we at last got on more even ground ; and as we were 
by this tjme all thoroughly done up, we decided to camp on a 
small level piece of ground, that was situated just where another 
small mountain stream joined the one we had been following. 
There was no doubt that this stream came right up from the 
mountain ; so next day we followed it until we reacheda ridge. 
This we commenced to ascend, finding it rather difficult at first 
to cut a path through the jungle, but when we got farther up 
we found a fairly good track, evidently made by wild beasts, 
and the ascent was rather easy after that for the next 2000 feet. 
We passed a number of the argus pheaHant^' sporting places, on 
the way up, and heard their shrill crie^i all round, but never saw 
any, though I often tried to get near them and have a shot ; 
but they were very aliy and cleared away before I could see ^ 
them. As we got higher and higher up, the path waa eiideutly 
less used by animals, and got overgrown, until it was completely 
last ; and we then had to cut our way through low but very ^ 
dense and thorny jungle, full of a kind of thin rattans, the leaves ' 
of which with their hundreds of bent thorns proved a great 
hindrance to our progress, as they caught hold of our clothes 
everywhere, and as soon as we had got loose from one of the | 
leaves, we were hooked on to by half a do^en others, AI>out fwr 
o'clock in the afternoon we came out on a small plateau at s 
height of about 41100', and from there we had a good look at 
the top of the muuntaJii which was not very far off : but as at the 
rate tliat we were travelling, it would not lie possible to reach it 
that day, we left the plateau, and followed the slope of the 
ridge until we reached a dried-up water course ; and lind- 
ing a little water in a hollow, we decided to camp there. 
There were no large palm leaves to be found thereabout, and so 
darkness and rain came upon us Iiefore we had finished our 
shelter, and we passed a miserable night, wet and shivering with 
cold, as the rain had put our tires out. Next morning we had 



a liiirrit^ breakraitt, being anxious to roach the top lui early its 
pc>»ai1>le before tlit! clouds CMmmenced to gather round it. The 
rain had made, everything nsaty and slippery, and us we had lo 
get up the st^i slope, it took us some cunsideraljlf time before 
we again got out on tlie rid^fe, and b(.>tli I and tlie coolies had 
some bad falls and got a good deal bruned. After getting out 
im the ridge the aitceut was again easier, going up very gradu- 
ally, but the raltan jungle still gave an lottt of trouble, and as 
1 had t<> go aliead myself and cletir the way I got the sicjn of 
my face and liandtt lorn a good di^al, and smt-ai'iil all over with 
blood. At last we reached the top of the mountain, which 
proved to be only .i.'iOll' high, no 1 was quire certain that it could 
not 1]e Uuuong Tahan. 

We had a splendid view from there toward the norlli 
across immense stretches of low and dat land, — liunong Siam 
hraiig evidently tJie last peak to the northward of that range of 
miiiintaius in tlie middle of the Peninsula, whereof (iunong 
'I'ahan forms a part. The mouiitainti to the south and south-east 
were liidden Irom viow, being enveloped in the clouds. The 
top of tiuuong Siam is only a lung and very narrow ridge, bein^ 
in some places only four feet wide, and covered with tliick brutth- 
wood. After the coolies had rested for an hour I sent them 
down another side of the mountain, which 1 thought would lake 
us down to the Kateh river sooner, with orders to stop as soon 
a» they found water and suitable ram^nng ground. I remained 
on the top of tho mountain together with one of the Malays, in 
the hope that the clouds would clear away and enable nie |o get 
a view of the other mountains. In this I was not disappointed, 
as the mist clearud during the afternoon, and 1 got a good view 
of tbo Tulang liabong range to the south and south-east, from 
which we seemed t*) be separated by the river Kat*h. This 
range is about the same height as Ounong Siam, and behind it, 
fai' away to the southeast. I now and tlieii got a glimjtse of a 
higher mountain the top of which was continually hidden by the 
clouds : and I felt certain that this must lie (iuiumg Talian, there 
being no other mountain in sight approaching thi> same height 
as tint. 1 saw at once that it would be iniixissible to reach it 
by going straight fmm where we were, as we should ha\e 
to cross ridge after lidge of Pulang Itabong to get tiiere. and 



nftcr the experience tliat we had had of the Kateh ridges iM 
thought it mast probsblt^ that we should never ^et there tlniJ 
w(iy. We could either go round to the north of IliinongJ 
Siaiu, and then due south till we reached the fopt of the mniin-J 
tain (and this would certainly save m a lot of trouble as the] 
country round that way snemed to be fairly Hat), or el* 
nould ^o t^i the sout.hward of Tulang Kabotig and then Ntraight.l 
to (juiiong 'I'ahaii. This roiito appeiired to he the short^titl 
from f'ulai, and I *'Iected it though I knew the eoimtrj " 
tfl the southwards to Ije very mountainous, and difficult tfl get 
through : but as 1 wanted to do a little collecting on the Tulang 
li&bang. this suited me the best. After being fully satislled 
that it was really (Junong Tahan that we were looking at, we com- 
menced our descent, a shower of rain hurrying us on. and we soon J 
overlook the coolies, who had not yet found any suitable place! 
for campng. It was already commencing to get dark, and we^ 
were threatened with heavy rain ao we Imrried on as fast as the ' 
ground would allow us to travel, and just before it got dark we 
found a place beside a small stream, with plenty of large palm 
leaves close by, so all hands were soon busy making a shelter; 
and juat as the rain came pouring down we had got it ready, 
and could cook our dinner. The camp was at 4()0((' so it was 
rather cold up there, and we had to keep a large 6re liuming 
the whole night ; but still the Malays complained about the cold, 
and were glad when we started next morning for the valley. I 
We expected to strike our old track from Pulai during th&t4 
day, but somehow we missed it, and got iuto country unknown ■ 
to us : so 1 decided to follow the Kateh down stream, until wa J 
reached the village which I knew exists close to its junction J 
with the (iaias. \V'e reached the place late the next afternoon,-! 
and slept that night in a small Malay hut. Next day I got kI 
couple of Malay guides, who took us back to Pulai where 1 1 
arrii-ed aliortly after noon ; but some of tlie poor coolies did ttot4 
arrive till shortly before dark, being thoroughly done up, with f 
their feet full of thorns and bleeding from Innumerable leech | 

We now remained some days in Pulai to recoup ourselves, 1 
during which time I tried Iwrd to get some more coolies ; but I 
only succeeded in getting two more from a village down river / 






none uf the Chioeae fioni I'ulai would go witli uif into Hiv 
iunglc. It was now the bcgiimitig of i'eptemlier, and Ilie miiiy 
irosuii was cumnieiictng, so we were Hkely to luve a ratlier Imd 
Sme of it during our journey. The night before we started on 
)or second trip it rained very heavily, and in the niomintr nil 
the jungle paths in the low land were transformed into small 
streams, and the ri\ers were all in Hwud. For half a day wo 
followed a track whieh ran due soulh into i'alinng. tlie ix>Vders 
uf which are only one day's journey from I'ulai : but coming 
across an old Chiiiefe gold mine, all overgrown with jungle, wi- 
eompletely lost sight of the piLtlt. and sFter w^isting some time 
trying to liiid it again 1 decided lo cut a pulli myself, going in 
a mure easterly direction as I wai« afraid we were getttog too 
|far south. After doing this for some time we came acroHs an- 
other old disused patli evidently leading to some other old 
workings, and this we followed till evening, when we camped at 
'ft small stream. Next day we reached a large limestone cliff, at 
Ifiast but}' high, very long but narrow, being in one place 
where a narrow passage ran right though it. not more than '2i)' 
wide, whereas it must have l>een several miles long, for I started 
to go round it, but after marching for one hour and seeing no sign 
of the end of it, I gave it up and returned. We found a small 
cave (Goa tlie Malays call them), and we camped in it for the 
night, the Malays however preferring to sleep outside, as a cold 
wind seemed to be coming down through some opening in the 
roof. I sent a couple of my best men out to try and scale tlie 
cliff and obtain a view of Tahan, whieh we liad not yet seen on 
Ihis journey ; but they found It impossible to get up, the sides 
betog everywhere perpendicular or overhanging, and there were 
no bushes or roota growing on the sides, to hold on by. The 
following day we struck a branch of the Kateh river, which 
ran in a southerly direction, and followii^ it up we came to a 
deep pool full of tish ; so I discharged a dynamite cartridge in 
the midst of them, and that night my Malays had a real feast, 
fresh 6sh iR'ing very scarce at I'ulai, for there arc none to Iw 
found in the tin lialas. where all Ihe dei'p pools in the river 
have long since Ix^en filled up by the washings from the gold 
mines, leading the tisbes no place to breed or hide from their 
'enctaies. Wc then ascended a ridge running parallel with the 


Tuluiig Kabutig range, aud rt-auLed a Iii^igbt of ^oOU', bul had to I 
desceud again on the other side, as a river had to In.' crow 
which proved to be a branch of the Teiiom, which again I 
tributary of the large Pahaiig river. The descent was very 1 
steep and very slippery from the rain aiid just as we reached ' 
the river ljt»d I slipped on a large Ijoulder, and fell with great 
force agai^^t a targe root, hurting my light side very much, and 
wii£ unable to move for aume time. 1 was afraid 1 should be 
unable to continue the Joiiruey, and we had lo (»mp there that 
night, but next morning I felt much bett<?r and so we pushed on 
for another two days, when we struck another of the Pahan^ i 
rivers, but whether this was anotlier branch of the Tenoni or 
whether it was the Kechau I was unable to determine. It rose 
near the top of Tulang llalmng, as I found out lat«r by follow- 
iug it up very nearly to itM source, about .)Ot)u' up. We camped ] 
at the only level place that wt' could lind, about 1500' above 
sea level, but at night after a heavy rain we were nearly routed 
out of our camp by the river, which rose with startling sudden- 
ness and nearly Hooded us out, The roar of the water rushing 
past us at B tremendous speed dashing against boulders and 
over falls was something not to be easily forgotten, and made 
sleep impossible that nigfat, I decided to let most of my men 
remain at this place, while I went back to I'ulai to obtain a ■ 
fi-esh supply of provisions, but Iwfore doing so 1 ascendt>d an- 
other range of hills that ran parallel with the river ou the oppo- 
site side, and reached a hight of 45U0' from where I had a Cne 
view of (tunoug Tahan. I thought it would take um 4 t<^ 5 days 
to reach the foot of it, and told my men to commence cutting 
II path up to it while I was away, at Pulai. 1 then went back, 
taking with me only two coolies, and walking hard for i^ days 
we reached Pulai, It proved very difficult to obtain sufheient 
ciwlies at once, so 1 had to send 10 men off lirst, with pro- 
visions for my men, while the headman of Pulai sent for the 
Malays living fartter down stream to come up aud go with me. 
Twelve days were lost in waiting for them, and when they at 
hist arrivi-d tJiere were only 15 of them instead of 2>'i that I 
wanted, but ttiiding it useless t*j wait any longer 1 started off 
witli thoicmen, Ijtking as much provisions witli us as they could 
carry. Tbene men came fruin the low land duwu river aud , 



were iK't ii?«^ to work iu llie muuntain^, so tbpy very smin gut 
tired, and I hod rontiaually to sit down «iid wait Tor theiii. \\'e 
rpftclied Ibp camp of my Malays in fnur days, and it wan my in- 
tention to pu^h on the next day for (he foot of Tahaii ; bnt my 
Pahang Malays, who had U'cn nut cuttiug part of the |»th whito 
I had bei-ii aw^y. liad found this such hard work and etiioh diffi- 
cult cliniliiug llial tht'v refused to go on, 1 argued with them 
a long- time but il wus no use, and promises or threats of 
puni:jhmeut had e<|ually littk' efTet.'t on them, and ne\t morutii^ 
they had disappeared, leai-iiig behind them their parangs and 
spare clothing, which I had taken from them the previous 
evening, thinking tlieri'liy to prevent them from running away. 
When the Kelanlan Malays saw this they also refust^ to go any 
farther, and the whole lot of them went back to I'ulai leaving 
nie only six wieu that I had with me fn>in Kota Italiru, and a 
couple of Pahang men that joiui-d ine a few days later. Includ- 
ing myself and my tlhinese boy we were nine in all, and lo 
push on for Gunong Tahan wiih eo few men would have l;)ecn 
useless, as we should only have been able to carry enough 
provisions to take us to the foot of the mountain and back: 
whereas I wanted to stay some time near tlie top of the moun- 
tain to collect specimens. Therefore I decided to remain where 
we were, in the hope that the headman at I'ulai would wnd thi! 
Kelaiitait Malays back to me. when he heard how I was situated ; 
and this proved to be correct, the men returning to me at the 
end of twelve days. In the meantime we had done some collect- 
iiig, and got a few rare birds and some orchids. My boy wlm 
had seen the I'hinese at I'ulai working gold amused himself by 
pro.'jpectiug in the river bed ; and one day he brought Ijack to 
the vtnap a lai-ge piece of i|uartn which proved to be very rich, 
the gold being visible running right tlirough it. The lode that 
it came from could not have been far off, as the mountain which 
the river sprang from was quite close, but we had no time t<j 
look for it. 

It was my intention t«i take that [Hcce of ijuartz liack with 

me to Fulai on the return journey; but, as luck would have it. I 

' n«ver came back tJiat way ; and so it is still lying there wailing 

for somebody to come and pick it up. Uaving got the men 

bacit wc then made another start, having Hrsl to climb the ridge 



liiUU' liiyli in front of us, and this proied sucli iiard work Llial 
Uie tueii could nut wa^lk any farlliL'r wlien we reacla-d tlio tup, 
and so we camped there, going down the other side next luurn- 
iiig. There we aguin got into Keluntan territory, crosfring a 
branch uf the tialas river, and went up a long; and high ridge 
forming the boDnd«ry betwceo I'ahang and Kelantan. It was 
right from the foot of Tuloug ttabong to Ounong Tahan, and us 
it did not appear to be known to the Malays, we christened it 
Hukit tiajah on account of the number of elephants that were to 
be found there, the top of the ridge seeming to be their regular 
highway. We saw only female elephants, the males being very 
scarce in Kelantan, where everybody is allowed to shoot tlieiu, 
and before long these will be quite extuict. We kept along this 
ridge for four days, reaching a lieight of 4 joi)' and then com- 
menced to descend, being then opposite to Gunong Tahan, and 
only separated from it by a river, which proved to be tlie Helai, 
a tributary of the Lebeh, None of the branches of the (ialas 
come from the mountain, and it was evidently a great mistake 
my trying to get up from there, as the way up from tie Kelai 
or Aring tivers is much nearer and easier. Tlie descent was 
difhcult and would have been well nigh impossible if the ele* 
phantfi had not been there before us : but by following their 
tracks, and using the deep indenbi made by their huge feet, we 
managed to scramble down and reacli the uvfr, wliich is here 
1200' aliove sea level. Arriving there the Kelantan Malays left 
me and returned to their homes, and I was not sorry to lose 
them this time, as these men had enormous appetites and 
were eatjng up nearly all my proviaiouM. The rest of us stayed 
a couple of days at the river, and tlien, having found a spur tlwt 
seem^ to go iu the right direction, we conmienced the ascent 

The lirst lOOU' were very difficult, and took us a long 
time to negotiate, but after that we got out on another spur 
and the ascent got much easier, there being a fairly good track 
made by wild beasta. teaching a height of lIKiO' we got into 
rattan jungle, which seems to grow on all the Kelantan 
mountains of any height; so we left the comb of the spur and 
went down the side until we found wati-r, where we then 
camped : but could not liud unj' level place for our shelter, and 
bad to build it on the side of the liill. and as it came ou to ruiu 




fhfwvily towards (■vcniiii; we had a nthor bad time of it thar 

night, as tlip wati>i- camp iKiurinp: down the hillside on ilic 

ground that we slept upon I, myself, was t.ylng on a. few raised 

stick;* aod was fairly well off : but the Malays had been too la/y 

to cut eiinngh of these for themselt-p.i, and so had to sleep on 

I the ground nn a few leaves, with the wat^r Tuning in streams' 

I under them. Next morninp on starting we soon got into 

I rattan june;1e again, and owing to the difficulty of getting 

r through thi^, we only got up another 1000' that day, camping 

at night by the side of a small stream. .\s this seemed to be a 

likely place for collecting purposes. I decided to make it my 

head>]Uiirt^rs fi)r the time that we stayed on tlie mountains. 

It took us two moredays to cut a path U> the top cif the mountain, 

the jungle being very dense and diflicult to cut through. Kvery 

afternoon it rained heavily, so that we always got drenched 

before we could get back to camp ; and as the path we had cut 

was only a very poor affair, we liad to go bent double half of the 

«ay on account of overhanging branches, and it was very 

annoying to feel the water running from my cap down my neck. 

IHnding its way down my back, and finally coming out of my 
shoes. In the camp it was very cheerless too, in the evening, 
there being only very few leaves suitable for making a roof 
in the neighbourhood and consefiuently our shelter was very 
small and badly made. From the top of the mountain, we saw 
the village on the .\ring river where I had stayed on my first trip, 
ftnd as that appeared to be the only place within measurable 
distance from wliich we could obtain any food, I decided to send 
ftume of my men there to get a fresh supply of proiisions, as we 
were running short of these. I U.M the men to follow the Relai 
tiver. when they reached the foot of the mountain, until they 
were clear of the hills, and then strike across country till they 
reached the Aring, when they were to follow that stream till the 
village was reached. There they were to buy provisions and 
get some coolies to carry them back to us. I sent three men, and 
when they left we had only provisions left us for anotlier ten days ; 
but by giving out short rations I hoped to get them to last until 
the men could come back from the village. The rest of us stayed 
np there collecting, and I found the best collecting ground to 
I be between aOOO' to 7000', but we also went several times right Hp 



to the top when the weather was line, in the hope of finding ; 
traces of the ni<?n tliat I left on my first trip; but could llnd none 
where we were, whieh, considering the immense siKe of the nioun- 
t-iiin, was not ut all Htraii^, aa half a doxen different parties 
might have been on the mountain, without seeinj; eaeh other. 
Far away we could see a large black patch that looked 
as if the low jungle had been burned away ; but it was too , 
far for us to ath>inpt to reach it, as we should not have 
Iven able to do much collecting on the way, and I wanted to 
get together a3 large a collection aa possible before our provi- , 
aions gave out. I^ter on, I found out that it really was a piece . 
of jungle that my men had burned down to attract our attention, 
but they had already left the mountain two months before we ' 
reached it. The mountain seemed really to consist of three se- 
parate ranges running parallel from about east to west, connected 
with each other at their highest (win ts by a number of peaks, the 
one in the middle being the highest. In the ra\ines between the 
different ranges the following rivers had their sources, as far aa 
I was able to judge with the help of my Pahang Malays : — to- 
wards the Kelantan side the river Kelai and two branches of 
the Aring : towards the Pahang side the rivers Kechau, Tahan, 
and perhiipN also another branch of the Tembeling, — as I nni not 
sure that the river which we struck on my first trip was not k 
branch of that ri\'er, and not the Tahan as the &tkais stated, 
I found that all the bramhes of these rivers which sprung 
from anywhere near the top of the mountain, had very 
discoloured wat^r. something like the water found in stagnant 
swamps ; whereas the streams that came from an altitude of less 
than 40110' had beautifully clear water ; but what might be the 
reason of this I did not lind out. Nearly the whole of the 
mountain eonsist* of white quartz. Kroni my own experience on 
the Tahan or Tenibeliug ri^■e^. and from what I saw from the 
top. 1 should say that it will be very diDicult to get up from 
tlie Pahang Mde, as the mountain on that side is very precipitous 
(probably deri\ing its name of Tahan on that account) and 
pro\iaions have to \» carried a much greater distance than from 
the Kelantan side. 1 only saw ime village on the Pahang side, 
lying Iteside a huge lime?<txine cliff that somewhat resembled the 
shape of an elephant; but none of my men could give me t 



information as to the tmoie of the river by wliicli it was Mtuattnl. 
If anybody want-s to try and g^t up from the I'ahang side I 
would recommend him to ^tart from that village. There wo-s a 
very grand view from the lop. eiapecially very early in the 
morning, when the mist covered all the low-lying land, making it 
re*>mble a lake of nnow : and so low did the mint keep to thu 
ground tlutt the top of some of the tall jungle ti'ees i-oiild tie 
aeeji, looking like masts of sunken nhipH.and the smaller mountains 
stiKxl out dark and sombre like islands in thin beautiful lake. 
Ijiter on in the day the mist would gradually rise and come 
rolling up tlie mountain side, with the dark clouds gathering 
fast near the top, and in the afternoon and evening the rain 
would come down in torrents. The trees and rocks were all 
covered with massefi of long moss in which the rain kept hang- 
ing, so that it was impossible to move about withi>iit getting 
wet ; and we had to go about day after day in wet clothes, 
with wind and rain blov.nng in on us at night. Besides which my 
Malays suffered much from the cold at night, when the tem- 
perature often went down t« 51)*. 

Altogether I stayed eighteen days near the top of the moun- 
tain, and I got a very good collectionof Wrds and nome orchids; 
but I was only able to take a small ijuantity of the latt«r, m 
transporting a large number of them to the cooat would have 
been impossible with the few men that 1 had. Of mammals we 
only got very few, and tJie same was the cose witli insects, of 
which I luid hoped to get a lot ; but wit^ the wet and miserable 
weather that we had, all the insects that we aaw Hew very high, 
and even if they had come down, it would have been neatly 
impossible to chase and catch them in the thick low brushwood 
that covered the whole of the upper part of the mountain. 

For tJie last few days that we stayed up there we only got 
half rations, as I was very loath to go down, hoping that the tiiree 
men would return from the village in lime with the provisions : 
when it was my intonti-m to remain np there for another fourteen 
days. But when the last grain of rice and all the tinned provisions 
were litiished, we hid to start on the way down, taking with us 
nil my collections PNcepl the orchids, which I was forced to 
leavo lirhind us wi- ronld not carry them with us. I expected 
I find the men with tlie provisions at the foot of the mountain, 


but on Brriving thfre we found no sign of tliora. However I had 
left there four tins of salmon and two pounds of biscuits when wp 
went up the mountain, and we now made a scanty ineal of half of 
these, reserving' the other half for nest day. At night we dis- 
cussed what was to bedone.andftsall the Malays wanlf^ to make 
for thfi nearest village to obtain food then-, I gave in; though 
1 would rather have remained at the foot of the mountain and 
waited for the return of the three men, lii-ing on the mountain on 
such game as we could shoot and snare. Pearly next morning 
we startwl, leaving most of my things behind in the camp, tak- 
ing with us only a blanket each, and my collection of birds. 
My Malays want<>d me to Wvp the latter behind to enable us 
to travel quicker, but I was afraid the xkins would lie spoiled 
before we could return for them, and so I made the men carry 
them along. Following the Relai river we soon came past the 
mountain, and as the three men who had gone before an had 
made a track for us we got on rather fjuickly. A couple of hours 
walking brought us to a shelter where these men had camped, 
and beyond this were two tracks, so it was ev-ident the men had 
gone wrong first, and finding this out, had returned U} this place 
and struck out in another direction. We kept on following 
the river, but soon got into difficult country, with spurs from 
the mountains running right down to the river, so that we often 
had to cross tlie same, to escape having to climb over these 
hills, some of which were ratlier high and steep. Having to 
cross the river so oft^n delayed us a good deal, as tlie river was 
in flood, the water coming tearing down with great force ; and 
great care had to be taken in crossing over. The course of the 
river was very crooked indeed : but we had to keep to the banks 
and follow all its bends and windings, as we got into the hills 
as soon as we attempted to cut off some of the corners ; and the 
Malays declared they were unable to do any climbing, as they 
had had so little food for the last few days. So on the 
whole I do not think we got very far that day. After rigging 
up a shelter for the night we fired a couple of dj-namite cart- 
ridges in some pools in the rivers, but only got a few small 
fishes, that would scarcely have satisfied the hunger of one man, 
BO I got the Malays to collect some young palm shoots, and we 
made a meal of them ; but the Malays declared that they v 



no good, sayini; tliert; wa^ abMuluttily no ftreiigtli in thi'Ui, and 
on the following days 1 could not K^t them to collect any. 
The next day we kept on following the river, liopiiig to Hnd 
soiiH! bumboes, of which we then int<.'nded Ui make a raft and 
drift down tilream until we reached the Sakaj settlement which 
1 knew existed there ; but to our great disappolntmeat tliciv 
were none tu be found in that port of the country, so we kept 
trudging along, now on this, and now on that side of the river, 
tlie Malays complauiing very much, and getting more dii^beart-. 
ened the farther we went. I tried my best to cheer them up 
and get them to hurry on, but finding tliis useless, 1 left theui 
and went on by myself till some time in the afternoon ; when 
)uiving found a suitable place for camping I sat down and 
waited for thera. When they at last arrived I liad great diffi- 
culty in getting them to collect leaves fur a tihelter, a^ none of 
tlie large kind of palm leaves were to be found in the incinity, 
and the men preferred t« sleep in tlie open, rather than to take 
the trouble of making a shelter of the smaller leaves found there, 
llowever I insisted on liaving one built, and lucky it wa^ that 
I did so, as the rain came pouring down as soon as it was 
finiehed, and this lasted half the night, so we should have been 
in a sorty plight had we h;id no roof over us. ^Vhile the men 
made the shelter I lired another charge of dyniimite in a pool, 
and this time I was mure successful, getting a number of good- 
sized fishes. So we had enough for a fairly good meal that night 
and for another the next morning before we sbrt«d, that being the 
last food we tasted before we reached the village four days later, 
Theriver was now in flood to such an extent tliat it was dangerous 
to cruse over, and a» we could not keep continually on one side 
of it owing to the many bills, wc decided to leave it altogether 
and strike across country until we reached the Aring, where 
we could make a raft and drift down to the village. Soon 
aftpr we had left the river bank, we got to some hills, and 
seeing no chance of getting round by the foot of them, I started 
climbing up, the Malays of course prote^jtiug: but as 1 did not 
take any notice of that, lliey had tu follow me, grumbling very 
much as ihey went, and sitting down very often to rest. My 
Chinese boy proved to be tlie best man of the lot and kept fairly 
ulose behind me, wheieas the Mulays were soon left far behind. 



The hill proved to bo very much hiij^her and steeper than 1 
expected, being in fact a mountain range 8,000' high, dividing 
the Relai and Aring rivers, and the Malays were terribly done 
up when they at last reached the top. While I waited for them 
up there, I found a spur sloping gently down on the other 
side towards the north-east, and this we now followed right 
to the foot of the range, where we came across a small stream 
and camped close by it. We had no dinner that night, but 

- there being still some tea left, we each had a cup of this before 
going to sleep. Following the stream next day we at last 
reached the Aring river, of which this was a tributary called 
Patei. It was about noon when we struck the Aring, and great 
was our joy on finding an old disused baml)oo raft lying half 
way up on the banks. It had evidently bc»en l(»ft there by some 
gutta hunters, and we soon had it in the water ; luckily it was 

' just big enough to hold us and our things, and after having cut 
some long poles to steer with, we started on our way down 

Owing to the late heavy rains the river was in Hood, and 
this was rather in our favour, as there would be no shallow 
places over which we otherwise would have had to haul the raft 
We were travelling at a great rate of speed, it Mug impossible 
to stop the raft, but we did not anticipate any danger, as the 
Malays seemeed well able to steer us clear of all rocks and 
snags. The men were all in high glee, now, at the prospect of 
soon reaching the village, shouting, singing and chaffing each 
other, and in their own estimation they were evidently great 
heroes, ^o we went dashing down one rapid after the other, 
the men yelling derision at them all, when just as we came 
round a bend in the river we dashed into the stem of a huge 
tree that had fallen across the stream and effectually blocked 
the whole river. The thing happened so suddenly that it was 
impossible to do anything to prevent it; there was a great crack- 
ing of the bamboos and down went the raft, throwing us all 
out in the river. We all managed to scramble up on the tree, 
and as all our things were light we fished them up again, with 
the exception of my only pair of shoes, which I had taken off as 
a precaution when we started, in case we should have to swim 
for it We also managed to haul the raft up over the tree, and 


as the Malays thought that it wouM still hold together, we deuidt'd 
to go on wifh it A great many of the faainboos had been split 
open by the collision, ao the nift was not nearly as buoyant as 
it had been before, and could scarcely carry us all. (ioing 
down over rtie rapids now became very dangerous, as the water 
would come rolling in over the raft, pressing now this now that 
aide under wat^r, so that we had difficulty in balancing ourselves 
on it, and I was afraid the raft would go to pieces at any minute. 
So after we had had about one hour of this dangerous sport, I 
thought it bett*'r to stop and keep to the jungle. So we landed 
and made a shelter, but it was a very poor one, the Malays 
being now again very diahesrtened, did not work very will- 
ingly, and the raiu coming:: on again we passed a really miser- 
able night in our wet clothes, with wet blankete, and the rain 
dripping on us from above, and running in streams under the few 
leavesonwhlch wehad made our bed,and without amorsel of food. 
Next day we looked for bamboos with which to repair our raft, 
but not finding any, we had to abandon it and start on our 
weary tramp again. 1 went ahead myself cutting a (lath for the 
others, as they all had something to carry, and a pretty bad 
time I had of it with my bare feet: for as I had to keep looking; 
ahead, I could not always see where I put my feet, and as a 
consequence I often trod on thorns and sharp sticks ; besides 
whicli there were thousands of leeches about, which took u great 
fancy to my bare legs, where they stuck till they had had their 
fill, as I often felt too weary to stoop down and pick them off. 
We knew that there was a native path on one side of the river, 
running from the village into Pahang ; and ao we went inland 
away from the river, trying to find it, but coming to a nmge of 
hills the Malays declared themselves unable to get over them; so 
. we had to go back to the river and follow its many bends and 
curves. Often we had to make great detours inland when we 
came to tributaries of the Aring, which were deep and swollen, 
)4o that we had t^i lind fords l:efore we could cross over them. 
We walked the whole day, camping just before it got dark, and 
started off apain early next morning, having then good hopes 
of reaching the village that day, a» I had found some landuiarhs 
that 1 knew. The Malays were however very slow, so I got 



Far ahisad uf Lheiu ftll, by mystjif. thinking tbey would hurry oil 
when they found thut they were being left so far behind. To- . 
ward» three o'clock in the ufternoon, just when I had decided to ' 
atop and await my men, I heard a shout down river, and on my 
answt^ring, a boat appeared, that had been sent up from the \" 
lage to meet us. Two of the Malaya whom I thought were far I 
l)ehind me had lost my track altogether, and in looking^ for it ' 
they had come across the real patJi to the village, and this cheer- 
ing them up. they bad hurried on to the village, and hearing 
there that we had not yet arrived, they sent a boat up stream to 
meet ua. I waited till my other men came up, and then we all 
went down the river to the village, arri\-ing there just as a 
heavy thunderstorm came on, and very thankful were we to 
under a good roof again. The day after, the three men that I had I 
sent for provisions came back to the village with a long tale of j 
woe. They had arrived there four or five daya l>efore ua. 
having taken fourteen days to reach it, whereas it took ua 
only seven diiys. They had then Iwught some provisions and ] 
started on their return journey to the mountain. When two daya I 
out, their ^>akai coolies ran away and left them ; and instead of j 
pushing on by themselves as they ought to have done, theyJ 
returned to the village to obtain other coolies. ISu it was well for 1 
us that we did not stop at the foot of the mountain and wait for I 
them to come back. I 

After the men liad rested for four or five days, I sent tliem I 
back to the mountain, togetlier with a number of Malaya from the I 
village, to fet^:h the orchids and my other things that we had i 
left behind. The coolies were to bring these back to Buntle, 
whereas my own men would go from the mountain back to 
Pulai, where they would fetch those of my things that I had 
left there ; and then going down by the Galas river, join me at 
KotA Bahru. It was impossible for me to return to the moun* 
tain myself, having no shoes, with my feet in a terrible state, 
swollen and torn, sti that I was scarcely able to walk for days 
aft^r. Had it been otherwise I should certainly have gone buck . 
and stayed up on the mountain for another month. Shortly 1 
after the men had left I got a bad attack ()f fever, which luckily 
did not last very lung but left me very weak. 1 got a tiger i 
while waiting fur the "r.-tuni of the men. Ih-re seeming to be I 


plenty of them in that part of the country, as a report came to 
hand that two men had been eaten by them at Quala Aring just 
befOTe. Going down stream we passed eight of them, — two old 
and a young one, — that were disporting themselves in the jungle 
close to the bank; but we were then just passing over a rapid, 
and travelling at a great speed, se that it was impossible to get a 
shot at them. After waiting ten days the coolies returned, and 
I started on the return journey to Kota Bahru, the trip down 
stream taking only eight days, as all the rivers were in flood. The 
men that I had left on my first trip upon the mountain I picked 
up on the way down, and they stated that they had succeeded 
in scaling one of the peaks of the Tahan, to the south of where 
I got up, and they brought a fairly good collection of skins 
back with them. 

I had to wait about a week in Kota l^hru for my men 
from the (jalas river, and then went back to Singapore, the 
whole trip taking seven months instead of three as I had 
reckoned on. 

On the Hymenoptera collected by Mr. 

Robert Shelford at Sarawak, and 

on the Hymenoptera of the 

Sarawak Museum. 

By r. Camekun, of New Millis, DEUiasuiUK. 

This paper b> bastMi on material collected at Sarawak, hv 
Mr. Robert Shelford of Caiabridge University and on the spe- 
cies in the Sarawak Museum brought home by Mr. Shelford for 
the purpose of being named. In addition to many known spe- 
cies the two collections contain many noteworthy undoscribed 
genera and species. Since the publication of the paper by the 
late Mr. F. Smith (Jour. Linn. Soc. 1857) on the Uymefioptera 
collected by A. K. Wallace, very little has been written on the 
Bornean species, of which an immense number must still remain 
to be discovered in all the families, but more particularly among 
the smaller parasitic tribes — Ichneumonida*. Braconidw, Oxyura 
and Chalcididie. 

Ifijlotoina pruinosa, sp. nov. 

Coerulea, dense albo pruinosa ; alis hyalinis, macula sub- 
stigmatali fusca, 9 • 

Long: 10 mm. 

Ilab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Bright metallic blue densely covered with a white pile. 
The Hagellum of the antenniu is black, the hinder tibiie are broad- 
ly fuscous in the middle. The frontal fovea is deep, its sides 
oblique, it extends from the ocelli to shortly below the antenna' 
and is open above and billow ; the lateral furrows of the face are 
wide and deep ; the labruni has a slight violet tinge. The ver- 
tex and the mesonotum have a slight purple tinge. The cloud 
on the fore wing occupies all the radial cellule ; the upper half 


of the first cubital and the greater part of the second, the third 
cellule being also slightly clouded ; the second cubital cellule is 
distinctly longer at the top and bottom than the third ; both the 
recurrent nervures are received shortly behind the middle of the 
cellules ; the third transverse cubital nervure is angled outward- 
ly above the middle and from the angle a short nervure issues ; 
the upper and lower parts are straight and have an oblique slope. 
Abdomen coloured like the body ; the apex of the fii-st and the 
base laterally of the second segment are fuscous. 

Allied to ILjanthina Kl. and //. maculipetwis Cam. Charac- 
teristic is the third transverse cubital nervure with its distinct 
nervure issuing from the angle above the middle. 

Kvania honie(nia^ sp. nov. 

Nigra, capite thoraceque albopilosis ; mesonoto sparse punc- 
tato ; alis hyalinis, nervis nigris, 5 . 

Long : 8 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak (Shelford). 

Antennit longer than the body : th(» scape not dilated, 
narrow covered with a pale pile and as long as the following 
two joints united : the third and fourth joints are about 
equal in length. Head shining, smooth, almost impunc- 
tate, and covered with short white pubescence. Clypeus on the 
lower side bounded by a distinct curved furrow. On the front, 
outside the antenna?, is a narrow covered keel. The ocelli are 
in a curve ; the hinder are separated from each other by a dis- 
tinctly greater distance than they are from the eyes. There is 
a narrow, but distinct, keel between the antenna?. The mesono- 
tum bears some large scattered punctures ; the lateral furrows 
are distinct, deep and curved ; there is a distinct, longitudinal 
furrow opposite the tegula?. The scutellum has scattered punct- 
ures in four irregular rows. The median segment is regular- 
ly reticulated, except in the middle above, wherp it bears large, 
deep scattered punctures. The apex of the propleun© io irregu- 
larly furrowed above. The upper part of the mesopleura? is 
smooth ; the lower regularly punctured. The breast is sparsely, 
and not yery strongly, punctured. Wings clear hyaline ; the 


stigma and nervures black; the second transverse cubital 
nervure is obsolete ; as is also the cubitus from the first trans- 
verse cubital nervure, which is interstitial with the recurrent. 

The radial cellule is wide at the apex, through the radius 
having an oblique downward slope at the base; the apical 
abscissa is straight and oblique ; the transverse basal nervure is 
almost interstitial. Legs black ; the calcaria fuscous ; the tibiae 
without spines. 

The metastemal forks are roundly curved. In Schlettere's 
Monograph (Ann. K. K. II. of Mus. Wien. 1889) this species 
would come near E, appendigaster Linn. 

Megiselens longicollis^ sp. nov. 

Black, the head yellowish-red; the four frontiers tinged 
with rufous; the wings clear hyaline, the cubital and the 
transverse cubital nervures obliterated ; the rildius incomplete, ? , 

Long: 18; terebra 17-18 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennae black : the basal three joints rufous. Head pale 
rufous, the orbits with a yellowish tinge ; the anterior three 
tubercles are longer and sharper than the posterior ; the front 
is coarsely, closely striated, obliquely above, transversely below; 
the vertex, behind the ocelli, is indistinctly furrowed in the 
middle, and closely obli([uely striated on either side of it ; the 
outer orbits are smooth. The prothorax has a brownish tinge ; 
it is distinctly longer than the mesothorax, is deeply and widely 
incised at the base, the apex of the incision being rounded ; the 
basal half is closely transversely striated, the apex is indistinctly 
striated ; the dilated apex is smooth. Mesonotum coarsely, 
irregularly reticulated at the base; the apex is widely depressed 
in the middle, the raised sides are irregularly punctured. Scutel- 
lum smooth, its sides punctured. Mesopleuraj smooth ; the base 
pilose. Median segment closely and regularly reticulated. 
The propleurae in front of the teguUv are strongly striated. 
The hinder coxa* are closely, but not strongly, striated ; the coxal 
teeth are irregular and not very prominent Wings clear 
hyaline ; the nervures and stigma black ; the basal abscissa of the 
radius is straight and obli<iue and forms an angle with the apical 
branch which is about e([ual in length to it; only the basal two 


cellules are enclosed or complete, and the only apical nervure is 
the abbreviated radius. 

A species easily known by the abbreviated and obsolete 
ulur nervures. The pronotum, too, is longer and narrower 
than it is with the other Oriental species. 

Megiselexts niaculifrous, sp. nov. 

Black, the head red ; the vertex and the upper part of the 
front black ; the outer orbits dull red, narrowly yellowish on 
the inner side close to the eyes ; there is a broad red mark 
immediately behind the ocelli ; legs black, the four front tarsi 
dull testaceous, the basal joint of the hinder tarsi white ; the 
wings hyaline with a slight fuscous tinge; the stigma and 
nervures black, $ . 

Long: 12 mm« 

Hab. Baram District. Low country (Hose). 

Antennae black ; the scape and pedicle rufous. Head rufous, 
the outer orbits and the face duller, more yellowish in tint ; the 
vertex and the upper part of the front and the upper part of the 
outer orbits, black ; behind the ocelli is a red mark, which is 
broader than long. The front tubercle is longer, more sharply 
pointed than the others and is directed l)ack wards ; the hinder 
pair are shorter and broader than the middle. The vertex is 
narrowly rugose in the middle, the sides are striated transversely. 
Mandibles rufous, black at the apex, the palpi black, paler 
towards the apex. Prothorax short; the pleurje depressed 
in the middle. 


Iphtaulax, Foer. 

The following three species of Ip/tiaular are similarly 
coloured — luteous with the wings fuscous, yellow at the base. 
They may be separated as follows : 

(a) The keel on the centre of second segment not reach- 
ing to the middle of the segment, not much longer than 
broad ; acraffas, 

(/;) The keel on the centre of the second segment reaching 
beyond the middle. 


The keel reaching to the apex, of equal width through- 
out ; the segment at its sides not depressed, nor strongly 
transversely striated ; astviochus, 

(#•) The keel not reaching to the apex ; the segment at 
its sides depressed and strongly transversely striated; 


TphiimUix acragaSy sp. nov. 

Long : 1 1 mm ; terebra 6 mm. 

Hab. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennae black, the scape luteous beneath. Head smooth 
and shining ; the face sharpened, sparsely covered with long 
fuscous hair ; the clypeus is bordered by oblique furrows later- 
ally ; apex of mandibles black ; the palpi luteous. Thorax 
smooth and shining sparsely covered with pale pubescence. 
Legs coloured like the body ; the apical joint of the four hind- 
er tarsi fuscous. Wing^ fuscous, with a slight violaceous tint; 
the base behind the transverse basal nervure yellowish-hyaline ; 
the first cubital and the discoidal cellule are lighter coloured in 
the middle ; the stigma is black, with a luteous spot on its base. 
The central part of the petiole is rugose and is stoutly longitu- 
dinaly striated in the middle ; the second is closely rugously 
punclured ; the lateral depressions are wide, deep and closely 
longttudinally striated ; the oblique apical depressions are nar- 
roweir, are deep and closely striated ; the suturiform articula- 
tion is deep and rather strongly and regularly striated ; the 
third segment is closely punctured ; the basal furrow is wide, 
deep and closely striated in the centre ; it becomes narrowed 
and curved at the sides : its apical furrow is narrow. The api- 
cal segments are smooth ; the furrows on the lifth segment are 
narrow and striated. 

Iphiaula.v ceressvs, sp. nov. 

Long : 12 mm. 

Hab. Matang, aoOO feet (Shelford). 

Antenna? entirely black. The face is more yellowish in tint 
than the vertex ; its centre is irregularly striated ; the sides 
punctured ; the clypeus is distinctly raised and clearly separated 
from the face, standi bular teeth black. Thorax smooth and 

♦ r» 



shining, sparsely pilose. Wiiips smonthy-fiiBOous from the tranti- 
verse basal nen-iire; behind it yellowisli-hyaline ; th« lower 
part of the stigma to th? transverae cubital nersnre luteous. 
The central part of the petiole is rugose and longitudinally keel- 
ed down the centre; the four following segments are closely 
tugosely punctured ; the bainal keel extends to near the apex ; 
it is of nearly wiiial width to near the apex ; its sides are keeled 
and it is distinctly raised ; the segment on either side of it ia 
depressed and bears three stout, irregularly curved keels, the 
lateral depression is shallow ; the sides of the segment outside 
it forms three ridges. The furrows on the other segments are 
longitudinally striated: the baani branch of the suturiform 
articulation is larger, broader, and more oblique and more dis- 
tinctly striated than the apical. 

Tphiauliij- (istiiir/iuf, sp, nnv. 

Long: 9; terebra 1-2 ram. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (R. Shelford). 

Anlennn- entirely black. Fi'ont and s'erten smooth, shining 
and bare; the face irregularly rugose; the mandibular teeth are 
black. Thorax smooth and shining; the median segment is 
thickly coiered with long pale hair. Wings dark fuscous; 
yellowish-hyaline behind the transverse basal nernire. 
'l"he centra] area of the petiole is rugosely punctured; 
it is slightly narrowed towards the apex. The middle 
aegmeiits are closely rugosely punctured; the central keel 
extends to the suturiform articulation; it is of equal 
width throughout: is longitudinally striated, with the sides 
raised and irregular: the basal lateral depression is narrow at 
the base, much wider at the apex and is utioutly striated at the 
base of the dilated part, which turns inwardly at the iipex; the 
suturiform articulation is wide and deep: its basal lateral fork is 
more oblique and narrowei than the apical ; the other furrows 
are closely striated ; the basal more strongly than the apical ; 
the apical segments are smooth and are more yellowish in tint 
than the others, 

Spimtria ciirrispina, sp, nov. 

Rufa. thoracespna collaris curvato, abdominis dorso stri- 
goso; capite, thoracc pedibusque anterioribus rufis: abdominis I 




dorso pedibus'iub putttii-i^ nig;ris; abdumiiii^ upice pailide llava; 
alia fuijct», $ . 

Long 12-13 inta. 

Uab. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antenniv longer than the body, black, tapering towards the 
apex. Head and antenna' rurous, smooth and shilling; the 
median segment irregularly reticuUt«d: mure strongly and 
regularly at the middle than at the base. On the back of the 
pronotum, at the npex. is a long curved spine, which tapers 
bownrds the apex and is directed towai-ds the head : between 
this and the middle ia a. large leaf-like plate, hollowed above, 
itM sides curved and expanded outwardly; the lateral wings are 
narrowed towards the apes : at the base, running up the Mpiiie. 
is a stout keel. At the apex of the middle lobe of the mesono- 
tum is a stout keel ; the port on either xide of it ia striated. <^)n 
Uie depre»sioii behind tlie aculellum are six stout longitudinal 
keels; from the middle of the sixth runs a stout, transvereie 
keel ; behind this are thn.'e short keels. The sides of the medi- 
an segment at tlie apex project into stout teeth. The four 
front leget are paler in tint than the thorax ; the apical joint of 
the tarsi is black; the hind legs are entirely black. Wings uni- 
formly dark fuscous; the stigma and nervnres are deep black ; 
abdomen deep black: the sides of the first and second segnienls 
and the base of the fii-st and the apical segment are pale yellow; 
the dorsum is closely and strongly longitudinally striated: the 
first two transverse furrows are strongly striated; the sides of 
the third and fourth segments project into t-harp, stout spines: 
the spine on the fourth is the larger : on the centre of the third 
at the apex. iH a stout triangular tooth, on the middk* of the 
fourth is a larger, ^ha^[)e^ one: the apical segment ends in a 
lougish, sharp tooth. 

Comes nearest apparently to S. fphmtm; Gner, from Bengal, 
but differs iu the colouration of the wings and legs. 

S/ictjhnlia, gen. nov. 

Median aegireni with a narrow area in the leulre, eNlend- 

ing from the base lo the apex ; second, third and fuurlli segments 

of lilt- abdomen clui^ely longitudinally slrialid: the reimd uilh 

four cuuverging keelv: there is a Iiansviise crei.ulaltd firiow 


im tin- Immp f)f tile tliii'd seguifiits only, and iiu obli'|iie ones.. 
i^Flaliir t«pai:i' large: the oral n'giuii widely uiK-ti. Frunt de- 
pressed ill tlif middle: tlie (;(!iitrt> witli a utuut ketil ; tlie sides ol' 
the dupfetHiiuii kei'led. 'I1ie third and fourth juiiiti! uf the uii- 
teiiiia; are e<]ual iu Ieng;th and sumewfaiit longer than the liftli. 
Legs ofmodemle length; the fore tarsi twice the length of the 
tibia:. iSbeatbs of t}ie ovipositor densely pilose. 

The middle lobe of the inesonotuni is distinctly fiteparated; 
the scut^llar depression is shallow and longitudinally striated: 
the furiuw on the metapleunt is long, wide and deep: above itu 
apex is a longitudinal keel. The occiput is not margined ; the 
tetiiples are moderately large and are rounded behind. The 
legs are pilose, but not so thickly as in Mtjoioma. The clypeus is 
bordered by a wide oblic[ue depression. The second and third 
segments are distinctly longer than their width at the apex ; the 
abdomen is fully twice the length of the thorax. The inner 
orbits above are distinctly keeled. 

A distinct genus easily known by the area on the median 
segment, by the longitudinally striated abdominal segments, by 
the margined upper inner orbits and by the keeled front. 

Shelfurdia rnjicfps, sp, nov. 

Nigra, capite, pedibus anticis, prothorace mesothoraceiiua 
rulis; alisfuniatis, 9. 

Lung : 11 ; terebra 22 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak (Shelford). 

Anteuniu black; the scape rufous in the middle beneath. 
Head rufous; tlie face and clypeus closely punctured and spar- 
sely covered with long black hair: the centre of the face slight- 
ly raised and smooth. The clypeus is clearly separated, especi- 
ally at the sides; the top, in the middle, is transverse. Its sides 
rounded ; at the sides is a smooth depression. Mandibletf rufous, 
their k>eth black. The vertex is sparsely punctured, especially 
atlhesidea; the depressed front is more shining and smooth. 
Pro- and niesothorax with tlie scutellum smooth and iinpunctate : 
the scutellar depression is narrow and is stoutly longitudinally 
crenulatcd. The median segiiteiit is smooth and is sparsely 
covered with longish black hair, llie anh^rior wings are uni- 
formly smoky-fuscous; the biudex have the basal half milk- 


white; the uervures and 8ti^ma are black; iu the anterior la an 
oblique white cloud on the ba;^ of the first cubital cellule and 
extending obliquely into the discoidal. The front legs are 
lufous like the thorax ; tlie base of the middle coxa5 rufous ; the 
rest of them and femora piceous ; the hinder legs are entirely 
black; the coxie impunctate. The petiole is vhhSed in tlie centre; 
the raised part is bordered by an irregular stout keel ; the centre 
towards the apex is irregularly transversely striated. The 
centre of the second segment is raised, the raised part is border- 
ed by a keel and becomes gradually narrowed towards the apex 
whidi is sharply pointed; it is irregularly striated; bordering 
this is an area of et^ual width extending from the base to the 
apex of the segment; it is stoutly transversely striated, with 
some irregular longitudinal stria; in the middle ; outside this is 
an area which becomes gradually wider towards the apex and 
bears some stout, irregular striue. The third segment and the 
basal two-thirds of the fourth are stoutly longitudinally striated; 
the transverse furrow on the base of the third segment is 
stoutly striated; the apical segments are smooth; the basal four 
ventral segments are milk-white. 

Mijosoma^ Brule 

The species of this genus here described are black ; with 
the head, thorax and the two or four anterior legs rufous, and 
the wings dark fuscous. The species may be divided into two 
sections: — 

(a) Head, thorax and the four anterior legs rufous, llie 
third segment with a deep wide transverse striated fur- 
row near the centre, the base stoutly, longitudinally 
striated ; foHicarinata, 

The third segment without a transverse furrow; the 
base not stoutly striated ; brevicarinata, 

{b) Head, pro- and mesothorax rufous, the two anterior 
legs rufous. The ovipositor not much longer than tlie 
bod v. 
{a)' The keel on the second segment narrow extending to 
the apex of the segment ; its base and apex dilated smooth 
and shining; longicanHaUi. 


{!•)' Tbe keel oil the secund segment broad, iiut L-xtcnding 
t« tbe apex of the seji^uienl, its base not smooth. 

The second segment at the base on either side of the 
keel deep black, striated, tlie middle isegmetit deep black: 
The second segmental tlie base on either side of the 
kee 'brownish, not striated; the middle seguentii brown- 
ish; tiic/iiura- 
Mi/<isonia Ji/iikiiri'iala, sp. nov. 
Long: 13; terebra 19 mm. 9, 
llab. Sarawak, Borneo (Sbelford). 

AntenntB black, the scape rufous. Ili'nd niid tlmra.s rufous, 
smooth and shining; the face nigosely punctui-t'd, the punctures , 
running into reticulations and sparsely covered with longinb 
bUck hair ; there is a narrow furrow on the front. ?tlandible« 
and palpi rufous; the mandibular teeth black, Tbe four frout 
legs are rufouM ; the middle pair darker in tint, especially on the 
tibiii.' and tarsi ; the tibiw and tarsi are thickly covered with 
longish dark hair. Wings dark fuscous; the nervures and 
stigma black. Petiole broadly depressed, on the sides the 
central part is bordered by stout keels and there is a stout keel 
down the centre : ihe basal part bears some stout irregularly 
curved keels. 'I'he second segment bears a complet« central 
and a shorter lateral keel, which converge slightly towards the 
apex ; the basal area is triangulnr, smooth and shining ; the base . 
in the centre is depressed, the centre beiirs some stout irregular 
keels; the outer parts bear stout, oblique keels ; the inner parts ^ 
at theapex being smooth andmore deeply depressed than the outer. 
The two transverse depressions are wide, deep and stoutly longi- 
tudinally striated; thepart between the two isstoutly longitudinal- 
ly striated, The apical segments are thickly covered with long | 
black hair. The sheaths of the ovipositor are stout and are | 
thickly covered with black hair. 'The tarsal S[Hnes are rufuus. 
.Wi/us'Jiiia bvericafiiialu, sp. uoV". 
Long; l"ii; terebra 21 niui. $ 
Hab, IJoriieo ( Shelford ). 
tjcape of antt^'umu rufous ; the Hagellum is brownish lieneath, 1 
especially towards the apex, ileud rufous; the face alightlyj 


pallor, uiore yellowish in tint, rugosely punctured and covered 
with pale liair ; the front and vertex Are< more sp'vrstfly covered 
with longer darker hair. Mandibles black, broadly rufous at tlie 
in^e. Tliorax smooth and shining ; the middle of the mesonotum 
behind is broadly expressed ; the central lobe i,s clearly defined ; 
the median seg'raeiit is thickly covered with longish fuscous hair. 
\Vinp9 dark fuscous, with a riolaceous tinge at the base : the 
uervures and stigma are black. Metapleum" widely and deeply 
furrowed down the middle. The front legs are rufous with a 
yellowish tinge ; the middle pair are brownish ; the femoni paler ; 
the t«rsal spine.s are black. The petiole i^i broadly keeled down 
ths centre; the side.'^ on the apical half are stoutly irregularly 
atriated; the keel on the second segment extends to the 
transverse furrow ; its dilated ba^se is finely striated ; the sides 
and centre are irregularly, longitudinally striated to near the 
apex which is smooth and laterally expressed : the third segment 
at the base is longiludiuslly striiited : the stri* in the middle 
reaches to the apes ; the apical segments are brownish, 

Mi/osouM Irichiiira, sp. nov. 

Long : 14 ; terebra U-l j mm. 

HiiK Sarawak (.Shelford). 

Anfennw black, the base and apex of the scape rufous. The 
sides of the head are punctured ; in the centre of the face are 
three stout, transverse keels. Mandibles rufous, their apex 
broadly black. The face is rather thickly covered with long 
black hair: the frons and vertex sparsely si>, Pro- and 
mesothorax rufous, smooth and shining ; the median segment 
black. I<egs black : the anterior pair rufous : the apex of the 
median .segment is sparsely, longitudinally striated. The apex 
of the petiole is cimrsely irregularly reticulated the lateral 
furrows are depressed and transversely striated. The second 
segment is irregularly longitudinally i^triated ; ita basal area is 
broad at the l»se, becomes gradually and sharply narrowed 
towards the apex, is longitudinally striated and extends beyond 
the middle ; on either side is an oblir|ue, closely striated furrow. 
The third and fourth segments are closely striated: the basal 
furrow on the third extends to the sides; from it issues a 
curved furrow ; the furrow on the fourth does not extend to the 



sides in a »traif];ht Uiip butcurvps brnadly backwards to«t: IKpi-*" 
is a transverse, striated furri)w on the apex iif Ihe tliird and 
fourth segmenta. 'i'lie slieathti i)f the o\'ipositor are broad and 
thickly covered with stiff black hairs. 

This species is an I iihitiilii.c with the hairy ovipositor and 
le^s of a Miidso'iia. 

3fi/osfiin(i loiigieaviiintii. sp. nnv. 

r,ono:: 11-12 mm 9. 

Ilab. Sarawak. (Shelford). 

Antennie entirely black, head rufous; the face more 
yellowish in colour: it is smooth, sparsely punctured on the 
sides and bearing some lonjrish black hair : the clypeus is 
irregularly rugose. Mandibles black, the base broadly rufous. 
Pro- and meiothorax rufous ; the median segment, the base of 
the pleuriu and the lower part of the furrow black. The two 
front legs are coloured like the thorax; the middle have a 
piceous tinge : the tarsal spines are for the most part black. 
Wings dark fuscous, with a violaceous hue; the stigma and 
nervure^ are black. There is a stout longitudinal keel on the 
basal half of the petiole ; the apical part is irregularly 
longitudinally, stoutly striated ; thelateral depre.-tsionbearsstout, 
transverse keels. The central part of the second segment is 
obliquely narrowed towards the apex ; the central keel reaches 
to the apex : there is a stnooth triangular area at its base and a 
semicircular one at its apex; the central part is reticulated 
somewhat strongly ; the lateral is closely longitudinally striated. 
The two tnmsverse furrows are longitudinally striated ; the 
second more linely and closely than the first. The third segment J 
is closely longitudinally striated and is broadly depressed in the j 
centre ; tiie fourth is more closely and linely striated, the third J 
and fourth segraenta are brownish. 

Miioioma fiistipfimh. sp. nov. 

Long: 16 mm. terebra 16 ram. 

Uab. Borneo (Shelford ). 

Antennw black ; the scape piceous in the middle below. 
Head mahogany coloured, smooth and shining ; the centre of the 
face marked with some irregular transverse keels ; tlie sides sre J 


sparsely punctured. Mandibles black, broadly rufous at the 
base; the palpi rufo-testaceous. Thorax smooth and shining 
rufous ; the median segment black. The anterior legs rufous ; 
the posterior four black : the middle trochanters rufous. Wings 
brownish-smoky, with a slight violaceous tinge at the base ; tiie 
stigma and basal nervures black ; the apical nervures fuscous. 
The sides and ventral surface of the petiole are pale testaceous ; 
its base is smooth ; the re^t of it coarsely reticulated. The 
second and third segments are closely, irregularly longitudinally 
punctured, at the apex almost reticulated ; the fourth is closely 
reticulated, the centre more strongly than the sides ; the other 
segments are smooth. The keel on the base of the second 
segment is not very distinctly defined ; it is broad at the base, 
becomes gradually obliquely narrowed towards the apex, is 
more strongly striated than the rest of the segments and 
reaches to shortly beyond its middle ; the lateral furrows are 
wide, oblique and stoutly striated ; the lateral furrows on the 
third and fourth segments are narrower and more . roundly 
curved ; the transverse furrows on the base and apex of the 
third and fourth segments are closely longitudinally striated. 

Holcotroticus, gen. nov. 

Claws of all the legs bifid ; the inner claw smaller than the 
other. Median segment completely areolated. Apex of the 
scutellum bifurcate, bordered by stout keels : the apex of the median 
segment obliquely depressed. Malar space moderately large, the 
oral region not greatly lengthened. Wings longer than the body ; 
the areolet narrowed at the top ; the nervures without a stump of 
a nervure. The oblique mesopleura? furrow is wide and deep; a 
narrow oblique one runs from its middle. Pro- and mesopleurse 
above with an oblique keel ; between the tops of the middle and 
hinder coxae is a stout keel. The fore tarsi are longer than the 
tibiue; all the joints are longer than broad; the middle three are 
much shorter than the others. The hinder legs are much longer 
than the others ; their coxie are large, more than twice longer 
than wide. The joints of the maxillary palpi are elongated, 
the three penultimate joints are not short, compressed or lenticu- 
lar. The occiput is margined, the sides more distinctly than the 
upper part; the two hinder ocelli are flat, not convex; there is a 

• 6 


small single keel between the antennae ; the scape of the anten- 
na3 is stout, aV>out twice longer than broad ; the front is keeled 
in the centre ; the keel is stout with obU(iue sides ; it is not hol- 
lowed, ai)d there is no keel on each side. The first cuoital cel- 
lule is clearly separated from the first discoidal ; all the apical 
.nervures in the hind wings are obliterated: there is only the 
brachial cellule defined and there are no transverse nervures ; 
the radial cellule in the fore wing is elongate, narrow. 

The affinities of this genus are with Agathis and Troticus, 
From the former it may be separated by the cleft claws ; in the 
latter peculiarity it agrees with Troticus; but it wants the 
abnormal palpi of that genus. The hinder legs are longer than 
they are with Agatfiis, and this is r.lso the case with the wings. 
The middle lobe of the mesonotum is distinctly raised ; the 
scutellar depression is wide and narrow ; the scutellum is keeled 
at the base. 

Holcotrotivus rtijivollts, sp. no v. 

Niger, capite, prothorace, mesothorace, pedibusc^ue anticis 
. rufis ; alls f umatis, nervis stigmateque nigris 5 • 

Long: 8-9 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennae black ; the scape rufous. Face and clypeus shin- 
ing, sparsely and slightly punctured and thickly covered 
with short, blackish hair. Thorax rufous; the median seg- 
ment, except the pleuraj at the base which are rufous, black. 
Mesonotum sparsely and indistinctly, the scutellum more 
distinctly, punctured ; its apex stojitly keeled and depressed 
laterally above. Mesopleura;, below the oblique furrow, closely 
and distinctly punctured; at the base alx)ve are two stout 
oblique keels; the furrow is wide and bears some stout 
oblique keels; below the middle behind is an oblique furrow; 
the apical bordering furrow bears some stout keels. The basal 
furrow on the metapleuraj is wide and deep; on it is an upper 
and thre-e lower stout, widely separated, keels. On the base of 
the median segment are three, on the apex five area*; the 
central basal area is smaller than the lateral and i^ stoutly 
transversely striated; the central apical one is hollowed and is 
gradually narrowed towards the apex ; there is also an outer 


large spiracular area. The two front legs are of a paler rufous 
colour than the thorax; the middle pair have a piceous hue. 
The wings are of a uniform dark fuscous-violaceous .colour, 
with black nervures and stigma. Abdomen deep black, smooth 
and shining; the petiole is furrowed along the sides. 

The malar space is not quite so long as in typical Agathidini, 
the head not being so rostriform as usual. It differs also from 
Agathis in the hinder claws having a tooth near the base. 

Siphimedia, gen. nov. 

Wings without an areolet ; the recurrent nervure intersti- 
tial, or almost touching the transverse cubital ; the transverse 
basal nervure interstitial ; the transverse median nervure in hind 
wings broken shortly above the middle. Mesonotum trilobate; 
the middle lobe transverse at the base, sharply pointed at the 
apex; the parapsidal furrows deep. Post-scutellum deeply 
bifoveate at the base. Median segment areolated more or less 
with three or four basal area?: the areola distinct; the spiracles 
are linear, longish and are placed in the middle. Legs, and 
especially the posterior, stout; the hinder femora thickened, 
shorter than the tibiie ; the four front claws are cleft, the hinder 
simple; the hind coxie are twice as long as thick, the basal joint 
only as long as the following three united and not much longer 
than the apical. The antenna* stout, shorter than the body. 
The petiole is twice longer than the width at the apex ; it is 
broad at the base and becomes gradually wider towards the 
apex ; the spiracles are placed shortly behind the middle; the 
abdominal segments are smooth, without furrows or depressions ; 
the second and following segments are wider than long; the 
hypopygium is very large, plough-share-shaped and projects 
beyond the dorsal segment; the ovipositor is stout and is about 
as long as the body. The front legs have one, the four hinder 
two, spurs. There is a curved furrow on the sides of the meso- 

The antenme are placed well up on the face, above the 
middle of the eyes, which are parallel; the apex of the clypeus 
is rounded ; the mandibles have two sube<]ual teeth ; the cly pen 


is not distinctly separated from the face. The head is wider 
than long, is not inuoh developed behind the eyes, and is obli- 
.piely narrowed there; the tabrura does not project. The trans- 
verse cubital nervure has the stuntp of a nervure in tbo middle. 
This genus ia founded on the species which I doubtfully referred 
to Macrogaster {Manchester .Xfemoir^, XLIII, 193). Its real 
po.^ition ia wiih the Acveiiitini, and comes, in A ah mead's arrange- 
ment, nearest to Aroleti, which may be known from it by the 
lung and slenderhindertil'iiG andtersi.the tibiiie being almost twice 
the length of the fenior&. From Acvenifee it may be separated 
by the deep parapsidal furrows, and by the areolated median 
segment. To this genus may be referred the following species, 

Siphiiaedia bi/ascititn, sp. no v. 

Xigra, facie clypeoque ilavis; aiis hyalinis. fusco-bifnsciatis. 

Ixmg: 10 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak (R. Shelford). 

Head black, the face, except for a triangular black mark in 
the middle above, and the greater part of the clj'pt'iis, pale 
yellow. The face is strongly, transversely punctured; the apex 
smooth and depressed ; the upper part of the head smooth and 
shining, and has a distinct plumbeous hue. as have also the pro- 
«nd meso-thorax which are smooth and shining; tlie apex of the 
middle lobe is stoutly transversely striated. There are three 
stout longitudinal keels on the scutellar depre.wion. The areola 
is longer than wide, becomes slightly narrowed towards the 
apex, which is rounded; the apical central area is long and 
ext*>nds to the apex, its apical half is widely dilated and has the 
sides stoutly striated; on the top is a stout, curved transverse 
keet; the outer central area has two stout lon>;itudinal keels in 
the uiiddle. The median segment is irregularly punctured and 
coarsely irregularly longitudinally striated in the middle, 
especially at the base. The mesostermil furrow is wide and is 
coarsely transversely striated, nnd is thickly covered with white 
pube-scence. Wings hyaline; there is a fuscous cloud, extend- 
ing from the stigma to the cubitals and there is a similar cloud 
at the apex. Le;;s black; the anterior tibite and femora testace- 
ous in front, and fuscous behind. The apical dorsal segments of 
the at-domen are lined with white. 


This species is nearly allied to S. nigricans^ it is smaller, has 
the mesonotum impunctate, not strongly punctured ; there are 
only two central areae on the median segment, and the basal 
area is longer than wide, not wider than long. 

Rhyssa nigri tarsi's, sp. no v. 

Nigra, late flavo-maculata ; alnlommis apice late brunnea ; 
pedibus flavis, tibiis femoribusque nigro lineatis ; tarsis posteri- 
oribus nigris ; alis hyaliiiis, stigmate testaceo 5 • 

Long : 17 mm. 

Hab. Borneo ( Shelford ). 

Antennae black, the scape yellow beneath. Head black, 
the face entirely ; the inner upper orbits to the ocelli, and the 
outer entirely, yellow. Face almost smooth, sparsely pilose, 
shining. Clypeus brownish ; in the centre, at the apex, is a short, 
broad tooth with an indistinct tubercle on either side of it ; above, 
on either side, is a fovea. On the thorax the following parts are 
lemon-yellow ; the sides jmd base of the pronotum ; the basal 
two thirds of the scutellum, the post-scutellum, the median 
segment, except at the base and sides ; the tubercles and a large 
obli(|ue line below them. The transverse striation, on the 
mesonotum does not extend to the apex ; the scut<»llum is closely 
rugose ; the median segment is smooth and shining, its base is 
depressed and black. The fore legs are yellow ; the femora are 
brownish behind ; the fore tibia* are as long as the basal joint of 
the tarsi ; the middle coxa*, femora and base of tibiaj are lined 
behind with black ; the four hinder tarsi are black ; the hinder 
coxae ate broadly black below and laterally ; the femora are 
broadly black above ; the tibia? black, with a narrow yellow band 
near the base and a broader one at the apex. The basal two 
dorsal segments of the abdomen are black, lined with yellow 
down the centre ; the third is brownish-black, banded with black 
near the middle ; the others are brownish ; on the fourth segment 
is a broad yellow baiid near the middle ; the fifth is indistinctly 
yellow near the apex. The basal half of the ventral surface 
is pale yellow, marked with black ; the apical brownish. 
The pedicle of the areolet is nearly as long as the basal 


Xanthopimpla labtata, sp. iiov. 

Lutea, basi late apiceque mesonoti nigris ; thorace laevo ; 
abdomine late nigro-maculato ; alls hyalinis, apice fusco- 
violaceo 9 • 

Long : 13; terebra 2 mm. 

Uab. Sarawak. 

Antennae black; the scape yellow below. Head pallid 
yellow ; above smooth, the face and clypeus closely but not 
strongly, punctured; tiie vertex in the centre is black from 
shortly behind the ocelli and this black mark is continued half way 
down the front, it becoming gradually narrower as it does so ; 
there is an irregular black transverse mark on the centre of the 
occiput. The thorax is deeper in tint than the head ; and is 
quite smooth, without any punctures ; near the base of the 
mesonotum is a large irregular mark which extends to the sides ; 
it is broadly rounded at the base,; with short blunt projections 
in the middle; the sides at apex project, the projections 
becoming gradually narrower towards the apex ; the apex of the 
mesonotum is broadly black; the black mark behind being 
continued into the sciitellar depre^ssion. Scutellum smooth, 
broadly rounded, smooth ; the sides and apex keeled. On the 
basal half of the median segment are four lateral and one large 
central areee ; the central area does not project beyond the 
lateral at the apex, which is transverse; its basal third is 
obliquely narrowed t the apical two thirds are also obliquely 
narrowed ; the apical lateral arete are quadrangular and of equal 
width throughout; the apical half is keeled on the outside. 
Wings clear hyaline, except at the apex which is narrowly 
fusco-violaceous : the areolet is small and is distinctly appendicu- 
lated ; the upper half of the recurrent nervure is sharply angled. 
The abdomen has the four middle segments closely punctured ; 
the basal segment has a broad irregular black mark in the 
centre ; the second and fifth segments have two large marks, 
those on the third and fourth being larger than the others ; there 
are two minute marks on the sixth, and two broad, transverse 
ones on the seventh ; the last segment is immaculate. 

The labrum is longer than usual, being longer than the 
clypeus, it becomes gradually narrowed from the base to the 


apex ; the eyes are l^rj^e, parallel; the malar space is small ; the 
spiracular area is obsolete ; below the spiracles, in the middle 
of the metapleurae, is a curved longitudinal keel, which originates 
shortly behind the middle, but not extending to the base ; there 
are two transverse lines on the base of the median segment ; 
the bises of the tibiie are black. The basal segment is 
longer than the width of its apex ; the other segments 
are all wider than long ; the transverse and oblique furrows are 
distinct; the head is only very glightly developed behind the 

Comes nearest perhaps to A', punctata, Fah. The edge of 
the pronotum is more sharply raised than usual ; the base of the 
middle lobe of the mesonotum more distinctly separated, and 
the labium more projecting and shar[)er pointed, 

Xanthopiinpla niyrohalteata^ sp. nov, 

Lutea, nigro-balteata ; mesonoto la3vo, nigro, Havo-bilinea- 
to; pedibus Ha vis, late nigro-lineatis ; alis hyalinis, stigmate 
f usco 9 . 

Long: 12 mm. 

Hab. Borneo ( Shelf ord). 

This species forms a section with three large areie on the 
median segment and only one apical. 

Antenna? brownish on the underside; the scape yellow 
beneath; head luteous; the ocellar region and the greater part 
of the occiput black. Face sparsely punctured, slightly keeled 
down the middle. Clypeus smooth and shining, its apex broadly 
rounded. Mandibles black at the apex. Mesonotum smooth and 
shining, base covered with a short pile, black; the sides and two 
lines in the middle, extending from the base to near the apex, 
bright yellow. Scutellum thickly covered with long black 
hair; its apex, from shortly behind the middle, black. The base 
of the median segment between the stigmas and to near the 
apex of the arete is black; the central area is nearly square; the 
lateral are longer and narrowed towards the apex and are long- 
er on the outer than on the inner side, the apex being oblique. 
The apex of the propleune, the base of the meso-, the top below 
the tubercles and the apex except a large spot above, and the 
basal half of the metapleura;, are bjack. Legs coloured like 


liie budyi llie tup Lif llit- four front femora, the extreme base of 
tlie hinder, aii obli(|ue mark near the apex of the binder and , 
their extreme apex; the basal two thirds of the four anterior ' 
tibiie, the batte of the hinder pair and a broad band on their \ 
middle and the four hiirder tarsi, black. The middle of tJie ' 
petiole broadly, the sides at tlie Itase and the base of the 
other segment:! broadly, block; the bands on the anneal 
segments occupy more of the segmentti than on the basal ; 
the segments and the transverse furrows are smooth, im- 
punctate ; there is an oblicjue furrow on the sides of the 
second and third segments and a narrower one on the fourth. ; 
The aMominal segments are alt distinctly broader than long ; i 
the middle of the mesonotum is distinctly raised at the base ; the 
scut«llum is roundly convex and is not raised above the level i 
of the mesonotum ; its sides are keeled, 

A species not difficult to separate from any of the described " 
species by the smooth thorax and abdomen, bv the black ■] 
abdomen, banded with yellow, by the black mesonotum with two 
yellow lines, and by the three large arejL' on the base of the ' 
median segment. It has a very similar appearance 
i'/iriitc/iiii'/ila ormilipts Cam. 

Cliiifiiojiiii'pl'i. gen. iMv. 

Apex of the clypeus obliquely depressed and with 
semicircular emargiuation ; its top separated from the face by a I 
straight furrow. Areulet small, triangular; the recurrent 1 
nervure is received at the apex. Abdominal segments closely [ 
punctured ; aejiments 2-4 with transverse depressions, wliich are j 
prolonged oblii|uely backwards; there is also a shallow | 
transverse furrow at the upex. Median segment smooth with- 
out keels. Tarsi spinose; the claws simple. The tranaverse 1 
median nervure in hind wings is broken far below the middle. 

The areolet i4 straight, not oblii^ue: the transverse bnsal ' 
nervure is interstitial ; the eye^ are large, parallel and reach I 
quite close to the base of the mandibles. The second to fourth 
abdominal se^mentu are, if anything, wider Ibnn long, almost i 
square; tlie nietalhuracic spiracles are small, oval. The last j 
joint of tlie aiitennie is not lunger than the preceedlng two J 
united. 1'he legs are short; the hinder tarsi are shorter timn J 


the tifoise; the anterior are longer. The antenniie are stout and 
taper towards the apex. 

Characteristic of this genus is the obliquely depressed senii- 
circularly emarginate apex of clypeus. It comes near to Eiythro- 
pimpltt, Ashiuead. 

CharilojniHpiaJlavO'balteatu, sp. no v. 

Nigra, abdomtoe Havo-baltealo ; pedibus iiavis: posticis 
nigro alboque maculatis; alis hyalinis, stigmate testaceo, nervis 
nigris 9 . 

Long: 13; terebra 7 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Bhelford). 

Antennte about two thirds of the length of the body ; black, 
distinctly tapering towards the apex; the scape yellow beneath. 
The face and clypeus are shining, have a plumbeous hue ahd 
are uniformly but not strongly punctured ; the face is covered 
sparsely with white, the clypeus with dark hair; the front and 
vertex are bare, smooth and shining. Mandibles black; the 
palpi lemon-yellow. Pro- and mesothorax smooth and shining, 
covered closely with short fuscous hair; the scutellum bears 
longer and paler hair ; the median segment is, especially towards 
the apex, thickly covered with long white hair. The lower 
part of the metapleura& is smooth and bare. The four front 
legs are yellow, with the femora suffused with fulvous; the 
hinder l^gs white ; black are the coxie, except above the base 
and apex of the femora, a ring near the base of the tibite, a 
broader band on their apex and the apical joints of the tarsi ; the 
femora have the sides and lower surface rufous; the coxa? 
are bright yellow above. Wings hyaline, with a slight fulvous 
tinge. Abdomen black : the apices of the basal five segments 
bright lemon-yellow; the sixth is yellow on the sides; the 
seventh broadly in the middle above ; the se^rments are clusely 
punctured ; the petiole has the middle smooth and slightly de- 
pressed; the apical two segments are impunctate, the transverse 
depressions are shallow except on the fifth where they are 
wider and deeper and the basal one is striated. 

♦ 7 


Aiiomalon pcrornatuni, sp. nov. 

Ni|fruni, abdomine late ferru^jiineo; pedibus auterioribus, 
basi tibiarum posticarum late tarsis^jue posticis ilavis; alis 
fulvo-hyalinis, stigmate testaceo 9 • 

Long: 22 mm. 

Hab. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennie black ; the scape yellow beneath. Head black; 
the face clypeus, lal)rum, the inner orbits, the malar space and 
the mandibles, except at the apex, bright lemon-yellow. The 
face broadly projects in the centre; the sides and upper part are 
irregularly wrinkled; the clypeus is smooth; the front, especial- 
ly above, is coarsely, irregularly striated ; above, the striie are 
obli<iue; below, they almost form reticulations. Thorax entirely 
black; the median segment is coarsely, irregularly reticulated: 
the scutellum is coarsely reticulated and striated ; above, it is 
flat in the centre and has an oblique slope; the mesonotum is 
rugosely punctured and irregularly reticulated; the apox is 
somewhat strongly transversely striated. The upper half of the 
propleura' is closely rugose; the lower in the middle stoutly, 
longitudinally striated ; the mesopleune above the middle coarsely 
striated, at the base reticulated. The four front legs are bright 
yellow ; the apical three joints of the tarsi black ; the hinder 
legs black; the basal two thirds of the tibia* and the tarsi yel- 
low ; the trochanters beneath and the base oi the femora fuscous. 
Abdomen ferruginous; the petiole and the second segment 
above black. 

Anoiiadon ftiscicorne, sp. nov. 

Long : 15 mm. 9 . 

Hab. Borneo (Shelford). 

This species resembles closely the preceding species. The 
differences between the two may be expressed thus : 

Face not raised in the middle; the front with oblique 
strise ; the upper part of the mesopleura3 coarsely 
longitudinally striated, the lower smooth. 

Face not raised in the mid lie; the front not striated ; the 
upper part of the mesopleura^ closely reticulated. 


Antennae brownish beneath ; the scape yellow below. The 
face, clypeus, the inner orbits to near the ocelli, an oblique 
mark on the top of the eyes, the malar space, the lower orbits 
and the mandibles except at the apex, lemon-yellow. The front 
and lower part of the vertex are stoutly longitudinally striated ; 
the stria3 are curved and form almost reticulations ; the face in 
the middle is irregularly longitudinally striated. The middle 
lobe of the mesonotum is coarsely longitudinally reticulated ; 
the lateral are closely rugose. Scutellum coarsely rugose. 
Median segment coarsely reticulated, the top more distinctly 
than the sides, which have the reticulations less distinct on the 
lower part. The upper part of the propleurae is coarsely 
reticulated, as is also the upper part of the me^o-pleurre, but 
less closely and not so distinctly. The four front legs are 
yellow : the femora are more fulvous in tint; the hinder legs 
are black ; the apex of the coxpe, the basal joint of the 
trochanters and the basal third of the tibiae, dark rufous ; the 
hinder tarsi yellow. Abdomen ferruginous; the petiole, the 
second segment above and the apical segment block. 

A tiisohas cincticornts^ sp. no v. 

Rufo fiagello antennarum nigro, medio albo annulato ; alls 
hyalinis, nervis stigmateque nigris, 9 • 

Long : 10 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (K. Shelford). 

Antenmv black; the base rufous; the seventh to 
the fourteenth joints for the greater part white; the 
basal joints of the liagellum are rufous below. The 
front is obscurely punctured ; the face is distinctly but 
not very closely punctured ; the clypeus is obscurely pun- 
ctured above, below smooth and shining ; the labrum is 
fringed with long huir. The mesonotum is darker coloured 
than the rest of the thorax and is shagreened ; the scutellum is 
thickly covered with longish black pubescence. The basal three 
area^ of the median segment, are smooth and shining ; the 
others are closely, rugosely punctured ; the posterior median is 
smooth, with the sides slightly striated ; the lateral teeth are 
large, and narrowed gradually towards the apex. Propleura; 
punctured above ; the apex irregularly striated in the middle ; 


the base and the lower lialf of the iiiesopleurie closely, but not 
strongly punctured: tlie middle longitudinally striated; tlie 
metapleune punctured at the base, the rest closely longitudinally 
striated. Legs coloured like the body, the hinder tarsi black. 
The base of the wings have a f ulvoum tinge. Abdomen shining, 
the middle segments aciculat^; the gastrocceli are smooth, 

It is doubtful if this is a true Anisobas. The antemifc are 
stuut and are slightly thickened towards the apex; the basal 
joints of the liagellum are all much longer than broad ; the face 
is obliijuely narrowed from the top to the bottom : the labrum 
projects and is narrowed towards the apex ; the keel on the 
propleurse (characteristic of typical Anisobus) is stout; the 
scutelluni is ohliijuely raised, the sides stoutly keeled and the 
apex at the top depressed ; the median segment is completely 
areolated ; the areola is longer than wide, is not much narrowed, 
towards the apex and rounded backwards at the base and apex ; 
the sides are stoutly spued. The wings are as in Irbfieuuion. 
The abdomen is not much longer than the head and thorax united ; 
there are seven segments ; the last is large, above nearly as long 
as the sixth : the m'ipositor largely projects. 

Itodargiis, gen. nov. 
Eyes placed high up, separated by their own length from 
the base of the mandibles. Face and clypeus Forming almost 
one piece ; the suture separating them being almost obsolete ; the 
fovea.' are shallow ; apex of clypeus transverse, its sides broadly 
rounded. (.)cciput deeply emarginate. Anlennw shorter than 
the body, serrate. Scutellum roundly convex ; the sides stoutly 
keeled. Median segment depressed at the base ; the areola is 
faintly indicated, is twice longer than broad, is open at the base 
and is gradually narrowed towards the apex ; the other areaJ are 
obsolete, except on the a[ncal slope where there are three. 
Areolet much angled, narrowed at the top. The transverse 
liasal nervure is interstitial ; there is a short nervure on the 
rubitnl-disco nervure and a longer more distinct one ou the 
recurrent; the transverse median nervure in the hind wings is 
broken far below the middle. Legs short; the hinder femora do 
not reach much beyond the apex of the .lecond segment. The ' 


middle segments of the abdomen slightly project at the apex ; 
they are closely punctured ; the last segment is as long as the 
penultimate. The main characteristics of this genus are the flat 
face^ continuous with the cly| ens, the indistinctness of the keels 
on the median segment; the short legs and the large, roundly 
convex, sharply keeled scutellum. 

Bodargus rttfus^ sp. nov. 

Ferruginea, apice femorum posticorum, basi tibiarum, apice 
late apiceque tarsorum posticorum nigris 5 • 

Long: 15 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo ( Shelf ord). 

Antenna? dark rufous, darker towards the apex ; the scape 
is yellow. Head uniformly coloured ; the face and base of 
clypeus closely punctured; the vertex is more closely and 
stropgly punctured ; the ocellar region black. Mesonotum 
closely and distinctly punctured ; the scutellum is more strongly 
and not quite so closely punctured, except on the basal slope. 
The median segment is rugosely punctured, except on the basal 
slope ; on the apex it is transversely striated. Legs coloured 
like the body ; the apical fourth of the hinder femora, the base 
of the tibia? narrowly and their apex broadly, the apex of the 
metatarsus, the apical half of the second joint and the whole of 
the others, black. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures 
fuscous-black. Abdomen coloured like the thorax ; the fifth, sixth 
and base of seventh blue-black ; the apical half of seventh white. 

Diapetus^ gen. nov. 

Median segment smooth and shining; its base broadly 
depressed in the middle ; there are two stout, transverse keels. 
Prothorax with a stout, oblique keel above the middle ; its base 
sharply keeled. Areolet minute, not clearly defined through the 
cubital and radial nervures uniting ; the apical abscisste of the 
radius and the cubitus spread out obliquely from it. Parapsidal 
furrows deep, uniting at the apex into one short, wide furrow. 
Metathoracic spiracles large, linear. Petiole curved, not much 
narrowed at the base ; the spiracles are placed close to the 
middle, nearer the api»x than to the base. 


The antennse are longer than the body, are tiliform, and 
have the third joint distinctly longer than the fourth; the 
clypeus is roundly convex and is separated by a deep furrow 
from the face ; the mandibles have two unequal teeth ; the 
meso-pleural furrow is wide and deep and is interrupted in the 
centre. The transverse median nervure is received behind the 
transverse basal ; the stigma is narrow, lanceolate in the hind 
wings; the cubital nervure is broken above the middle. The legs 
are long and slender ; the claws moderate in size, the hinder 
tarsi are longer than the others. The abdomen is bluntly 
pointed and the last segment is larger than the penultimae. 

This genus may be referred to the Crj/ptinns, but it does 
not quite agree with that group, as the spiracles on the petiole 
are placed near the middle. The small, or more correctly, 
obsolete areolet might place it in the Mesostenini ; but there is 
no known genus in that group in which it could be placed. 

Diapetus nigroplagiatus, sp. no v. 

Rufo-fulvo. vertice, mesonoto, metanoto, pleuris abdomi- 
neque late nigro-maculatis ; alis flavo-hyalinis, nervis stigmati(]ue 
testaceis 9 • 

Long: 12; terebra 2 mm. 

Hab. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennce longer than the body, darker towards the apex. 
Head smooth and shining ; the vertex and upper part of the 
occiput largely black ; the front is broadly dark rufous in the 
middle. Face and clypeus yellowish, smooth and shining, sparse- 
ly covered with long black hair. Mnndibles broadly black at 
the apex, yellow at the base, rufous in the middle. Thorax 
smooth and shining except the apex of the middle lobe and the 
furrows. JScutellum and post-scutellum yellow. The base of 
the median segment is black except in the middle depression ; 
between the two keels are two large black marks, rounded and 
narrowed at the apex ; the basal two-thirds of the mesopleura? 
black ; the middle of the metapleurie broadly, and the greater 
pjirt of the mesosternum black. Legs coloured like the body ; the 
hinder femora are darker coloured at the base; the tarsi are 
minutely spinosr. Wings yellowish-hyaline ; the stigma testaceous ; 
the nervures are of a darker testaceous colour. The petiole i 


lighter in colour than the other segments ; its central region is 
broadly black except narrowly down the middle ; the second 
segment is black at the base to near the middle ; the third has 
the basal third black ; the fourth and fifth are more narrowly 
black at the base. On the metapleun^ are, in the middle, four 
short stout keels ; the middle two are longer than the others. 

Avleasat gen. no v. 

Median segment reticulated all over, without transverse 
keels ; the apex with two large conical teeth. Thorax about 
three times longer than broad ; the mesonotum with indistinct 
parapsidal furrows, and coarsely reticulated. Metapleural keels 
absent. Areolet large, wider than long, of ecpal width 
throughout; the transverse cubital nervures slightly oblique; 
the apical one distinct ; the transverse median nervure is receiv- 
ed behind the transverse basal ; the transverse median nervure 
in hind wing broken shortly below the middle. Legs \)i 
moderate length ; the basal joint of the hinder tarsi is thick- 
ened ; the claws are small. The petiole becomes gradually 
wider towards the apex ; its sides near the middle on the lower 
side project into a stout triangular tooth, the part behind this 
being keeled : in front of it is a rounded tubercle. The head is 
rather narrow : the eyes are large and projecting ; the front is 
stoutly striated in the middle : the front and vertex are depressed ; 
the eyes project above the vertex ; the sides of the pronotum 
are indistinctly toothed at the base ; they project at the tegula} ; 
the scutellar depression is larger and deeper than uvual and 
bears four longitudinal keels. 

A distinct genus of Mesosttnini easily known by the com- 
pletely reticulated median segment without transverse keels, by 
the stoutly spined petiole, by the raised scutellum, by the 
coarsely reticulated thorax, and by the thickened base of the 
hinder tarsi. 

Acleasa albispina^ sp. no v. 

Nigra, scutello spinisque albis ; abdomine rufo-halteata ; 
pedibus Havis, coxis, trochanteribus posticis apice femorum 
posticorum apiceque tibiarum posticarum nigris ; alis hyalinis, 
nervis stigmati<iue nigro-fuscis 9 • 


Long; 12; terebra 2 mm. 

Ilab. Borneo (Shelf or d). 

Antennae stout, longer than the body ; the ten middle joints 
white. Head black; the face and clypeus thickly covered 
with long white hair ; the middle is irregularly striated. Clypeus 
roundly convex, shining ; its upper part closely and finely 
punctured. The middle of the front is stoutly irregularly striat- 
^, more closely below than above. Mandibles rufous, tiieir teeth 
black. Thorax black ; the scutellum and teeth yeU6w. The 
middle lobe of the mesonotum is closely transversely striated, 
the lateral are coarsely irregularly reticulated and hollowed 
down the centre. Scutellum yellow, black at the base ; smooth 
and shining ; the basal depression is large ; it has two stout 
complete keels in the centre, and an indistinct one on either side. 
Post-scutellum smooth and shining ; its apex is dilated. Median 
segment coarsely, closely reticulated ; the spines are large, 
conical and lemon yellow. Pro- and upper half of the mesopleunc 
coarsely, irregularly striated ; the lower part of the meso- smooth 
arid shining ; the furrow is crenulated. Metapleurae closely 
reticulated. Legs yellow ; the hinder coxje, except the basal 
two-thirds above, the trochanters, apical third of femora, the 
extreme base of the femora and their apex more broadly, black. 
Abdomen black, the base of the petiole, its apex somewhat more 
narrowly and the apex of the other segments, yellow ; the 
post-petiole is punctured and striated down the middle ; the 
second, third, and fourth segments are closely punctured. 

Fialistina^ gen. nov. 

Post-petiole much widened and clearly separated ; its spira- 
cles wider from each other than from the apex. Median segment 
rugose and reticulated ; its sides bearing short thick spines ; the 
spiracles large, oblong. Areolet small, square, open at the 
apex ; the transverse basal nervure is insterstitial ;the transverse 
median nervure in hind wings broken below the middle ; the 
stigma narrow, linear ; below it, is a wide cloud. Antenna? 
stout, longish, annulated with white; the third and fourth joints 
subequal in length. Uead as wide as the thorax; almost 
transverse and not much developed behind the eyes, which are 
large and parallel ; the malar space is small. Clypeus clearly 


separated from the face, roundly convex ; its apex depressed. 
Mandibles large, wide ; their apex with two equal triangular 
teeth. Parapsidal furrows extending beyond the middle. 
Scutellum roundly convex ; the basal depression wide and deep. 
The metapleural furrow is wide, deep and reaches to the apex ; 
there is only a basal keel on the median segment ; the legs are 
stout and of moderate length ; the fore tarsi are longer, the 
four hinder shorter, than the tibiaj ; the fore tibiie are distinctly 
narrowed at the base; the claws longish, curved. There are 
distinct gastrocccli on the second abdominal segment ; the apical 
segment is transverse, bluntly pointed and bears distinct cerci. 
Belongs to the Mesostenini and is most nearly related to 
the American genera Mesostenotdeus and Christolia. 

Fislistina inaculipennis^ sp. nov. 

Nigra, abdomine late tiavo-balteata ; pedibus rufi ; tibiis 
late apiceque femorum posticorum nigris ; a lis hyalinis, fascia 
substigmatali f usca 9 . 

Long : 10 ; terebra 2 mm. 

Ilab. Borneo (Shelf ord). 

Antenna; stout, longer than the body, black with two white 
bands, one on joints G-10 and another on joints 13 to IG. Head 
entirely black ; the face rugose, roundly projecting in the 
middle ; the front smooth ; the lower part of the vertex stoutly, 
longitudinally striated. Mesonotum smooth and shining, 
the furrows appear to bear a silvery pubescence. Scutellum 
smooth, yellow ; the basal depression has four keels. Median 
segment coarsely reticulated ; the basal region in the middle 
smooth ; the teeth are yellow, short and broad. The upper part 
of the propleurae closely obliquely striated ; the middle less 
closely and more strongly longitudinally striated; the basal 
half of the mesopleurae is closely longitudinally striated; the 
apical smooth and shining ; the metapleurae coarsely rugose. 
VVings hyaline, a broad fuscous cloud extends from the stigma 
to the opposite side. Legs rufous ; the tibise and tarsi paler, 
tie hinder white ; the greater part of the four front tarsi, the 
four front tibia? in front, the apex of the hinder femora, the 
tibia;, except at the base, and the apical joint of the hinder tar^i, 




bliick. On tlif abdomen, tlie post pt'tiole, the apex of iho second 
Ke^uieiits, the band roundly widened backwards in tliu middle, a 
broad band on tbis third ^>p;niciit, wid(?:it iu the middle, and tht; 
greater pirt of the penultimate segment, yellow. The gastro- 
ctcli all' rufous, 

Cl.iiimr'ipliiB, gen. nov. 

Head and tlioia.\ densely covered witb lunjijish hairs, the 
abdomen sparsely haired. Median soguient ureolated; the 
traiiiiverse and longitudinal keels distinct: the areola large, 
twice lunger Uiaii wide. Stigma coiispit:uou!S, wide, ob1i>|Uely 
narrowed towards the base and apex. Areolet large, wide, not 
much narrowed above, five-angled, liadial cellule wide; tlie 
basal abscissa of the radius shorter than the apical and more 
curved than it ; there are no nervelets on the disco-cubital aud 
the recurrent nervures; the transverse basal nervure is inter- 
stitial. In the hind wings the cubitus is broken shortly below the 
middle. Head, if anything, wider than the thorax: the occiput 
rounded; eyes large, distinctly projecting; the malar space 
small. The middle lobe of the mcsonotum is distinctly separat- 
ed; the parapsidal furrowa are deep and reach near to the 
scutellum. The furrow at the bottom of the mesopleune is 
distinct The spiracles are linear: the spiracular area is well 
defined, as is also the area at Its apex. The base of the metanotum 
is obliijuely depressed. Ovipositor projecting ; the sheaths are 
covered with longish white hair. I^gs slender ; the hinder 
coxie and trochanters longish ; the fore tarsi are longer than the 

The fint three joints of the antennte are much lengthened, 
lieing fully four times as long as wide at apex, or longer ; the 
abdomen Is twice the length of the head and thorax united; the 
disco-cubital nervure is roundly curved, not angularly broken ; 
the clypeus is roundly convex ; its apes broadly rounded. The 
face is densely covered with golden hair. The median segment 
is completely areolat^ ; the arete are all targe and have stout 
keels ; the areola is rounded at the base, transverse at the apex ; 
the lower part of the meiapleuric is stoutly keeled ; the radius 
la thickly pilose at the base; the a{»cal nervures in the hind 


wings are faint and incomplete ; the second transverse cubital 
nervure is bullate4 largely above. 

This genus does not fit well into an 7 of the known tribes 
of the Crt/ptina. The areolated median segment would place it 
near the Heinitelini and the Phjgadenonini. Characteristic is the 
densely haired head and thorax. 

Chrysocryjptus auveopilosa^ sp. nov. 

Niger, capite thoraceque dense aureopilosis ; abdomine 
pedibusque posticis rufo-testaceis ; pedibus pallide testaceis ; alis 
hyalinis, apice f umatis ; stigmate nervisque testaceis 9 • 

Long : 12 ; terebra 4-5 mm. 

Hab. Borneo ( Shelf ord). 

Antennae rufo-testaceous ; the scape paler, and thickly cov- 
ered with pale testaceous hair. Ile^d black, smooth and shining 
densely covered with longish bright fulvous hair. Mandibles 
rufo-te^taceous ; the teeth black. Legs rufo-testaceous, the 
anterior paler ; the hinder tarsi inf uscated ; they have the coxiB, 
trochanters and femora covered with long pale hair; the tibiee 
and tarsi are closely covered with short pubescence. Wings 
hyaline ; the apex inf uscated ; the basal nervures are dark ; the 
apical, pale testaceous. The apex of the abdomen is pale 
testaceous, the basal three segments are sparsely covered with 
long pale hair. 

Lattera, gen. nov. 

Median segment not areolated ; the base smooth ; the rest 
striolated ; the sides spined. First joint of the'.flagellum, if any- 
thing, shorter than the second. Antennae over twenty -jointed 
Eyes large, parallel, reaching close to the eyes ; the hinder 
ocelli are separated from each other by about the same distance 
they are from the eyes. Pterostigma elongated, narrow ; areo- 
let small, sijuare, open at the apex ; the transverse median 
nervure is received behind the transverse basal. Radial cellule 
elongate, narrow, sharply pointed at the apex, the apical abscissa 
of the radius is not twice the length of the first ; the nervures 
in the hind wing are complete ; the transverse median nervure 
in the hind wings is sharply angled below the middle where the 
cubital nervure issues from it. Metathoracic spiracles small, 
twice longer than wide. Belongs to the HeuiHitini, The non- 



arenlatert strongly strioIat«] median segment affords a good 
mark of recognition. The head is dstinctly wider than the 
thorax ; the clypeus is clearly separate! from the face : the 
mandibles ai^ large, broad and bi-dentate at the apex : tbe 
parapsidal furrows only ei.t«nd to shortly beyond the middle of 
the meaonotum : the scutellar depression is deep, wide and 
keeled : the base of the mesopleurae is keeled ; the petiole is 
longer than the second segment ; the poat-petiole is distinctly 

Lutteva alboMtealu^ sp. nov. 

Nigra, abdomine albo balteato ; pedibus testaceis; tibiis, 
tarsis trofhanteri basque posticia nigris; tibiis posticis aibo 
annulata ; alis hyalinis. fusco-bi fascist is 9 . 

Long : 8 mm. 

Ilab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennte black, the eighth to sixteenth joints white be- 
neath ; the scape is brownish on the under side. Uead eiitirely 
black ; the front is keeled down the centre ; the kee! on either 
side is oblique. Face opaque, alutaceous ; the clypeus bare, 
sniootii and shining. Mandibles black, rufous in the middle. 
Maxillary palpi white. Thorax black, except the scutellutu 
which is broadly yellow in the middle : the apex of the middle 
lobe of the me»unotuni is rugose. The median segment behind 
the keel is smooth ; the middle is obliquely -longitudinally 
striated ; the apical slope is transversely striated, the Strife 
running into reticulations : the spines are black, longer than 
bi'ttad. The propleiine obliquely striated in the middle ; the | 
middle have a plumbeous hue ; they are finely striated below ( 
the tubercles, stoutly behind the keel, and closely on the appN ' 
part of the depression behind the middle ; the lower curved 
keel has some stout keels on the basal half as has also the ' 
apical bordering one. Metapleurw striated indistinctly at the ' 
bttse and much more strongly towards the apex ; the oblique j 
furrow behind the middle is broad and deep. The anterior | 
four legs are testaceous, paler, more yellowish at the base I 
their tarsi fuscous; the hinder pair are black; the femora j 
rufous, black at the apex ; the coxa- are pale rafous : there is a I 
narrow white band near the base of the tibiw : the apical joints | 



nf the tarsi are testaceous at the base. Wings hyaline ; there 
19 a fuscous cloud at the stigma extending from the base of the 
cubitus to the apex of the ureolet; there is another fuscous 
cloud at the apes. Abdomen black ; the petiole is rufous, with 
a broad fuscous band near the base of the poBt-pet4ole ; the 
apical third of the second segment and the apical two segment*" 
are white. 

Frioiut, gen. nov. 

Radial cellule elongate. Areolet moderately large (larger 
than in Mexoettnm) wider than long ; tlie culntal nervTires 
parallel, straight, not obliijue ; the second faint ; the transverse 
basal nervure interstitial or nearly so. The transverse median 
nervnre in the hind wings is I roken far below the middle. 
Uead wider than the thorax ; the front is stoutly striated and is 
depressed in the middle. Eyes large, parallel ; the malar space 
is moderate. Face short, not extending below the level of the 
eyes, (.'lypeus roundly convex, clearly separated behind; its 
apex broadly rounded ; labrum projecting. Mandibles with 
two large triangular teeth. Thorax more than three times 
longer than broad : pronotum dilated in front ; the parapsidal 
furrows deep, extending beyond^the middle. Median segment 
elongate, its base smooth ; there is a tratisverse keel near the 
base, the part beyond it is closely transversely striated ; the 
apex of the segment has a straight, steep slope and projects 
bluntly at tie edges above ; the spiracles are small, about diree 
tJmes longer than broad. Legs longish, slender ; the fore tarsi 
are twice the length of the tibiie. Antennre longish. slightly, 
but distinctly, dilated at the middle ; the third joint is longer 
than the fourth. 

Has the usual form and colouration of the yfesoUeiii. The 
generic distinctions lie in the strongly striated depressed front 
and ttie transversely striated median segment, with it-* steeply 
sloped, clearly separated apex. 

Fruiiia ttiioUihi, sp. nov. 

Nigra, late flavo maculata : mesopleuris fere immaculatis ; 
pedlbus fulvis, posticis nigro-maculatis ; alls hyalinis nervis stig- 
matjijue nigris ? . 



Long:; i;!-I4: terebra 4 mm. 

Uab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

The sixth to seveoteeDth jointe of the ant^nnte are white. 
Head blacli : the face, clypeus, labrum, inner orbits to the end of ] 
the eyes, the outer from shortly above their middle, almost thft ] 
ba!4l two-thirds of the mandibles and the palpi, yellow ; the 
front in the centre ia strongly obliquely striolated ; the face is 
rugosely punctured. Thorasblack; the projecting middle of the ! 
pronotum, the tubercles, tegulw, the scutellums, a larg;e rained J 
mark, narrowed on the Inner side behind the hind wingt^, and a j 
small curved mark behind the mesopleural auture, pale yellow. I 
Pro- and mesonoBum smooth and shining ; the pro- and mesopleurw 1 
flosely longitudinally striated, the strife becoming weaker ! 
.somewhat towards the ape\. The part of the median segment 
immediately behind the transverse keel is coarsely aciculat«d ; 
the rest is closely and distinctly transversely striated ; sliortly 
behind the transverse keel a broad yellow band originates, 
which becomes broadly dilated on the apical slope, where it 
extends to the middle, it« sides being dilated, and the centre 
rounded. Ijegs fulvous ; the four front coxw and trochanters 
are pale yellow; the fore femora are lined with black above ; 
the liindex coxn? are black, yellow above and at the apex below ; 
the trochanters, apex of femora and of tibiie black; the tarsi 
white. Abdomen black above: all the segments with their 
apices yellow, the apical one very narrowly. 

Luctoliis, gen. . 
Median segment elongate, with one transvei 

I keel; its 

base smooth, the rest closely transversely striated ; its apex baa 
a gradually rounded slope ; the keel on the lower part of the 
metapleurce is complete and is roundly and broadly dilated at 
the l»se. Front and vertex depressed, stoutly striated. Areo- 
let of moderate size, longer than broad ; the transverse culutal 
nervures have an oblique slope from the top to the bottom ; the 
apical one is faint; the transverse basal nervure is almost 

There is only one transverse keel on the median segment ; 
its spiracles are of an elongate oval slope ; the clypeus is notsepar- 1 
ated from the face ; thethoraxismorothan three times longer than I 


broad; tlie legs are long ; the claws longish ; the hinder coxaj are 
long and reach near to t^e apex of the petiole ; the spiracles on the 
petiole are separated from each other by about half the distance 
they are from the apex; the scutellum is stoutly keeled laterally 
to near the middle, the parapsidal furrows extend to shortly 
beyond the middle. The $ is similar to the 9 ; the antennae 
are longer and more slender, they are broadly ringed with 
white in both sexes; the apical abdominal segments in both 
sexes are marked with white. 

The species of the genus are very similarly coloured to 
Buodias with v^ich genus it agrees in some other respects ; the 
difference in the form of the median segment enables them to be 
separated ; in B nodi us it is shorter, is stoutly spined, and the 
apex has a straight obii(|ue, not a gradually rounded slope ; in 
Buoduis^ too, the recurrent nervure is received at the apex of 
the areolet, almost united to the second transverse cubital 
nervure. Also the median segment is not transversely striated. 

Lcwtolus (dbomaculatus, sp. nov. 

Niger, annulo tiagello antennarum tarsisque posticis albis; coxis 
posticis rufis alis f umato-hyalinis, nervis stigmatique nigris 9 , 

Long. 13; terebra 8 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Antenme longer than the body ; the sixth to twelfth joints, 
for the greater part, white. Face rugosely striated in the 
middle ; at the sides the stride are oblique and more distinctly 
separated. Clypeus stoutly keeled in the middle ; the rest 
aciculated and irregularly and not very strongly striated. The 
base of the mandibles closely striated ; the teeth are for the 
greater part rufous. The front and the vertex from the hinder 
ocelli stoutly striated. Thorax shining ; the pro-mesonotum and 
the base of the median segment smooth, striated. The meso- 
pleural furrow is wide and deep; its lower part is stoutly 
striated. Legs black ; the apical half of the metatarsus, the 
second and the fourth joints except at the apex, white ; all the 
coxae and the four front trochanters bright red ; the anterior 
tibiae and, to a le^s extent, the femora are brownish. Wings 
hyaline, with a slight, but distinct, smoky tinge ; the stigma 
and nervures are black ; the second transverse cubital nervure 


is largely bullatod ; as h also the cuIjiuI -disco, and the ntciirrent ] 
nervurea. Abdomen black ; the top of the sixth, seventh, and the I 
eighth segDtent more narrowly above, whito ; the apex of tJie ] 
second segment is obscure testaceous. 

t.aetoliis riijieoxis, sp. uov. 

Niger, a[Mue metanoti apicetiue nbdominis ulbis; pedibtis J 
fulviti, truchant«ribus tiblisque pouticis iiigriM; tarsis puiiticb | 
allHS ; alis hyalinis. nervis ftigmatique nigris 9 . 

Long; 9-10; terebra 4 mm. 

Ilab. Saruwab, Borneo (Sholford). 

Antt!iinH-- as long as the body : the miJdlu of the llagelium j 
is broadly whit«. The face is rugosely punctured, almost a 
reticulated ; the ctypeus is smooth and shinin};, roundly ounvex ; 
the curved keels on the lower part of the vertex are fuw in 
number and stout. Mandibles black ; the palpi white. Mesono- 
tum smooth and shining, except on the apex of the middle lobe, 
which is transversely striated. The acutellar depression is large 
and is stoutly keeled in the middle : the top of the scutellum is 
obscure brownish ; the post^scutellum is white. The median 
segment at the base is smooth and shining ; the rest of it, from 
the keel, is closely transversely striated; its apdcal slope is 
white ; tliis white band is directed broadly backwards in the 
middle. The upper half of the propleune is closely, longituduially 
reticulat«d. the lower strongly longitudinally striat^. Meso- 
l^euriv, except in the middle behind, strongly longitudinally I 
stiiated; the base is smooth below; the striio in the middle aro \ 
smaller and closer: the metapleune, from the oblique keel, 
longitudinally striated; the strim are waved. Le^s fulvous, the I 
anterior paler in tint ; the hinder trochanters, the apex of Ihd J 
femora, the tibite and tlie baae of the tarsi are black ; the rent of I 
the tarsi white. Abdomen black : the apical three segnienta 1 
white ; the basal three segments are aciculat«d. 

Litriolu) fiuvii>rf. sp. nov, 

Niger, annulo fiagello antennarum late, abdominis apice J 
larsis<]uepcsticis albis; pedibus anterioribus Havis ; alis hyaliu' 
nervis stignatiiiue nigris ?, 


Long: 10 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Antenna; black ; the apex of the fifth, the sixth to eleventh 
entirely, and the twelfth and thirteenth paitly, white. Head 
black, the inner orbits in the middle narrowly white ; the face 
rugosely punctured, the punctures running into reticulation above. 
Clypeus roundly convex, smooth and shining and sparsely 
covered with lon^ish hair. Mandibles rufous before the middle, 
smooth; the base coarsely aciculated. Front irregularly strio- 
lated, coarsely in the centre, more finely in the middle. Pro- and 
me^onotum with the scutellum smooth and shining; the apex of 
the middle lobe irregularly longitudinally striated. Median 
segment behind the keel smooth and shining ; the rest of it 
strongly, transversely, closely striated ; on the apex is a curved 
white band, which is dilated backwards in the middle. Pleura; 
closely longitudinally striated ; the stria; on the mesopleura; are 
more irregular and more or less curved. The four front legs are 
pale yellow ; their coxa; black, rufous towards the apex ; their 
tarsi inf uscated ; the hinder tarsi are white, except narrowly at 
the base. The basal two segments of the abdomen are acicula- 
ted ; the others smooth and shining ; the second and third seg- 
ments are narrowly pale at the apex : the apical three are for 
the greater part white. 

Baodiaif, gen. nov. 

Thorax three times lonj^er than wide : the median sej^ment 
behind the keel ohliciuely rugosely striated ; its sides with a 
broad spine ; the apical keel is wanting. Front stoutly striated. 
Petiole not much longer than the second segment, stout, 
becoming gradually wider towards the apex from the base. 
Areolet of moderate size, wider than long, wider at the apex 
than at the base ; the recurrent nervure is received close to the 
apex ; the transverse basal nervure is received behind the 
transverse basal. The petiolar spiracles are nearer each other 
than they are to the apex. Scutellum flat, keeled on the basal 
half. Ptero-stigma elongate, narrow. The median segment is 
about one half the length of the meso-thorax : it« apex has an 
oblique, straight slope : its spiracles are small. al)out three times 
longer than broad. The abdomen is stout, not longer than the 



head and thorax united, it^ apex is blunt and marked with white. 
The ]<»gs are long and stout ; the tarsal claws of moderate 
length ; the tibiie are slightly bent at the base. The clypeus is 
rjundJy convex, not very clearly separated behind ; its apex is 
transverse and has a distinct margin. The mandibles are broad» 
curved, bidentate at the apex ; loWer tooth, snilall ; the base 
is broadly raised on the upper side, the raised part forming a 
tubercle-like mass. The head is much wider than the thorax ; 
the metai'leural keel is complete and is dilated at the base. On 
the median segment in the middle behind the keel is an 
incomplete area, open behind. 

In Ashmead*s arrangement this genus should come near 
Metsostenoidtits and Cluistolia, 

Buodius nijicojcis^ sp. nov. 

Niger; annulo fiagello anteimarum abdominisque apice 
albis ; coxis trochanteribusque anterioribus rutis : alis fusco- 
hyalinis, nervis stigmatique nigris 9 • 

Long : 21 muj. terebra 4-5 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak (Shelford). 

Antenna; not quite so long as the body, if anything, 
thickened towards the apex ; the sixth to thirteenth joints white 
beneath ; the scape bare smooth and shining. Head entirely 
black ; smooth and shining ; the front oblicjuely stoutly striated 
below the ocelli ; the face coarsely irregularly reticulated. 
Mandibles black, rufous at the base above. Palpi testaceous. 
Thorax black ; the sides of the scutellum to near the apex 
white ; the spines on the median segment dull white. Pro- and 
mesonotum shining, bare ; the middle lobe aciculated. The 
scutellum is, if anything, more shining than the mesonotum ; 
post-scutellum is dull white. The base of the median segment 
in the middle is stoutly keeled ; the part behind the keel is acicu- 
lated ; there is one curved keel on the outer side of the stigma 
and several on the inner side ; the teeth are broad and bluntly 
rounded at the apex. The middle of the propleune obliquely, 
and the upper two- thirds of the apex stoutly, striated* The 
base and the |)art in the middle is irregularly reticulated, this 
prt being bounded by a keel in front and by an irregular 
furrow behind ; the lower apical part is irregularly crenulated. 


Metapleune coarsely obliquely striaUnl ; the «true are irregular 
and more or less wriukled ; the base is aciculated behind the 
furrow, which is wide and deep; the upper piirt is irregularly, 
the median segment from the keel Hnely and closely transver- 
sely striated : the apical slope is rufous. Ihe middle of the 
propleurie, the greater part of the meso- and the meta- below the 
keel are closely and finely longitudinally striated. Legs black ; 
the hinder coxa* rufous ; the fore femora and tibiie more or less 
testaceous, especially in front, the apical two-thirds of the biisal 
joint of the hinder tarsi, the second, third, fourth and base of the 
fifth joints, white. NVings fuscous-hyaline ; the nervures and 
stigma black ; the second transverse cubital nervure is almost 
obliterated. Abdomen black ; the sixth and seventh segments 
broadly above and the eighth narrowly white. 

Mesuiftf litis Slidjhrdi^ sp. no v. 

Niger ; labro abdoministiue apice albis ; coxis posterioribus 
ruiis ; alis hyalinis, stigma te nervisque fuscis 5 . 

liong : 9 mm. 

Ilab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Head black ; the labrum and palpi white. Mandibles black, 
whitish -testaceous near the middle. Face opaque, closely but 
not very distinctly, punctured ; the clypeus smooth and shining, 
front and vertex alutaceous, shagreened ; the upper part of 
the front is furrowed in the centre. Fro- and meso- thorax 
smooth and shining and with a plumbeous hue. Median segment 
opaque ; above closely, but not very strongly, transversely 
punctured. Wings clear hyaline; the stigma and nervures 
fuscous. Legs black ; the four posterior coxa' orange red ; the 
front coxaj black, pale at the apex ; the four front legs are 
fuscous ; the hinder tarsi are white, except narrowly at the 
base. The abdominal segments are narrowly lined with dull 
white at the apex ; the apex of the fifth and the sixth and the 
seventh entirely, are clear white. 

This is a Mesostenus as defined by Ashmead in his generic 
revision of the IchneumonidiB (\\\i\\, U. S. Nat Mus. XXIII. 44)— 
The keel on the mesopleune curves broadly and roundly up- 
wards on the apical half; the basal keel on the median segment 
is complete ; the apical one does not reach to the sides ; the 


keel on the lower edge of the metapleura* is broad and plate- 
like ; the transverse median nervure is received shortly behind 
the transverse basal ; the areolet is moderately lar^e, about one 
half longer than broad ; the recurrent nervure is received 
shortly hehind the middle. 

Jfaraces, gen. nov. 

Claws pectinated, scutellum Hat throughout, its sides and 
upex keeled. Areola oblicjuely narrowed behind, open in front, not 
separated from the posterior median area : it is separated at the 
base from the lateral area. Anteuhie dihited beyond the middle. 
Labrum hidden. Areolet narrowed at the top, nervure uniting 
there ; the transverse median nervure is widely distant from the 
basal. The apex of the hind femora reaches to the middle of 
the fourth segment; the abdominal segments are aciculated. 

'J'he pronotum projects above, broadly at the base, more 
narrowly at the apex ; the apex of the scutellum has a perpen- 
dicular slope and is clearly raised above the post-scutellum : the 
abdouiinal segments do not project nmch at their. apices. The 
stump of a nervure on the disco- cubital nervure is almost ob- 
solete. Clypeus separated from the face, foveate at the base. 
Mandibles large ; the teeth large, widely separated. Metathoracic 
spiracles linear, much longer than wide. 

The eyes are large and parallel ; the malar space is large. 
There are seven abdou.inal segments ; the ventral keel is on the 
third and fourth segments. The occiput is roundly incised and 
is keeled above. Median segment, short, rounded gradually 
behind. t 

The pectinated claws refer this genus to the IJstiodromini, 
The claws have long teeth and are toothed uniformly to near 
the apex. There are no spines on the median segment; the 
spiracles on the first abdominal segment are elongated ; the seg- 
ments are banded with yellow ; the ovipositor projects largely. 

Of the known genera of Lhtrodronnui,, Maraces comes 
nearest to Neotifpua which, among other difTereiices, is readily 
separated from it by the very small, rounded spiracles of the 
petiole. If it were not for the pectinated claws the genus might 
be placed with the Joppini, 


Miivaces Jlaro-halteata^ sp. nov. 

Niger, late flavo- maculate ; pedibus fla\is, coxis trochanteribus 
femoribusque posticis nigris; apice tibiarum posticarum late 
nigro ; alis hyalinis, nervis stigmatique nigris 9 • 

l^ng: 14 mm. 9 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

AntennFB black, the middle of the flagellum broadly banded 
with white. Head black ; the face, except for a broad black 
line in the middle, the clypeus, the inner orbits narrowly to the 
top of the eyes on the inner side, and the outer, entirely below 
and broadly above, pale yellow. The fjice closely, the clypeus 
sparsely, punctured. Mandibles black. Front and vertex 
impunctate, bare, shining. Thorax black; the edge of the 
pronotum, two marks on the mesonotum, obliquely and sharply 
narrowed at the base, the apex of the scntellum broadly, the 
mark narrowed behind the apical part of the scutellar keels, the 
post-scutellum, two marks on the apex of the median segment, 
narrowed below as they follow the outline of the lateral area?, 
the lower part of the propleiira^ of the mesopleurie more broadly, 
the tubercles, the hinder edge of the mesopleurte, and the apical 
half of the metapleune, yellow. Mesonotum closely rugosely 
punctured, reticulated in the middle behind ; the scutellum is 
similarly punctured. The base of the median segment is smooth ; 
the areola is coarsely sharpened ; the posterior area coarsely 
irregularly reticulated ; the lateral area smooth at the base, the 
rest coarsely punctured ; the spiracular area rugose, the apex 
transversely, coarsely striated. The upper part of the propleurae 
is closely punctured, the apex stoutly striated, the strite in the 
centre extending to the centre. Meso- and metapleurte distinct- 
ly and clcsely punctured ; the middle of the former finely and 
closely longitudinally striated. Wings hyaline, the nervures 
and stigma black. The four front legs yellow ; the femora, 
tibiaB and tarsi black behind ; the hinder coxte, except at the 
apex on the inner side, the basal joint of the trochanters, the 
femora and the apical third of the tibiae, black ; the rest yellow. 
Abdomen black; the base of the petiole broadly, its apex and 
the apex of all the other segments, yellow ; the middle segments 
of the abdomen are closely punctured; the gastrocoeli are 


yellow, the steep apex of a more rufous hue ; the base of the 
S€ggment between them is striated; the sides of the apical 
tljree segments are yellow, the yellow becoming gradually 
broader towards the apex. 

Maraces pectinata^ sp. nov. 

(Niger, late flavo ornato ; pedibus fulvis, coxis trochanter 
ibusque anterioribus flavis, posticis nigris ; alis fulvo-hyalinis, 
nervis, stigmatique nigris 9 • 

Long: 17 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills (Coll Rothney). 

Antennae black, the eighth t/O sixteenth joints white ; the 
scape covered with white hair. Head black ; the face, clypeus, 
the inner orbite, — narrowly below, more broadly above, the yellow 
not extending beyond the inner top of the eyes, — and the outer 
orbits entirely, from above the middle of the eyes to the base of 
the mandibles, pale yellow. The face and clypeus obscurely 
punctured and thick ly covered with white hair ; there is a black 
line down the face and an elongate mark on the apex of the 
clypeus. Front and vertex smooth, shining, and bare. Mandibles 
yellow, the teeth black. Thorax black : the edge of the 
pronotum, two lines on the mesouotum, obliquely narrowed on 
the inner side at the base, the apical half of the scutellum, the 
mark roundly narrowed at the base, the base of the pronotura, 
the lower side of the propleune from behind the middle to the 
apex, the tubercles, a small mark on I he middle of the meso- 
pleurje, a smaller one behind it lower down, the lower third of 
the mesopleurne, the apex of the mesopleur* broadly below the 
keel, yellow. Legs fulvous; the four front coxie, trochanters 
pale yellow ; the hinder coxa? black on the outer side and on 
the outer half of the top ; the basal joint of the trochanters black, 
wings hyaline, the base with a slight fulvous tinge ; the stigma 
and nervures black ; the areolet obli(]|ue ; the second transverse 
cubital nervure longer and with a more oblique slope than the 
first; they almost touch above ; the recurrent nervure is receiv- 
ed shortly behind the middle. Abdomen black, the apices of 
all the segments yellow ; the baud on the third is interrupted 
in the middle ; the petiole shining, the base of the post- petiole 
strongly punctured : the second, third, fourth segments closely 



punpturwl: the ga^^mwoeli narrow, df^p, suiuiith, and shining. 
Mesonotum rather strnn|;lyand cIohpIv pnnrturpd ; tlip sciit^lluni 
is as Htrongly, and more widely punctured : its sideM, under the 
keets. §trongly but not closely, punctured. The bane of the 
median segment is smooth ; the rest coarsely punctured, the apes 
especially iu the middle, c I owe ly retic«lat«l; the nupramedian area 
large, about as wide as l<mg : the sideH at the base obliquely 
narrowed, the middle .straight, the apex is not clearly separated 
from the posterior median by a keel. Pro- and niesopleuriv 
smooth ; the depreawion on the fiirmer stoutly striated : the lower 
half of the meso- i.s depressed and !se|»rated from the mi;*ed 
upper half: (be me ta- closely and strongly punctured. The 
mt^lian wgment is thickly covered with white hair.) 

J'jpptni ZoHojoppii. fren. nov. 

Antenna? short, distinctly dilated und compressed l-etween 
the middle and the apex; the dilated joints hollowed laterally. 
Wings violaceous throughout : the areolet is narrowed at the top, 
the transverseculHtal nervures almost uniting there; the transverse 
basal nervure intecBtitial. Sciitellum roundly convex : not raised 
above tlie level of the luesonotum, its sides .stoutly keeled. Areola 
widely :*eparated from the base of the segment, rounded and nar- 
rowed behind, the basal half deeply hollowed, the lateral b^sal 
areie clearly separated. Clvpeus broadly rounded at the apex, 
the labrum hidden. Legs short ; the apex of the hinder femora 
not extending beyond the apex of the third .segment. TheaWoni- 
inal segments do not project much laterally at the apex ; the 
second and third segment* are longitudinally strixted at the base, 
the last (seventh) segment is well developed i its cerci are much 
longer than usual. 

The thorax is shorter than the basal three segments of the 
abdomen ; the middle of the mesnnotum is raised and sepamteil in 
fnmt; the posl-scutellum is shortly striated and depresse. I lateral- 
ly : theapicAl three arete on the median segment nre closely d«lin- 
ed, as is also the spiraculararea ; the sides of Ihe mesonotuni are 
bordered by a wide deep furrow i ihere is a short stump of a ner- 
vure on the disro-cubital nervure, 

Thecharaclerislic features of this jfeniis lire ihi- violaceous 
wintjs, the stoutly keeled sf?utel1um, and the excavated Mreola. 


Zonojopprt riolnreipejnns, sp. no v. 

Nigra, capite thoraceque tiavo maculatis ; abdominis basi late 
rufo ; pedibus nigris; coxis trochanteribusque anterioribus flavis, 
alia violaciis, nervis stigmatique nigris 9 • 
Long. 15 mm. 
Hab. Sarawak (Shelford). 

Antennae black, the scape yellow bene-ath. Head black ; the 
face, clypeus, base of mandibles, the inner orbits to shortly beyond 
the ocelli, the outer more broadly from near the top, the line be- 
coming gradually wider from top to bottom, pale yellow. 
Front and vertex smooth, bare and shining ; the black on them 
has a plumbeous hue, and they are sparsely covered with pale 
hair. Thorax black ; the upper edge of the pronotum from near 
the base (the yellow with a black band in the middle), the keels 
of the scutellum from near the base, the apex of the post scutel- 
lum ; the base of the prothorax from the keel on the pleurae, the 
tubercles and a large mark on the lower part of the mesopleurae at 
the base, yellow. Mesonotum in the middle stoutly punctured ; 
the punctured space prolonged laterally at the base ; the sides near 
the tegulie are deeply furrowed. The scutellum, except at the 
base, is irregularly and rather strongly punctured ; the sides are 
stoutly keeled ; in the centre of the post scutellum are four 
stout keels. The central basal depression of the median 
segment is smooth ; the sides are strongly punctured ; the 
areola has a large, round depression at the base, which extends 
to shortly beyond the middle ; the apical central areA is smooth 
and depressed at the base ; the rest of it stoutly transversely 
striated ; the lateral stoutly, irregularly striated, almost reticu- 
lated ; the spiracular, beyond the spiracles, irregularly obliquely 
striated. The lower part of the propleurie is aciculated and 
irregularly striated ; the meso-, except behind, finely and closely 
punctured ; the meta- closely and coarsely striated ; the meso- and 
raetapleurae are thickly covered with white hair. The four anter- 
ior coxae entirely, the trochanters, the femora, except at the base, 
and the tibiae and tarsi in front, pale yellow, black behind ; the legs 
black ; the coxje above, except at the base, the apical half of the 
trochanters, a line on the femora above and on the base of the 
femora, pale yellow ; all the legs are thickly covered with pale 


pubescence ; all the calcaria are pale yellow. Wings uniformly 
violaceous ; the transverse cubital and the recurrent nervures 
are largely buUated. The basal three abdominal segments and 
the base of the fourth broadly, ferruginous ; the basal three seg- 
ments are narrowly lined with yellow at the apex. The post- 
petiole is finely longitudinally striated, the sides punctured ; the 
second and third segments have a narrow keel in the centre, 
bordered by some longitudinal st nations; the gastracoeli are 
large, smooth, and have two obli(jue stout keels on the outer 

MutiHa herpa, sp. no v. 

Nigra, pro- mesothorace scutelloque ferrugineis; abdomine 
nitido, dense nigro piloso ; segment secunodo dense albo piloso ; 
alis violaceis ; tegulis rufis 5 . 

Long : 12 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Head as wide as the base of the mesonotum ; coarsely 
rugosely punctured, running into reticulations on the front, 
which, at the apex, broadly projects ; ils apex and side are 
sharply keeled ; the middle is oblicjuely incised ; the sides are 
broadly rounded ; the face is rugose and bears, on the middle 
at the apex, three irregular punctures. Antenna* black, the 
scape shining, pilose ; the tlagellum opa([ue, bare. Pro- and 
mesonotum, with the scutellum, closely rugosely punctured. 
The scutellum, is broad; its sides are smooth and project; its 
ap3\ has a rounded slope. Wings violaceous, lighter in tint at 
the base; the third transverse cubital nervure is only indicated 
by a stump on the top ; there being thus only two complete 
cubital cellules ; the second transverse cubital nervure is broad- 
ly rounded. The median segment is coarsely reticulated ; the 
basal three are of e([ual length, but the central is much narrow- 
er and is acutely pointed at the apex. The pro- and the upper 
two-thirds of the mesopleune are ferruginous ; the propleurne 
and the base and apex of the mesopleurfe are smooth. Abdomen 
deep black, shining; the petiole is broad and becomes gradually 


wider towards the apex ; the apex is smooth ; at the base of 
this smooth part is a row of large puncture^s ; from this the peti- 
ole slopes obliquely to the base ; the ventral keel is straight, 
rounded at the base and apex ; the second segment is covered 
with short depressed clear white pubescence ; and is smooth and 
shining in the middle at the apex; the pygidium hears large 
round punctures all over. Legs black, thickly covered with 
long white hair ; the spurs white. 

Mntilla tra, sp. nov. 

Nigra, dense albo piloso ; alis fusco-violaceis, basi fere 
hyalinis 5 . 

Long : 17 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Head distinctly narrower than the thorax ; closely rugosely 
punctured and thickly covered with long white pubescence; 
the vertex and front with the hair sparser and shorter. The 
clypeus is smooth and shining and is keeled in the middle ; the 
mandibles, at the base, are thickly covered with long white hair. 
Thorax densely covered with longish grey pubescence; the 
mesonotum is strongly, distinctly and uniformly punctured ; the 
furrows are distinct on the apical half. Scutellum strongly, 
deeply and uniformly punctured and roundly convex ; the post- 
scutellum opaque, coarsely aciculatfd. Median segment coarse- 
ly reticulated ; the basal median reticulation is twice longer 
than broad and has the apical half abruptly narrowed. Meso- 
pleurse coarsely punctured in the middle and thickly covered 
with grey hair ; the lower part of the metapleurte is alutaceous, 
the upper punctured, fiegs thickly covered with long white 
hair ; the calcaria pale. Wings dark violaceous, paler at the 
base ; the cubital cellules complete ; the middle one, is, above 
and below, longer than the following. Abdomen black, the 
basal two segments, the basal half of the third rufous ; the base 
of the petiole is broad, more than half the width of the apex ; 
the ventral keel is broadly rounded ; the hair is white on the 
basal segments, shorter and black on the apical two ; the hypo- 
pygium is punctured, smooth und shining in the middle : there 
are no keels or furrows on the epipygium. 


Mutilla olbia, sp. nov. 

Black, densely covered with longish pale hair; the first, 
sexjdnd and the base of the third abdominal segment red ; wings 
fuscous-hyaline with a violaceous tinge ; the stigma and ner- 
vures testaceous, 5 • 

Long: 15 mm. 

Hab. Penrissen, 4500 feet, Sarawak. 

Antennae densely covered with a pale pile ; the second and 
third joints together are equal in length to the fourth. Head 
distinctly narrower than the thorax; roundly, obliquely nar- 
rowed behind the eyes ; the vertex strongly but not very close- 
ly, punctured ; the front more closely rugosely punctured ; the 
vertex sparsely, the front more thickly covered with long ful- 
vous hair. Clypeus depressed in the middle ; the edges rounded 
and forming a semicircle ; the apical tooth of the mandibles is 
long, rounded at the apex : the subapical one is short and blunt. 
Thorax thickly covered with long fulvous hair ; the pro- and 
mesonotiim closely rugosely punctured ; the sculellum is more 
closely punctured. Median segment closely reticulated; the 
batiMil three central area^ larger than the others ; the central is 
longer than the others Propleura* at the Imse rugosely punc- 
tured ; the lower parb of the apex with live stout keels ; the 
cwjtral, raised part of the mesopleurap is punctured but not 
deeply or strongly ; the base of the metapleura^ smooth, the 
apex reticulated. The third transverse c^ubital nervure and the 
second recurrent are fnint : the first transverse cubital ner- 
vere is oblique and rounded : the second is roundly curved and 
not obliquely sloped : the second cubital cellule at the top is 
shorter, at the bottom longer than the third : the recurrent ner- 
vures are received near the base of the apical third of the 
cellules. Legs thickly covered with white hair ; the s'pines and 
calcaria white. On the alxlomen the first, second, and the base 
of the third segment'^ are rufous ; the basal five segments are 
covered with long pale, the apical with black, hair ; the ventral 
keel is slightly dilated at the base, roundly narrowed at the 
apex ; the last segment above has the apical two-thirds broadly 
smooth in the middle ; Ijelow it is strongly punctured, except 
at the apex, which is smooth and rufous. 


Miiiilln Imffrii'lii. sp. noi-. 


Hah. Ivui'hing, Sarawak, 

This spetnes comes very near to .1/. casip/n'a : the differeiicea 
between the two may be expressed thus : — 

Scutellum not furrowed down the middle: the keel on the 
petiole straight; the face not tuberculate; the pro- 
pleunw smooth except above. baifraiia. 

Scutellum furrowed down the middle; the keel on the 
petiole curved ; the face tuberculate below ; the pro- 
pleurre rugose. ensiphia, 

Flagellum of antennte brownL<ih beneath, the third and 
fourth joints equal in length. Fioot and vertex coarsely 
rugoaely punctured ; the punctures running into reticula- 
titms on the front; the apex of the tubercles rufoua, 
Ctypeus slightly depressed in the middle ; smooth, .shining ; the 
apex transverse, 'I lie face thiekly covered with long grey hair. 
Mandibles at the base thickly covered with grey hair; the 
subapical tooth is indistinct; the apex of the projection behind 
the middle is obli<|ue, rounded on the lower part. Fro- and 
niesonotum closely and rugosely punctured: there is a smooth 
keel in the middle ; there is a furrow on either side of it on the 
apic«l half. Scut^llum roundly convex, coarsely nigosely 
punctured. Median segment reticulated ; the basal area short, 
not reaching beyond the middle; its basal third widened. 
Propleune smooth ; the upper part at the base bordered by an 
oblique keel. Mesoplenne thickly covered with silvery pubes- 
cence, the base smooth ; there is a wide oblique depression. Legs 
thickly covered with white hair; the calcaria pale. Wings 
fuscous-violaceous, paler at the base ; the third cubital cellule 
at the top and bottom distinctly shorter than the second ; the 
first transverse cubital nervure is almost straight, and oblicjue ; 
the second is roundly bent outwardly in the middle ; both the 
recurrent nervures are received shortly beyond the middle. 
Abdomen thickly covered with white hair; the hair on the 
apical two segments is black : the basal two segments and the 
base of the third are rufous ; the ventral keel is roundly curved 
and narrowed at the base ; the last dorsal segment has no area : 
its lower surface is flat. 


Mittilla agnpeta, sp. no v. 

Black; the abdomen red, with the apical two segments 
black ; the clypeus broadly convex in the middle ; the centre of 
the scutellum smooth and shining, its base depressed ; wings 
fusco-violaceous, hyaline at the base. 5 • 

Long : 1 5 mm. 

llab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

The third joint of the antenniii is shortly, but distinctly, 
longer than the fourth. Front and vertex closely punctured ; 
the vertex sparsely covered with longish pale hair ; the front, 
especially in the centre, thickly covered with silvery pubescence. 
Face roundly convex, smooth and shining ; the clypeus short, 
depressed, clearly separated, slightly and broadly waved ; the 
edges depressed. Mandibles densely pilose at the base ; the 
lower basal tooth stout, obliquely directed downwards ; there 
is no distinct subapical tooth ; the palpi are black. Pro- and 
mesonotum closely punctured ; the pronotum above thickly 
covered with griseous pubescence ; the lower and hinder part 
of the propleuraj bear stout, clearly separated keels. The raised 
central part of the mesopleuiie is thickly covered with silvery 
pubescence and punctured but not very deeply or closely. 
Metapleura* smooth, irregularly reticulated at the base above. 
Mesonotum closely punctured. Scutellum strongly convex ; 
the basal and apical slopes obli([ue ; the base in the centre is 
flat, smooth and shining. Median segment reticulated, thickly 
covered with silvery pubescence. Legs thickly coven* J with 
white pubescence ; the calcaria and spines pale. Wings fuscous- 
violaceous, hyaline behind the transverse basal nervure ; ilie 
third cubital cellule at the top and bottom distinctly shorter th m 
the second ; the recurrent nervures are received beyond the 
middle of the cellules ; the second transverse cubital nervure is 
roundly curved outwardly. Abdomen ferruginous ; the basal 
half of the petiole below and the apical two segment^ black, 
llie ventral keel is almost straight ; the last segment is l>rv>adly 
smooth and bare in the centre ; below it has the sides br.>adly, 
obliquely depressed and clearly separated from the centre which 
is depressed, especially at the apex, where it is bounded by 


Mutilla ilenhi^ sp. nov. 

Black ; the prothorax, uiesoiioluin, scutelluin and base of 
median segment rufous : abdomen black, with violet and purple 
tints ; the apex of the second and of the third segments banded 
with clear white pubescence ; wings fuscous-violaceous, lighter 
in tint at the base. ?) . 

Long : 12 mm. 

llab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Antenme stout, covered with a microscopic pale pile ; the 
third joint is about twice the length of the pedicle and not quite 
one-half the length of the fourth. Head distinctly narrower 
than the thorax, thickly covered with long white hair, except 
on the front and vertex where the hair is sparser, shorter and 
black. The ocellar region is bounded laterally and below by 
two stout keels ; the space between is depressed ; a keel runs 
into the front ocellus. The clypeus is broadly keeled above ; 
its apex is transverse, with the sides oblique. Mandibles irregu- 
larly bidentate at the apex ; their base sparsely covered with 
longish golden hair. The pro- and mesonotum are closely and 
strongly punctured and covered with golden pubescence. 
Median segment closely reticulated ; the central basal area is 
twice longer than broad and has the apical half narrowed. 
Propleurie closely and strongly punctured except behind ; the 
lower part is bounded by a stout keel : above this, on the apex, 
are four short keels, which become gradually shorter from the 
bottom to the top. Mesopleune closely and strongly punctured. 
Metapleur*<e reticulated, except behind ; on the upper part, at 
the base, is a narrow keel and above the middle a wide longitu- 
dinal furrow. Wings fuscous- violaceous, paler at the base ; the 
third transverse cubital nervure is faint, as is also the cubitus 
from the second transverse cubital and the second recurrent 
uervures ; the first transverse cubital nervure is oblique, and 
roundly curved on the lower part ; the second is roundly curved 
outwardly in the middle ; the second cubital nervure above is 
slightly more than one half of the length of the first. Abdomen 
shining, black ; the third and following segments with blue and 
violet tints ; the basal segments sparsely covered with white, 
the apical more thickly with black, hair ; the apex of the second 


and of the third with a broad band of depressed clear white 
pubescence ; the basal ventral segment has a straight, rounded 
keel in the centre ; its sides are stoutly punctured ; it8 apex has 
an oblique slope ; the pygidiuui is closely punctured and covered 
with black hair ; its apex is depressed ; there is no defhied area 
on it ; the epipygiuin is Hat, closely and strongly punctured and 
has its sides margined. 

Comes close to M. gracilUma^ »Sm. 

Mutilla fiHWiblia, sp. no v. 

Black, the scape of the antenna;, the thorax and the femora 
rufous, two oval spot^ of silvery pubescence on the base of the 
second abdominal segment; the whole of the third segment 
covered with depressed silvery pubescence; the sides of the 
pygidium fringed with silvery hair. 9 . 

Long: 11 mm. 

Uab. Kuching, ^rawak. 

This species comes near to J/, prosperpitui Sm. which dif- 
fers from it in having the legs ferruginous except that the 
knees and tarsi are slightly fuscous ; the pubescence on the 
thorax is reddish-brown. The present species comes close to 
M. giapa Cam. but, apart from the difference in colour- 
ation, it may le known from it by the perfectly smooth pygi- 

Scape of antenna} rufous, co\ered with pale fulvous hair ; 
the fiagellum black, stout : the third joint twice the length of 
the fourth which is shorter than the fifth. Head nearly hs wide 
as the thorax; closely rugosely punctured: the punctun»s 
longer than broad; the antennal tubercles black. Face an 1 
clypeus smooth and shining, sparsely covered l^ith long p le 
fulvous hair. Mandibles rufous, black at the apex ; the palpi 
blackish fuscous, darkest at the base; the subapical tooth 
straight and obli(iue at the apex. Thorax twice longer than 
broad, slightly narrowed in the middle ; the base rounded with 
the edge irregular ; the apex transverse, the sides above .rv>und- 
ed ; the sides of the median segment sharply denticulate ; the 
outer edge of the pronotum is stoutly keeled above ; the p'.eune 
smooth^ impunctate ; the upper part of the thorax is covered 
with longish black hairs. Legs black ; all the coxtf3, trochan- 


ters and femora, except at the apex, rufous; they are covered 
with longish white hair ; the spines on the four front tibiai are 
rufous, on the posterior black ; on the tarsi they are rufous, and 
their basal joints are thickly covered with rufous, stiff pubes- 
cence. The basal segment of the abdomen is short and is much 
narrower than the second ; underneath it is rufous, smooth 
below ; the base of the keel obtusely dentate. On the base of 
the second segment are two irregular, broader than long, marks 
of silvery pubescence ; • the third segment is almost entirely 
covered with silvery pubescence ; the pygidium is smooth and is 
fringed laterally with long silvery pubescence ; the ventral seg- 
ments are thickly covered with silvery hair. 

Mutilla palaca^ sp. nov. 

Antennye and head black ; the thorax red ; the abdomen blue, 
thickly covered with long white hair, without any bands of 
depressed pubescence; wings uniformly fuscous, with a slight 
violaceous tinge ; the third transverse cubital completely, and 
the second recurrent nervure almost completely obliterated J . 

Long : 9 mm. 

llab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Antenna? stout, black, covered with a pale pile ; the third 
joint is slightly, but distinctly, shorter in length than the fourth, 
llead black, nearly as wide as the thorax ; behind tranljverse, 
the edge of the occiput sharp and slightly raised above. Front 
and vertex shining closely punctured all over and covered with 
longish white hair. Clypeus largely depressed in the centre ; 
the depression largest below, narrowed above ; the apex raised 
and closely punctured. Mandibles bidentate ; the apical tooth 
long and curved at the apex. Thorax entirely rufous, thickly 
pilose ; the hair on the mesonotum fulvous, on the median seg- 
ment longer and white. Pro- and mesonotum, with the scutel- 
lum closely rugosely punctured; the post-scutellum is bordered 
laterally by a keel and there is a short, less distinct, keel in the 
centre. Median segment reticulated ; the central basal one is 
very broad at the base, the apex much narrowed ; the area> 
surrounding it are large. The upper part of the propleur» is 
irregularly, indistinctly, punctured ; at the apex is an elongated 
area, rounded below, which reaches to shortly below the middle. 


Mesopleune closely punctured; the metapleurg reticulated, 
smooth at the base. Le^s Mack ; the calcaria and spinas pale ; 
the hair dense, long and white. The second recurrent nervure 
is narrowed at the top, being there as wide as the space hounded 
by the firat^ recurrent and the second transverse cubital ner- 
vnres; the first transverse cubital nervure is straight and 
oblique ; the second is curved and only slightly oblique. The 
first abdominal segment is broad at the base ; below it is flat ; its 
central keel does not project much and the part bordering it is 
irregularly punctured on either side of it The last segment 
above is closely punctured, except for a smooth space in the 
middle at t)ie apex ; below, the apical half is stoutly keeled along 
the sides. 

Agrees closely in colouration with M, ilerdft, which may 
easily be separated from it by the keels on the front and vertex. 


Scolta ( Triscolin) ngJaua^ sp, nov. 

Long: 12 mm. 5 
Hab. Sarawak (Shelford). 

This species is not unlike what I take to be *S». opalina Sm., 
which has also been taken in Borneo by Mr. Shelford. The 
difference between the two may be expressed thus : — 

The frontal area clearly defined bounded by a ridge behind, 
the hair on the head and thorax black ; the median 
segment punctured throughout. opaliwiy Sm. 

The frontal area not clearly defined, not bounded by a 
ridge behind ; the hair on the head and thorax white ; the 
median segment not punctured throughout, there being a 
wide smooth space on the inner side of the lateral lobe. 

nylann^ sp, nov. 
Antennae opaque, bare. Head strongly and closely punc- 
tured and thickly covered with long white hair ; the middle of 
the clypeus smooth impunctate; there is no defined frontal area. 
Mesonotum closely and rather strongly punctured, less closely 
in the middle. The scutellum and post-scutellum are similarly 
punctured. The central region of the median segment is bound- 
ed by a distinct deep furrow and is punctured, if anything, more 
strongly than the mesonotum ; the inner half of the outer lobe 




is H month and impiinctatp, tlip oiit^r pmiot-Hred. The pro- and "^ 
basal part of the meaopleura'. are closely punctured ; the apical ' 
ptart is smooth in the middle ; with a punctured baud above and a 
wider one below. The melapleurfe stnixith, with a punctured 
band round the top ; the punctures are smaller than on the meso- 
pleurK. Wings fuscous, with a distinct, vii)laceous tinge and J 
hif^hlj' iridescent. Abdomen biack, with a. distinct violet iridea-fl 
cence ; the hair is black above, white below ; the punctuation is.l 
distinct. Iiegs black ; the hair is long and white ; the fore'| 
calcaria are pale ; the apines on the fore tarsi rufous. 

S'-olia (Dhfoliii) erif^nnn, ap. nov. 
Black J the greater part of the clypeus, the pronolum broad- 
ly, the scutellum, except at the apex, the post-scutellura, the j 
sides of the metanotum and the apex of tlie metapleune broadly, J 
lemon -ye How, as is also the upper part of the mesopleurie at thel 
base; abdomen broadly banded with yellow; legs black ! the^ J 
four anterior tibiie lined with yellow ; wings hyaline ; the radial I 
rellules infiiHCBted. the stigma and nervures dark rufous J . 

Hab. Pankalan .Ampst. Sarawak. 

Antennie black ; the scape covered wilh white hiir. Head J 
thickly covered wilh long soft white hair. Except immediately',! 
below the ocelli, the vertex is closely punctured; the front! 
ocellus is larger than Ihe hinder pair and is placed in a deep pt; I 
except above, the front is clo.iely and strongly punctured, and! 
has an oblique slope. The face has a smooth, Hat keel in the) 
middle and is spar.sely punctured ; the clypeus is roundly con 
s|>arsely, and distinctly, punctured: it is yellow, except at the 
apex, where there is a black line, which is roundly dilatj^ above. 
The yf How Imnds on the thorax are broad and of eipial breadth 
throughout; they are united above by a narrow yellow line on. bJ 
the hinder edge of the pronotnm. Mesonotum thickly covered 1 
with short fuscous hair; the scutellum with longer paler hair.f 
The median segment is Ihickly covered with long soft whitefl 
hair ; Ihe black oenlral part is depressed ; the sides are bro«dlyf 
rounded and project slightly. Mesopleurie thickly coveied witnl 
long pale hair; the pro- and metapleurw shortly pilose. I.eg8l 
thickly covered with white soft hair; the catcaria black. Wings I 


hyaline ; the radial cellules infuscated ; the nervures dark 
rufous ; the second transverse cubital nervure is broadly round- 
ed abova Abdomen thickly covered with white hair; the 
apices of the basal three segments are broadly yellow ; the black 
on the basal segment is triangularly produced In the middle; on 
the second it is squarely produced, the dilated part being more 
broadly and more distinctly separated; on the third the black 
band becomes gradually narrowed towards the apex ; on the 
fourth and fifth the black bands are not dilated and extend to 
the middle ; the apical three segments are entirely black. 

Sf^olia ( Disroii(i) pat am, sp. no v. 

Long: 17-19 mm. 

Uab. Santubong. Sarawak. 

This species comes very near to D, tht/atira Cam. but the 
two are, I consider, distinct. D, patara is smaller, it wants the 
curved yellow marks on the top of the clypeus, there is no 
yellow mark below the antennae, and the lower part of the 
radius is broadly rounded outwardly and does not form an angle 
with the upper abs* issa. 

Head black, the front, vertex and the upper half of the 
outer orbits narrowly orange-yellow ; the front and vertex 
thickly covered with long pale fulvous hair; the face more 
sparsely with long black hair The front and vertex strongly, 
the face, if anything, more strongly punctured, but not quite so 
closely ; the clypeus is almost impunctate ; the occiput is thickly 
covered with black hair. The orange band on the pronotum is 
narrowed behind, is broad, and covered with fulvous hair ; the 
mesonotum is sparsely punctured and is thickly covered with 
short black hair ; the scutellum is covered with long black hair 
except at the apex ; the post scutellum is much more sparsely 
haired. The median segment is thickly rovered with long 
black hair ; as are also the pleune : the inetapleune have also a 
pale pubescenc^e. Wings uniformly fuscous- violet and mode- 
rately iridescent. Abdomen, except in the middle, thickly 
covered with black hair, smooth, shining, and, especially on the 
middle segments, bearing brilliant blue and violet tints, this 
being also the case with the ventral surface. 


Saolia (DUroliu) a<„ 

'■i;i, sp. 1 

Black ; tiie apices of the basnl four abdominal segments 
lined with yellow ; the wiugs jellowish-hyaliiie, the cubital 
cellules with a more decided yellow tinge than the rest; the 
head and thorax covered with a pale golden pile and thickly 
with pale fulvous hair ; the basal three segments of the abdomeoi 
have blue and violet tints and are fringed with pale fulvous hair n 
the hair on the apical segment is long, dense and l-lack 9 ■ 

Lung : TA mm. 

Uab. Uurneo. 

Antennie black, the scape shining and sparsely covered witlj 
long pale fulvous hair. The head, except on the ocellar re^M_^ 
is thickly covered with long pale fulvous hair ; the vertex is 
more sparsely covered than the front ; the vertex is shiqing and 
is strongly, but not closely, punctured ; the front is impunctste 
and is furrowed down the middle. The clypeus is fringed above 
with long fulvous hair, is smooth above, the apex is irregularly, 
stoutly, longitudinally, striated ; the extreme apex is depressed, 
smoolii, and more or leas piceous. The apices of the mandibles 
are piceous. The niesonotum is strongly punctured, except in 
the middle behind ; the scutellinn is, if anything, more strongly 
and closely punctured, except at the apex, which is smooth ; the 
post-scute II urn is more closely punctured. The golden pie on 
ine median segment is dense, except laterally at the l-ase, it is 
closeiy punctui'ed. The golden pile on Ihe pleura- is very dense. 
i<egs black, covered with fulvous hair. The long spines on the 
front tarsi are liright rufous ; on the four hinder they are of a 
paler rufous colour ; the tibial spines are pale yellowish ; the 
calcaria ere of a still paler yellow colour. The malar nervures 
are rufous; the transverse cubital nervure is sharply bent out- 
wardly in the middle and projects there in a .short branch. The 
abdominal segments are smooth, impunctHte and are sparsely J 
covered with long pale fulvous hair ; the micaceous tints on t' 
basal three segments are very distinct in certain lights; t 
hairs tm the hypopygium are stout, stiff and black. 

The clypeus is subtriangular and is broadly, roundly coiH 
vex ; it« apex in the middle is transverse, its sides broad^ 


Corner near to S indUa Sauss. ifvc, Hingh. Characteristic is 
the peculiar form of the transverse cubital nervure. 

Ditlia bornenna^ sp. nov. 

Black ; the second and third segments broadly, and the 
others narrowly on the sides, red ; the wings fuscous- violaceous, 
the apex without a violaceous tinge; ihe pile on the pygidium 
golden or rufous ; the middle and apical segments of the ab- 
domen fringed with rufous hair. 

Long : 45 mm. 

Ilab. Bajong and Santubong. Sarawak. 

liead ; the vertex sparsely punctured ; the ocellar region 
more sparsely punctured than the rest ; the front is much more 
closely and strongly punctured and there is a smooth line down 
the middle. The face and clypeus closely punctured, except for 
a somewhat triangular large smooth space on the centre of the 
latter. The occiput is thickly covered with long black stiff 
hair; the vertex is almost bare; the front is covered with blat^k 
hair, which has a rufous tinge ; the face and clypeus are covered 
with shorter hair of a darker colour ; the sides of the face are 
thickly covered above with silvery pubescence ; the hinder 
orbits are covered with black hair and with silvery pubescence. 
Mesonotum strongly and closely punctured except for a smooth 
impunctate space behind the middle. The scutellum has a punc- 
tured, irregular band on the base and an irregulnr row of punc- 
tures before the apex. The post- scutellum is punctured at the 
base and there is an irregular row of punctures at the apex. 
The basal region of the median segment is closely and distinctly 
punctured, except broadly laterally at the base, and more nar- 
rowly down the centre ; the apical slope is smooth, closely, 
minutely punctured above and at the sides. Propleune closely 
and rather strongly punctured, except behind ; the meso- smooth; 
the middle thickly covered with black hair ; the metapleurd5 
smooth and almost bare. Legs thickly covered with black hair ; 
the hair on the hinder tarsi bright rufous. Wings fuscous- 
violaceous; the violaceous tinge absent from the apical portions, 
which are also lighter in tint; the stigma and nervures black, 
abdomen black; there are two large rufous marks on the second 
segment which are narrowed and rounded on the inner side ; 


the third seguient is almost entirely rufous; the fourth and fifth 
segments are more or less rufous laterally ; the apical fringe on 
the second and following segments is bright rufous; the pygidium 
is thickly covered with pale golden pubescence, which probably 
varies in tint. 

Comes near to A\ luvtnosa Sm. and E, 4 ytfttuUtUi Hurm., 
but has the abdominal markings red, not yellow. K. luvtnosa 
differs from it further in having the wings darker, more 
unifornily blue- violaceous in colour, in the scutellum and post- 
scutellum being much more strongly and broadly punctured, 
the punctuation on the former extending U) near the apex, while 
the latter is strongly punctured at the base and apex. 

Sdlitta ifostratus, sp. nov. 

Black : the antennas head, pro- and mesonotum, with the 
scutellum ferruginous, and except the antennae, thickly 
covered with golden pubescence; the legs entirely ferruginous; 
wings entirely flavo-hy aline, the stigma and nervures fulvous 9 • 

Long : 22 mm. 

Ilab. Sarawak, Borneo (Shelford). 

Antenna} bare, uniformly ferruginous. Head ferruginous, 
densely covered with golden pubescence, the lower outer orbits 
black. The apex of the clypeus is depressed, clearly separated, 
smooth, bare and broadly rounded ; the sides straight and ob- 
li(|ue. The apex of the mandibles black, the rest ferruginous ; 
the palpi ferruginous. The eyes distinctly converge above 
where they are separated by not much more than the length of 
the fourth. antenna 1 joint; the hinder ocelli are separate from 
the eyes by a slightly greater distance than they are from each 
other. Thorax black, the hinder half of the pronotum, the 
mesonotum and the scutellum ferruginous; and the whole is 
covered with a golden pile. The pronctum is furrowed in the 
middle : the mesonotum is broadly rounded at the base ; it is 
alutaceous. The scutellum is flat, smooth and is not much 
raised above the top of the post- scutellum ; the latter is broadly 
rounded from the top to the bottom : the sides of both have a 
distinct obli([ue slope (and more particularly the post-scutellum) 
so that both are narrowed on the top. The part at the ^ides of 


the post-scutellum is strongly, but not closely, transversely 
striated The median segment has a gradually rounded slope 
to the apex ; the base and apox are smooth : the rest coarsely, 
irregularly transversely striated. Wings uniformly yellowish- 
hyaline, the apex not infuscated ; if anything paler than the 
rest of the wing; the stigma and nervures yellowish ; the first 
transverse cubital nervure is obli<|uely curved ; the upper 
(longer) part has a more sharply oblicjue slope than the lower : 
the second is straight and oblique; the third is broadly rounded ; 
the first lecurrent nervure is received near the bwise of the 
apical third of the cellule, not close to the second transverse 
cubital nervure as in Mt/f/nima ; the first transverse cubital 
cellule is distinctly longer than the second above, but slightly 
shorter below ; the second recurrent nervure is received at the 
-apex of the apical fourth of the cellule. Legs uniformly ferru- 
ginous. Abdomen black ; the last segment rufous all round and 
thickly covered with long rufous hair ; the penultimate segment 
is covered with a golden pile. 

This is a much more slenderly built species than S. Jiavua ; 
and may be readily separated from it by the cubital cellules 
being more etjual in length, by the pronotum not bulging 
broadly outwardly in the middle, not narrowed at the apex, by 
the median segment having a more gradually rounded slope and 
the head is shorter and more obliijuely narrowed behind the 
eyes. Characteristic, as compared with most of the species of 
the Jiavua group, is the fact that the coxie and trochanters are 
not black. 

SnUua iobaltd^ sp. nov. 

Claws with one tooth. Black, the abdomen with a bluish 
tinge ; the antennie rufous yellow, the scape and the apical four 
joints black ; the basal half of the wings fuscous- violaceous ; 
the apical yellowish-hyaline ; the hinder wings entirely smoky 
violaceous. V . 

Long : 24 nmi. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Head black ; the part between and below the antenna' 
testaceous ; the clypeus with a brownish tinjr e ; it^^ apex rufo- 
testaceous. Front and vertex alutaceous : the front distinctly 


furrowed down the centre. Eyes distinctl j converging above ; 
at the tof) separated from each other by the length of the fourth 
antennal joint : the hinder ocelli are separated from each other 
by a less distance than they are from the eyes. Thorax velvety 
black, sparsely covered with long black hau* ; the scutellum not 
projecting much over the mesonotum ; the post-scuteilum has a 
lower elevation than it ; its apical two-thirds have an oblique, 
straight slope : its centre is keeled. Median segment obscurely 
transversely striated. The dark part of the wings exter.ds 
close to the tiist transverse cubital nervure and on the lower 
edge near to the apex ; the base of the cubital cellule is blackish 
also ; the second cubital cellule is distinctly shorter tbin the 
tliird above and below ; the third transverse cubital is 
obliquely narrowed towards the second on the upper half ; tlie 
accessory nervure in the hind wings is instertitial. Legs blac^k ; 
the calcaria and spines b'ack ; the tooth on the base of the 
claws short and bluntly pointed. Abdomen black, with a dis- 
tinct plumbeous-sericeous tinge ; the anal segment thickly 
covered with long black hairs. 

Macromens auaopilom^ sp. no v. 

Nigra, antennis subtus brunneis ; capite thoraceque dense 
aureopilosis ; alis flavo-hyalinis, apice fusco-violaceo, 9 • 

Long : 13 mm. 

llab. Borneo. 

Antennie slender, black above, brown below. Ilead 
densely covered with depressed golden pubescence and more 
sparsely wilh long silvery hair Apex of clypeus broadly 
rounded. Mandibles black, broadly rufous near the middle; 
the base covered with silvery pubescence. Palpi testaceous. 
Thorax densely covered with depressed golden pubescence: 
the apex of the median segment transversely striated ; the 
pleural tubercle nipple-like. Wings yellowish-hyaline; the 
apex from the second transverse cubital to the middle of the 
second recurrent nervure bright fuscous-violaceous. Legs 
long ; the fore knees and tibiw testaceous ; the tarsi' are 
minutely spined ; the hind spurs are not much more than one 
fourth of the length of the metatarsus. 

Allied to J/, castanea (Bingh.) 



Pomiiiluf cit/i<fititi sp nuV 

Black, marked witli yellow a mark on the ape\ of LIip 
uicaoDoturo, twu i^pote on the »i.u(«lluiu and the t«gula>. yelluw; 
wiiigB yelluwish'hyaline, the of both Mnuky ; the second 
and third cutntal tiellules e<|ual in length leg's blacV, uia.rked 
with red and yellow: the four fiunl tarsi annulat^d with 
yellow, i 

Long: 11-12 mm. 

Ifab. Kiicliin^', Sarawftk. 

AnU-nniV! reddisli-brown, black abovo;the tifth and fol- 
lowing juinl<« dilat4>d on the underside. Head, if anything, 
wider than the thorax, black ; the face, the inner orbits broadly 
totiear the ocelli, the tlypeus, except for a broad black line in 
the centre above, the base of the mandibles broadly, and the 
outer orbits to the out#r edge, yellow; the hinder part of the 
vertex iind the occiput and cheeks thickly covered with long 
soft pale hair. The apex of the clypeus is broadly rounded : the 
labrum is two-third.-s of it-s length and is black ; the eyes are 
parallel ; the ocelli are in a curve, the hinder are 8ei»rated from 
each other by a slightly great«^r distance thiin they arc from 
the eyes. The temples are narrow ; the occiput transverse, 
Tbora\ tliickly covered with silvery pubescence, black ; a broad 
line on the hinder edge of the pronotura. a mark, broader than 
long, on the apex of the mesonotum, two oval marks behind the 
middle of the Hcutelium, tegulie and a small obli.iue mark over 
the middle coxie, yellow. The apex of the pronotum is broadly 
rounded ; the scutellura is roundly convex, but not much raised 
above the level of the mesonotum. Median segment aliitaceous. 
and thickly covered with longish pubescence. Legs black; the 
coxiu and trochiinters black, except at the apex of the anterior : 
the fore femora, except at the base, the middle and four 
posterior to near the middle, and the anterior tibite entirely, red ; 
the four anterior tibis; nre yellow behind ; the anterior t rsi 
yellow, black towards the apex ; the middle black, with the four 
faaasl joints annulated with yellow ; the hinder black ; the spurs 
yellow. Wings yellowish-hyaline, the apices of both fuflcoii> ; 
the third cubital cellule is slightly shorter than the second ; tlie 
first recurrent nervure is received near the base of the apical 


fiturlh; tlie 

basiil iiervuj 

wiug is recitived shortly bayoud the i;ubiial. Abduuien densely 

pritinuse ; there are two large marks, wider than long ou the 

base of the second segment, two uiarks un the haav of the foiirtli, 

two larger inark^ oti the base of the sixth and the whole of the 

.seventh, yellow. The tibial and tarsal sfanea are jellow. 

Allied to I'- rajjeibtfiiluB Sui., whieh, iiiUr alia, may be 
known from it by the ijecond tubJUil celUile being twice the 
width of the third. 

J'tjiii/iiliie j/iVicun, sp. nov. 

Black, pruinotjc: the wiu^s fuscous-violac(?oiis; the Hist 
recurrent iiervure is almost interstitial : the third cubital cellule 
at the tup shorter tlmn, at the bottom longer than, the second- $ 

Kong 1 13-14 mm. 

Head wider than the thorax, the temples \'ery narrow, the 
uccipnt tiwusverse. Eyes large, distinctly converging above : 
the ocelli in a triangle ; the hinder separated from each other by 
about the same distance they are from the eyes. Uiypeus 
transverse at the apex in the middle ; the aidejj brcadly rounded. 
I'rothurax large ; the basal part distinctly separat/^d all round : 
at the sides it projects broadly. Median segment broadly 
rounded from the base to the apex. Wings fusco lis violaceous, 
the poaU'rior lijhter in tint; the second cubital cellule at the 
top is distinctly longer, at the top distinctly shorter, than the 
third : the transverse basal nervure is almost interstitial, aa U 
also the first recurrent (as in the SaUun-MifjHimia section); the 
second is received almost in the middle of the cellule; the 
accessory nervure in the hind wings is interstitial. Legs black ; 
the tibial and tarsal Hpines black ; the long spur of the hinder 
tibiie does not re»ch to the middle of the metatarsus. Abdomen 
smooth ; the last segment thickly uovered with long black hair. 

There is no transverse furrow on the second ventral 
segment ; the meta-tborucic spiracles are large, raised and 
bordered behind by a furrow : the tibial and tarsal spines are 
long : the underside of the tarsi are thickly spined ; the tarsal 
claws have a stout, shiirp subajHcal ttioth. 

Comes near to P. perjiUj 


Poiiipilus mi iiiitciilis up. nov, 

Niger, facie, clypeo, urbilis (Xiuloruiu, liiioa piiiiiuti, aoutollu 
poet-scute Ho I ue Havis; pedibus rufo-fulvis; toxis, trochanteribus, 
femoribus apk-e<iue ttbiurum luU.- nigris ; iilis Havu-hyalinis, apice 
viola ceis. i 

Lung : 13-14 uim. 

Hall. ISurneo (rihelford ). 

Ant^ntiitf bUck: thu 3C«p»^ yellowish lieiifath. lli'ad black, 
sharpeiiwi, sparst'ly piloMi' ; tlit; face, clypeiis, the inner orbits 
broad below, narrowed above and tlie outer more narrowly and 
uniforuily, bright orange- yellow. The hinder ocelli are sepa- 
rated from each other by a slightly leys distance than they are 
from the eyes, which converge slightly below, Mandibleii 
orange-yellow, black at the apex. Un the thorax there is a 
broad, interrupted line on the pronotum not extending to the 
tegulit ; H mark, wider than loug, and with the sides at tbe base 
slightly projecting, on the hinder partof t'.ie mcyonotum. a large 
mark on the scut^lluiu roundly narrowed towards the base, 
where there is in the middle, a rounded point; at ita apex and 
touching it. is a transverse line, which doe** not extend to ita outer 
edge; and the top of the scutelluui, all orange -yellow. The 
seutellum is broadly rounded above ; the post scul^hini is 
slightly higher than it; it is more distinctly raised and separated: 
ita tup is keeled ; the sides have an oblii)ue slope. The median 
ae|;ment is opai|ue. and thickly covered with pale pubescence; 
it is, except in the luiddle at the apex, closely irregularly 
relSculat«d. Legs rufo-fulvous, the coxw, trochauters, the femora 
to near the apex and the apical third of the hinder -tibiie, black. 
Wings, yellowish-hyaline; the apex of both wings violaceous, 
the tirst cubital cellule at the top is fully one-fourth longer 
than the second ; the third transverse cubital nervure in ilif 
hind wings is interstitial. 

The median segment has a gradually rounded slope ; the. 
inner spur on the hinder tibiie is not half the length of the 
metatarsus ; the basal segment of the abdomen is narrow at the 
base, becoming gradually wider towards the apex ; the pronotum 
is rather short. The transversa median nervure is received in 
front of the transverse basal. 


Belongs to the group of /*. muUipiclus Sm., and the 
European P, 4 punttatus, Fab. Characteristic is the prominent, 
raised, keeled post-scutellum. 

P. 4 punctatus^ I may add, is found in Japan also. 

PompUus par menus ^ sp. nov. 

Niger, vertice, fronte, linea pronoti, scutello, post scutello, 
macula niesonoto, linea abdominis segmento 2', maculaque seg- 
ment 7', flavis ; alis flavo-hyalinis, apice fusco-f umato. 5 

Long: 12 mm. 

llab. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antemue black, the scape for the greater part yellow. Ilead 
black, the face, frgnt and the vertex, except behind, lemon- 
yellow ; the ocellar region black ; smooth, shining, almost bare. 
The eyes distinctly converge above, where they are separated 
by slightly less than the length of the tliird antennal joint. The 
apex of the clypeus is broadly rounded. Thorax black ; a broad 
band on the centre of the pronotum behind, a large mark on the 
apical half of the mesonotum, its sides straight, its base irregular ; 
and it is broader than long ; the greater part of the scutellum (the 
mark oblicjuely narrowed laterally at the base), the post-scutellum 
and a line on the base of the second abdominal segment, lemon- 
yellow. The mediun segment is thickly covered with greyish 
hair ; wings yellowish-hyaline ; the apex is smoky, broader at the 
top, where the cloud extends to the second transverse cubital 
nervure ; the second cubital cellule at the top is distinctly shorter 
than the first ; the two transverse cubital nervures converging 
there ; the transverse basal nervure is interstitial. Legs black ; 
the tibia3 and tarsi rufo-fulvous. The base of the second abdo- 
minal segment is lined with orange yellow ; the last segment 
above is broadly pale yellow. 

Uas the general colouration of P, cariniscutis here describ- 
ed ; but is readily known from it by the fiat post-scutellum and 
by the interstitial transverse basal nervure. 

Pstudajeuia reticulata, sp. nov. 

Nigra, abdominis basi late f emoribusque posticis rufis : alis 
fusco-violaceis, basi hyalinis $ . 


Long : 11-12 mm. 

Front, face and clypeu8 covered with a silvery pile. Eyes 
distinctly convergini? above ; at the top they are separated by 
twice the length of the second joint of the antennte ; the hinder 
occflli are separated from the eyes by the same distance they are 
from each other. Clypeus rather short, broader than long. 
Palpi black. Thorax thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; 
the central part of the mesonotum punctured and clearly 
separated from the lateral by a narrow furrow ; the lateral 
parts are smooth, and the central part is more strongly punctu- 
red on the sides. Scutellum sparsely punctured ; the post-scu- 
tellum shagreened. Median segment thickly covered v;ith white 
pubescence ; irregularly, closely reticulated. Meso- and meta- 
pleuraB closely, irregularly reticulated. Legs black; the hinder 
femora clear red ; the tibite obscurely rufo-testaceous, the 
calcaria black. Wings fusco-violaceous, narrowly hyaline at 
the base; the third cubital cellule at the top shorter than the 
second, below about equal in length to it; the first recurrent 
nervure is received shortly behind the middle ; the second at 
the apex of the basal third. Abdomen smooth and shining ; the 
basal three segments ferruginous, the apical black and thickly 

Psciulnrjenia hornemm^ sp. nov. 

Nigra, dense argenteo-pilosa ; fenioribus posticis rufis; alls 
fere hyalinis, nervis stigmatique nigris ; Hagello antennarum 
late rufo 2 • 

Long : fere 1 2 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak, Borneo (R. Shelford). 

Antennse black, the fourth and following joints rufous 
beneath. Uead alutaceous ; the lower part of the front, the 
face, clypeus and base of mandibles densely covered with silvery 
pubescence. The hinder ocelli are separated from the eyes by a 
slightly greater distance than they are from each other. The 
apex of the clypeus in the middle is smooth and shining ; mandi- 
bles piceous near the middle ; the apical joints of the palpi pale 
testaceous. Thorax densely pruinose; the pile has a fulvous 
tinge ; the pronotum is broadly rounded ; the propleurte behind 
have two rounded, clearly separated, tubercles, the basal being 


rlip larger. The median segment has a short, rounded sh)pe ; it 
is iiregiilFtrly transversely wrinkled. The win^s are hyaline, 
with a slight, but distinct, Tulvuus tinge ; the Itrst and second 
cubital cellules are equal in length above ; the Grst lecurrent 
nervure i.-i received in the middle : the second at the apex of tile 
baaal third of the cellule ; the accessory nervure in the hind 
wingB is interstitial. Legs black ; the hinder femora entirely 
and the four anterior tibia* and base of tarsi rufous in froat. 
Abdomen pruinose ; the basal segment is triangular, and be- 
comes gradually wider from the base to the apex, and without a 
neck at the base. 

This species comes near to P. tiiirla. Sm,, get-. Cam., Manch. 
Mem. 181>1, p. 441. That species may be known from it by its 
head and thorax being densely pilose, by the lirst cubital cellule 
being distinctly shorter than the second above ; by the apex of 
the propleurse not being so distinctly bituberculale, and by the 
first transverse cubital nervure being roundly curved, not 
straight, as in the present species. 

Agnma bitlfrata. sp. nov. 

Nigra, scapo antennarum, clypeo, mandibulis. pedibusque 
pallide testaceis; femoribu.s tibiis tar-sisijue posterioribus nigro- 
maculatis ; alis hyalinis : sligmate mgro. nervis fuscis 9 . 

Long: 11 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak, and Singapore. 

The basal two joints of the antenme rufo- testaceous ; the 
third joint dark testaceous ; the fourth, Gfth and sixth joints dark 
testaceous beneath. Head black ; the clypeus, mandibles, and 
lower inner orbits yellowish testaceous; the palpi at the liase 
testaceous, the apical joints pale yellow; the. hair bundle long 
and dark testaceous. The front is thickly covered with a golden 
pile and has a narrow furrow down the middle. The eyes dis- 
tinctly converge above and are separated there by the length of 
the Ihird antennal joint. Thorax thickly covered with golden 
pulxiscence ; tlie prothorax yellowish -testa ceo us. Legs yellow- 
ish-testaceous ; the four hinder trochanters, the middle femora 
with an irregular line above, the apex of the hinder femora, the 
apex of the middle tibia;, the apical two-thirds of the hinder 
tibim. the apex of the fore tarsi and four posterior, except at the 


base, black. Wings clear hyaline ; the stigma black, the ner- 
vures paler. Abdomen black ; the apices of all the segments 
testaceous ; the last segment almost entirely testaceous. 

This is an Agenia as now limited. The species recorded by 
Smith from the Malay and Indian regions are probably mostly 
referable to Pseudagenta, Kohl. The distinction between the 
tw^ consists in Agenia having a bundle of stiff bristles at the 
base of the maxilla in the 9 • 

Atnpuh.r striattfroDS, sp. no v. 

Dark green, largely tinged with blue ; the flagellum of the 
antennee black ; the wings hyaline ; the radial cellule and the 
space bounded by the first and third transverse cubital nervures 
and the cellule smoky; the front with three stout, 
longitudinal keels ; the space bounded by them is transversely 
striated J . 

Long : 12 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Antennje black, covered with a pale pile ; the scape with 
hardly any metallic tint Head blue, the ocellar region largely 
tinged with purple; the three keels in the front are stout and all 
reach to the base of the mandibles ; the part between them, from 
near their top, bears stout, obliijue stria*; the part on their 
outer side at the top bears some large punctures ; the vertex is 
sparsely and strongly punctured. The front ocellus is separated 
from the hinder by a greater distance than these are from each 
other, and the latter are separated from the eyes by a distinctly 
greater distance than they are from each other. Clypeus dis- 
tinctly keeled in the middle, green, smooth and thickly covered 
with white pul)esrence. Mandibles brownish-black ; their middle, 
on the lower side, with a row of large punctures. Prothorax 
elongate, the base distinrtly narrowed ; it is sparsely punctured 
and the middle of the pleunv* bears a longitudinal furrow. The 
central part of themesonotum is strongly and deeply punctured; 
the sides are more sparsely punctured, are coppery in colour and 
are depressed behind. Scutellum and post-scutellum sparsely 
punctured. Median segment irregularly transversely striated ; 


the strite are more widely separated in the centre ; the second 
keel does not reacb to the apex. The apical slope is thickly 
covered with white hair ; the striation is close and obliquely ' 
transverse; the upper lateral teeth are small. The niesopleune 
are distinctly, but not closely, punctured ; the upper part of the 
metapleura? is stoutly striated. Legs for the greater port blue ; 
the femora more greenish id tint than the tibiw ; the inner tooth 
of the claw is ahortej and stouter than the outer. Wings 
hyaline, the radial cellule, the space bounded by tlie lirst and 
third transverse cubital nervures and the upjier part of the dis- 
coidal are smolfy ; the three traa^verse cubitiil nervures are I 
distinct. Abdomen largely marked with blue and purple tints; 
the third segment is largely marked with rosy and brassy ] 
tints; it is strongly punctured; its ajucal half is distinctly depres- | 
sed, is more fiery in tint than the base and is more closely and | 
not so strongly, punctured. 

('omes near to A. nmfaticta, Kohl, from Malacca. 

Titclii/les boriieaiia. sp, no»'. 

Black ; the head and thorax densely covered with pale 
very pubescence ; the abdominiil segments banded with silvery ■ 
pile; the pygidium covered with golden pubeseence ; win^ 
hyaline, with a faint yellowish tinge; the nervures pale t^^ta- 
ceous; the second and third ruliitol cellules at the top eijual ' 
in length Q . 

Long: t.3mm. 

!Iab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Anteiinie black, covered with a pale microscopic pile. 
Front, face and clypeus dennely covered with silvery pubescence I 
and more sparsely with long pale hair ; the vertes sparsely with I 
lonji; pale hair ; alutaceous ; the lower part of the vertex has K J 
narrow furrow in the middle, which ends, abr)ve the ocelli, in a 1 
smooth depression. Mandibles black; the palpi testaceous, llie J 
basal portion of ihe median segment has a thin furrow down the ] 
middle, which becomes conically dilated at the apex : the furrow 
on the ajiacal slope is wide and deep. The second and third 
cubital cellules are eijual in length above; they are as wide 
there as the apace b>uiided by the two recurrent nervures. 
Legs black ; the front tarsi testaceous at the apex ; the calcaria 


testaceous ; the tibial and tarsal spines \vliiU\ The abdominal 
sej^ineuts are banded with depressed silvery puljescence ; the 
pygidium isj covered with bright golden pubescence. 

The radial cellule has the apex rounded, not acute ; the 
eyes above are separated by not <iuite the length of the second 
and third antenna 1 joints united : and there is no appendicular 
cellule in the fore wings. Comes near to 7'. nitidula F, and T, 
Tothneyi Cam., from both of which it may be known by the 
golden pile on the pygidium. 

Notoyonia unibriptfiuin^ sp. no v. 

Black, covered with silvery pubescence; the pygidium 
with a stiff golden pile ; the wings fuscous-violaceous 9 • 

Length 14-15 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

The lower part of the front and the clypeus thickly cover- 
ed with silvery pubescence ; the front and vertex closely and 
minutely punctured ; the centre of the face has an impressed 
Hue ; the clypeus is smooth, shining and bare. Eyes large, 
distinctly converging above, where they are separated by about 
the length of the fourth anteniial joint. The base of the mandi- 
bles is thickly covered with silvery pubescence; the palpi are 
black and covered with a grey pile. The mesonotum is depres- 
sed in the middle at the base ; and there is a short longitudinal 
furrow opposite the teguhe. Median segment alutaceous ; there 
is a narrow keel down the centre of the basal two-thirds ; above 
the middle of the mesopleune is a distinct striated longitudinal 
furrow, which does not reach to the apex. Wings fuscous- 
violaceous; the second and third cubital cellules HlK>ve areeijual 
in length ; the recurrent nervures are received close to each 
other near the apex of the basal third of the cellule. Legs 
stout; the apex of the hinder tibia? and the metatarsus covered 
with a golden pile ; the spines on the tibiai and tarsi are black, 
as are also the calcaria. Alfdomen pruinose ; the segments 
banded with silvery pile ; the pygidium densely covered with 
bright golden pile and thickly with long stiff fulvous hair. The 
sides of the median vSegment are obscurely oblniuely striated. 

Comes nearest perhaps to /V. jmu/atrix Sm. from which it 
may be known by the dark violaceous wirgs. 



Xotoqoina tefjularis, sp. nov. 

Black, densely covered with silvery pubescence ; .the wings 
hyaline, highly iridescent ; the apex slightly smoky ; the meso- 
notuni and sciitellum closely minutely punctured ; the median 
segment obscurely transversely striated ; the base with a longi- 
tudinal keel 6 • 

Long : 9 mm, 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Front, face and clypeus densely covered with silvery pubes- 
cence, this being also the case with the outer orbits and the 
base of the mandibles ; the eyes distinctly converge above, 
where they are separated by almost the length of the second 
and third joints united. Thorax covered with a silvery pile ; 
the mesonotum and scutellum are closely, minutely punctured, 
the latter more strongly than the former. The post-scutellum 
is depressed in the middle. Median segment alutaceous ; the 
basal half transversely striated, but not strongly or closely and 
keeled down the middle. The mesopleura? closely and distinctly 
punctured ; on the basal half, in the centre, is a distinct longitu- 
dinal furrow ; the basal half of the meaopleurj^ longitudinally 
striated in the middle, the stria^ longest in the middle. Legs 
black, pruinose ; the spines on the tibiie are pale, on the tarsi 
rufous. Wings hyaline, highly iridescent, somewhat infuscated 
at the apiw ; the second and third cubital, cellules at the top are 
about equal in IcMigth and are of the length of the space rounded 
by the two nn-urrent nervures, the outer of which is received in 
the middle of the cellule : the appendicular is longer than usual. 
Abdomen shining : the segments banded with silvery pubescence; 
the last segment entirely covered with silvery pubescence. The 
lirst transverse cubital nervure is broadly and roundly curved 
and is not angled. The teguljp are black at the base, pale 
testaceous in front. 

Cerrrn's rrassidfifSy sp. nov. 

Black, the basal four or five abdominal segments rufous ; 
the antennal keel, a mark on the apex of the clypeus and the 
base of the mandibles, pale yellow ; the wings smoky violaceous, 
paler at the base ; the lower part of the mesopieune projecting 
into a stout tooth 9.. 


Long : 18-19 mm. 

Hab. Pankalan Ampat, Sarawak. 

Antenni^ stout, black, the apex rufous. Head black ; the 
outer part of the antennal keel pale yellow ; it is longish, stout 
and has a narrower keel on its apex ; the face, cheeks and 
clypeus are thickly covered with silvery pubescence; except 
behind the ocelli it is closely and somewhat strongly punctured. 
Mandibles black; the basal half broadly yellow; behind the 
middle above they project upwards into a large, smooth shining, 
bluntly pointed tooth. Thorax densely covered with silvery 
pubescence ; above closely and distinctly punctured, the punc- 
tures in the middle of the mesonotum running into longitudinal 
striations. The scutellum is slightly depressed in the middle ; 
the area on the jjiedian segment is longitudinally striated. Legs 
black, covered with a silvery pile : the four hinder tibife are 
broadly lined with pale yellow behind. The wings are dark 
smoky, the base and the discoidal cellule paler; the hinder 
wings are almost hyaline except at the apex. Abdomen red, 
the apical two segments for the greater part black above ; it is 
smooth, with the petiole and the penultimate segment sparsely 
punctured. The pygidium is closely punctured, reticulated ; the 
sides of it are fringed with stout stiff hairs : the oblique sides of the 
segment are sparsel}' punctured ; the apical half of the epipygium 
is incised in the middle : the incision is distinctly bordered, is 
rounded and obliquely narrowed behind : the segment at the 
base is depressed on either side. 

In colouration this species is not unlike C. viligans Sm. and 
C. fiepulerah's Sm., but may be easily separated from them by 
the stout projecting tooth on the mesopleura^. The head is 
large and is well ;developed behind the eyes; the apex of the 
clypeus is depressed and is bluntly and shortly tuberculated in 
the middle and at the sides, the basal half of the petiole is keeled 
in the middle; the second cubital cellule on the lower side is 
distinctly shorter than the third. 

Cpi'ccn'fi latidens, sp. nov. 

Black ; the inner lower orbits, the base of the mandibles, the 
sides of the scutellum, the post-scutellum, the apex of the 
petiole and an interrupted line on the apex of the thiitl segment. 


yellow ; the apex of the clypeiijs bideiitate ; the area ou the 
median segment obliquely striated ; the wings hyaline, with a 
smoky fascia on the apex 9 • 

t<ong: 7 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Borneo. 

Antenme black, the scape yellow, the Hagellum brownish 
beneath. Front and vertex closely punctured, except over each 
antennte; the antennal keel is stout, yellow, black above; the 
face is sparsely punctured, as is also the clypeus, except at the 
apex, which is bidentate; the teeth are broad and slightly 
ob|i(]ue at the apex. Mandibles broadly yellow at the base. 
iVJesonotum punctured, but not closely or deeply, as is also the 
median segment; the scutellum is more closely punctured. The 
are$i on the median segment is obliijuely striated, except in the 
centre. Mesopleune reticulated, more strongly and distinctly 
IhjIow than above ; the centre is deeply furrowed. Legs black ; 
the anterior and middle tibice in front, the anterior tarsi, and 
the base of the middle tarsi, pale yellow. Wings clear hyaline, 
the radial cellule at the apex and the upper part of cubital below 
it dark smoky ; the petiolated cellule is distinctly shorter than 
the following and receives the recurrent nervure at the apex of 
the basal third. The apex of the petiole, the base of the second 
segment and an interrupted line on the third segment are yellow ; 
the pygidium is brownish, smooth at the base, punctured at the 
apex ; the sides are strongly punctured ; the epipygium is 
broadly depressed. 

There is a stout, curved keel on the lower part of the 
metapleurai in the middle ; the lower part of the clypeus, under 
the projecting toothed part, is bluntly bidentate : the apex of the 
mandibles is bluntly rounded. 


/curia latebalteaia^ sp. nov. 

Dark ferruginous, variegated with black and yellow: the 
pi»liole hhort, wide, narrowed distinctly at the liase ; rufous, its 
apex broadly yellow ; the apex of the second segment broadl}' 
yellow, much broader in the middle than at the sides; wings 
hyaline, the radial cellule dark smoky, except along the lower 


edge; the stigma dark, the nervures of a lighter fuscous colour 
( worker). 

Long : 9-10 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Scape of anteniije yellow, dark testaceous above, the 
flagellum blackish, brownish at the base and apex beneath. Head 
dark ferruginous, thickly covered with silvery pubescence-, the 
vertex sparsely with fuscous hair : the lower inner orbits to near 
the inner part of the incision ; the sides of the clypeus broadly, 
its apex more narrowly, a line on the outer orbits near the top, 
another one below and the base of the mandibles broadly above, 
pale yellow. The front and the vertex to the end of the ocelli 
are distinctly, regularly, but not very closely, punctqred ; the 
clypeus is sparsely punctured, more especially noticeable on the 
dark central part. The meso- and metapleurw are black, the 
metanotum dark rufous: the rest of the thorax rufous, \vith the 
following parts yellow : the base of the prothorax all round and 
broadest on the top of the pleura?, a large mark on either side of 
the base of the scutellum, a broad band, incised in the middle, on 
the base of the post-scutellum, two large marks on the apical 
slope of the median segment, and a longish mark on the meso- 
pleura^ below the tegujjv. The pro- and mesothorax with the 
scuti»llum are closely and distinctly punctured ; the median 
segment is almost impunctate ; its central furrow is wide, with 
oblique sides ; its upper two-thirds irregularly transversely 
striated. Legs dark rufous : the anterior coxae broadly, the 
apex of the femora (the anterior broadly) and the base of the 
tibia* broadly, yellow. Wings clear hyaline, the apex of the 
costal and the radial cellules, except on its lower edge, smoky; 
the costa and stigma blackish; the nervures pale. The petiole is 
not quite so long as the second segment: its basal third is narrow- 
ed: the second segment is not narrowed at the base, is bell-shaped, 
its length greater than its width at the jipex and it is clasely and 
distinctly punctured, more closely and rugosely at the base than 
at the apex ; the following segments are lined with yellow at the 

Comes near to /. ferruf/inea, but is smaller, and darker 
coloured ; the clypeus is broadly black in the middle, the radial 
cellule entirely black above, not broadly hyaline at the base ; the 


stigma black, not clear testaceous, uud the baud on the second 
segment is broadly dilated backwards in the middle. 

JcariaJiai'O'biliiwata, i>p, nov. 

i31ack, the post-scutellum and the apex of the petiole yellow ; 

the apex of the clypeus broadly pale yellow ; wings hyaline, a 

fuscous spot in the radial and apical cellules ; the stigma yellowish. 

liongj: 13 mm. (worker), 

Hab. Kuching, iSarawak. 

This species comes near to /. luijubris Sm. Sec. Saussure, 
S. E. Z. XXIII, p. 134, which is also from Borneo. The two may 
be separated as follows : 

The cloud occupying all the radial cellule, the second trans- 
verse cubital nervure almost interstitial, the post-scutel- 
lum and apex of pi?tiolc not yellow, the stigma 
black. Iwjubris Sm. 

I'he cloud in the radial cellule commencing at the end of 
the stigma, the stigma yellow ; the second recurrent 
nervure not interstitial ; the post-scutellum and apex of 
petiole lined with yellow. flavobilineata, 

Flagellum of antenniv brownish beneath. Front and vertex 
alutaceous, sparsely punctured, there is a narrow keel between 
the antenna* ; clypt^us covered with a sparse pale down, sparsely 
haired, and roundly convex ; its middle at the apex not distinctly 
toothed ; it has tie narrowed apical part pale yellow. Mandibles 
black, the teeth dark piceous. Thorax opa(iue ; the mesopleura? 
and scutellum closely and distinctly, but not strongly, punctured ; 
the mesonotum is thickly covered with a fuscous down ; the base 
of the prothorax is sharply keeled. The scutellum has a shallow 
furrow down the middle. The striation on the median segment is 
obscure. lA*gs black, pruinose; the calcaria and claws whiti*. 
Wings hyaline ; the costal celluh? is slightly smoky ; the cloud in 
the radial cellule is at the end of the stigma and at the seccmd trans- 
verse cubital nervure and extends to the apex ; in the cubital cellule 
it does not extend lx»yond the end of the radius; the recurrent 
nervures are received shortly behind and beyond the middle of 
the cellule. Abdomen black, densely pruinose. more thickly 
towards the apex ; the apex of the petiole is yellow. 


The middle of the mtKiiiin segment lias only a shallow in- 
distinct furrow, not a deep one, with obli(jue sides as in lnf/ubrie: 
the apex of the median segment is yellow, the yellow band ex- 
tending sideways over the coxie ; the petiole is short, becomes 
gradually wider frcmi the base to the apex : tin* second segment 
is not much, nor abruptly narrowt^d at the base ; in length it is. 
if anything, shorter than its greatest width ; the clypeus at the 
end of the eyes is as broad as its length. 

Icaria janthupoda^ sp. nov. 

Black, largely marked with yellow ; two small marks on 
the apex of the ix»tit)le and two large ones, extending on to the 
ventral surface, on the base of the seccmd st'gment ; thi* legs 
yellow, the posterior trochanters and the base i»f the fe:uora, 
black ; wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures brownish (worker). 

Long 11 mm. 

llab. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennie brownish, marked above with black. Head black, 
the clypeus. the mandibles, except their teeth, the eye incisions 
entirely (the yellow mark is straight and obliijue on the outer- 
side), a large mark, narrowed below, and ending in a sharp nar- 
rowed point above, and the outer orbits, bright sulphur-yellow ; 
behind the ocelli are two small yellow marks. The clypeus is 
wider than long : its sides above are roundly curved ; it« apex 
does not end in a sharp tooth. Thorax black; the edge of the 
prothorax all round and broadest on the pronotum, two lines on 
the centre of the nu'sonotum, two large s«|uarish marks on the 
base of the scutellum. two broad ones, narrowed and rounded 
on the inner side, on the [xjst scutellum. the sides (»f the median 
segment largely, and a large mark, obliquely narrowed below on 
the mesopleune. orange-yellow. Abdomen black ; a mark on 
the sides of the iKJst-petioK', two large marks on the base of the 
second segment, continued on to the ventral surface, which has 
the basal half yellow ; a narrow line on the apex on the second 
si'gment all round and the apical segment, orange yellow. 

The |)<*tioU' is not ({uite so long as the second segment ; it^ 
basal fourth is greatly and distinctly narrowed compared to the 
enlarged apical part; the second segment is bell-shaped; its 
apex about two-thirds of the total length ; the base of the pro- 


thorax is sharply keeled ; the third cubital cellule is of the same 
width above as below ; the third transverse cubital nervure is 
parallel with the second, and both are roundly curved inwardly. 

hchnogaster flavipUigiaUia^ sp. nov. 

Ferruginous brown, the clypeus, eye orbits, two marks, 
obliquely narrowed, on the base of the scutellum, the pleurce and 
the apical half of the median segment, pallid yellow ; the wings 
clear hyaline, the stigma testaceous, the third cubital cellule not 
half the length of the second, the fourth at the top as long as 
the third. 9 

Long: 13-14 mm. 

Uab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Antennae ferruginous, the flagellum darker in the middle 
above. Head smooth ; the front and vertex covered with sil- 
very pubescence ; the clypeus with longer fuscous hair. The 
lower part of the clypeus is ferruginous, the upper yellow. 
Mandibles yellow, their apex black. The inner orbits and the 
eye incisions yellow. Thorax smooth and shining, thickly 
covered with glistening white hair. The base of the median 
segment is darker colon rt»d than the niesonotum; it is smooth 
and is distinctly keeled down the centre. Wings clear hyaline, 
highly iridescent; the stigma clear testaceous; the nervure^ 
darker ; the second cubittil cellule is more than twice the length 
of the third, which, at the top, is as long as the fourth ; the 
second and third transverse cubital nervures are straight and 
converge above ; the first recurrent nervure is received quite 
close to the first transverse cubital ; the second at fully twice 
the distance from the second ; the second recurrent nervure is 
slightly and roundly bent outwardly in the middle. Legs paler 
in tint than the body, and thickly covered with pale hair. Abdo- 
men coloured like the thorax, the segments mottled with pallid 
yellow ; there is a distinct pale yellow mark on the base of the 
second segment at the sides and a large one on the side of its 
ventral surface : the extreme base of the narrowed neck is also 
yellow. On the niesopleura? under the tegulw? is a mark which 
reaches to the middle ; below the middle is a large curved 
yellow mark. 

(yomes near to /. nih'ih'pennift Sauss. Sen, Bingham. 

hchnofjoster nigricans^ sp. nov. 

Black ; a line on the pronotum, a broad one on the post- 
scutellum, one below the tegulee and two small ones on the apex 
of the median segment, yellow; the four front tibiae yellow 
behind; the wings clear hyaline, iridescent, the stigma and 
nervures black. 9 • 

Long. 12 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Head entirely black ; the face and clypeus thickly covered 
with silvery pubescence ; opaque, closely, but not very strongly, 
punctured, the clypeus less strongly punctured ; the apical tooth 
bluntly pointed. Thorax black, covered with silvery pubescence; 
the scutellum with long pale hair. Mesonotum, scutellum and 
median segment closely and distinctly punctured ; the median seg- 
ment with a distinct, narrow, deep furrow down the centre, 
which is widened and smooth at the apex. A line on the pronotum, 
a mark under the tegula?, the post-scutelliim broadly and two 
marks on the apex of the median segment, yellow. The second 
and third transverse cubital nervures are straight, slightly ob- 
lique and converge slightly above ; the fourth cellule at the top 
is two-thirds of the length of the third. All the knees are yellow, 
the four front ones broadly ; there is a black line on the yellow, 
near the base of the middle tibiae. Abdomen entirely black; the 
petiole twice the length of the thorax; the base of the second 
segment is widelv narrowed. 

liichnogaatev ornati/rn)i^\ sp. nov. 

F^lack, largely marked with yellow, the antennae brownish, 
black above, except at the sides of the median segment with a 
large yellow mark dilated at the ai)ex ; the wings hyaline, the 
radial and two apical cubital cellules infuscaterf. 9 • 

I'iOng : 22 mm. 

Hab. Santubong, Kuchiiig, Sarawak. 

Head black, the front, except for a small black mark in the 
middle above, the clypeus, the mandibles, a small oblique mark on 
the outer side of the antennte, one in the eye incisions and a 
small one on the hinder edge of the veitex, yellow. The front 
is distinctly, but not closely, punctured and is furrowed in the 


middle, deeply and distinctly above. Thorax shining and 
smooth ; the mesouotum more opaque and closely punctured ; the 
scutellum is more sparsely punctured, and has a narrow keel on 
the basal half. The following are yellow : — a broad line on the 
pronotum, two large marks, rounded behind, on the base of the 
scutellum, a broad band, almost interrupted in the middle, on the 
post-scutcllum, a large broad band, widened below, on the sides 
of the median segment, half on the metiinotum, half on the pleura\ 
a large oval mark below the teguliu and a large curved mark on 
the lower side of the mesopleura*. Wings hyaline, the radial 
and the apical two cubital cellules smoky ; the second transverse 
cubital nervure is slightly, roundly bent outwardly, the fourth 
cubital cullule is half the length of the third. The front legs 
are yellow, lined with black in front; the apical joints of the 
tarsi are brownish; the middle legs are brownish-black; the 
base of the tibia3, their apex more broadly and the base of the 
tarsi more narrowly, yellow ; the four hinder coxkj are broadly 
yellow behind. Abdomen black; a large oval mark near the 
middle of the second segment below ; a short line on the sides 
of the ventral surface, a band near the base of the third segment 
broadest on the sides, a mark on its ventral surface, rounded 
on tlie outer side, a smaller one on the fourth and a narrow line 
on the fifth dorsal segment, yellow. 

Ischnogastcr fulvipennis^ sp. nov. 

Black, with small yellow marks; the clypeus with two 
marks above and one hi the centre below and two small marks 
on the apex of the median segment ; the legs and petiole dark 
rufous ; wings fulvous ; the stigma testaceous ; the second 
transverse cubital nervure is roundly curved ; the fourth cubital 
cellule is fully half the length of the third. 2 

Long : 23 mm. 

Uab. Mt Penrissen, Sarawak. 

Antenme black, the scape and apical, joints brownish beneath, 
the apical joints entirely so. Ilead black ; an irregular mark 
roundly narrowed l^elow and ending in a joint, on either side of 
the front, a lougish mark on the upper half of the face, narrowed 
and curved above, and there is a longish broad mark on the 
centre near the apex, extending to the base of the tooth and 


yellow. The lower part of the vertex is sparsely and distuictly 
punctured : the front is more closely and not so strongly punc- 
tured, except in the middle where it is smooth ; almost bare and 
impunctate. Mandibles black, sparsely punctured and shining. 
Thorax smooth and shining, except on the mesonotum which is 
closely and distinctly punctured : the scutellum is less strongly 
punctured and has a narrow keel in the middle ; both are thickly 
covered with fulvous hair. Median segment and pleura; smooth 
and shining ; the pleune have a plumbeous hue. On the thorax 
the following are yellow ; a line on either side of the base of 
the pronotum, an irregular spot on either side of the base of the 
scutellum, two smaller spot« on the base of the post-scutellum 
in the ct^ntre, two small marks on the apex of the median seg- 
ment, a spot about three times longer than broad on the meso- 
pleune in the middle below the teguhe, and a curved mark 
below the furrow, this spot having the apex narrower and more 
obli<iue than the l)ase. Legs dark rufous, probably varying in 
tint ; the coxie, tibia* and tarsi are darker coloured than the 
femora : the hair is long and fuscous. Wings fulvous-hyaline, 
darker at the apex ; the stigma is testaceous, the nervures fus- 
cous ; the second transverse cubital nervure is roundly curved 
outwardly : the fourth cellule is fully half the length of the 
third. The petiole is brownish, the node black above except at 
the Imse; there is an oval, small yellow mark on either side of 
the second segment below, and two elongate marks on the l>ase 
of the third, with a small spot on either side. There are two 
obscure yellow marks on the base of the median segment. 

The 6 ii> more richly coloured than the 9 the yellow 
markings being larger and the rufous colour of the legs and 
petiole nmcli brigliter in tint. The front is* yellow, except 
for a black lino in \\vt centre, the clyjX'Us entirely yellow : the 
mandibles are dark testaceous: the marks on the thorax are 
larger, especially the iipi3er mark on the mesopleune and on the 
base and apex of the median segment. The pc^tiole is almost 
twice the length of the rest of the abdomen : the rufous colour 
extends to the narrowed part of the second segment, the lower 
half of the cly|x?us is keeled in the middle, the tubercle on the 
propleune is large : there is a narrow striated band on its apex, 
and a broader, oblique one below its middle. 


I.lnp (if tlip larffPRt of the Oriental fipecip't. 

hi-bnojinsler fl'ij-oliiimtii, sp, nn\. 

Black, largely marked with yellow ; two small marka on J 
the lower part of the front, one on either aide of the ocellll 
behind, two lines on the mesonotum, the basal half of thel 
scQtellum, the poat-scntellum and the median segment, except a ■ 
squarish black mark on the base, yellow ; legs pwle yellow, the I 
a^Hcal half of the tibiw and of the tarsi black: wings ctearl 
hyaline; the fourth cobital celhile not much more than half the | 
length of the third. 9 . 

Lon^ : 17 mm. 

Ilab. Liiigga, .Sarawak. 

Antenmv black, the apical joints of the fiagellum brownish 
beneath. Head black ; a curved mark on the vertex behind the 
oielli and touching the eyes and oblii]uelr narrowed towards 
the apex, the eye inci^iona, an ovate transverse mark over each i 
antenme, the lower orbits broadly, the sides and apex nf the J 
clypeus, the outer orbits and the mandibles, jiallid yellni 
The vertex is obscurely, the face somewhat more strongly, ' 
punctured. Clypeus is smooth ; it"* aides are covered with long 
silvery pubescence; the apical t*>oth is clearly separated, twice 
longer than broad, and its apex is slightly inoi.'>ed ; the black 
mark has its sides at tlie apex prolonged, the part between tliem 
at the Imse being also separated. The upjx?r edge of the 
pronutuni is yellow, as is also the liiwev half of the propleurte. 
Mesonotum black, except for two lines on the basal half, these 
being dilated on the outer side nt the base. The yellow marlc, , 
on tiiescutellum is dilated laterally. Post-scuti'llum yellow, it9 
apex black. IHeune yellow, slightly streaked with fuRCOUajfl 
the median segment yellow, escept for an irregularly squarislr 
black mark at the base. Legs yellow: the hinder trochanters,'* 
the under aide and base of the hinder femora, the basal two-thirds 
nf the hinder tibite and the four apical joints of the hinder tarsi, 
black. Wings clear hyaline, the stigma testaceous, the nervures 
fuscous ; the fourth cubital cellule ia half the length of the third : 
the third transverse cul'ital nervure is straight and slightly 
oblique; the second is slightly, but distinctly, roundly curved on 
the lower half. Abdomen black, thickly covered with longish pale 


hair ; there ib a clear yellow band at the base of the dilated part of 
the petiole, a narrower one at the base of the second segment, 
a large oblique mark on either side of its middle, a narrow longi- 
tudinal line in its centre, and the apices of the other segments 
narrowly, yellow. The black on the abdomen has a brownish 

Montecititita ? Jhrticepsy sp. no v. 

Black : tlie clypeus, the underside of the scape, two oblique 
lines on vertex, a large mark, narrowed below on the outer 
orbits ; the pronotum broadly, two lines on the mesonotum, two 
marks on the scutellum, two lines on the post-scutellum, 
the sides of the median segment broadly, a line on the side and 
apex of petiole, two lateral marks on the second abdominal 
segment and the apices of the second, third and fourth segments, 
yellow ; the wings fuscous-hyaline, with a fulvous tinge. 9 • 

Long: 21 mm. 

Hab. Mt Matang, Sarawak. 

Antennae black ; the scape largely yellow below. Head 
largely developed behind the eyes ; closely punctured, the front . 
more closely and strongly than the vertex ; the eye incision less 
closely punctured than the vertex ; above the antennae is a small, 
somewhat conical mark, which is smooth and furrowed in the 
middle, except above. Clypeus distinctly broader than long ; 
sparsely but distinctly, punctured ; its apex is narrowly black ; 
tie sides of the incision are oblique and project at the apex. 
The marks on the pronotum become roundly dilated on t!ie 
outer side and do not (luite reach to the middle ; tiie two lines mh 
die mesonotum are in the middle following the parapsidal furr.>\vs 
and are about equal distance from the base and apex. The two 
marks on the scutellum do not quite reach to the middle and are 
broader than long. The two marks on the median sejrment 
extend on the inner side to the edjje of the furrow and are 
roundly narrowed on the inner side above. There is a yellow 
mark on the niesopleura*, longer than broad, below the base of 
the front wings. Pro- mesonotum and scutellum closely punctur- 
ed ; the mesonotum less closely and strongly at the sides. The 
parapsidal furrows commence shortly beyond the middle. The 


median segment is closely and strongly punctured at the base ; 
the apical furrow is wide, becomes gradually wider towards the 
apex and is keeled down the middle ; its apical slope is oblique. 
The second cubital cellule is narrowed at the top, the nervures 
almost touching there ; both are straight and oblique ; the first 
recurrent nervure is received distinctly behind the middle ; the 
second close to the second transverse cubital, almost interstitial. 
Legs black ; the fore femora are yellow at the apex ; the four hinder 
are rufous below and probably in some examples above. Abdo- 
men black ; the apices of the basal four segments yellow ; there 
is an oval oblique mark on either side of the second segment at 
the base. The petiole is nearly as long as the second segment ; 
it is stout, with the basal third distinctly narrowed ; it is dis- 
tinctly, but not very closely, punctured ; the second segment is 

The generic location of this species is doubtful. It has 3- 
and 6-jointed palpi as in Zethus, and it has further the head 
largely developed behind the eyes as in that genus and thereby 
differs from Eumeues, The petiole is shorter and stouter than it 
is in the typical Zethus and also the second segment is not con- 
tracted at the base into a neck. The form of the cubital 
cellules is different from what they are in Eumenes and more 
like what they are in Zethus. It is not a typical Montezwma 
either, although it has certainly some affinity to that genus, 
which has live jointed maxillary i>alpi. I leave it, in the mean- 
time, in J/^^/^^e^'m?^, which is, strictly speaking, an American genus. 

Zethus variputu'tatHS, sp. nov. 

Black ; the upper side of the mandibles and a large mark 
on the apex of the clypeus, yellow ; the scape of the ant^nnje, the 
tegulap and the legs rufous; the hinder tibiiv and tarsi blackish; 
wings fuscous- violaceous towards the apex : the apex of the cly- 
peus broadly rounded, not dentate 9 . 

Long : 17 mm. 

Ilab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Head thickly covered with short pale pubescence, rugosely 
punctured, the punctures running into reticulations on the front. 
Clypeus roundly convex; it^s greatest width greater than its 
grreatest length ; closely and distinctly punctured, but not so 


coarsely as the front; its apex broadly rounded. The scape of 
the antennte is broadly rufous below ; the apical joints are brown- 
ish ^beneath. Thorax entirely black covered with a pale pile ; the 
mesonotum and scutelluni more thickly with longer pale pubes- 
cence , Mesonotum closely rugosely punctured ; the punctuation 
sparser towards the apex ; the two furrows are indistinct at 
the base, being confounded with the punctuation. Scutellum 
strongly punctured and with a narrow furrow in the middle ; 
tlie post-scutellum is, if anything, more rugosely punctured; 
its apex is opaque, alutaceous. The median segment is opaque, 
alutaceous, keeled down the centre and at the sides ; above it is 
obscurely striated. Propleurte smooth, the upper part at the 
base striated. Mesopleurie closely, rugosely punctured; the 
basal and apical slopes smooth. Metapleurft? strongly punc- 
tured, except for a large obKuiue space on the base and apex. 
Petiole closely and uniforml}' punctured; the base rufous, 
smooth. Legs bright rufous: the hinder tibia* and tarsi in- 

This does not appear to me to be the ? of 4,'d^ntatus, as 
apart from the difference in colouration, there are structural 
differences between thorn not of a sexual nature. The two may 
be separated thus : — 

The furrow at the base uf the scutellum with live stout 
keels; the metapleura* coarsely punctured and striated 
throughout. 4*'^lentatus, 

The furrow at the base of the scutellum with eight short 
keels ; the nietapleura* sparsely punctured above, smooth 
below. vnripunrfatu.9, 

OtJt/ncrus dlirius, sp. nov. 

Black, largely marked with yellow; the median segment 
yellow, except in the middle, a dagger-shaped line on the front, 
a mark on either side* of the ocellar region and two obliciue large 
marks on the mesopleune, yellow; wings hyaline: the radial 
cellule and the cubitil nervures in front dark smoky 9 • 

Long: 12-13 mm. 

llab. Kuching, Sarawak, 

Front distinctly, but not very closely, punctured, the vertex 
almost impunctate. The mark on the front is narrowed in the 


middle and obliquely narrowed above; the eye incision, the inner 
ocbits narrowly, and the outer orbits more broadly, yellow. 
Clypeus yellow, smooth, obscurely punctured at the apex ; its 
greatest length is slightly gi-eater than its greatest breadth : 
the apical incision is wide and shallow. The scape is yellow, 
the tiagellum brownish beneath. The basal two-thirds of 
the pronotura * broadly yellow ; there are two short, 
narrow lines in the centre of the mesonotam; almost the 
basal half of the scutellum is yellow; the apex is more 
strongly punctured then the base, and on the side^ 
at the apex are three oblique keels. Post-scutellum strongly 
and closely punctured ; it has a rounded slope from the base to 
the apex, and is on a level with the top of the median segment, 
which has a rather steep straight slope, with rounded sides and a 
deep furrow in the middle. Pleurae punctured, but not strongly 
or closely ; the mesopleura; yellow, except at the apex and 
extreme base ; the yellow is divided in two by an oblique furrow. 
Wings almost hyaline, the costal cellule infuscated; the stigma 
yellowish, the nervures black. Legs clear yellow, the hinder 
femora slightly lined with black above. Abdomen yellow; a 
large black mark, narrowed and rounded laterally, on the 
apical half of the tirst segment; the base of the second 
narrowly, a large mark, narrowed laterally, and extending from 
near the base to near the apex, the greater part of the third, 
fourth and the whole of the sixth, black. The ventral surface, 
except the last segment, is black. 

Comes close to 0, maculipennis Smith. 

Odi/nertis hyades^ sp. nov. 

Black, largely marked with yellow ; two short lines on the 
mesonotum, the sides of the scutellum, the mesopleun» largely, 
the sides of the petiole and two large irregularly oval marks on 
the second abdominal segment, yellow; legs yellow, the femora 
slightly lined with black; the wings hyaline, with a slight 
fulvous tinge; the apex smoky; the stigma and nervures 
black 9. 

Long : 15 mm. 

JIab. Sarawak (Shelford). 



Ant^nnip black, the scape yellowish, the flagellum brownish 
b^neftth. Head black : the (.-lypeus, the eye incision, a large mark, 
narrowed iu the centre above, and the outer orlHts to near the 
top, yellow. Front and vertex rugosely punctured, the punn- 
tures running into retJculations on the aides ; the apace between 
the antennte is yellow and suiooth, Clypeus long, pyriforni, 
its width at the base half the length; the basal part roundly 
conves and irregularly marked with elongate punctures; the 
apex transverse. Thora:^ black, a large mark, obliquely nar- 
rowed on the hinder part, two short narrow lines on the meso- 
notum, two irregular marks on the base of the scutellum on the 
sides, the post-scutellum broadly in the middle and the sidee of 
the median segment, broadly, yellow. Mesouotum strongly and 
closely punctured ; the punctures large, deeper and closer on 
the base than on the apex. Scutellum Hat, on the same level as 
the mesonotum ; its apex rounded : it is not quite so strongly 
punctared as the mesonotum, especially at the base ; the post- 
scutellum is more coarsely punctured. The median segment is 
keeled down the middle ; above in the middle it is stoutly irre- 
gularly transversely striated; the sides, broadly above, nar- 
rowly below, are stoutly punctured ; below the middle the 
•tides distinctly project into »tout blunt teeth. The upper part 
of the propleum? is irregularly, stoutly, obliquely striated: the 
lower part bears stout, longitudinal keels. Mesopleune coarse- 
ly reticulated. Metapleurw on the U[^r half irregularly. 
closely striated. Legs clear yellow, the tarsi darker ; the femo- 
ra irregularly lined with black. The second culntal cellule at 
the top is not quite half the length of the third ; the first recur- 
rent nervure is received shortly behind the middle ; the second 
ia interstitial. All the abdominal segments have a narrow 
yellow line before the apex ; that on the second is broader tJian 
on the others and is largely dilated backwards at the sides : 
on tie petiole there is a large semicircular mark behind and 
united to it: on Ibe base of the second laierally is a lar^ie irre- 
gularly oval mark which is incised at the base on the lower 
side : the petiole is coarsely, the second and third segments are 
finely and closely punctured ; the last segment is 8miK)th ; its 
apex Ls narrowly yellow. On the second ventral segment, on the 
sides, is a targe yellow mark, which U rounded on the inner side. 


htmbhoptrba phom Sarawak. 

Oilfinei-ii!' Ij/Ihi', ap. now 

Blai'k ; a band, grpatiy widpiied laternlly, on the prnnotfl 
the basal two-thirds of tlio scutflluni. a \argp mark on the 
meaopieune under the ti>guli«', two oval marks on the base of the 
second abdoniina! aegiuent, the apex of the lirst and second 
segmentH and a tmnsverse line on the middle of the fourth, pale 
yellow ; the legs for the greater part black ; wings hyaline, the 
radial cellule, ext^ept along the cubitus at the base, and the apex 
of the a[Hcal cubital cellule dark smoky : the coata and nervures 
black. 9 . 

Long : 10 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak (Shelford). 

Ant«nnie black ; the scape yellow, the apical joints brown- 
ish benejith. Head black; the lower part of the eye inoiainn, 
the basal half of the clypeus, two obliiiue marks near it* apex, a 
mark immediately over the anteiinit^ and a lisnd, narrowed 
below, on the upper half of the outer orbil«, yellow, front and 
vertex closely and strongly punctured ; the front thickly cover- 
ed with pale pubescence. C'lypeus punctured, but not closely : 
the top almost smooth: its apfx in depressed slightly in the 
middle ; the teeth are rihort. broad and short. Mandiblaa black; 
the lower half yellow, tinged with nifous towards the apex. 
Prothoras and mesonoHim closely, rugosely and distinctly 
punctured ; the mesoplenne obscurely punctured ; the upper half 
of the metapleurse is punctured, but not strongly ; both are thick- 
ly covered with pale pubescence. Legs black ; the a[Hcal half of 
the four front femora in front, the four anterior tiilwe except 
behind, and a broad band on the outer side of the hinder tibite, 
yellow. Abdomen pruinose ; the petiole on the dilated apicAl 
pnrt punctured, distinctly, but not strongly, or closely; the 
other segments scuooth ; the basal spots on the second segment 
are large, oval and oblique. 

Comes near to O. k-piftiiUitiis Sauas, There is no suture on 
the liaae of the ix-tiole ; the basal slope of the petiole is long, 
straight and obliijue and is distinctly longer ihan the apical. 
Nomin r-biistn, sp. nov. 

Nigra, fulvo-[«losa ; alis hyalinis, apice fusco-violaceo. ■; . 



liOni; : H mm. 

Ilah, Borneo ( fthelford ). 

( Ine of the larijer species. Head t-oi'ered with deep fulvoiis 
puheHceiicp, the vertex distinctly punctured. lesH closely »nd 
Hiore deeply at ibe sides than in the middle : the front is rugose 
in the middle, with the side* punctured an in the vertex. Kace 
fDundly projecting in the middle and strongly, but not closely, 
punctured above. L'lypeua clearly separate from the face ; its 
middle depressed : it is strongly, but not very closely, punctur- 
ed ; its apex is transverse, with the sides rounded. The 
pubescence on the thorax is deep fulvous and dense, e.specially 
on the pleune ; the mesonotum and scutellum are closely and 
somewhat strongly punctured, the base of the scutellum less 
strongly than the rest. The basal area on the median segment 
is smooth and shining, punctured round the edges ; the furrow 
at ita base is irregularly strbted, especially laterally. Le^s 
densely covered with long bright fulvous puljeacencejthe apices 
of the tarsi rufous. Wings hyaline, with a slight fulvous tinge; 
the apex is smoliy, with a distinct violaceous tinge, the nervure^, 
except at the apex, are dark testaceous. Abdomen shining ; 
the apices of the segments fringed, but not very thickly, with 
fulvous pubescence; the ventral segments are more thickly 
fringed with similarly coloured hair. The tegulse are for the 
greater part rufo- testaceous, the second transverse cubital 
lias a more olili<|ue slope than the lirsl ; the recurrent 
is received very close to it. 


, ap.r 

Black : the basal four segments of the abdomen with 
smooth, shining blue bands; the legs fulvous and covered with 
fulvous hair ; the clypeus smooth, not keeled, the face distinctly 
tuberculated in the middle; wings hyaline, the stigma fuscous — 
black ; the nervures paler. 9 , 

Long : ] 1 mm. 

Habi Borneo (Shelford). 

Head black ; the front, the face and sides of the cl3T)eu9 
thickly covered with fulvous pubescence, smooth, shining and 
impunclat^ ; the tuliercle on the face is more prominent than 
usual; the labrum is fringed with long golden hair. Mandibles 


ferruginous, blsck at the apex. Thorax closely covered with 
fulvous hair : the poMt-iwutellum region densely covered with ful- 
vous hair ; the meiionotuiii and scutellum are smooth and shining. 
The area on the median segment ia shining, distinctly bordered 
behind and irregularly striat^Mi, the striw more widely separated 
in the middle thitn laterally; the rest of the segment ia opaque 
and den.iiely covered with fulvous pubescence. The transverse 
cubital nervures are paler thiin usual, this being especially the 
case with the second. Legs uniformly ye! to wish-fulvous and 
thickly haired ; the hair is paler in colour; the calcaria pallid 
yellow. Abdomen black: the basal four segments with smooth, 
shining, bare, bluish bands; the back is smooth and shining; 
the bnsal segment at the base is thickly covered with fulvous 
hair: the others are sparsely haired: the ventral segments are 
closely punctured : their apices thickly fringed with fulvous hair. 
The blue belts on the abdomen are slitfhtly tinged with yellow ; 
the furrow on the median segment is indistinct; ihe scape is 
testaceous at the b:ise ; the second culntal cellule is about 
line-third of the length of the top of the third ; the third trans- 
verse culntal nervure is roundly curved; the first recurrent 
nervure is interstitial. 

Comes close to A', ehgmit Sm, which may be known from 
it by the clypeus being i oaraely punctured, subtuberculate on 
each side, and with a '• central longitudinal depression." 

Noinia tewnioiiiit'i, sp. nov. 

Black, the basal lialf of the abdomen above and the ventral 
surface rufous, the second, third, and fourth segments handed 
with white on the apex ; the apex of the clypeus rufous ; the legs 
block, densely covered with long white hair; the wings hyaline, 
the costa and sti>rma rufo- testaceous, the nervures paler, 9. 

Long : 8 mm. 

liab. Midi, Sarawak. 

Head thickly covered with pale fulvous pubescence, black, 
the apex of the clypeus l>riiadly rufous; the clypeus and face 
stn>ngl.v, but not very closely, punctured: the front is more 
sparsely punctured and has a narrow longitudinal keel in the 
middle, ^fandibles rufous, black at the apex. MpHonotum and 
sculellum minutely and closely punctured; the post-scutellar 


117 , 

tegiuu i» tliickly covered wiUi pale f uU-ous piiU-sfciici-. Mtidiuii 
aeguiPiit f uiooth, Hhiuiiig' and bare ; its sides tljick \y uivered witli 
long' pale fulvuiis hair; the liasal deprcjtsimi is iiut cleurly bur- 
dered behind aud bears oarruw lun^tudinal keels. Ijej^s black, 
thickly covered witli long pale fulvuus liair: tlie binder libiiK 
become gradunily thichened towurda the apex ; the motateri^us 
in thickened, ^^'in^» hyaline; the cosia and stigma te«tACeou». 
the nervures paler; the second cubital cellule is narrow; the 
second traas verse cuNtal nervure is faiut; the lirst traiisveruo 
cubital nervure is intenititial. Abdomen rufous : the a|)icwl three 
ijo^mentti (the bnsal two broadly) marked with black in the 
centre ; th*; apice« of tlie second, third and fourth are banded 
with cream -white. 

CveliiMi/D vriocep/uiUi, sp. no v. 

lilack, the head and thorax rugowely punctured ; the scutel- 
luni coar.sely reticulated, xta aides at the apex projecting into 
xfaarp opines; the banal area of the median segment Hciculated. the 
reat of the segment closely punctured, the upper half deeply 
furrowed in the middle ; wings hyaline, the apex from the base 
of the radial cellule fuscous- violaceous. $ . 

Long: II mm. 

Uab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Head rugosely punctured, the clypeus nK)re closely and 
less strongly than the rest : the cheeks, the fnce and apex of 
the clypeus covered with pale pubescence: the out«.*r urlHtti and 
occiput are thickly covered with white pubescence ; the vertex 
and front are sparsely haired. Mesonotum closely rugosely 
punctured; the scul«llum is coarsely reticulattid-puDctuied : the 
apex is rounded, with the sides projecting into teeth, which are 
twice longer than broad : it» apex projects over the post-scut«]- 
lum. The basal area of the m^ian se/ment is coarsely aciculat- 
ed : the rest is closely punctured and thickly covered witJi 
whit^- puliescence, Mesopleurie closely rugosely punctured and 
covered with white pubescence ; the sides and apex are acicula- 
ted. The second transverse cubital nervure haa the tower half 
obUi|ue; the upper distinctly olilicjue and straight l^i!s 
thickly covered with woolly hair ; llie b ishI joint of tlie hinder 
tarsi is thickly covered willi fulvous pubescence. The live , 



bii!>iil Hi>guieiit« of tlie abdomen are shiniiig, cloyely, distinctly, 
but nut :itrui)gly, punctured ; their basal furrows are covered 
witli white pubescence ; tlie baaal part u( the Inst aegtaent is 
minutely, but not very closely, punctured : the narrowed a{ncal 
partis closely rugoHely punctured; in it« centre is a smuulli 
Uiirrow keel. The last ventral segment is lung, narrow, acutely 
[)oinlt;d and projects over the dorsal. 

There is a distinct furrow on the front ; the lateral teeth 
on the scutelluDi distinctly project beyond ihe middle of the 
apex'; the ventral surface of the abdomen is more strongly and 
closely punctured than the dorsal : the transverse median 
ncrvure is received shortly, but distinctly, behind the transverse 
basal. The last dorsal segment is distinctly depressed laterally 
at the base of the narrowed part. Tlie second transverse cubi- 
tal uervure is received shortly behind the middle of the radius; 
the nervures and stigma deep black. 

Mrgoe/iiln altt't'uUi, sp. iiov. 

Nigra, albo-pilosa; scopa abdomims<|ue apice supra dense 
albo {H^sis ; alia hyalinis ; nervie stigmateijue nigris. 9 ^^ 5 ■ 

Long: 9 mm. 

llab. Matang, Sarawak, 3,I>()U feel. 

Q Head black ; the face and clypeuu co\'ered closely with 
dark fulvous pubescence ; the front and vertex less closely with 
longer bluck, intermixed, on the vertex, with shorter fulvous 
pubescence. The front is closely rugosely punctured; the 
vertex is more distinctly, more strongly and less closely, punc- 
tured. The apex of the clypeua is almost transverse, with its 
sideti rounded ; its sides above bear a belt of dense white 
pubescence. Mandibles strongly punctured; their a])ex broad. 
slightly obli(|Ue ; the tower tooth is smooth, sliiuing and sharply 
pointed; the subapical is shorter and blunter. Thorax closely 
and distinctly punctured ; the mesonotum is densely covered 
with short black pubescence : the prouotum behind is covered 
densely with white pubescence; the sciitellum has posteriorly 
long black hair. The basal area of the median segment is 
smooth, bare, ackuiat^d and almost shining; and it bears a 
shallow furrow in the centre; the sides of the segment are 
thickly covered witi white hair. There is a curved band of 


white pubescence round the tubercles ; the sternum is covered 
with white pubescence. The hair on the legs is thick, stiff 
and black. Wings hyaline, their apex slightly iufuscated. 
Abdomen black ; the segments are probably edged with white 
pubescence ; the apical two above are tliickly covered with 
grey depressed pubescence ; the scape is white. 

The 5 is similarly coloured ; the liair on the face is longer 
and denser, and has a slight fulvous tin;re: the hair on the median 
segment is longer and deUvser: the basal four abdominal segments 
have, on the sides at the apex, broad bands of white pubescence; . 
the apical segment is round and has a broad projecting 
border ort the lower side: the ventral segments are fringed with 
soft white pubescence and there is also a band of similar pubes- 
cence on their middle ; the pubescence on the four hinder tarsi is 

Conies into liingham*s Section F, but cannot well be 
confounded with anything there described. 

Mvyachik vtriplaat, sp. nov. 

Black; the head and thorax covered with fuscous-black 
pubescence ; a tuft of lo'ig white hair below the antennae ; and the 
labrum is fringed with long white hair: the wings yellowish- 
hyaline, the nervures and stigma yellowish-fulvous. 9 • 

Long: 18 mm. 

Ilab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Antennie black, bare, longer than the thorax. Front and 
vertex rugosely, closely punctured. The hinder ocelli are separat- 
ed from each other by a slightly greater distance than ttey are 
from the eyes. Between the antennae and the top of the clypeus 
is a dense tuft of longish white hair; and the labrum is fringed 
with longer white hair. The apical tooth of the mandibles is long, 
curved and sharply pointed; the subapical is bluntly rounded. 
Mesonotum and scutellum closely punctured and covered thickly 
with short black hair ; the median segment is thickly covered 
with longish sooty-black hair, as are also the pleune and breast 
Wings yellowish-hyaline; the stigma and nervures are yellow- 
ish: the two recurrent nervures are almost interstitial; the 
second cubital cellule at the top is about half the length of the 
bottom; the second transverse cubital nervure is broadly 



rounded in the liiwer half and middle ; the Hrst is itiuiidiy curved. 
The hair vn the legs is shurt and black : the Imse of thu fore tarsi 
in rounded and deeply incised ; the fure coxse are ittoutly toothed. 
Abduraeu black and covered with short b1a(;k hair^ the middle 
segments are depre^ed at the base: the apical segment is, at the 
apex, roundly incised ; its middle on the apical half is depressid. 
below the base it Is roundly raised. 


iU n 

, sp. 

Black ; the four posterior femora red ; the head and thorax 
covered with long white hair; the abdominal segments* narrowly 
edged with pale fulvous pubescence; the ventral scope white; 
the base of the hinder tarsi dciweiy covered with long fulvous 
hair; the wings hyalint-. the stigma and nervures black. 

Long: 8-ii mm. 

tJab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Ilead closely punctured; the face and clypeus more 
coarsely than the vextex; the apex of the clypeus in the middle 
projecting, smooth and shining; the sides of the face and 
clypeus t^ckly covered with white pubescence; the front less 
thickly covered with long white hair, the vertex more sparsely 
with shorter back hair. Mandibles closely, rugawly punctur^ 
and covered with white pubescence; towards the apes they are 
coarsely irregularly striated ; the apical two teeth are of about 
the s&wtB size, nre opaque and moderately acutely pointed ; the 
rest of the outer edge is smooth and shining. Pro- and 
meijothorax, with the scutellum. closely and uniformly punctured; 
the pronotum and base of tlie mesopleura; above thickly covered 
with woolly hair ; the meaonotum has a short pubescence ; the 
median segment is covered with long, soft hair ; it^ basal area is 
closely aciculated, the rest punctured, but not strongly or 
closely ; its middle is deeply furrowed. \\'inga hyaline : the 
(irat recurrent nervure is received oeaier the transverse cubutal 
than is the second. The four hinder femora and the hinder 
trochanters and coxw are bright rufous ; the hair on the basal 
four joints of the hinder tarsi is larger than usual ; and it becomes 
gradually shorter towards the fourth joint ; it is bright fulvous ; 
the hair on the middle tarsi is shorter and paler. Abdomen 
closely punctured ; the transverse furrows on the basal three 


segments are distinct ; the segments are banded with pale 
fulvous bands of pubescence ; the ventral scopa is white ; the 
basal ventral segments are more or less rufous; the apical 
dorsal segment is closely rugose and sparsely haired. 

The scutellum'is broadly rounded behind and has a rounded 
slope on the apex ; the depression at its base is covered with 
white pubescence. 

Comes near to Jemorata Sm. 

Megachilt leola^ sp. no v. 

Hlack ; the head and thorax covered with pale fulvous hair: 
the face and clypeus more densely with long pale hair ; the 
abdomen densely with ferruginous pubescence, except on the 
base of the basal three segments ; the wings almost hyaline, the 
stigma and nervures black; the apical abdominal segment 
entire. 5 . 

Long : 12 mm. 

Ilab. Matang, 3G00 feet. Sarawak. 

Antennae black, base shining. Uead black, closely and 
strongly punctured ; the lower part of the front, the face and 
clypeus are densely covered with long pale fulvous hair ; the 
apex of the clypeus is transverse. Mandibles closely, irregularly 
longitudinally striated to liear the apex : the lower part at the 
apex smooth and shining ; the apical tooth is long and sharply 
pointed at the apex. Pro- and meso thorax closely and distinctly 
punctured and covered with long pale fulvous hair ; the median 
segment is more thickly haired and the hair is longer; the 
basal area is closely punctured and has a wide and distinct 
furrow down the centre. Pleurie thickly covered with long 
pale fulvous hair. Legs black ; the four anterior tarsi are fringed 
with very long fulvous hair ; the hair on the hinder tarsi is short 
and fulvous ; on the rest of the legs it is short and paler. The 
second recurrent nervure is almost interstitial ; the first is 
received close to the transverse cubital. The basal three 
segments of the abdomen are black, with their apices covered 
with bright ferruginous pubescence, the other segments are 
entirely covered with similar pubescence ; the apical segment is 
entire and broadly rounded : the apical ventral segments are 
covered with fulvous pubescence. 


Megachile usea^ sp. iiov. 

Black ; the face and apex of the clypeus fringed with long- 
pale hair; the pleunv and median segment covered densely 
with pale fulvous hair ; the abdomen, except at its basal slope, 
with ferruginous pubescence : wings hyaline with a slight fuscous 
tinge, the stigma and nei vures black ; the apical abdominal 
segment roundly incised in the middle. 5 . 

Long : 14 mm. 

Hab. Matang, 3600 feet. Sarawak. 

Head closely punctured ; the front thickly covered with 
long black hair, the vertex more sparsely with shorter black 
hair ; between the antenme is a clump of long white hair and the 
apex and the clypeus is fringed with similar hair. The clypeus 
is shining and covered with short black liair; it is irregularly, 
somewhat strongly, but not very closely, punctured, and is 
clearly separated from the face, which is closely rugosely 
punctured — there is a smooth narrow shining line down the 
middle. The basal half of the mandibles is opa({ue and irregu- 
larly punctured ; the apex is smooth and shining and with an 
acutely pointed apical tooth. Mesonotum and scutellum closely 
rugosely punctured and thickly covered with short black hair ; 
the pleuri« and median segments are thickly covered with long 
pale fulvous hair. The apex of the scutellum is broadly rounded. 
The area on the median segment is opat^ue and shagreened ; the 
rest of the segment is shining and closely punctured. Wings 
hyaline, with fuscous-fulvous tinge, and slightly clouded at the 
apex ; the stigma and nervures black ; both the recurrent 
uervures are received close to the transverse cubitals. Legs 
black ; the anterior tarsi testaceous at the base ; the femora and 
tibiae are sparsely covered with short pale hair ; the tarsi thickly 
with short fulvous pubescence on the under side ; the anterior 
cox»3 are toothed at the apex. Abdomen, except on the 
basal slope, and on the basal two ventral segments, thickly 
covered with bright ferruginous pubescence ; the apical segment 
is widely but not very deeply, incised in the middle ; it is 
broadly rounded and is not keeled down the middle. 


MetjachiU amstela, sp. no v. 

Lung : 1 2 inin. 

llab. Boroeo. 

This species may be separated from tarta, with which it 
agrees closely in colouratiuii, as follows: — 

The clypeus distinctly narrowed, smooth and rounded above ; 
the Imse of the mandibles broadly rounded, without a 
projection in the middle, the outer side not strongly, 
uniformly punctured. tarea Cam. 

The clypeus not distinctly narrowed above, where it is 
strongly punctured, and where there is a smooth, 
transverse keel ; the outer side strongly punctured ; 
the inner side on the basal part projecting in the middle. 

anistela Cam. 

llead strongly, closely, rugosely punctured ; the top and 
apex of the clypeus with a smooth, impunctate band ; its hair 
black ; long and dense on the front and vertex, shorter on the 
clypeus. The clypeus is distinctly separated from the face by 
a smooth, shining band, the sides being also bounded by similar 
bands ; its apex projects slightly and roundly at the sides. 
Mandibles rugosely punctured, irregularly, strongly, longitudi- 
nally striated towards the apex ; the apical edge and the lower 
on the apical half, smooth and shining ; the apical tooth is 
large ; the subapical is shorter and broader. Thorax closely 
punctured ; the hair on the pleura*, mesonotum and scuteilum 
is black ; on the median segment it is long and soot-coloured ; 
on the sternum pale fulvous. Wings hyaline, with a slight, but 
distinct fulvous tinge; the nervures are blackish, the stigma 
dark rufous. Legs black; the hair pale, mixed with black; 
on the base of the tarsi it has a slightly more rufous tint. The 
abdomen is black; its basal three segments are banded with 
bright ferruginous pile ; the other segments are thickly covered 
with bright ferruginous hair, mixed with black in the middle ; 
the scopa is ferruginous. 

On the out(T side of the apex of the tibiie, in the middle, is 
a longish. sharp-pointed spine. 


Meyachile tavta^ sp. nov. 

Black : llie lioad covered with black, the pleunu and 
inetanotum with pale, pube^scence ; the abdominal segments 
banded with ferruginous pubescence ; the scopa fulvous, rufous 
towards the apex ; the legs covered with fulvous, the metatarsus 
on the inner side with rufous, pubescence ; wings hyaline, the 
apex slightly infuscated, the costa and nervures dark fuscous. 9 • 

Long: 12 mm. 

Ilab. Borneo. 

The hair on the upper part of the head is deep black ; below 
long and whiter ; on the front and cheeks it is longer and denser 
than on the face and veriex. The clypeus is narrowed and 
rounded above, where it is smooth and impunctate, or only 
sparsely, and indistinctly punctured ; the lower two-thirds 
punctured, but not closely or strongly ; there is a narrow, im- 
punctate band in the centre; the centre, in the apex, is not 
quite transverse. The mandibles are broadly, roundly dilated 
in the middle ; there are two apical teeth ; the apical is the 
longer ; the subapical is broader and more rounded ; their up- 
per side is irregularly punctured ; on the inner side is a row of 
punctures, on the outer, on the apical half, a curved deep 
furrow ; the basal half on the outer side is strongly punctured, 
the punctures becoming larger and more elongated towards the 
middle. Thorax closely and distinctly punctured, the pleura) 
somewhat more strongly than the mesonotum. f^egs black ; 
the hair on the femora and tibia' is long and pale; on the tarsi 
it is dense and rufous ; the anterior calcaria rufous; the outer 
joint is straight, trarwverse, and not dilated at the apex ; the 
subapical is curved and surrounded by a hyaline horny pro- 
cess ; the claws are rufous at the base. 

On the apex of the fore tibia) in the middle is a large, 
platelike projection, which becomes gradually narrowed towards 
the apex, is rufous in colour and has the sides raised ; on the 
outer side of it is a stout tubercle. 

Mtgachile ^helfordi^ sp. nov. 

Nigra, opaca, nigro pilosa ; alis Havo hyalinis, upice f umato ; 
nervis stigmateque fulvis. 9 • 


Long : 17 mm. 

Hab. Borneo (Shelford). 

Front and vertex closely and uniformly punctured, thickly 
covered with black hair, which is much longer on the front. 
The clypeus is rather strongly, closely and uniformly punctured, 
except above in the middle, where it is smooth and shining. 
Mandibles below smooth and shining, above closely punctured ; 
there are four teeth, all bluntly rounded ; the inner two project 
more than the apical. The upper part of the thorax is 
thickly covered with short, stiff hair ; the hair on the pleurse is 
longer, is thick and sooty-black in colour. The hair on the 
legs is long and black ; on the under side of the middle tarsi it 
is bright rufous. The hair on the abdomen, above and below, 
is deep black ; the second segment at the base is deeply depress- 
ed, at the apex obliquely raised ; the last segment has the apex 
depressed and broadly rounded. Wings yellowish-hyaline, the 
stigma and nervures rufo-f ulvous ; the apex, outside the radius, 
the second transverse cubital, the second recurrent and the 
discoidal nervures, smoky ; the apex of the hind wings is 
likewise smoky. 

Comes near apparently to M, tuberculita Sm. 

Prototinthidium ru/obaiteatum^ sp. nov. 

Black ; the head and thorax densely covered with stiff, 
moderately long black hair ; the apical two segments of the 
abdomen entirely, the middle segments banded with rufous- 
yellow ; the ventral fringe bright ferruginous. 

Long : 12 ram. Q . 

llab. Matang, 3600 feet. Sarawak. 

Antenna* black, short, smooth and shining. Head closely 
rugosely punctured, the clypeus more finely than the vertex ; 
in front and above closely covered with short, black hair ; be- 
low with longrer, soft, pale hair. The clypeus is distinctly, 
narrowly keeled in the middle ; the apex of the clypeus is trans- 
verse, iis sides are rounded. Mandibles opaque, closely rugose 
above, below covered with a pale fulvous pile and l»elow also 
with some lon;< pale hair ; the apical tooth is bluntly rounded 
and projects; In'hind it are three short, bluntly rounded teeh. 
Thorax closely and somewhat strongly and uniformly punctured; 


above the hair is black ; on the sides it is longer and whitish ; the 
scutellum distinctly project** over the median segment; its apical 
incision is rounded and not very deep. Legs black; the hair on 
the tibiie and tarsi is thick and stiff; on the inner side it is rufous, 
the apical three joints of the tarsi are rufous. Wings hyaline 
with a faint, fulvous tinge ; the stigma and nervures are black. 
Abdomen black ; there is a narrow rufous line on the sides of 
the second segment ; an almost entire one on the apex of the 
third, a broader one, narrowed at the sides, on the fourth and 
the whole of the apical two segments are rufous. The ventral 
scopa is bright ferruginous. 

The 5 has the antennae much longer ; there is a dense mass 
of white pubescence over them ; the clypeus, the cheeks, on 
either side of it, and the mandibles, except at the apex, are 
rufous-yellow ; the apical abdominal segment is roundly, but 
not deeply, incised. The mandibles are bidentate at the apex ; 
the apical is more narrowed at the apex than the subapical, 
which is shorter, broader and more broadly rounded ; the clypeus 
is slightly depressed in the middle at the apex. 

Protoanthidium oratmn, sp. nov. 

Black ; the hair on the thorax and abdomen black ; there 
is a tuft of fulvous hair on the front ; the face and clypeus are 
covered with short rufous pubescence ; the scopa rufous ; the 
wings to the stigma smoky, the apex milk-white, the stija^ma and 
nervures black. 9 • 

Long : 14 mm. 

llab. Matang, 3600 feet. Sarawak. 

Antennft? black, the under side of the scape rufous. Front 
and vertex closely, uniformly and strongly punctured ; the face 
is less closely and less strongly punctured ; its apex and a line 
in the centre, smooth. Clypeus closely and uniformly punctured ; 
its middle keeled, but not very strongly ; its apex slightly bent 
inwardly. The lower part and the apex of the mandibles are 
smooth and shining ; the rest punctured and pilose ; besides the 
apical tooth, there are three short, round ones. Mesonotum and 
scutellum closely and uniformly punctured ; the mesonotum 
thickly covered with fuscous-black pubescence ; the apex of the 
clypeus is roundly incised and projects over the median segment 


which is clovselj, but not strongly, punctured, and is shining in 
the middle, liegs hlack, and thickly covered with black hair ; 
the calcaria black. The wings, to the stigma, smoky-fuscous ; 
the rest milky- hyaline ; the stigma and nervures black; the first 
transverse cubital nervure is straight and has an abrupt oblique 
slope ; the second is two-angled, the upper is the longer and is 
more obliijue ; both the recurrent nervures are received distinctly 
beyond the transverse cubitals. Abdomen black ; closely but 
not strongly, punctured above and covered, but not densely, 
with short black hair ; the apical segment is roundly incised ; the 
ventral scopa is fulvous. 

Protoan thulium ru/omaculatum, sp, nov. 

Black ; the clypeus and the antennae rufo- testaceous ; the 
top of the head and the mesonotum with the scutellum thickly 
covered with rufo-fulvous pubescence ; the scopa rufo-fulvous ; 
the apical-dorsal segment covered with whitish pubescence ; the 
wings dark smoky-fuscous to the base of the stigma, lacteous 
beyond it. V • 

Long : 8 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Antenna? shining, base rufous, the second joint black. 
Head closely, rugosely punctured ; above thickly covered with 
short rufous pubescence ; the face and clypeus with soft, paler 
hair. The apex of the clypeus on the lower side is flat, smooth 
and shining. Mandibles rufo- testaceous, the lower edge of the 
apex black ; it is sparsely punctured ; its apical tooth is large, 
is sharply pointed and clearly separated from the subapical, 
which is short, does not project and is not defined behind. 
Mesonotum closely, uniformly and somewhat strongly punc- 
tured ; there is an impressed line down \Xs centre. The scutellum 
is flat, is not raised above the level of the mesonotum, and its 
apex projects largely over the median segment; it is more 
closely punctured than the masonotum ; its sides and apex ar^ 
broadly rufous and the apex has a shallow, rounded incision in 
the middle. The median segment has a vertical slope, is closely 
punctured and covered with a short pubescence. Me-sopleune 
closely punctured like the mesonotum ; the base of which is 
smooth, projecting. I^gs black ; the hair black ; the greater part 



of the front femnra, the apex of the front tiiAve and the base of the 
tarsi. rufouH, as are also the apical joiiite of the binder tarsi : [he 
hair on the hinder tibife and metataraua long, black and thick ; the 
fore tibia at the apex on the outer side is armed with a short 
narrow tooth. The radial, cubital and recurrent nerviires are 
pale ; the first transverse cuUtal nervure is straight and oblique ; 
the second is roundly curved ; both the recurrent nervures are 
received shortly, but distinctly, beyond the transverse cubitals ; 
the second recurrent nervure has the upper part roundly bent 
outwardly. The l»sal live dorsal segments of the abdomen are 
Hmnoth. shining ; the basal ones minutely and closed punctured 
and almost bare; the large apical segment is thickly covered 
with glistening grey hair and is rounded at the apex ; the 
scopa is rufous. 

X'lfocopa Shfifoi-di, sp, nov. 

9 Black, the thorax above, the upper parts of the pleura> and 
the l-asal two segments of the abdomen clothed with bright 
yellow puljescence: the wings hyaline, iridescent, tlie apex 
infuscated. The J with the sides of the thorax and a broad band 
on Ihe basal three segments of the abdomen clothed with bright 
vellow pubescence, otherwise coloured as in the 9 . 

Long: IB mm. 

llab. Matang, 3,R0n feet. Sarawak (Shelford). 

Q Head densely covered with black hair ; the black hair on 
the face mixed with white. Front and vertex closely and 
distinctly punctured; the furrow on the front is distinct; its 
lower htilf is bordered by distinct, flat, smooth keels ; the clypeua 
is more strongly punctured than the face and has a smooUi Hat 
furrow in the centre. Mandibles smooth and shininif: the basal 
halt in the centre punctured; the apical teeth bluntly pointed 
and of almost efjual length. Thorax above smtwth and shining: 
the centre of themesonotum andmetanotumbareandinipunctate; 
the apex of the latter sharply margined. The pubescence on 
the upper part of the niesopleurffi is yellow ; on the hinder edge 
it is paler; on the rest and on the sternum, black; legs black 
and covered with black hair ; abdomen black : tlie upper 
surface iif the luLsal two segmeiit.s covered with yellowish hairl 
the other segment:) clothed more sparsely with shorter black 


hair. Wings hyaline, with a slightly fusoous-ooppery irides- 
«^enoe-; tho apex much darker odloured. 

The 5 has the upper part of the thorax covered with 
yellowish pubescence except in the centre, where there is a 
broad band of black pubescence of the same width as the lateral 
bands ; and on the apex, where there is a thin band of pale yel- 
low pubescence ; the upper part of the pleura? is covered with 
pale yellow pubescence ; the tarsi are thickly covered with long 
black hair ; the black hair on the tarsi is mixed with rufous 
beneath, on the tibiai with pale, hair. The hair on the sides of 
the inner and outer orbits is pale. 

I believe I have correctly united the sexes of this species. 
Both are in the Sarawak collection from Matang, where the 9 
has also been taken by Mr, Shelford at an elevatiou of 3000 feet. 
The 5 agrees, in the arrangement of the hair bands, with that 
of X, pen'ei'sa Weid. from Java, but the females are different. 

Trigona ert/throgastra, sp. nov. 

Black ; the basal three segments of the abdomen rufo-testa- 
ceous, the others black, suffused with rufo- testaceous, especially 
at the sides : the wings yellowish -hyaline to the stigma, the rest 
hyaline: the stigma and nervures rufo-tostaceous. 9 . 

Long : 7 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak (K. Shelford). 

Antenna* black, the Hagellum brownish beneath, more 
broadly and distinctly on the apical than on the basal half. The 
occiput and the hinder part of the vertex are thickly covered 
with long black, stiff hair : the front is covered with a dark 
fuscous, thick puliescence and alx)ve sparsely with black hair. 
Clypeus thickly covered with fuscous down and smdoth and 
shining. Mandibles black, smooth and shining. Thorax black, 
smooth and shining : the base of the mesonotum and the hinder 
part of the scutellum (covered with long stiff black hair; the 
propleunv covered sparsely with long black hair ; the metapelune 
thicklv with a fulvous down. The lirst transverse cubital 
nervure is faint alx)ve and almost obliterated in the middle ; the 
second is very faint. Legs black : their hair is also black. The 
ventral surface is rufous. 


Comes near to T, lartn/asciata Cam. but that has the second 
cubital cellule narrower at the top ; the thorax rufous and the 
femora rufous. 

Trif/ona Jlavistig/na, sp. nov. 

Rufo- testaceous, the hinder tibiae and the basal joints of the 
four hinder tarsi black ; wings hyaline, the basal half with a 
distinct yellowish tint ; the stigma fulvous yellow, the nervures 
slightly darker in tint ; antennae rufo- testaceous, the apical four 
joints black. S • 

Long : 8 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, Sarawak. 

Head smooth and shining ; the front and vertex sparsely 
covered with long black hair ; the hairs on the vertex longer 
than those on the front. Cheeks and clypeus covered with golden 
pubescence ; the clypeus also sparsely with black hair. Mandi- 
bles rufous, blackish at the apex. The thorax is narrower than 
the head and is similarly coloured ; the mesonotum and scutellum 
are sparsely covered with blackish hair ; the sides and apex of 
the former have a yellowish down ; the pronotum is glabrous in 
front, sparsely haired behind ; in the centre, at the base, is a 
wide depression. The apical slope of the scutellum is thickly 
covered with long pale fulvous hair. The centre of the metano- 
tum is very smooth, shining and glabrous ; the mesopleura? 
thickly covered with long, pale fulvous hair. The wings have a 
distinct yellowish tinge to the base of the stigma ; the stigma 
and nervures are bright rufo-fulvous. Legs coloured like the 
body : the hinder tibia* and the basal joints of the four hinder tarsi 
black ; the hair on the black part of the legs is black. Abdomen 
coloured like the thorax ; its base lighter in tint; the ventral sur- 
face is darker and is thickly covered with long blackish hair. 

Trigofia latehalteata, sp. nov. 

Black ; the base of the scape, the basal and the apical two 
segments of the abdomen rufo-testaceous ; the anterior legs, the 
middle coxae, trochanters, femora and the tibiae in front ; the 
hinder coxae and trochanters beneath, rufous, the wings clear 
hyaline, the stigma and nervures testaceous. Worker. 

Long: 5 mm. 

Hab. Kuching. Sarawak. 


Head black, the apt^x of tlie dypeus pale testaceous ; the 
front, face and clvpeus covered thickly with pale pubescence ; 
the front has a nurrow furrow down the centre : the labrum is 
testaceous : n)andibles pale rufous, blackish towards the apex ; 
the occiput is fringed with long fusco-rufous hair. The meso- 
itf)tum is bordere<l all round by a distinct belt of fulvous pubes- 
cence : there is a broader belt on the sides and apex of the 
scutellum : the post-scutellum is covered with short fulvous 
pubescence. Median segment closely, uniformly and distinctly 
punctured. Pleura? covered with fulvous pile. Wings clear 
hyaline ; the stigma pale, the nervures of a deeper testaceous 
colour : the two transverse cubital nervures are faintly indicated, 
the first more distinctlv than the second. Antennte black, the base 
of the scape broadly testaceous. Abdomen smooth and shining ; 
rufo-testaceous ; the second, third and fourth segments deep black. 

Trignna IwtfijUsciata, sp. nov. 

Dark luteous. the head, except the centre of the clypeus, 
the flagellum of the antennsv and the tibias and tarsi, black; 
wings hyaline, a milky cloud at the end of the stigma; the 
stigma and nervures luteous ; there are two transverse cubital 
nervures, which are straight, obli<|ue and approach close to each 
ther near the top. 2 . 

Long : 8-'J nini. 

Ilab. Bc»rneo. 

Antenna* black : the Ijasa I two -thirds i»f the scape rufous. 
Head black, the clypeus broadly, in the centre rufous; the 
front, face and clypeus thickly covered with a pale down; the 
hinder part of the occiput thickly covered with stiff blackish 
hair. Mandibles black. Thorax dark rufous, thickly covered 
on the mesonotum and scutellum with short, stiff, dark fulvous 
hair, which is thickest and longest on the base of the mesonotum. 
Median segment smooth and shining and is bare in the middle. 
The coxrt?. trochanters and femora are coloured like the thorax: 
the tibite and tarsi black, except the apical joint of the tarsi ; 
and they are covered with black hair. The basal two -joints of 
the tarsi are mahojranv coloured ; the others are darker in tint; 
the ventral segments are similarly coloured and are sparsely 
covered with longish fuscous hair. 


Description of New Species of Aculeate 
Hymenoptera from Borneo. 

By p. Camebon. 

Xomia ran'balfeata, sp. no v. 

Black ; the head and thorax densely covered with . fulvous 
pubescence ; the abdomen with five blue, mixed with red, bands: 
leg^s black, the wings hyaline, with black stigma and nervures 6 . 

Long: 11 mm. 

Hab. Borneo. 

Antenna? black, the scape sparsely covered with fulvous 
hair, the flagellum with a pale down. The front to the ocelli 
is closely, distinctly and uniformly punctured ; the vertex 
smooth ; both are thickly covered with long fulvous hair. The 
face is smooth ; its sides are broadly and thickly covered with 
fulvous hair ; the clypeus is stoutly keeled in the middle, is ob- 
scurely punctured and thickly covered with fulvous hair. Thor- 
ax thickly covered with fulvous pubescence. Mesonotum and 
scutellum opac^ue, closely and minutely punctured ; the scutel- 
lar depression is covered with depressed pale fulvous pubes- 
cence ; the scutellum sparsely with long blackish hair ; the post- 
scutellar region thickly with fulvous pubescence. Median seg- 
ment closely, irregularly punctured and thickly haired; the 
basal depression is clearly defined behind and is irregularly 
closely longitudinally striated. Legs black ; the femora and 
tibiae covered with pale hair ; the tarsi on the under side thickly 
covered with fulvous pubescence ; the hinder tibia? are nar- 
rowed at the base and become gradually, but not greatly, 
thicker towards the apex. The abdomen is smooth, shining and 
sparsely haired above ; the basal five segments are banded with 
blue belts, which are largely tinged in the middle with red. 
The ventral segments are covered with fulvous pubescence ; 
the last segment is distinctly keeled in the centre. 


The transverse median nervure is not interstitial, being 
received shortly behind the transverse basal ; the first recurrent 
nervure is received shortly beyond the middle ; the tegulro are 
pale testaceous ; the third transverse cubital nervure is roundly 
curved on the lower side ; the punctuation on the apical half of 
the clypeus is coarser than on the basal and runs into striations 
or obscure reticulations: the sides of the last ventral segment 
are keeled and project oblicfuely at the apex ; the last dorsal 
segment is punctured and thickly covered with black hair ; its 
apex is smooth. 

A species closely related to X. trultsccns Sm. 

Mefjachile zygia^ sp. no v. 

Black ; the hair on the front, face, pleune and median seg- 
ment, ferruginous ; the abdominal segments banded with ferru- 
ginous pulx>scence, the ventral scopa pale fulvous; wings 
hyaline ; the stigma and nervures rufous. 9 • 

Long : 12 mm. 

Uab. Romeo. 

Uead closely rugosely punctured : the face and upper part 
of the clypeus with a smooth, irrugular longitudinal keel in the 
centre. The apex of the clypeus is transverse, finely rugose ; 
its sides are straight and oblique. The base of the mandibles is 
closely rugosely punctured, the upper apical half has, at the 
base, some distinct punctures : the apical and the lower half 
smooth ; the apical tooth is large, projecting, and becomes 
gradually narrowed towards the apex : the subapical is blunt 
and indistinct : on the base are two shallow curves, the inner 
being the larger. The mesonotum is closely alutaceous, opaque, 
without distinct punctures : the mesopleune are coarsely rugosely 
punctured ; the metapleune coarsely alutaceous. The hair on 
the mesonotum and scutellum is short and dark, on the upper 
part of the pleurn? and the median segment it is rufous ; on the 
lower parts and on the sternum, pale fulvous. Wings hyaline, 
with a slight fulvous tinge ; the costa, stigma and nervures 
are bright rufous. Abdomen black; the dorsal segments banded 
with a bright ferruginous pile ; the scopa pale fulvous ; the last 
dorsal segment is covered with short black hair. Legs black, 
covered with pale fulvous pubescence : that on the tarsi is 


rufous m tint: on the apex of the front tibia* in the middle is a 
a stout, slightly curved spine, which becomes narrowed towards 
the apex ; on the apex, at the base, in front of this, is a shorter 
tooth ; the apical claws are larger and stouter than usual and 
rufous in colour : the calcaria are obli<|uely narrowed at tlu? apex. 

Sp/it"'' ttta/ai/ifniis. sp, nov. 

Black; the second abdominal segment rufous at the base." 
the head and thorax densely covered with golden pile and thickly 
with long pale pubescence; wings clearly hyaline, the stigma and 
nervures deep black : the apex with a deep black cloud between 
the end of the radial nervure and the lower end of the third 
transverse cubital, ^ . 

Long: 14 mm. 

llab. Borneo. 

The eyes distinctly converge below ; the inner orbits from near 
the ocelli and the face and clypeus are densely covered with a golden 
pile and the entire head is thickly* covered with long pale hair; 
it is impunctate ; the ocelli are in a curve, are large and prominent; 
below them is a short, distinct keel which becomes sharply point- 
ed at the apex : the apex of the clypeus is broadly rounded ; in 
its centre it is distinctly depressed or furrowed ; the middle is 
keeled. The labrum is slightly keeled in the middle. Mandibles 
black, rufous towards the apex ; they are bidentate : the upper 
tooth is long, is clearly separated from the lower, which does 
not project, and is straight or slightly oblique at the apex ; the 
apical tooth projects on the upper side, slightly, but distinctly ; this 
projecting part is about three times longer than broad. The gold- 
en pile on the thorax is dense : the long pale hair is dense, long 
and pale ; on the median segujent it is not <^uite so thick, but is. 
if anything, longer. The meson >tum is alutaceous ; the meso- 
pleune closely and distinctly punctured : the scutellum is sparsely 
punctured in the middle, more closely and distinctly on the sides. 
Neither it, nor the post-scutellum, is furrowed in the centre: the 
latter is thickly covered with golden pubescence. The median 
segment is closely, finely, distinctly and irregularly reticulattKi : 
the apical slope is largely hollowed. Legs black, pruinose : 


the femora and coxiii covered with long, soft white hair ; as 
with many species the apex of the hinder tibi«3 has a rufous 
pile ; the tarsi are spinose. Wings clear hyaline ; the nervures 
and stigma deep black ; the cloud commences at the end of the 
radial cellule and extends behind to the cubitus ; the angle form- 
ed by the bending back of the third transverse cubital nervure 
is hyaline. Abdomen black ; the second segment more or less 
rufous ; tbe petiole is long and curved ; it is, if anything, longer 
than tue hinder tibia? and is covered with long white hair. The 
apices of the segments are testaceous all round and more 
broadly below than above. 

There are two teeth on the tarsal claws. The third cubital 
cellule at the top is not much shorter than the second; at the 
bottom it is longer than it; the second recurrent nervure is 
received close to the second ti-ansverse cubital ; the first at three 
times greater the distance from it. The species oomes near to 
S. maria Bing. and S. iiif/elltts Sm. 

Cerceris excavata^ sp. nov. 

Black ; the lower inner orbits, the apex of the third and of 
the sixth abdominal segments, pale yellow ; the four anterior 
tibiw and tarsi and the base of the hinder tibia*, yellow ; wings 
hyaline ; the radial cellule and the apical cubital cellule above, 
smoky ; the area on the median segment not clearly defined, 
rugosely longitudinally striated. 5 . 

Long : 7 mm. 

llab. Borneo. 

Antennie black ; the scape pale yellow beneath ; the eight 
basal joints and the apical joint of the fiagellum reddish -brown. 
Front and vertex rugosely punctured as is also the clypeus and, 
to a less extent, the face ; there is a broad yellow line, roundly 
narrowed at the top and bottom, on the lower inner orbits ; the 
apex of the clypttus is slightly waved in the centre, the sides are 
thickly fringed witli stiff longish pale golden hair. Antennal 
keel acute, and black and yellow. Thorax coarsely rugosely 
punctur(»d. black ; a spot on eitlier side of tJie pronotum behind ; 
the scutellum is smooth behind ; the median segment is coarsely 
rugosely punctured ; the punctures are round and deep ; the 
apex is hollowed in the middle : the basal area is not clearly 


defined : there is a stout longitudiual keel and two lesis distinct 
oblique ones on either side of it. Wings hyaline, the radial 
cellule and the greater part of the apical cubital cellule, smoky ; 
the petiolated cellule is about one half the length of the fol- 
lowing ; it receives the recurrent nervure distinctly behind het 
middle. The four anterior tibia? and tarsi are yellow : the 
mid tibia3 are marked behind with black ; the hinder are black, 
except for a yellow band near their base and the metatarsus. 
Abdomen closely and coarsely punctured ; black, the apex of the 
third and of the sixth segment banded with yellow ; the pygidium 
is broad, coarsely punctured ; its apex transverse, depressed, 
membranous, except at the sides ; the epipygium is depressed. 
The third ventral segment is Irnnded broadly with yellow in the 

A distinct species, not very nearly related to any of the des- 
cribed IndiA species. Characteristic is the " enclosed space" at 
the base of the median segment which is less clearly bounded 
than usual and is longitudinally and obliquely coarsely striated 
and the excavated middle of the median segment. 

tScolia pidchrtvesttta, sp. nov. 

Black ; the head and thorax densely covered with fulvous hair 
and with a dense golden pile ; the basal segments of the 
abdomen with blue and purple tints ; the segments edged with 
pale fulvous hair; the wings fulvous-hyaline; the fulvous tint 
deeper along the apex; the stigma and nervures deep 

fulvous. 9 • 

Long : 27 mm. 

Hab. Borneo. 

Anteuu'ce black, the scape covered with pale fulvous -hair. 
The vertex behind and in the centre is strongly and closely 
punctured, and there are a few punctures on the outside of the 
ocelli ; the upper part of the vertex is smooth, bare and furrowed 
in the middle ; the lower part is punctured and thickly covered 
with fulvous hair. The cly[xnis is smooth, base, subtriangular 
and Hat ; \ts apex is flat, broadly rounded and piceous ; the apex 
of the mandibles broadly rufous. Thorax densely covered, 
except on the apical slope of the median segment, with jwle 


gulden pile and with loiigish fulvous hair. Mesonotum, except 
iu the middle behind, strongly punctured : the scu tell urn is more 
closely punctured, except on the apex and in the middle at the 
base ; the post-scutellum is closely and strongly punctured, ex- 
cept in the middle. The basal part of the median segment is close- 
ly, but not strongly, punctured. The second transverse cubital 
nervure is broadlv and roundlv curved outwardly beh>w the 
middle. Legs black, thickly covered with fulvous hair; the 
tibia] and tarsal spines are rufous; the calcaria pale; abdomen 
black ; the basal three segments with violet and blue micaceous 
tints ; the basal segments thickly covered with long pale hair ; 
smooth; the apical fringes are pale; the hair on the apical 
three segments is long and black ; the pile on the pygidium is 

Conies near to ^i, acutinerva ; it is a stout(?r built insect ; its 
clypeus is flat, not roundly con\ ex ; its second transverse cubi- 
tal nervure is broadly rounded and the abdomen wants the 
yellow bands. 

Sciplin aphtrema^ sp. nov. 

Black ; the front and vertex, the eye incision and the outer 
orbits, orange-red ; wings fuscous -violaceous. 9« 

Long : 17 mm. 

llab. Borneo. 

Antenna* black ; the scape and second joint smooth and 
shining, the flagellum opaciue. Head ; the front, vertex, eye in- 
cisions and the outer orbits — wide above, narrowing below — to 
near the bottom, orange-red. Front and vertex shining, distinct- 
ly, but not very closely, punctured, except on the hinder ed;:e 
of the vertex ; and somewhat thickly covered with shining ful- 
vous pubescence. The antenual tubercles and the parts below 
the anteunie deep black ; the clypeus smooth and shining, the 
rest closely and rather strongly punctured. Mandible> black, 
smooth, 'i'hurax above thickly covered with stiff black hair; 
the apical sloi>» of the median segment is covered with white 
hair and denrsely with silvery pubescence ; the propleura? cover- 
ed with long dark, the meso- with long pale, pubescence ; the 
nietapleura* thickly covered with silvery pile* Mesonotum 
strongly and closely punctured ; the middle behind smooth ; the 


scutclluui is stiongly. but uot very closely, punctured : the post- j 
sculelluui is more closely and regularly puuctured. The basitl , 
region of the mediaii segiijeiit Is closely punctured except tlie bnsal 
lobies at the baise. [.ega black ; the femora and tjbiw thickly 
covered with lonjf pale, mixed spursely with black, hair; the 
Mpiiies on the four front tibin.' are bright rufous, on the hinder 
black. Abdomen black ; the second and tinrd ttegnients Iiave i 
diHUnct violaceous tints ; the pubescence on the dorsal segments J 
are black, mixed with pale hair; on the veuti-al segments the I 
hair is longer aitd paler ; the apex of the petiole is strongly punc- ■ 
tured : the rest of the abdomen smooth ; the segments are not I 
distinctly fringed with hair on their apices : the stiff pile on the I 
pygidium is black mixed with white. " 

Comes nearest perhaps to S. hiimtmliji Sauss. which differs 
from it in having the wings of a deep blue-violet tint; in its 
prouotnoi being broadly rufous ; in the mesorjotum and scutellum 
not being so strongly and closely punctured, the apical halves 
of these being impunctate ; tlie abdouiinal segments want the 
blue-violet tint» and the abdomen is longer compared to the 1 
length of the head and thora.x. 

Scolm {Discoliii} tlii/<ilii-a. sp. mn". 

black: largely tinted with violet and purple tiiiti^; 
front, vertex, upper part of the occiput, a small spot below the J 
anteunie in the middle, au oblique broad mark on either side of I 
the top of the clypeus, the prouotum broadly above auda large I 
broad mark narrowed and rounded behind, on either side of ton 1 
base of the third segment, bright orange, the wings uniformly 1 
fuscous -violaceous 5 . 

Long : Hi mm. 

Hah. Boruco. 

Antenna: black, the scape, shining and covered with black [ 
hair, the llagelluui opoiiue. The entire vertex, front, and tbs J 
upper part of the outer orbits, orange yellow ; strongly, but nut I 
very closely, punctured, and covered ratlier thickly with long ful- r 
vous hair. Tlie clypeus is more sparsely punctured and its apex 1 
isimpunctate ; the two orange marks are large, covered, and almost j 
unite above ; the hair on the face is black, on the cl^'peus pale. 
The hair on the thorax is dense, stiff and black ; the punctuation J 



ou the uie^onotum is> close, almost uniform and distinct : this is 
also the case with the scutellum, except on itj? apex, which is 
smooth. The post scutellum is less strongly punctured. The 
median segment is more violaceous in tint than the mesouotum ; 
it is smooth and is covered rather thickly with black hair except 
laterally at the base. Mesopleurai thickly covered with black 
hair. The wings are uniformly dark fuscous- violaceous and are 
without a very brilliant lustre. Legs thickly covered with black 
hair. Abdomen covered like the thorax and with voilet, green 
and blue tints and lightly iridescent; it is thickly covered with 
black hair except on the second and third segments where the 
hair is much sparser and shorter; on the base of the third seg- 
ment are two broad orange marks, which are obliquely narrowed 
laterally. The frontal furrow is smooth and is deeper and more 
distinct above and below than in the middle ; the orange ou the 
front extends into the eye incisions ; the two yellow marks on 
the clypeus vary in extent : the lateral furrows on the apex are 
distinct ; the tw*o orange marks on the third abdominal segment 
vary in size and form. 

Comes near to S, bioculata Sauss. and S. ffdvi/rons Sauss. 


Mutilla ghpa^ sp. no v. 

Black ; the thorax and the base of the mandibles red ; the 
third abdominal segment covered with silvery pubescence, two 
irregularly oval marks of silvery pubescence on the base of the 
second segment: the pygidium laterally covered with U>n;r 
silvery hair 9 • 

Long : 11 mm. 

Uab. liorneo. 

Scapi* of antonmo shining, s|)arsely punctured and cuxered 
with white hair: the Hagellum opaque, covered with a microsco- 
pic down ; the terminal joint is brownish ; the third joint is 
nearly twice the length of the fourth : the antennal tubercles ru- 
fous. Front and vertex coarsely rugosely punctured: the 
punctures on the front running into reticulations. Face and 
clypeus smooth and shining ; the apex of the clypeus with a broad 
shalhjw incision. Mandibles black, rufous at the base : the apical 


tooth is long and does not taper much towards the apex, which 
is rounded ; the subapical tooth is rounded at the apex, does not 
project much and is not defined behind. Palpi long", dark tes- 
taceous and thickly covered with pale yellowish hair. Thorax 
slightly, but distinctly, narrower than the head ; rounded at the 
base, almost transverse at the apex ; it is fully twice longer than 
wide ; its sides above irregular, not contracted ; above it is coarse- 
ly rugosley punctured and sparsely covered with longish black 
hair ; the pleura- are smooth and shining ; there is a stout curv- 
ed keel in the centre of the propleurie. Alxjve the base of the 
middle coxu' is a stout keel, which extends upwards to the 
middle ; the lower edge is less distinctly keeled. Legs black, 
covered sparsely with long white hair; the tibial spines are black 
and stout; the tarsal bright rufous ; the calcaria pale. Abdomen 
black ; the basal segment short, Ix^coming gradually wider 
towards the apex, above covered with long pale hair; the basal 
segment is thickly covered with shorter black hair; there are two 
irregular oval marks of silvery pubescence on the base of the 
second segment, which is thickly covered with black hair, long at 
the base, shorter on the remainder : the third segment is covered 
with silvery pubescence ; the basal two- thirds of the pygidium is 
irregularly longitudinally striated ; the apical third smooth ; the 
sides are thickly covered with long pale hair. The keel on the 
basal ventral segment does not reach to the middle of the 
segment, is stout, is rounded at the base, its apex with a vertical 
slope ; near it the sides bear some large round punctures ; 
above the middle is a complete curved keel with a shorter one 
below on the apical half. The second and following segments 
are thickly fringed with silvery pubescence, the epipygium is 
punctured ; the apex is smooth and is roundly incised in the 


Occasional Notes. 

Dialects of the Malay Peninsula. 

I have been engaged for sometime pastinan attempt to collect 
and compare the various dialects of the Wild Tribes of the 
Peninsula and shall be much indebted to anyone who will fur- 
nish me with fresh material on the subject, with a view to its 
being embodied in a forthcoming publication. Any vocabularies, 
grammatical notes, specimens of sentences with literal (verba- 
tim) translations, and even lists of personal names, would be 
welcome, if accompanied by a clear statement of (I) the name 
of the tribe to which they refer : (2) its location (district and 
state, and approximate position on the map) and, if possible, 
(3) a short description of its physical characteristics. 

I venture to apix^al to members of the Society, or their 
friends, who may have collected such information, but have not 
the leisure or the inclination to work it up themselves, to assist 
me in this wav in th(» work of collating: these dialects. Much 
valuable material remains unpublished and is ultimately lost 
Ix^cause men, who have l)een at some trouble to collect it, keep 
it back with a view to completing it with additional matter 
which thev eventuallv have not time to collect. 

I "am imrticularly in want of specimens of the aboriginal 
dialects of the Negri Senibilan and i*ahang. but any information 
relating to the aborigines of the Peninsula will be most welcome. 

While on the subject of dialects, may I venture to draw the 
attention of the members of the Society to the importance of 
accuratelv recording- the various dialects of Malav which are 
spoken in the Peninsula. Apart from a few scrappy notes about 
the pronunciation of certain letters, practically nothing has 
been done in this department. There are now. however, in 
most districts of the Peninsula, Europeans well qualified by a 
more than adequate knowle<ige of standard Malay, and if each 
of them were to compile a record of the local peculiarities of 


the dialect spoken in the imrticular district where he was 
stationed, the result would be an invaluable contribution 
to the scientific study of the Malayan languages. Local 
dialects, which were formerly neglected under the mis- 
taken idea that they were mere corruptions of the standard 
or written language, are now recognized to be of great 
importance from the philological point of view, and in many 
countries they are being accurately recorded and studied. It 
is regrettable that in this respect we should Jag so far behind 
the Dutch, who have by this time compiled more or less adequate 
records (some of them in every way admirable) of almost every 
language and dialect spoken in their vast section of the Archi- 
pelago. To take one instance, of which I have some slight 
personal knowledge : we possess an excellent Dut^h dictionary 
of Menangkabau Malay and a goodly number of specimens in 
prose and verse, of that curious and interesting dialect, yet, 
though this same dialect, with slight variations, is spoken in 
Naning (Malacca) and the Negri Sembilan, where scores of 
Englishmen have heard it spoken, we have no adequate English 
record of it. 

AVhat is wanted, among other things, is an accurate account 

(1) peculiarities of intonation and accent; 

(2) peculiarities of pronunciation of particular syllable's, 

especially finals ; 

( 8) grammatical and syntactical peculiarities, if any, e. y, the 
use of prefixes or suffixes different from those of ordin- 
ary Malay : and differences in the construction of 
sentences ; 

(4^ preference for one of two synonyms where the stand- 
ard Malay prefers the other ; 

(5) the use of words with a meaning differing from that 

which they have in the standard language ; 

(6) local words, simple and derivative, not found in the 

standard language ; 

(7) local phrases, turns of speech and idioms. 

Another subject which needs working up is that of place- 
names, both those that appear to be Malay and such as have no 
meaning in Malay and are probably in some cases Aboriginal. 


These latter may eventually throw considerable light on that 
dark subject, the condition of the Peninsula prior to the Malay 

I need hardly add that though I have specially dwelt on the 
Malay Peninsula, as the immediate domain of the Society's 
scientific interests, yet I do not mean to underrate the impor- 
tance of contributions relating to other Malayan countries. 

C. 0. Blagden, 




[No. 38] 


July. 1902 

Aijcnts of the Society 

I •iliili'li .i>:>i XliHll'. a TK( liNKK \- ( M. 

l':ni- KhM'>i I.ik(»i\ \ l«». 

(itlii:n.\ '>I1«» 1 1 \kH A-*"«\\ I I/. I rip. 'i J". 

[No. 38] 


of the 

Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society 

JULY 1902 

Agencies of the Society : 

London and America Tkubnkr & Co. 

Paris ERN2ST Leroux & Co. 

Germany Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 


Printe[) at thk American Mission Press 


Table of Contents. 

A Malayan Element in some of the Languages of 

Southern Indo-China, by C, (), Blagdcn ... 1 

A Vocabulary of the Jakuns of liatu Pahat, Johore, 
toifether with some remarks on their customs and 
peculiarities, hy A. D. Mavhado ... ... 29 

On the Parthenogenetic Breeding of Eurycnema Her- 

ciilanea, Charpentier, by R, Hanitsch^ Ph, D, ... 35 

Malay Plant Names, by //. A'. Ridleij and C. Curtis ... 39 

Silk and Cotton Dyeing by Malays, by W. W. Skeat 123 

Malay Tiger -beetles, by H. X, Ridley ... ... 129 

A List of the Reptiles of Borneo — Addenda et ('or- 

rigenda ... ... ... .. ... 133 

Rules of the Straits Asiatic Society ... ... 137 

A Malayan Element in some of the 
Languages of Southern Indo-China. 

By C. 0. Hlagdex. 

In a former paper I endeavoured to point out that the 
aboriginal dialects of the Malay Peninsula show distinct traces 
of an Indo-Chinese element, impressed upon them, probably at a 
fairly early date, by the intrusion from Southern Indo-China of 
a race of Mon-Annam stock speaking a language which was 
closely allied to that of the Peguans and Cambojans.* The 
object of the present paper is to introduce the readers of this 
Journal to what may perhaps be appropriately de^scribed as 
the converse phenomenon, namely, the persistence (from a 
still remoter era) in some parts of Southern Indo-China, of 
distinct relics of an independent group of Malayan dialects, 
underlying the now dominant Indo-Chinese languages of that 

As might be expected, the modern representatives of this 
group are far from being pure Malayan tongues : they exhibit 
obvious traces of the Mon-Annam and other influences to which 
they have for many centuries been subjected, and it is by no 
means certain that, in their present mixed condition, they can 
all claim to be classilied in the Malay o- Polynesian family of 
languages. But whether that claim, which is sometimes made 
for them by French scholars more familiar with the Indo-Chinese 
than the Malayan languages, could be substantiated or not ; 
whether, that is to say, these mixed dialects are to be regarded 

* This »ii])jert has ]»een learnedly and (»o far as the materials at 
his tlisnosnl permitted) exhaustively handle<l ])y the Uev. Father \V. 
Sohniidt in a recent paper "Die Snrachen der Sakei und Seniang anf 
Malacca un<l ihr Verhiiltnis zu den Mon-Khniet-Sprachen", which 
appeared in Hijdrajren tot de Taal-han<l-en Volken-Kiinde van Neder- 
landsch-Tndic Vol. LI I (Series 6, part 8) Fas<'. 3-4 (The Hague, 19<>1). 

It remains to l>e seen whether the author's conclusions will stand 
the test of the further evidence that can be adducetl ; but at any rate 
he has marshalled the evidence that was before him with admirable 
skill and scientific acumen. 

Jour, straits Branch. 


as genuine Malayan languages overlaid with foreign accretions, 
or, on the other hand, as alien tongues containing a large num- 
ber of old Malayan loan words, is not for the present purpose 
very material. In order to decide this point and to determine 
whether these mixed languages partake more of the Malayan 
or of the Mon-Annam type, a careful study of their structure 
and grammar would be required, but the materials for such a 
study are at present very deficient, and in either case these 
dialects even in their present state presuppose, as I intend to 
show, the existence of a distinct Malayan continental group 
e.stablLshed at a very remote period in the south of Indo-China. 
The chief of these languages is Cham, the language of 
the ancient Hindu kingdom of Champa, which in medieval times 
occupied the country now called Annam, and in the period just 
preceding its fall (which occurred in A. D. 1471) had its centre 
on the East coast of Indo-China about lat. 14" N., though one 
of its earlier capitals was as far north as lat. 17." 37' N. This 
language is still spoken in a few inland villages of the Anna- 
mese province of Binh Thuan, near lat. 12** N., and by the emi- 
grant Cham community in Camboja ; the latter is now Muham- 
madan in its entirety, but the Chams that remain in Annam are 
mostly pagans. Each group has its own dialect, but apart 
from slight variations the language of both is the same. It is 
written in a complex alphabet of Indian origin : inscriptions, 
both in Sanskrit and in Cham, abound in Annam, and the former 
go back to about the 3rd century after our era.* According 

* The Sanskrit inftcriptionH were dealt with in a paper *' L'Ancien 
Uoyaiime deCampa d'apres le8 inHcrintionH ' l»y M. Aliel lJer«(ai<jne 
in the Journal AHiatique (Paris) .Jan. Feb. 1888. 

The innoriptionH in Cham, which have more interest for ns, from 
the Malayan point of view, than the Sanskrit ones, have been dealt 

with by M. Ktienne Aynionier in a paper *' JVemi^re Etude «ur les 
Inscriptions Tchames,*^ in the same journal, Jan. Fe]>. 1891. The 
earliest known of these Cham inscriptions dates from about the 
be^innin^ of the 9th century A. O. 

In an inwTi|)tion date<l a little later, recordinjr the dedication of 
two lields to pious uses, the expression used is hitma dun ;m/^ lit. 
'• fields two those"; the word forliod is IVi/**/, the old wonl which 
survives in Malay kamtiffan and scinbahynu(j. Most of the rest of 
the inscrijition is full of Sanskrit words, as in<leed the wh(»le series 

Jonr. Straitf* Branch, 


to Ptolemy the metropolis of this region was Balonga. This 
place can be clearly identified,* on other grounds besides mere 
similarity of name, with Bal-Angoue, of which the ruins situated 
near the coast about lat H"" N are still \ti existence, and which 
was therefore apparently the first, or at least the earliest 
known, as it ultimately became the last, of the Cham capitals. 
Its fall is narrated, curiously enough, in the Sdjarah Malayu, 
where it is called Bal, the generic Cham word for " metropolis'* 
or " capital." 

The Chams, in fact, are the remnants of what was once a 
highly civilized nation : they were the furthest outpost of Indian 
civilization on the Asiatic continent, and their country was a 
borderland where for over a thousand years Indian culture 
struggled with and was eventually vanquished by Chinese, the 
latter being represented by the Annamese, who though non- 
Chinese in origin had become civilized under Chinese tutelage. 

Such is the history of the Chams in outline : but legends 
carry it back even further, for the Cambojan traditions, for 
what they are worth, represent the Chams as having been in 
occupHtion of Camboja when the Cambojans first arrived there, 
some centuries before the Christian era : the immigrant Cam- 
bojans are said to have intermingled at first with the Chams but 
eventually to have got the upper hand and driven out their king. 

Physically the Chams appear to resemble the Malay and Indo- 
Chinese types, being described as somewhat fairer than the for- 
mer. Some of them appear to show traces of Indian and Arab 
blood. Their language, of which a good grammar has been 
published, is in its present condition a mixed language contain- 
ing a relatively large number of Mon-Annam elements. Some 
have regarded it as a Mon-Annam language saturated with 
Malayan loan words, others maintain that it is a Malayan 
language modified by Mon-Annam infiuences. As will appear 
in the sc^tjuel. I am not sure that this may not be something 

of Cliain inscriptions aiipcar to 1>c, the lan^ua^^c in which they were 
written lieArin;: nnicli ttic same relation to the siniken (*hani, aH Kawi 
prohahly did to the contemporary spoken Javanese. 

The scries extends into the Ifith (rentury, to a few years licforc 
the fall of the kin;4doiii. 

' See .1. n. A. S. (ism») <>«'>. 
K. A. Soc. No. :{h, I'Ni::. 


like a distiiictiun without a dilTerent^e ; bul d.-rtuiti it, is, at any 4 
TAte, that Cham contains a very lar^e pt-rcentage ({K>rhaps J 
iifuily .ill per c'ent.) of pure Mnlayan wurds; and In this respect I 
it seems to exceed its ueighbours, tlie dialects to be next t 

It is in Uie hilly cuuntry bounding Annam ud the west and I 
separating it from the valley of the Mekong Kiver, about laL \ 
IS- and 14 N., that these three dialect-j are found : they are j 
spoken by three savage tribes called respectively Canchu, 
Uode and Chr6ii. These tribes appear to be on much the same | 
plane uf ci\'iliK«tiiin as the Uran^ llutan of the South of tha 
Malay Peninsula; their dialecti are unwritten, and we owe 
such slight knowledge of them as we possess to the investiga- 
tions of the three or four French explorers and adminiBtratora 1 
who have interested themselves in them. Pracljcatly that | 
merely amounts to vocabularies of about 1*20 or 150 words of j 
each of these dialects.* Beaides these, there are other dialects I 
in this region which are apparently more or less related to the I 
above, and uf some of which even less is known : t most of Lheia J 
however show decidedly more relationship with tlie Mon-Annata J 
than with the Malayan family, the element;! which they havejl 
in common with the latter decreasing in relative importance { 
one proceeds north and west from the old t'liam region, 

The only other dialect I propose to deal with here belong I 
to a dilTerent ijuarter altogether: it is spoken by the Selung I 
(or SilUDg or tialone, as they are variously called) a sea-faring i 
race who inhabit the numerous islands that fringe the \\'estern ' 
Shore of Tenasserim (Lower Burma) from about lat. 13" S. to 
about lat. 1(J' N., and are marked on maps witli the rather 
highsoundiug title of the Mergui Archipelago. 

These people muy fairly enough be styled a distant branch 
of the Uranif Laut. Their physical type, to judge from photo- 
graphs, 18 more or less that of a rude Malayan race, with (possi- 
bly) some admixture of other elements, (of which the Indo- 
nesian may be one, as the Selungs, or at least some of tliem. are 

* TItcmi nrc Kivon in .Muurn, " Iai Ituynuiuo du t'aiiiWlKC." 

I CJf lliu DaliiiRr, liinvover. n kimmI ilk-ttoiiary liy DiiiiriHTtuan; liax 

l>.!vn(iul>]i»lif<l(H«>iiK KuiiK. IWO). Iti>-H Mun-.Viiimm dialtwt. tmt 

ruiitiuii- u (-(.Ttain iiuinlwr uf MiilnpkD wiinln. 


mesaticephnlic^ while the true Malays tend to the brachiiccphalic 
type). The three wild tribes previously mentioned, I should 
have said, appear from descriptions and such illustrations as 1 
have seen, to be at least in part of non-Malayan stock : some 
authorities have insisted much upon their Caucasian type, by 
which I suppose is meant that they differ considerably from the 
Mongoloid type of features common to both Indo-Chines and 

The Selungs, whatever their race may be, are pagans in a 
low state of civilization, and their language is an unwritten 
tongue. It comprises several dialects differing considerably 
from one another, so that people from two islands barely eighty 
miles apart have some difficulty in carrying on an intelligible 
conversation together. Several short vocabularies* of this 
language have been collected at various times by different 
persons, and they serve to illustrate these dialectic variations : 
but as it is not (|uite clear to which dialects they respectively 
refer, the Selung must for our purposes be dealt with as one 
language. It would appear to be really a Malayan language, 
less mixed with other elements than are the tongues already 
mentioned, and its claim to be mentioned here at all rests merely 
on its present geographical position : but being the speech of a 
sea-roving race of islanders it is obvious that its position does 
not furnish such cogent evidence for the anti(|uity of Malayan 
elements in Indo-China as do the inland dialects previously 
enumerated ; nor is it as closely connected with any of them as 
they evidently are with one another.. 

It may however be said to form a link in the chain 
between these mainland dialects and languages of the Eastern 
Archipelago ; and that is the reason why mention is made of it 
here, although its existence does not really affect the main 
argument of this paper. 

It would be* merely wearisome to present a whole series 
of vocabulari(»s of the five languages I have enumeratt*.d : a few 
words will st*rve to i^onvey some idea of the nature of the 
Malayan element*! which they contain and will exhibit the 

" They JUL' ;xivcii in AiuIoinoii. " The Sclunj,'?* uf the Mergui Archi- 

K. A. S«K.-.. No. :js. i;H»-i. 



peculiar character of their relation to the Malayo- Polynesian 
family of languages (][uite sulticiently for the present purpose. 

The numerals, which are very characteristic, are as fol- 
lows : — 



thaa, sa 
dvaa, dva 
(thalapan, ^ 
^salapan, |- 
^samilan ) 
Uha pluh. } 
(sa pluh ) 

Eleven sapluh sa 

Twelve saplu dva 
Twenty dva pluh 
Hundred ratuh 
Thousand ribau 





































cha, chet 








doalapan doapan toapan chowai 

saplu plu 

saplu sa plu sa 
saplu doa plu doa 


plu sa 

plu toa 
toa plu 


ta plaw-twa 
twa plaw 

ha repou [appan] 

doa plu doa plu 
Not given 
Not given 
The th'* forms in ('ham belong to the Binh Thuan, the 
j?-forms to the Camboja, dialect. Presumably the double 
forms in Selung are also dialectic variants. The spelling of Se- 
lung is the old fashioned English, that of Cham the modern 
scientific system f ; as to the rest, they are collected by 
PVench authorities but I am not quite clear on what system they 
are spelt. 

These words are interesting as exhibiting a numeral system 
which, though unquestionably and obviously Malayan, is in some 

* This th- Ik the Euji^HhIi sound in thing. Sonic dialect h of 
AchincHC also turn s- into th- in thiM way. 

t 81i{j;litly niwUHoii by the French tendencies of the trunKliterator. 
IHs c -- ir hi« f(' ■-=■ a Honnd varyinj^ l>etwecn the vowels of Fr. mntr 
and ni'Hf or the two cu in Fr. Utinux. \\\\i it. is the real // (Fr. on)-, 
a't'i la a lengthenin*? of w. 

.Jour. Strail.H Bmiich. 


respects clearly more archaic than that of Malay and could 
not, therefore, have been derived from it. In fact, even if these 
words were all that we knew of the dialects in question, we 
should be justified in saying that they constituted a distinct 
subgroup of languages, not directly derived from any existing 
Malayan group. The forms for one, two, four, Jive and sir run 
practically through the whole Malayo- Polynesian family almost 
unchanged. In four the mainland dialects approximate most 
closely, perhaps, to the Bugis itpnh and Madurese impak, unless 
indeed the -k, which appears to be unpronounced in these two 
languages, is to be regarded merely as a device of writing, not 
as the remnant of a real -k ; Selung agrees with the Javanese 
and Dayak pat. In sir they all agree with the Javanese uiin in 
the absence of the first syllable of the word (Malay anam) but 
retain the a of the second syllable like the Malay (also the 
Madurese auam): the Achinese and Kayan Dayak form 
nam is identical. 

The forms for three agree substantially amongst themselves 
and (except that some have a guttural for the initial N ) with the 
great majority of the Malayo- Polynesian family which retains 
the old form tolu or telu; but differ from Malay, which has 
another word, tiffa. The nearest approximation to the Cham 
Cancho and Chroai forms appears to be the Bisaya (Philippines), 
tlo: compare also the Sulu * Kdtludn ( =^ Ka-tlu-an), "thirty." 
For the guttural, compare Sulu Iklog, Selung k'heu, with Tagalog 
itlof/, Malay tilnr, " egg,'' The Rode contraction to recurs in Sulu. 

The forms for seven, on the other hand, differ from the 
typical Malayo- Polynesian pitu and agree subsantially with the 
Malay tujoh, save only that Selung puts /- for t- , 

In both these cases, it is very noticeable that the dialects 
now under consideration agree substantially with Achinese 
fiellin or lint pronounced /^///^'V and Uie'e, ** three;" and tujuh, 
** seven") and with some of the Dayak dialects of Borneo, for 
which the reader may refer to No. '> of this Journal, where 
out of a list of eleven dialects, ten have forms of tolu for three, 
and eight of those ten agree with some others not included in 
the ten in having forms of tujoh for seven, 

* Between Borneo an«l the IMiilippines. 

K. A. Soc, No. 38, liH>2. 


In eight and fnne there is some confusion, which may be due 
either to the collector or to the wild tribes themselves ; possibly 
the latter get a little mixed when they come to the higher 
numbers. Anyhow, they are said to use for eight a form 
aaUipan which occurs again in Sundanese (Java) and also in 
Mangkasar (Macassar, of Celebes), in the latter under the form 
salfpang, and there means, as it ought to mean, nine. Oddly 
enough, the Minangkabau Malays use it, interchangeably with 
dulapcm (dilapan)^ and also make it mean eight Vice versa, 
these wild tribes use variants of the Malay and Achinese form 
of eight for nine, Cham, it is to be observed, uses both forms 
correctly, but has also another form for nine^ viz., Samilan, 
the Malay Sambilan (Sitnbilon), which may perhaps be merely a 
loan word from Malay itself. 

There has been, in historical times, a Malay immigration 
from Sumatra (and particularly, it seems, from Minangkabau) 
into Camboja (where this form Samilan is used) and the Cham 
and Malay communities in that country, though distinct, are in 
close contact with each other, and being of one religion some- 
times intermarry. 

It is noticeable that Selung differs from the other dialects 
in having preserved, though in rather uncouth shape, the original 
Malayo-Polynesian forms for eight (walu) and nine (siwa). 

In the forms for ten these dialects agree substantially with 
the Achinese piluh, in shortening the first syllable ; this does not, 
apparently, occur in the Bornean dialects, which in other re- 
spects show a fairly close resemblance in their numeral systems. 

For eleven and upwards the dialects agree amongst them- 
selves and with some of the Bornean dialects, but differ from 
Malay, Achinese, Javanese, etc., in not using forms compounded 
with 'IfHas (originally -?/y//o5, the Malay ba/as, ** to repay," with 
the meaning '* to return,*' i.e. to the hand on which the count- 
ing was first began). 

The Selung for " hundred " appwrently has the prefix sa- 
** one " reduced to a, which occurs also in a Cham subdialect as 
hfi'. For the -Z- of Selung t/a/iloam, Malay yari/?/*, " needle." 

Thus while there are here particular words agreeing, each 
with some different Malayan languageor group of languages, 

•Tour. Straits Branch, 


the sum total of the numeral system of these dialects is (juite 

characteristic iu its individuality. 

A similar state of things prevails in regard t ) many other 

common words, as the following specimens will suffice to 

show: — 

Cham. Cancho. Kodc. Chreai. Selung. 

Dog : atJifiu, (tsou. so, so, oiee^ aai, 

Melano-Dayak attmi comes nearest but the word, though 
not found in Malay (except in the expression ijiyi asii^ 
** canine teeth") is very wide spread, e.g. Javanese asu. 

Fowl : m'inuh', mrnyt:, meituc, [tttsl, -; , , 

Compare the Javanese (and almost universal Malay o- 
Polynesian) iiuvntk. 

Tiger : rimoiuj, remotn/. imotuj, Itmontj, 

(The Selung word is different, viz: pfitinoo, ptmk^ which 
Hnds its analogues in aboriginal dialects of the Malay 
Peninsula, e.g., TSmbe' ma'/<M(for which see No. 24 of this 
flournal, p. 17). The Achinese form is rimong like the 
Cham. I think there is no reason to doubt the identity 
of the word with the Malay rimau. Possibly the form 
hmiiiuni is a sort of Ilobson-Jobson word, that is to say, 
really the old native Malayan word for *' tiger" but 
twisted into its present form by a fanciful notion that 
it ought to mean ** the beast of Ilari " (hanmnya^ see 
Maxwell, Manual of Malay, p. 21 ). I confess that even 
Sir William's brilliant scholarship cannot convince me 
that his Tamil '* male lion " derivation is the right one. 

Klephant : linmn, emmi, roiuon. iomon, 

(Selung has nazalt^ the Malay qajah^ a word of Sanskrit 
origin). Couipare the Bulud Opie (liorneo), Javanese 
and fianipong (Sumatra) /imrr/< ; this word, which is not 
found in Malay or Achinese, is probably derived from 
lima, tin* old word for '* hand,*' ihe application being to 
the end of the animaPs trunk. One of the Sanskrit 
names for the elephant (haatin) has a similar derivation ; 
and compare also his Latin opitliet uin/uimauus^ '* having 
a serj)ent for a hand." 

IJ. A. S<K'.. No. :ivS. I'.mi. 


Cham. Cancho. Kode. Cherai. Selung. 

i^lantain : piUei. poteif, umtoi, phumpetetf. 

(Selung has pechan*/, the Malay ftisang.) With these 
forms compare the Dusun p/ivtie, Tagbenua pu}iti, Bulud 
Opie/;//^e//, Kian ( ? Kay an) Dayak puteh (all of Borneo), 
bumbawa punti^ Mangkasar tmtij Malagasy tintsi^ Fijian 
rudi: not found in Malay, Javanese or (I believe) 
Achinese ; but it is the old original Malayo- Polynesian 
word. Fhum is the Malay pohun^ " tree," Cham phinu 

Rice : brali, brea. brat, pras, < '^ 

Malay beras ; I find in a Bugis vocabulary printed in the 
Arabic character at Singapore, bdiriV ; Achinese biritf 
(apparently pronounced brOeh, final -a in Achinese being 
as a rule pronounced -h as in Minangkabau Malay, where 
the word is barefi ; in the Naning (Malacca) pronuncia- 
tion, boreh). This word is a good instance of the rule 
(first formulated by the late Dr. 11. N. Van der Tuuk in 
liis *^ Outlines of a Grammar of the Malagasy Language," 
1805) that *^ when tlie Malay and Batak e^iuivalent 
word has /* and the Tagal or Bisaya has (/, both the 
Kawi and Javanese have no consonant." * The Batak 
form here is boras Tagalog bigds^ Bisaya boyas^ Kawi 
wwas^ which last contracts to Javanese woa^ while Bali- 
nese has baas. It will be noticed that Cham and it^i 
neighbours here agree most closely with the Sumatran 
and South Celebes type and differ entirely from the 
Javan and Philippine. Selung rather stands alone, as in 
many other words. But Selung -/- corresponds in some 
other cases to Malay -r- e.g. mata-aloi (= matnhart)^ 
" sun ; " t/ahloam (= jarvm) " needle." 
Kice (in husk) is in Cham padai : Malay padi^ Achinese paile\ 
Javanese pari, l^tak pft(je\ Bisaya jnihii. Here again, 
Cham agrees, as regards consonants, with Malay and 
Achinese, but it differs here from Batak as well as 
from the others, f 

* This is often ch11(m1 '* Vhii der Tuuk's first rule.'' 

• These consonantal chanj^es are rejj:nlar and exemplify Van <ler 
Tmik's second rule ; see l>elo\v, n. v. "nose." 

Jour. Stmit<« Kranch. 


Ox, cow : tamow lemo, imo. romo, Vmn : Malay l^mbu, in 
Achinese the same, and also limo, 

Kain : hajan, ujou, hayan. j/(in. ]i, ' 

Malay hnjau : but Batak and Javanese udfut*, Tagalo^ 
and Bisaya olau. Selung k- represents Malay h- in 
ketam (= hitam), " black " and a few other words. 

Root : in Cham vgha, agha (in accordance with the peculiarity 
referred to below) : this is not, apparently the Malay 
nkar but i/ra/, ** Sinew." In form it is nearer to the 
Formosan vgat ; Tagalog and Hisaya ogdt than to any 
other forms. Batak in this word agrees with Malay. 

In a sub-dialect of Cham of which specimens are given 
by Morice in an article entitled " Les Tiams et les 
Stiengs" in the "Revue de Linguistique " Vol. VII, 
vii, pp. 359-370, ?•- is often re-placed by g- e.g. agopao 
(= saribu) a " thousand" : hagafon (= 8aratus\ " a 
hundred." In Tagalog these words appear as liho and 
gatoa respectively. 

Tongue : in Cham diUih, thtlah (both being used) ; approaching 
nearer to the Tagalog dita^ Bisaya diUi^ than to the 
Malay and Achinese lidali, Batak also has diUt : here, 
therefore, (/ham agrees closely with Batak and the 
Philippine languages but differs from Malay and Achinese. 

Belly: -. ^ * te'an. tt^au, kajean, k'iau. 

( hfan. '' 

Bisaya, Iranun and Dusun tian, Sulu tidn, Tian is given 

in some Malay dictionaries as a Javanese loan word 

meaning *' belly (of a pregnant woman)." In Achinese 

fifien means " fa»tus," mitiyin " to be pregnant "; in 

Cham mfvtean means "pregnancy," holi teati (literally 

** fruit of the belly," Malay huaii^ Javanese woh^ " fruit") 

means " family." 

Hand : fangiu, ten gam. vangdn, tan gin, lengan. 

Malay tangan, Dusun Idngan^ Dusun of Kimanis longon. 

For the Selung /- = Malay /-, compare loojoo (= tujoh), 

" seven." 

* Van der TuuIc'm third rule : '* when a i' of Balinege and Malay 
in d in lUtak, the Javanese an«l Kawi l>oth also have f/.'' 

R A. Soc.. Xo. 38, 1902. 


(Jham. Cancho. Uodi\ Cherai. Selun^:. 

Nose: ndnnn, \chn}i'\. duua, dana, ■' •'* 

Malay and Achinese have hidimrf. Cham uses both 
adung and idung. Compare the Tidung ( Borneo) adung, 
Dusun of Kimanis ttdung. Javanese and most of the 
Bornean dialects replace this d by r; the Philippine 
languages (and in this word Madurese also) have -/- 
here ; Batak has -g-. The importance of this particular 
set of consonantal correspondences was also first pointed 
out by the late Dr. II. N. van der Tuuk. They consti- 
tute his second rule : — " When the Malay and Balineso 
d of equivalent words is represented by / in Bisaya or 
Tagal, both the and Kawi have r." Chnfi is 
probably Cambojan. 

Fire : npvii. ) (appm, 

fipnei, r npui, pui, puoi, \apoi> 

npui, \ (npoee, 

Malay api^ but Achinese and several Dayak dialects, eic, 
have opiii. 

Water : /V?, ) \mctti, 

ffi. eo, /</. 

ear, ) • (atvaen. 

Malay (ti/^r, Achinese it/it-y Madurese ^img, etc. 

Stone : baiau. pt'toii, hato, potnu, hatoe, 

Malay hatu, the Achinese e<|uivalent is written in the 
same way but pronounced /^rl^V. 

The few words here given siiflice to show that these 
dialects have peculiar points of relationship with several widely 
separated i\[alayan groups of languages and could not have 
been derived from any one of them. Their affinities appear to 
be most marked with Achinese. as is shown especially by the 
fact that in common with that language (and quite the opposite 
to Malay), they tend to throw the accent on the last syllable, 
which is consequently often strengthened to a diphthong, at the 
expense of the first, which is weakened and sometimes entirely 
suppressed: Compare /)^//^ **ten" with the Achinese peluh and 
contrast the Malay pidoh : similarly compare the forms, in 

Jonr. Straitrt Branch, 


Cham, Achinese and Malay respectively, *thmi^ tihwu tahmt, 
"year"; * dhnu, de/iin, da/ian^ "lx)ugh"; ngan, ngott, dingau^ 
"with:" do\\, diik^ diidnk^ *' remain, dwell, sit"; and mcBtai, 
mate, mati, *' dead." Selung has matai, wliich form also occurs 
in Hornean dialects as matfi. 

It is probably owing to the same tendency to weaken the 
first syllable, that Cham has hajau for hujwi, " rain," akati for 
ihan, *' fish," adung for ftidung, ** nose," balau for biilii, " hair," 
and the like : and here it goes further in this direction tlftn 
Achinese or any other Malayan language that I am aware of, 
although this vowel change appears also (but more rarely iu 
some Bornean dialects, e.g. Tidung adnng, *' nose," Biadju 
Dayak Inilftu, Lawangan balu, Siang toaiioli [sic], "hair." 

It will of course be understood th-it the words here given 
have been expressly chasen with a view to exhibiting the 
Malayan element in these dialects, and that alien, especially 
Mon-Annam forms have been deliberately avoided. The 
Malayan element is strongest in the substantives, but is also 
represented in some of the verbs and adjectives, e.g. 

Cham. Cancho. Rodr. Chr^ai. 
Buy : hUi. blot, hfoi, hloi, 

Malay hHi^ Achinese, hloi. 
Sell : pablii (in Cham : the rest are different) : Achinese puhloi, 
(five: hrei. hrt\i/, Inoi. proi, 

Afalay heri, Achinese hri. 
Descend : tntn, frttnh. trun, [/ttm^/w.] 

Malay ttirutty Achinese trun. 
White : ;)a/i7/ (Cham) ; po/o//n^, /)a^/fX' (Selung): Malay putrh. 
Drunk : mnibuk (Cham) : Malay inahok. , 
New : barfir (Cham) : Malay bd/tani. 
Unripe: imrlah (Cham) : Malay mintaJi,\ 

* Thin irt a <litt*erent //<- from the other : thin fh- and dh- are true 

t I take these examples from V. «len Hamer's Proeve van eener 
Verf?liken<le Woordenlijst van zes in cle Z. O. Afd. v. Borneo voorko- 
niende Taaltakken. 

'X For the present purjmse it is not necessary to pnrsne this coni- 
)»arison further. SnfKce it to say that the Malayan element can be 
traced (at least in (^ham and to some extent in »Serung, there being no 

R. A. Soc., No. 38. 1902. 


The main object of this paper being merely to point out 
the existence of Malajo- Polynesian words in these languages 
and not to determine the difficult question of their right to be 
classiGed as genuine members of that family, I shall pass 
somewhat lightly over their grammatical characteristics of 
which indeed, except as regards Cham, little is as yet known. 
Cham forms its derivative words, like the Malayan, but 
unfortunately also like the Southern Mon-Annam languages, 
with prefixes and infixes : The common ones in Cham are the 
prefixes : pa^ imr-^ ta- or da- and infixes : -aw-, -nee- and -am" or 
-7/ia>-. Most of these reappear, in more or less similar forms, 
with much the same force, in Achinese ; but also in Cambojan, 
where they are very freely used, and to some extent in 
Peguan.* Suffixes, corresponding to the Malay -kan and -an 

Prefixes. Achinese. Cham. Khmer. Man. 

Verbs of action : causal or 

merely transitive p^-, pn- pa- p-, pH- p-, ph-, b- 

Verbs, jjjenerally intransitive ... m^-, mil- ni<je- ? ma- 


Verba of state, intransitive ... -^ni- -nice- ? -m- 

Substantives ? -mcR- -m-, -amn- -m- 

Substantives -fn- -an- -n-, -an- [-an- ?] 

In some other cases, where the forms agree, the meanings appear 
to ditt'er somewhat. 

do not appear to be in use at the present time either in Cham, 
Achinese, Cambojan or Peguan ; but if the derivation given 
above for limopn (liman) from lima is right, they must have 
existed formerly to some extent in Cham. 

The Selung dialect forms verbs by prefixing vie- as in 
mftotjam, "to smell" (Malay chium), na- &s in wi-^aw/, " to 
make" (Malay buat)^ naleat, "to look" (Malay lihai\ nad6k^ 
" to ait " (Malay dudoky Achinese duk^ Cham dok) ; also, appar- 
ently, by nasalizing the initial consonant, as in nadone^ " to 
sleep" (Malay tidor) and nnkoat " to fear" (Malay takxU), But 

tlata for the other dialects) through most of the parts of speech, but 
the n<m-Malayan element is also, appai*ently, present in them. 

* A few instances of this general correspondence must suffice : 
there are of c<mrse many tlifferences in detail. 

.Tour. StraitA Branch, 



tins luat may possibly be duo to Uie phonetic decay of a pn-lix 
uf the form mm- or miii- (tile Malay mi-, ii-gii;/'. etxv ) : fur a, word 
like iiuiiKjai, " to cry " weiiii* to prt-auppoae an uarlii^r miiani/ni 
(Malay taixjh, uiimmgia) and mairuli, '- tu langh" an earlier 
m<i'-a"'nli (Malay Hr-laieu). 'I'hi' loss of a medial -«- aeeuia more 
protiable than that of a -t- : it may be, however, tliat the Selunjt 
ill these words b» in ■■ seven " had replaced the ( by /. In tliat 
case these forms probably exemplify the preSx wc- above. 

Seiung bus the suffix -ht" e,g. in the word i«aHthi (for imt- 
Mikan, tliii-kildai' <^r mimlMihkaii, from Wi, to "bring." Malay 

The ideological order of these languai^es is iinknuwu tt.i 
me. except that in L'ham (as in the Moii-Annain languages 
affain) it appears to agree substantially with the Malay order: 
the attributive adjective and the genitive follow the principal 
noun, the object follows and the subject precedes the verb ; 
but in Selung the object precedes tlie verb, which is very 
strungi', unless it is due to the sentences haviiii; been collected 
through the medium of a Burmese int«rpreter. in speaking to 
whom the tietungs may have cast their words into the Burmese 
order. It is curious that Andamanese exhibits the uame 
plieuomeaon : but there is no evidence that the Selungs are in 
any way connected with the Andaman islanders: both in 
physique and in language the two races are iguite distinet from 
one another. 

I have already indicated the conclusion to which a neces- 
sarily rather superficial comparison of these dialects seems to 
me to point ; I regard them, or at least all of them except 
Selung, as proof positive of the establishment on t&e mainland 
of Southern Indo-China of a Malayan sub-family which must 
date its separate existence from a period so remote as to be 
coeval with die differentiation and dispersal of the exixting 
insular language groups of at least ihe Wesleni part of the 

I Malayan Archipelago, and which formed something like a link 
between the fiumatra, lk)riiean and Philippine groups. 
I think it is wortli adding tliut the suutheru Moii-Aniiam 
languages, which so closely resemble the Malayan in certain of 
Llivir structural forms, though by far ihe greater part of tlicir 
vocabulary is radiially differeal and non-Malayiin. owe thi^ 
II. A. Sm- , ^^^ an. lot 


resemblance, in my opinion, to the fact of their having developed 
on what I believe was originally a Malayan soil. The true 
explanation of the peculiarities which they share in common 
with the Malay o- Polynesian family is, I believe, that they have 
been formed by the synthesis of a language introduced by alien 
immigrants from the north with the Malayan speech of a people 
who then already occupied Southern Indo-China The 
northern invaders must have absorbed and assimilated these 
primitive Malay o- Polynesians and imposed upon them their alien 
language, which in its turn has been twistt»d, in the mouths of 
their mixed descendants, into something of a Malayo- Polynesian 
form, by a process that has been aptly called ** inverse 

The result of such an introduction of a strange tongue is, 
as a rule, that it becomes modified or recast into some form 
that comes natural to the people upon whom it is imposed : this 
may be illustrated by such well known cases as the Pidgin Eng- 
lish, of the China ports, Negro English, or the Malay of many 
Chinese, Tamils and Europeans. 

In such cases the mere vocabulary, though foreign to the 
speaker, is learnt readily enough ; but he cannot help speaking 
his new tongue in the manner of his old one. lie pronounces 
the new words in the way that comes easiest to him and utters 
them in what is to him the natural order, though that may not 
be the order proper to the language as spoken by those whose 
original speech it was. If it was natural to him to use prefixes 
and infixes in his old language, I imagine he would be apt to 
apply them to his ac(|uired tongue in the same way and for the 
same purposes. This, to my mind, is the explanation of the 
curious fact that in Cambojan and Peguan we find these modes 
of formation, which are so characteristic of the Malayo- Polyne- 
sian family, while the difT(?rence of the niaU*rial elements of 
languat^e, i.e. the words themselves, prevents us from admitting 
an original kinship between the Mon-Annam aivd the Malayan 
families of speech. 

I am afraid that this idea of the formal elements of lang- 
uage surviving, while the native vocabulary is gradually being 
supers(»dtHi by foreign words, may remind some people of the 
jKTsistence of the grin after the disappearance of the Cheshire 

Jour. Strait.'f Brani'li. 


cat. But the real analogy is to be found in those petrifactions 
where every cell and fibre of the original wood or other sub- 
stance are in course of time accurately reproduced by the stony 
deposit that replaces them. To drop figures of speech, which, 
however apt, can never be conclusive, when one considers that 
the Malayan languages readily adopt foreign words and ins- 
tinctively fit them up with Malayan prefixes and suffixes, one 
can almost see the lx»ginnings of such a process as I have indi- 
cated : words like ka-i-aja-an, ber-ahd or even di-report-kan 
(whicli last can be heard any day when a Malay police officer 
re^ids from his Station report \x)6k in a Police Court) are in- 
stances taken at random, where a Sanskrit, Arabic or English 
loan word has been subjected to this treatment. 

One has only to carry the idea out to its logical conclusion 
and imagine a Malayan language gradually allowing its native 
vocabulary to be superseded, more or less completely, by 
foreign loan words, and the result would be much the same as 
what we now find in southern Indo-China. If the process were 
arrested half-way, a fairly evenly mixed vocabulary would be 
formed, like that of Cham : a more advanced stage of change 
would result in somethuig like Cambojan; while a thorough 
application of the same principle might end in producing a 
language like P(»guan, when* only a very small percentage of 
words is to Ix^ found wliicli show any signs of kinship with the 
Malayan family. Nevertheless the ideological order of these 
languages, that is to say the order of words in a sentence, is 
substantially th<* sauK* as in the Malayan languages* and the 
same system uf prefixes and infixes (though not, apparently, of 
suffixes) still survives. 

On the other liand a strong tendency is noticeable, of which 
it lias Ix'en shown that even Achinese (Malayan language) 
(exhibited the beginnings, to contract disyllabic words into mono- 
syllables or at least int<j (juasi-monosyllables, in which one of 
the two syllables is almost suppressed. There are also other 

"^ TlioiT i> leascui !<► holicvo ilial in this rcspoct the Mun-^Vnuaiii 
laiP'un"^<'s ilid not diiVoi oii^'iiially from the Malayan. 

a ♦ 

i:. A Si.r.. N(.. ;>. I'.MiJ. 


peculiarities wliich distinguish the Mon-Annam from the Malay- 
an group, e.g., a preference for hard sounds * (surds) and the 
occurrence of true aspirated consonants : these latter char- 
acteristics may be due to the non-Malayan element in these 

The hypothesis here put forward would account for the 
remarkable resemblance in structure and formal elements 
between the Malayan and the Mon-Annam languages, a re- 
semblance which, so far as I know, no one has yet satisfactorily 
explained, f But of course it must remain a mere hypothesis 
until these languages have been thoroughly studied and 
compared with one another. 

This much, however, is certain : one Mon-Annam language 
which cannot be accused of having been developed on Malayan 
soil, namely the Annamese, which grew up on the borders of 
Kwang Si, within the (-hinese sphere of influence, does not 
exhibit these phenomena, but follows the Chinese system of 
tones, though it has not adopted the Chinese ideological order. 
I take it that the differences between Peguan and Cambojan on 
the one side and Annamese on the other are the measure of the 
difference between a Chinese and a Malayan environment. 

AVhether, however, this suggested explanation be the true 
one or not, there remains the fact that in Peguan, and still 
more in Cambojan, there are a fair number of words (too many 
to be due to accidental coincidence) which correspond in form 
with Malayan words of similar meanings. As already stated, 
they are generally more or less contracted or mutilated, by the 
weakening or entire loss of one syllable, while the Malayan 
languages retain them in their fuller disyllabic forms. That 
l)eing the case, the presumption is that they are genuine Malay- 
an words ; and this presumption is strengthened when any of 

♦ Clearly, however, it is at a relatively modeni date that the 
Mon-Annam languages have changed some of their sonants into surds : 
for in many cases (especially in many of the Indian and some of the 
Malayan loan-words) they still ajipear as sonants in the written 
language. Conversely Camhojan ])ron<)nn<'es some surds as sonants. 

^ Sir. Himly in his paper rcferre«i to )>el(»w. throws out a hint 

tliat some such explanation is possi)»](\ hut does not enlarge upon 


Jour. Straitrt Kranrli, 



them are found to occur again in some distant island dialect 
of the Malayan family. 

I propose to give a few histances to show the forms which 
such words assume in Cambojan and Peguan, but before doing 
so, I may as well point out that Indian loan-words, as to the 
origin and derivation of which there can be no doubt, Undergo 
a similar mutilation in the Southern Indo-Chinese languages so 
that an analysis of the changes exhibited by these Indian words 
will serve as a guide in identifying the Malayan words to be 
found in those languages, which are often hardly recognizable 
without some such help. 

The following are examples of words of Indian origin com- 
mon to Malay and these two languages : I give the Malay, 
rather than the Sanskrit form, because the former is more 
familiar to those who know Malay. 










> ■ ■ Tkn 1 . « a a 

.. chapey [chappy] 

.. gruw [Kru] 

.. chaud [chan] .., 

.. jdmbuw [chompu 
< dew-ta J tevoda] 
( deb-ta [t^poda] 
.. dos [tons] 
.. nagar [nokor] 
.. nag [neak] 
.. puos [buos] 
{ wangs [vong] 
1 pangs [pong] ... 
.. mukkh [miikh] 
.. raj [reach] 
.. satw [sat] 
. sut [saut] 

... kala. 

dewatan [tewJltau], 
.. duh [tuh]. 

. . . 

The following list shews some 
which Malayan words suffer, viz. 

... nak [naik]. 
... ^"~"~^"— 

) wang [weang] 

) wongsa. 

... muk. 

... rajji [reachea]. 

... sat [sdt]. 

... sut. 

of the similar changes 

K. A. Snc, No. fW, inf»2. 



I. Suppression ov wcakciiiiix of the first sylhiblc* : — 








Pusat * 




... jlier [clufcu] 

k-tiln [kf^dan] 
... k tfij) [tcdap] 
... kniin [kram] 
... jwa [chvoa] 
... tram [troirij 
prak [prak] 

Saronj^ ... sroin 

II. Loss of initial consonant; — 
Chin chin ... anchion 

Trbu ... ... ainbau [ainp<»n] 

Tabong ... ... ainban<r [ani[K)n*iJ 

Dachin/ ... ... anjintjc [anchin/] 

III. Loss of first sylhble : — 
Tumbok ... ... pok [bok] 

Aban*^ ... ... pdn>r [bon^if] 

LStak ... ... tak [dak] 



chhu [tsn] 



*[Noto] Aohincse bOnoi, •'iron." It is porliaps worth noticin*; 
that the Cainbojan word for .silnrry like tlie Po«j:uaii for iron^ is 
Mahiyan, while the Cambojan for iron^ viz., icf: [del] is coiiiiiion to it 
an<l Chinese. The Canilmjan wor«l for fjfdd is w«'w[w<6w]; the same as 
the Malay iiifis, atmvff ; Imt this is believeil to he of Indian origin. For 
tin the Pe^^uans nse the ex|)ression p&soa dak [pasoa daik\ literally 
** water iron," alluding presumably to the alluvial formations where 
tin ore is got by washing river sand, while the (.-ambojans call it Samna 

pdhaiig [S(iinm\ fmhi1ng\ from which, as samna appears properly to 
mean ** lead," 1 conjecture that the C'ambojans first got their tin 


from l^ihang, for the wonl jtahaiif/ does not seem to have any mean- 
ing ill their language, so far as can be ascertained from the Dictionary. 
Similarly in some of the Western languages (e.g. Arabic an«l also 
Hindustani, I bclievj') tin is called by a name nl-hnhil derived from 
Kaluli. a ]da<'e on the Western shore of the Peninsula probably iilen- 
tical with Kcdah. 

.lour, strait.s Branch, 


IV. Loss of second syllable : — 

P^chah ... pf*k [bek] .. j-j^kaw [piVko]. 

I*atah ... Pnk [l3ak] ... puit [pat]. 

Huka ... pT'ek [br)k] ... pak. 

Mata ... mat [mit, mot]. 

Tanda . . . tfin [dan] . . . 

Tolak ... tol [del] ... 

Pakai ... blk [peak] ... buik [puk]. 

The Cambojan and Peguan words have been transliterated, 
to the best of my ability, from the written languages : where 
the pronunciation is different, this is indicated by a second form 
in square brackets, following in the case of (*ambojan, M. Ay- 
monier's spelling and in the case of Peguan the indications 
given by lias well, adapted to the ordinary modern system of 

This list could l)o considerably lengthened, specially as re- 
gards Cambojan, if space permitted : but I think it is enough * 
to show that there is a Held of research waiting for any Malay 
scholar who has a fancy for hunting up Malayan words in these 
languages. It would however be a great mistake to suppose 
that the bulk of the vocabulary of Peguan or Cambojan can 
be accounted for in this way : the contrary is the fact, and at 
first sight any Malay student looking through a dictionary 
of either of these tongues would be struck with their non- 
Malayan aspect. It is by neglecting the essential relationship 
which exists Ix^tween Peguan and Cambojan f and ignoring the 

*In presentinj^ a list which merely compares a few w^onU in Pejjn- 
an and Caniliojan with what I l)elieve to be the corre8non<Unj» wonls 
in Malay, without takin<; into account the other .Mon-Annam dialects 
and the other lan«rua;j:os of the Nfalayan family, I am aware that I am 
orten«linji; against one of the primary canons of comparative philoloj^y. 
IJut my present object he'u\i<: to make out merely such a prima fttrie 
case an will justify further investi»ration in this <lirection, I have 
thoujrht it superHuous to heinjr in the corroborative evidence that can 
be supplied from the other l!in«ruajj:es. I hope some ilay to deal with 
this matter more fully and ><ysteiiiatically. 

t It will interest Straits renders to know that this was first noticed 
by our Straits aitliority, I. |{. Lo«^an. It ha«« since been <*onclusive|y 
proved by Forb *s in his " La'i«rua.Lres of Further India." 

K. A. Soc, No. :W. 1!*.*2. 


wide differences in lexicograpliical material between the latter 
and the Malayan languages, that some authorities have been 
misled into denying the existence of a Mon-Annam family and 
asserting that Cambojan should be classified as a member of the 
Malayan group. 

So far as it goes, this list of words serves to illustrate the 
subject of this paper by giving another instance of the traces 
of a Malayan influence in Indo-China, which must be of very 
ancient date, and which is obviously an important element to be 
considered in relation to the unsolved problem of the origin of 
the Malayan races. 

Many considerations point to the conclusion that at least 
some part of the ancestry of those races* is of continental 
Asiatic origin : there are anthropological reasons, which I am 
unable to deiil with, but which have been summed up roughly 
(and not very accurately) in the phrase " Mongoloid type ;" 
ethnographical considerations, such as were dwelt upon by the 
late Sir Henry Yule f and others, specially a curious agreement 
between the races of the Archipelago and those of Indo-China 
in a considerable number of points of detail regarding customs 
and usages (a kind of evidence, which though very weak if 
depending merely on one or two points of agreement, is in its 
nature cumulative and gains strength in an increased ratio as 
additional ix)ints are discovered); and, finally, there is the 
linguistic evidence, the investigation of which is, however, 
involved in many preliminary difficulties. It is to be feared, 
for instance, that the late Mr. J. K. Logan's achievements in 
this direction are not a safe basis for further en(iuiries to start 
from. On the other hand Professor Kern, J by a comparison of 

* I refer here more particularly to the true Malayan races 
inhabiting the western half of the Indian Archipelago, to whom 
alone the anthro)>ological argument applien. How it is that 
the totally distinct stocks known as Papuan, Polynesian, Microneffian, 
etc., come to speak languages that cannot l>e severed from the Malayan 
family, is another problem, also at present awaiting solution. There 
seems, however, no <louht that it is the case, in spite of the 
dilHculty of finding an explanation for it. 

tfJounial of the Anthropological Institute, 1880. 

t In the paper to which a reference will he fouml helow, the 
nio>t conclusive, perhaps, of these words are the naniex for sugar-cane, 

Jour, straits Branch. 


a con^jiderable number of names of plants, animals and the like, 
which run (more or less) through the whole range of Malayo- 
Polynesian languages from Madagascar to Uawaii and from 
Formosa to New Zealand, has shown that the speakers (whoever 
they were) of the mother tongue from which these iuimmerable 
languages were evolved, were a seafaring people, of some 
moderate degree of civilization, (they were actiuainted with tlie 
use of iron), who at the stage preceding the differentiation of 
these languages (but not necessarily originally) inhabited a long 
coastline of some good-sized country situated within the tropics, 
somewhere in the western half of the vast region over which 
these languages now extend. lie points to the South -Eastern 
coast of Indo- China as the country that tiUs in best with this 
conclusion ; and without going into details, lays some stress on 
the considerable Malayan element that is to be found in the 
existing languages of that region, which fact, as he observes, in 
view of the relative unimportance of the small Malayan com- 
munities to be found there in modern times, can only be explain- 
ed by the hy[X)thesis that they formerly constituted a much 
more numerous and powerful factor there than they do in our 
own day. 

This last point it has lx*en my endeavour to illustrate in the 
present paper. 

It mav lx» convenient if I summarize the conclusions to 
which the considerations here brought together appear to me 
to lead: — 

(1) The Malayan element in Cliam and its cognate dialects 
was not borrowed from any other Malayan language or group 
of languages. It has been separated from the western insular 
groups for as many centuries, as they have been from one an- 
other, and has become differentiated from them as they have 
amongst themselves. 

(2) The Southern Mon-Annam languages and Cham are 
at once Malayan and non-Malayan : largely Malayan in structural 
formation, mixed but predominantly non-Malayan in vocabulary, 
they are probably the result of an intimat4^> mixture between 

luvimna, lice (in liu^k ami husked), shark, |»ia\vii, sea-turtle, buffalo 
fiinl <'ioeo<lile : but there are a jiooil many more lie.sides. 


Malayan and alien tongues. Tlie Malayan element is strongest 
in the southeast, weakening progressively towards the north and 

(8) At a remote age, before tlie introduction of the alien 
element just referred to, probaMy the whole coast of southern 
Indo-China from the Irrawad}' to the borders of Tongking, and 
certainly the eastern part of it from (^ape ►St. James to the 
neighbourhood of Hue, was more or less occupied by communi- 
ties speaking a pure Malayan language, possibly already slightly 
differentiated into dialects. 

(4) It was probably from this region at a time when it was 
still purely Malayan, that the various emigrations took place, 
which ultimately carried dialects of that language to the distant 
islands in which they are now spoken. 

I am content to rest this last proposition on the grounds 
put forward by Professor Kern in the essay already referred 
to ; the other three appear to me to follow, though not all with 
the same degree of certainty, from the linguistic evidence of 
which some specimens have here been brought together. 

Since writing the above, I have seen in the T^oung Pao for 
March, 1901 (Series II, Vol.2, No.l, p. 86) a review by M. Gus- 
tave Schlegel of a recent Siamese grammar. In noticing this work 
(which appears to be the best Siamese grammar hitlierto 
published) after pointing out, what has been pointed oui before, 
notably by the late M.Terrien de la Couperie, that Siamese con- 
tains a very large percentage * of words common to it and 
Chinese (especially, the numerals f which are, up to a certain 
point, pure Chinese loan words) and also a considerable number 
of Sanskrit and other Indian words, the eminent C'hinese 
Professor of Leyden hazards the view that the residuum of 
Siamese will be found to be a Malayan language, and supports 
this thesis by a few words which m^ doubt are Malayan but ma}' 
very well be loan words like the Indian ones; everything that 
the venerable professor writes is worthy of consideration, but 

♦ Dc la Coin)eric puts it as hijxli a^ IVA\ Ip^r <M»iit : ** Tia]i,Lrua«r«^s of 
Cbina Ijefore the Cliinese" pp. .'»9-0(). 
t N«t however, "one'' an«l *' two.'" 

Joiir. straits nrancli. 


with all deference. I venture to say that this is indeed a Ix^ld 
theory. His chief arjj^unient, apparently, apart from the afore- 
said Malay loan wards, is that Fu-nan (or Pu-nam), the old 
name for the country now called Siam, is capable of being 
c»xplained by a Siamese derivation which M.Schlegel invents for 
it: unfortunat<^ly all monosyllabic languages lend themselves 
only too easily to hypothetical derivations, of that kind; and 
that its people, in the early centuries of the ('hristian era, are 
described by Chinese chroniclers as being '* ugly and black '* 
with *' curled hair," resembling", the Professor himself says, the 
Semangs. On the strength of this he assumes the Siamese to be 
Malayan. Everyone who has been to the Far East should know, 
and M. Schlegel can hardly have forgotten, that the Siamese 
are several shades fairer and the Semangs several shades darker 
than the average Malay complexion : and that neither Siamese 
nor Malays have curled or curly hair. Ilis argument compels 
M. Schlegel to deny th(» historically certain fact that the Thai, 
that is the prese»it Siamese, are comparatively recent arrivals 
from the interior of Northern Indo-('hina ; and he entirely 
overlooks the essential unity of their language with that of the 
Laos, Shans, etc., ri^jht away to the Khamti on the eastern 
bi^rder of Assam and a string of tribes in southwestern China. 
If the Siamese spoken to-day at Bano^kok is at bottom a Malay- 
an language, so must l)e the languages of all these northern 
tribes, for they are substantially the same and cannot bi^ severed 
from one another. That appears to me to be an exceedingly 
large conclusion to draw from a few Malay loan words to be 
found in modern Siamese, and I am convinced that it will be 
repudiated both by Siamese and Malay Scholars with tolerable 

Of course the possibility that there is a Malayan element 
in the blood of the modern Siamese of the South is not thereby 
excluded : that there should be such an (»lement is an almost 
necessary conse«juence if the main argument of the foregoing 
paper has anything in it. But apart from modern intermixture 
which the difl'(T«*nce of religions keeps at a mininmm, it can 
onlv hav(^ conn* in at second hand throuj^h the Peorufin or 
Camljojan iiihjii/itants who occupied Siam lie fore the Thai con- 
quered it. Tliat, hf>\vever, is a very different matt4»r from the 

K. A. Soc. N<». :^S. \\M)2. 


hazaidous assertion that Siamese is a Malayan language, an 
assertion which re(iuires far more cogent evidence to justify 
it than M. Schlegel has supplied in the article to which I refer. 

It is hardly necessary for me to add that this paper is 
merely intended to draw the attention of the readers of this 
Journal to the subject ; so far as the greater part of it is con- 
cerned, no claim is niade for originality, and it is in the main 
merely a restatement of what has been set forth elsewhere in 
fuller form by others. My excuse for offering it to the Soci- 
ety is that some of the readers of this Jo'urnal may not have had 
access to the existing literature on the subject. At the risk of 
appearing egotistical. I desire to put on record that at the time 
my former paper was published, I had not heard of Professor 
K uhn's admirable essay entitled '* Jieitriige Zur Sprachen K unde 
llinterindiens." In it most of my conclusions were antici- 
I^ated, and, if I had known of it.s existence, my paper would 
not have appeared, without at least some reference to it. 
The occasion for this personal explanation, which ought per- 
haps to have been made sooner, is a remark by Dr. Luering in 
No. .'3.") of this Journal. 

I apjxind a list of the [)rincipal authorities consulted ; — 

AvMnNiKli. (irammaire de la langue Chame ; Les Tchames et 
leurs Religions (Revue de TUistoire des Religions. 
181)1); The History of Tchampa (Imperial and Asiatic 
Quarterly i^eview, July 181)3, and Transactions of the 
Ninth (.'ongress of OritMitalist^, London, 1893); Voca- 
bulaire Cambodgien-P'ran(;ais ; Dictionnaire Khmer- 
Fran (;ais : 

Van Langen, Atjehsche Taal ( Uandleiding : Woordenboek); 

llAHWKLL, Grammatical Not<?s and Vocabulary of the Peguan 
Language ; 

St EVEN iS, Vocabulary of English and J'eguan ; 

Keun, Do Fidjitaal : Taalkundige g(»gevcns ter lK»paling van 
hot Stumland der Maleisch-Polynesische Vulken (Vcr- 
sla^cn en Meded('elin<:<Mi der Kuuiklijken Akademie van 
Wctenschappen, Afd. iietterkuiKks Amsterdam, 1881)). 

MniijA, Le Royaumr du ('ami)odj4<' ; 

.lour. s(rjiit.>* Uruiuli. 


AnokhsoN, The Selungs of the Mcrgui Archipelago; 

KuiIK, Ikntriige zur Spracheiikunde liiiiterindieiis (Sitzuiiji^s- 
berichte der Philosophisch-, Philologisch- und llistori- 
schen classe der Koniglichen Akademie der VVisseu- 
schaften; Munich, 18H:)); 

lllMJ'.V, Beinerkungen iiber die Wortbildung des Mou (iOiU); 
I'eber den Wurterschiitz der Tscham-Sprache (ifn'tL), 
1 8D0. 

Niemann, Hijdrage totde Kennis van der Verhouding van het 
Tjaiu tot de Talen van Indonesie (Bijdragen tot de 
Taal-, Landeu Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indie, 
Ley den, 1891.) 

Bkandks, Bijdrage tot de Vergelijkende KUnkleer der Wes- 
tersche Afdeeling van de Maleisch-Polynesische Taal- 

Van DKK Tuik, Outlines of a (iranimar of the Malagasy 
Language (Ueprinted, from the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, in Vol. 1 of the Second Series of Essays 
Kelatiiig to Indo China, for the Straits Branch). 

K. A. SiK-.. No. .>. i!H»i 

A Vocabulary of the Jakuns .of Batu 

Pahat, Johore, together with some 

remarks on their customs 

and peculiarities. 

Hy a. D. Maciiado. 

At the headwaters of the Sembron^, the Bekok and the 
Simpaii^ Kiri in the interior of Johore, three large streams 
which, draining one into the other, form lower down the Batu 
Pahat Kiver, are to be found scattered families of Jakuns. 
These people live bv agriculture, are employed by the Chinese 
pepper and trambier cultivators in clearing jungle for them, and 
furnish the Malays through barter, their stock of jungle pro- 
duce. Years of contact with the Chinaman have robbed them 
of much of their primitiveness. So great is their assimilation to 
the Chinaman, that when cadging a bowlful of rice from him, 
they have been often seen manipulating a pair of chopsticks with 
a dexterity une(iualled by the Chinaman himself. They now 
profess an abhorrence for monkeys, snakes, lizards and similar 
delicacies, and it is sometimes amusing to behold their studied look 
of consternation at any o!ie suggesting the possibility of any- 
thing so loathsome forming part of their daily menu. Yet the 
Malays declare that in the privacy of their own homes, they 
will devour anything, from a snail to an elephant They do 
not regard with disfavour the giving of their daughters in mar- 
riage to Chinese planters, such unions usually assuring to them 
and their relations some measure of certainty of a regular sup- 
ply of food. They are thus a somewhat mixed people to-day. 
In general appearance they are not unlike up-country Malays. 
There is still however that peculiar lustre in their eyes, an ap- 
pearance of independence and yet of timidity, an indefinable 
something in fact, which to u practiced observer, at once pro- 
(;lainis them their primitive origin and their probable connexion 
with the other wild trilx's furtln*r north in the pcuiinsula. They 

IJ. A. Sim-.. No. :]s, limj. 


do not call themselves Jakuns, that word being a term of oppro- 
brium if applied to them within their hearing. Curiously enough, 
the Sakais also resent the application of the word Sakai to them, 
and like the ;:^akais again, they call themselves Oraug Uhi^ up- 
country people. The Malays in their dealings with the Jakuns, 
call them Pa anfjkat (adopted father) Ma augkat (adopted 
mother) adik angkat (adopted younger brother) and so on as 
the case may be. This pleases them hugely, though not to the 
extent of inducing them to part with their stock any cheaper or 
in greater quantity. For all that, they are very much harrassed 
and robbed by the Malays, in particular by those who have 
some authority over them. In my journeys into the interior of 
Batu Pahat, I have often had patiently to listen to the com- 
plaints of these men against their Malay oppressors, many of 
undoubted genuineness, without however having the power to 
render any relief. 

It may not perhaps be generally known that the Jakuns 
practice the rite of circumcision, but in a way peculiar to them- 
selves. They do not, like the Mohammedans, remove the whole 
skin, but merely part the upper folds of the prepuce by a longi- 
tudinal cut or incision, causing the rest to drop into a bunch below. 
Asked as to the reason for this peculiar rite, the oldest man 
present related to me the following legend. Very many years 
ago, when the whole country belonged to them and they were 
under the rule of a great Batin (King of their own. as great as 
the Sultan of Johore,) this great Batin had a wife who for a long 
time remained childless. At length, a male child was born to 
them, who after thriving for some time sickened and was on 
the point of death. On consulting a Pawang (Diviner or Sor- 
cerer) who happened in this case to have been a Mohammedan 
Malay, he declared that the only means of saving the youth's 
life was by circumscision. To this the great Batin demurred 
but vowed that if his child recovered, he would becircumscised. 
lie got well and the operation was in due time performed 
but in order that he might not thereby be held to have embrac- 
ed th(* Mohammedan faith, this peculiar style was adopted, 
th(» liat liaving in the meantime gone forth that all male Jakun 
children were in future to undergo this operation in the manner 
indicated alx)ve, which explains the existence of this peculiar 

Jour. St rait M Branch. 


custom to-dav. This rustom is uttorlv unknown to the northern 
Sakais who appear to dread the operation, so much so that man}' 
Pahang Sakais have told me that but for this one opt^ration, 
they would have embraced the Mohammedan faith. Another 
reason why a Sakai will not become a Mohammedan is that he 
will be obliged to eschew such delicacies as he from time to time 
picks up in the jungle, in particular the bamboo rat {lihizoneijs) 
which is to him the most toothsome and delicate of foods ! 

These Batu Pahat Jakuns told me that in days of old, they 
possessed a very extensive vocabulary of their own. All that 
now remains of this once extensive vocabulary are a few words, 
which they still use interspersed with Malay and which are 
transcribed below. Even these few remaining words, the 
rising generation of Jakuns do not appear inclined to use, so 
that in a short time, their once extensive language will be a 
thing of the past. I should add that a great number of these 
words have appeared in one of the earlier issues of the Journal 
collected by Lieut. Kelsall, K. E., from the Endau Jakuns, while 
a few seem peculiar to the Batu Pahat people. 

List of Jakun Words at present in use among the 

Jakuns of Batu Pahat. 

Xow, klak. 

Day after to morrow, durik'. 

Morning, lorn. ('•Lorn" in ISianiese m^nins air.) 

Thunder, pitr-h. (^'Pat^'h" is '\SIave' in Malay.) 

Jjghtning, gintal. 

Tiger, jerokee. 

You, atok, h(»o. (Ileh is Sakai for vou.) 

\\o\\ kolop. (In Perak '*kulup" also means boy among 

Malays, while in i^ahang, the same word 
means, among Pahang Malays, male organ 
of generation.) 

(iirl, dai-ying (Siamese for woniaTi is Pu yin.u) 

Eatli(»r, bai. 

Aunt. amai. 

rnclo. wAli. 

Cninarricil man. pMigantiii^. 
girl, dai-ang. 

II. A. Soo.. No. :K VM)!.. 


Cheek, pipi. 

(■hill, da^o. 

Forehead, ktiiinj^. 

pjyebrow, bulu halis. 

Widower, balu. 

Widow, indoutr balu. 

Divorced man, silai. 

Divorced woman, indonu' silai. 

Cold, sidtk. 

Father of first born child, p'miot. 

Mother „ „ ,, ,, indong miot 

Porcupine, sebuntu. 

(libbon, tawok. 

Doji:, koyok. 

Durian fruit (hurin Zihcihiiins |j.), tuang 

Tampui (Uttvcaiirat Malaifdhd)^ b(»rket. 

Papaya {Carica Pfipnt/a), kuntaia. 

►Sweet potato, tilak. 

Don't know, l)r'-na-huk. 

Finished, bek. 

Man, b'orant^. 

Woman, oyan*(. 

Father of dead child, niantui. 

Mother ,, ,, ,, indong- mantai. 

Want, endjik. 

Don't want, n'gnin. 

To procreate, m'nuju. 

Female organ, kache. 

J)rink, jo ho. 

Thirst, chekat. 

Tired, kabo. 

Head of father or mother-in-law, hombubu. 

Forehead, k'ning. 

Heel, tumbit. 

Mouth, bibir. 

Jungle, debri. 

Ant, m'ret. 

Klephant, pechem 

Mj)S(iuito, rengit. 

Jnur. Sh.nls Hrani.-ii 



Pij^, jokot. 

Khiuoceroji, s'likrat. 

Come, kiah. 

Friend, teniaii. 

Knee, to-ut 

Frog, bihoug, or cliikoiig or li'liap. 

To kill, kleng. 

Weak, beh rot or beh alah. 

Firestick, larak, 

Firewood, Unguii api or clieMior. 

Not got, pohos 

llaiiibow, bohuta or kawat. 

lUow pipe, temiang. (Tuiuiang is Malay for that ixirticular 

species of bamboo from wliich lilow Pi|XJS are 

made, the Dambiwsa Wratii.) 
liiver bank, t'rbis. 
Angry, t'keng. 
No, beh. 
(io, jok. 

Spider, t'wowoh. 
\Vood[K*cker, t'rloni. 
iiOprosy, p'ngundim or l>arak. 
Koraj). (a kind of ring\v«)rm connnon among all jungle 

miMi. likewise amonjjc .Malav.s and ►Siamese who 

dwell in the interior) Losomj. 

K. A. S«K-.. No. 3>. W^rt 


On the Parthenogenetic Breeding of 

By R. Uamtsch, Ph. D., 


Although I have already given some account of the breed- 
ing of the huge Fhasinid insect, since identified as Enrtf enema 
hcrcnlatmt, Charpentier, in the Annual Reports of the Rallies 
Library and Museum for 1897 and 1808, it seems desirable to 
put it on record in a more connected form. 

About January 1897 Mr. L. A. Fernandis, Taxidermist in 
the Raffles Museum, received a living female of this species, 
but as it had passed through several hands, its place of origin 
could not be traced. Possibly it may have come from Java, 
lie kept it alive, feeding it on guava leaves (Pisidinm guyava^ 
L.), and in February it began to lay eggs, lie kindly presented 
me with a number of those eggs, most of which hatched during 
April and May of that year, but one not till August, and the 
last one in the middle of September. As soon as the young 
ones were hatched, they applied themselves very vigorously to 
the consumption of guava leaves, and grew so quickly that the 
first one out was fully developed on August 11th, casting its 
last skin on that date, i. e., more than a month before its last 
sister Qg^ was hatched. During growth they cast off their 
skin several times without any great effort, only rarely losing 
a leg in the process, until the last cast, when many of them 
lost several legs, one even as many as five. Naturally these 
were then helpless in feeding themselves, not being able to 
cling on to the guava leaves, and they soon died. But the in- 
dividuals which were successful afforded an interesting sight 
when the last skin was cast. Tp to this they had been stick- 
like in appearance (Malay name *• Bilalaug Ranting," Stick In- 
.sect), without wings, uf dark brown colour in the earlier stages 

K. A. JSoc., No. :«», Wni. 

36 EriiTC'SEMA IlEECULANKA, Charpenticr. 

and tiiriiini^ inlo grey in llie Inter stages. Now they suddenly 
uppearod in a glistening new green skin. wit)i long wings, and 
tbe body seemingiy aliuogt double it» former diameter. All 
specimens n-ere female, and a f^w weeks after tbey had reacb- 
ed the adult stage, they began to swell np and lay e|^s, the 
Brat of them being laid on September 16th. None of the fe- 
males had ever come int<^ contact with a male insect, having 
been carefully kept in a large airy case consisting of glass and 
perforated zinc, exhibited in the entrance hall of the Raffles 
MuHeuni. Kg^n were continually being laid by the sister in- 
sects up to February IH1I8, the insects dying about two or 
three weeks after tliey had deposited tiie eggs. (If the eggs 
laid during the last four months of l>i^~ and the first two 
months of 18'J8, a careful account was kept. IWery morning I 
inspected tbe case, removed the eggs which had Ijeen laid du- 
ring the past twenty-four hours, and placed the eggs laid on 
dilTerent days in separate boxes, duly dated. The lirst young 
ones of this generation appeai-ed in March and the last in Au- 
gust, requiring for their development from 105 to more than 
340 days of which great divergence in time I cannot give 
any explanation, bfost of them, however, were hatched be- 
tween the 193tb and '2\^th daya, tbe raaxiuium oumljer being 
hatched on the 2'iiith day. The accompanying table shows the 
proportions of eggs batched on different days. This generation 
was rather weakly, only a few reached maturity, most of then] 
dying off when shedding their skin two or three stages before 
maturity. The firat of theiu reached the adult stage on August 
Hitli, m'J8, and never having come intji contact with any male, 
began to lay eggs on September l.jlh. These eggs did not deve- 
lop, and none of the other individuals of this generation laid 
any eggs. 

The reason why the eggs of the last generation did not 
develop was very probably in conseijuence of their artificial 
surroundings. If I bad been able to keep the insects in more 
natural conditions and to devote more care to their feeding, I 
ft^'l sure I would have been able to rear a few more par- 
thenogene tic gen e ni ti itns. 

This appears to be the lirst instuncc of rurthcnogeneifiH 
observed amongst I )rlIioptera, and there ure now only three 


SF.A. (j'harpeiilii'i 


orders of insects left in which this mode of propagation has not 
yet been described, viz., (.k^leopt^ra, Strepaiptera, and Aptera. 
In Ilymenoptera Parthenogenesis occurs amongst tlie Tanthre- 
dinidii> or Saw Fiies. Cynipidie or Gall Flies, L'halcididi», and 
certain Bees and Wa^ps. Amongst Lepidoptera there is per- 
hajiw only the one wetl-eatablished case of Sc/mnfiin, and 
amongst Diptera that of Chiroiio-aiu, amongst Thysanoptera the 
case of Thrip^, and amongst N'europtera a doubtful case of one 
of the Uaddis Flies. Apatam'a. More common again are well- 
established cnseH of Parthenogenesis amongst llemipt^ra, ^iz.. 
in tJie Aiihidie or I'lant-Lice, and Coccida? or Stale Insectis. 

Description nf the adult female: 'I'he total length of the 
largest specimen, preserved dry. in -'3il ram. (about 9 inches), 
bnt all the measurejnentj^ given Ijelnw are taken from a very 
perfect spechnen preserved in sjNrit, measuring 204 mm. (about 
rt inches), the total length in both cases being exclnaive of the 
antenme, but inclusive of the oripositor. 

The head is oval and smootli, Ki mm. long, with three very 
distinct ocelli, the antenna- being 27 mm. in length and consist- 
ing of 2G joints. 'I'he prothorax is corrugated, without spines, 
and only 1 1 mm. in length. The raesothorax is .S9 mm. long 
and spined. On its dorsal surface there are about sixteen spines 
arranged in two irregular rows of eight each, laterally about 
eight spines on either side, and ventrally two irregular rows of 
about six sjMnes each. The metathorax, IG^mra. long, is smooth 
dor^ally, but provided with a few blunt spines laterally and 
ventral ly. 

All the abdominal segments are smooth. The first segment 
measures 12 mm., the second, third, fourth and fifth 14 mm. 
each, the sixth !.'> mm., the seventh 13 mm., the eighth 10 mm., 
the ninth and tenth 7 mm. each. The ovipositjr is large and 
boat shaped, measuring 311 mm. and projecting beyond the last 
segment by I'.l mm. The stylos are 12 mm. long: they Rre 
narrow Hat plates with a dorsal vertical ridge, appearing there- 
fore X S'haped in transverse section. 

The first pair of legs mea.sures 112 mm., the .second 90 
mm., the third 122 mm. The femora of all legs bear spines 
arranged in three rows, but the tibin of the lirst pair of legs 
are almost ^-moolb, whilst those of the second pair are more 

K. A- 9oc.. So. 38. 19D±. 

38 ElTRYrNEMA HERruLAXEA, Charpentier. 

Rpinj and those of the last pair still more so. The animal has 
the power of reproducing legs lost during the process of cast- 
ing of the skin, especially in the earlier stages, but in my speci- 
mens the new legs never grew up to the size of the normal legs 
of the opposite side. 

The wing covers measure 30 mm., the wings themselves 77 
mm., reaching down to the end of the fifth segpnent. 

The eggs are oval and smooth, of dark brown colour, 
measuring 5 by 4 mm., surmounted by an almost spherical capi- 
tulum, 1.5 mm. in diameter. These eggs were figured by Dr. D. 
Sharp, F. B. s., of Cambridge, in his " Account of the Phas- 
midje, with Notes on the Eggs." in AVilley's " Zoological Re- 
sults," part IX, tig. 39, under the name of Cyphocrania 
hamtH'hi^ n.n., and the author says that they are remarkable for 
the large size of the capitulum. Later on, however, he identified 
the species as Kun/cnema hn-rnhinfa, Charpentier. 

Jour. 8trait9 Branch. 





Malay Plant Names. 


In Journal No. 30 a list was published of Malay names of 
plants with their e(|uivalents in Latin and English. It has been 
considered by various persons that it would be useful to have 
the names in Latin-Malay, and Mr. Curtis has compiled this 
from the original work. This also gives an opportunity of add- 
ing names since obtained, and of makins^ various corrections 
in identification and spelling. Dr. Clercq, who is much inter- 
ested in this study of native plant names, has criticised the ori- 
ginal list, and added a number of names and suggestions, which 
are incorporated herewith. One or two words have been added 
from Clifford and Swettenham's Dictionary, but many of the 
plant names therein are unidentified with the plants, and so use- 
less for this purpose, and some are not Malay Peninsula words, 
to which this list has been conGned. 

Sric H t ijic X(i iH f.t. 

Abrus precatorius, L. ... 

Abutilon indicum, L. ... 

Acacia pseudo intsia, Willd. 

„ pennata, Willd. 

(Var pluricapitata). 
„ Farnesiana, \Villd. 
Acalypha indica. 

{ Urtica/:ece). 
Acanthus ebracteatus, Wall, 

Acorus calamus, L. 


R. A. Soc., No. 38. 1902. 

Malay Karnes. 

Akar belimbing. Akar saga 

Kambong lobo. Bunga kis- 

ar. Malbar. 
Akar kapok. Kayap. 

Akar kayu manis. 

Rumput lis-lis. 

Jeruju. .Ferujah. Ourujuh 

Jeringu. Deringu. 



Acriopsis javanica, Heinw. 

( Orchide^r). 
Achras Sapota, L. 

Acrostichum aureuni, L. 

Acronychia Porteri, Wall. 

A. laurifolia, Bl. 
Actinodaphne sp. 

Actinorrhytis Calapparia. 

Adenosma coeruleum, Br. 

(Seroph ularin€{e), 

„ capitatuni, Benth. 

Adenostemma viscosa, Forst. ... 

( Compo8il(P), 
Adenanthera pavonina, L. 

Adenosacme longifolia, Wall. ... 

Adina rubescens, Ilemsl. 

Adinandra duraosa, Jack. 

( Ternstnrmiacerr). 

•} su. •.• •.• •.• 

a I ri LI. ... ... ••« 

Aegiceras iiiajiis, Gaertn. 

Aeschynanthus radicnns, Jack. 

Aegle Marmelos. 


Sakat bawang. Sakat batu 



Katiak. Bimau hutan. Me- 

Gambadak. Rejang. 

Medang kuning. M. ku- 

Pinang Sendawa. P. ban- 
tu. P. Penawar. 

Magun jantan. Bapulut. 

Timbah tasek. Tasek-tasek. 

Tasek-tasek. Ruku hitam. 


Rumput pasir. Sumbong ga- 

Saga. Kanduri batang. 

Nasi-nasi bukit. 

Murombong. Peropong. Be- 

Poko gula. Tiup-tiup. Me- 
dang petutu. Medang api- 



Teruntum. Kukiilang Laiit. 

Akar l?ambeh daun. Akar 


Jour. Straits Branch, 



Aganosma mar^inata, Don. .. 

Ageratuin conyzoides, L. 

( Comp(fsitre). 
Aglaonema angustifolium, \. E 
Br. ( A roideo!) 
,, marantifolium, Schott... 
„ minus. Ilk. f 

„ oblongifoliuni, Schott. .. 

Aglaia argentea, King. 
(rrillithii. Kurz. 
,, odorata, Lour. ... 
odoratissinia, Rl. 

glabrillora, lliern. 

Tenuicaulis, Iliorii, 

Agelooa vestita, Wall. 

Agrostistachys longifclir. , Benth. 

Agrostophvlluin gluniaoonni, 


Alrhornea villosa, Muoll. 

Alourites nioluccana, Fj. 

Alooasia longiloUa, Mi(|. 

( .1 ioii1e(€ ). 

macrorhiza, Schott. 

U. A. Soc., No. :W, 10O2. 

Sakat limah. (Pahang). 

Tahi ayain. Tombok-tombok 

jantan. Sianggit 
Sumpuh bulan. Sumpuh 

kring. Penggelu* sagut 
Birah ayer. 
Alata hudang. Salimpat 

Ayer. Senjuang hutaii. 

Mata Risol. 
Lidah gajah. 


Balun hijau. 

Belangkas. (Jhulan. 

Sulubat jantan. Tumilang. 

Belangkas hutan. Ranilni- 
tan Pachat Jantan. 

Pasak bras-bras. >[ulupas. 
Pasak Linga. IVsak Merah. 

Kasip bukit. 

Tada Ikan. 
Kaching-kaching. Rang-ku- 

chang. Akar rusarusa. 

Tel or bujak. 

Bunga sakat. 

I^ambahan bukit. Rami hu- 
tan. Rami bukit. 
Kamiri. Buali keras. 

Koladi rimau. Keladi uhir, 

Keladi sebaring. Kehidi. 
Birah negri. 



Allomorphia exigua, Bl. 
( Melastomace^e), 

„ Griffithii, Hk. f. 

Allophyllus cobbe, L. ... 

Aloe ferox, Haw. 

Alpinia conchigera, Grift. 


involucrata, Grifif. 


,, galanga, \u 

,, Rafflesiana, Wall. 

Alstonia scholaris, Br. 
„ macrophylla. Wall, 

,, spathulata. Bl. ... 
Allium cepa, L. 

Alsodeia echinocarpa, Korth. 

( Vi(dace(e), 

,, Kunstleriana, King. ... 

membranacea, King. 
„ lanceolata, Wall. 


Alternanthera sessilis, Br. 

Alseodaphne semicar{Mfolia, Hk. 

Pakan rimbau. Sendudak 

gajah. Senduduk hutan. 

Panghong. Kerakup riman. 

Kaduduk gajah. Endebi. 
Kapo-kapo. Kurukap rimau. 

Tutup bumi rimbah. 
Terentang bukit. Tumbit 

fiidah buaya. 

Lengkuas ranting. Kela- 
moyiang. Jurunang. 

Kantan hutan. Puah putih. 

Lengkwas. Murawang. 

Pua mengkuang. Tepus ki- 

Getah pulai. Pulai. Rejang. 

Medang tai kerbau. Buta- 
butadarat. Tembusu paya. 
Chendai petri. Buburas. 



Aho-lumut Juta-juta. La- 

lada. Lelada. Sibilek. Se- 

gumpa betina. Medang 

Sigoh. Marajan roinko. 

Melor angin. 
Ina kechil. 
Akar rumput Kelama hijau. 

Bayam pasir. Bayam tana. 

Kerak-kerak paya. Keru- 

mak bukit paya. 
Medang lebar daun. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 



Alseodaphne umbelliflora, Ilk. f. 

Aljxia stellata, Roem. 
„ lucida, Wall 

„ pilosa. Hook. ill. 
Amaranthus caudatus, L. 
«« gangeticus, L. ... 

,, retroflexus, L 

„ viridis, L. 

„ spinosiis, L. 

y I o|jp. ... ••• ••• 

A mpelocissus sp. 

„ cinnamomea. 
Amorphophallus variabilis HI.... 

,, prainiana, Hook. f. 
Amygdalus persicus 

Anadendron montanum. jSehott. 


A. latifolium, Hook. til. 
Anacardium occidentale, L. ... 

(*4 nacardiacea). 
Anaxagorea Scortechinii, King. 

Ananasa sativa, L. 

A ncistrocladus penangianus, 

Wall. (Dipteti^arpe^), 
Aneilema nudiflora, Br 

( Commflinncetr), 

K. A. Soc., Xo. 38, 19<«. 

Medang ketanahan. M. loso 

Belangkas hutan. 
Ampalas hari. Milor. 

Ampalas hari. Mempelas 

Hari. Pulasari. 
Ampalas wangL 
Bayam selaseh. 

Bayam merah. 

Bayam dun. 

Bayam monyet Bayam pu* 

Bayam duri. 
Akar chabang tujoh. 

Akar puding rimbah. 
KumbEing brankio. 

Likir [Jkir ular. 
Kenari wolanda. 

Akarasam tebingdarat Akar 
tebing agu. Akar Murian 
sumbong. Sugunja. A. 
chabai hutan. 

Akar surundang. 

Oajus. Jambu monyet Kaju, 

Pali monyet. 

Akar Julong hitam. 
Rumput Tapak burong. R. 

Lidah lumbu. R. Kurunit. 

R. Sarang tupai. 



Anaectochilus Reinwardtii, Bl. 

Anisoptera Curtisii, King. 
( Dtpterocarpei^ ). 
„ glabra, King. 
,, costata, Korth. 
Anona muricata, L. 
(A nonaceiE). 
„ reticulata, fj. 
„- squamosa, L. 

Anplectrum glaucum, Triana . 

„ divaricatuni, Triana 

,, polyanthum, Clarke 
Anisophylleia disticha, Ilk. f. . 
( RhizophorecB), 
„ apetala, Scort. 

„ Oriftithii, Oliv. 
Andropogon intermedius, HI. . 
,, muricatus, L. 
„ schoenanthus, L. 
Antrophyum retioulatum 

Anthistiria arguens, Willd. 
( Graminf(e) 
,, gigantea, Cav. 
Anisogoniuni esrulentum, Presl 

(Fiticfs), ' 
Antidesma alatum, Ilk. f. 
( Kiiphorhiacea^), 
buiiias, Muell. ... 

Bunga tulis. 


^[ersawah merah. 

Mersawah ular. 

Brikaya blanda. Xona blanda 

(Sour sop). 
Xona kapri. (Bullock-heart) 
Xona. Sri kayu. (Custard - 

Akar dumah bukit. Akar 

seduduk. Sendudok Rim- 

Akar kamunting. Kamunting 

bukit. Chambai hantu 

Akar jambah surai. 

Dalik limau manis! Medang 

Kumpas dadeh. 
Rnmput piiit. 

Akar wangi. Kus-kus. 



Rumput saraT\g pipit. 

Rumput riang-riang. 

Paku l)enar. Paku tanjong. 

Peruan hitam. Berunai Ra- 

Bras-bras hitam. Lundo. 

^[ata punai. Buni. Buneh. 

Jour, straits Branch, 



Autidesiua cuspidatuoi, MuoII ... 

,, fallax, Muell. .. 

(fhacsembilla, Gaert. ... 



microcalyx, Ilk. f. 
leucocladon, Uk. f. 
Moritzii, Muell. 
velutiuuni. 131. ... 


Apurusa aurea. Ilk. f. ... 
( E*iphurbinct.'ic), 

,, Beiithamiaim. Uk. f. ... 
,, Maingayi, Uk. f. 


ticifolia Haill. ... 

,, microcalyx, Uk. 

inicrosphjrra, Uk. f. 
,, nervosa, Uk. f. 
nigricans, Uk. f. 
Prainiana. Uk. f. 

.sU'llifpni. Uk. r. 

(taiiii. Gauio. Kenidei pu- 

nai. Nab sepat. Patarni<r 

pagu. P. tugo. Mugagon. 
Gunchian gajab. 
<iunchak. Kasumba, Ba- 

long ayam. 
Bras-bras merah. 
Barek. Sakellet. 
Geruseh putih. 
Wampanu (Johor). 
f^erubah riiuba. liUpong 

jantan. Guchegajah. Mem- 

punai bukit. 
Jantan tioh. Suta|X)h lUikit. 
< lading betina. Mubagon. 

Mumbong. Sebasah hitam. 

Hambai chuchut Tanibon 

chucbut. Sebasab minyak. 

Sebasab nipis kulit. Gading 

Kasai. Marabulob. Kelem- 

Tanipoi pachat. Ajjas-agas. 

Sulumsui. Lam|)ai. 
J^ilin Bukit. .Sebasab jantan. 

i*ulangga Paya, Nipis 

kulit betina. Bras-bras. 
Buburas padi. Jujanio. Pe- 

langi. Bras- bras luerub. 
Sukam nierab. 
Bras-bras butan. I'etaling 

tandok. Cbamantung ga- 

gali. lSuta|X)b. Masekaui 

hauiak-daniiik |Kiya. Nipis 

kulit pulib. 

K. A. S«H-.. Nt». .>, VMtL 



Apurosa ticifoliu, Uk. f. 

Apostasia nuda, Wall 

Aphauia paucijuga, King. 


Aquilaria hirta, Kidl 

Aquilaria inalaccense 

( Tlif/mcleacire), 
Aralia ThouiiK>nii, Seerii. 

Arachis hypoga^a, L 

( Leguminoic). 
Aralidiuiu pinuatifidutu, Miq — 

(^1 raltaccie), 

Archytea Vablii, Cbuisy. 
( Ttrnstrtemiaceie)* 
Ardibia colomta, Koxb. 



crenata, Hoxb. ... 
liumiliSf Vahl. 
lanceolata, Koxb. 
odontophylla, WaU. 
oxyphyl la, Clarke. 

villoma, Koxb. 


Areca catechu, I. 

Areiiga Westerhoiili, (irilT. ... 


.saccharifera, fi. 
Arbtulocliia Koxburghiuiiu, Bl. 
(A lutohdnuvim). 

Pulangga paya. Sebasah jan- 

Kenching pelandok. Pulum- 

pas budak. 
Kelat julong putih. Kelat 

tulong. Mumjilai. 
Gaharu. Karas. Karasgaha- 

ru. Tui karas. Kalambak. 

Kachaug China. K. Goreug. 

Selubat. Tauipoug tulong. 
Balai. Tingal balai. Saba- 
lat Lempeda buaya. 


Mantua pelandok. Nauli- 
nauli. Munsial. Mara- 
buloh. Mumboloh. Jerok 
putih. Mantulong. Maran- 

Mata pelandok. Lingguni. 


Sembaring. Murambong. 

Sunipuh lumpo. Pasal. 

Bujong samalam bukit. Tu- 
muras. Chato. 

Mata pelandok gajah. Salun- 
ta orang tinggi. Se-goreh. 


Pinang, Kachu. 


Kabung. Kuan. 

Akur ura. Ketola hutan. 

.four, .straits Branch 



Artocarpus iucisa, L. 

,, iutegrifolin, L. 

,, Gomeziana, Wall. 

,, Lukoix;ba, liuxb. 

laucifuliub, Kox. 
Kuuiitleri, King-. 
Lowii, King, 
rigidus, Bl. 
Maiugayi, King, 
polyphema, IVrsoon. ... 

V u. sp. 

Artemiiiia vulgaris, Ij. 

( CoitipoaiUcJ, 
Artaneuia sesanioidcs. Wall. ... 

Argosteiimia elatostenmia. lik. f. 

Arthrophyllum diversifoliuiu, Bl. 

(A raliacaej. 

pinnatuiu, Clarki'. 
Arytxjra littoi^li^, Mi<j. 

Asparagus olHcinalis, B. 

Aspidium len/ianum, Ilk. f. ... 

( Filices), 

polymorpbuui. Wall. ... 
,, cicutariuni, Sw. 
., Singaporianuni 

Asclepiii:s curas-^uvita. ii. 

K. A. ?S«M-.. No. 30. IVK. 

Sukun. Kulur. Kelur. 


Tainpaug. Tampuii'^ tulong 
Taupaug nasi. T ainpung 
burong. Tampan * bulat. 

Tanipang mauis. Ta paDg 

Nangka pipit. Keledau^r 
(letab Uaap. 

Tampuneli. Monkey jack. 
Cbampedak ayer. 
Cbainpedak. Bongkonir 


Baru cbina. 

Kelulut gajab. Seluaug mu- 

dik. Sesawi pasir. 
Sumpub kring. 

Mempunai bukit. Jolok bantu. 

Segan bedaban. Apuil. 

Bedaban jantao. 
Minta anak. 
Kalintek Jamuk. Kulalayo 

Separu kras. 

Paku gadiug. 

P. kikir. 

P. ti^uibaga. 

P. niurak. Biawak. MtTo- 

yau papaii. 
Bunga mas. Malukut paya. 



AsysUi.sia intrutia, Bl. 

Aspidupterys concava. Juss. 

( Malpiijh iacne ) 
Atalantia mouophylla, De C. 

„ Roxburghiana, Uk. f. 
Averrhoa bilimbi, Ij. 

,, carambola, L. 

Aviceunia officinalis, L. 

( Vahenaceie)* 
liaccaurea breviixjs, Uk. I'. 

( J'J H ph orOi at' tw ). 

H. bracteata, Muell. 

H. Kunstleri, Hook. f. 

13. luacrophylla. Ilk. f. 

B. uialayaua, Uk. f. 

J3. Motleyaiia. Ilk. f. 

lx)lyiK*uia, Hook. f. 

U. i)aivillora. Muell. 

H, svmplofoidcs, Hk. t 

H. VVallichii, Hk. f. 

Uiuckea fruWscens. L. 

Baiubusa Uluiiieana, ^Scli. 

\l. nana, Roxb. 

15. KidU'vi. (ianil)lr 
U. Tiildoides. Munro 
W. vul;;aii5;, var. 


►Sedaimt. Siiiupo i>aya. 

Euipenai (I'ahang). 

J^imau pagar. 
Be limbing. 

Belimbing carambola, 

manis. B. batu. 

Karaes (Selangor) J'oko nia- 
was. Mala Ayani. Rauibai 
Bukit. li. Ayani Kanlau. 
Iv. Hutan. 'J'ajani Moleli. 
Sctambuu Lilin. 

TauiiK^i K'ra. 

Iiambai hutan. 

Tanipoi Tunga. T. Tungnau. 


Uambai. Uanib<'h. 

iiiiiteh nierah. 

K'anibai Jlutan. Sctainbiin. 

Kmnpa Manang. 

IJambai Hutan. Setambun 
Betina. Ginteh Mcrali. 
liolai |>aya. 

Daun Chuclior A tap. 

Buluh i)uri. The .spiny baui- 

Biihih China. 

Akar Buluh. 
Buhih Bahii 
Aur (iadinj:. 

(W ray). 

B. Perindi. 

Buluh J'an 

.li'Ur. Stniit.s liniiirii. 



B. Wrayii, Stapf. 

Balanocarpus anomala, King ... 

( Dipterocai^yea). 
B. penangianus, King. 
B. maximus, King. 
Balanostreblus ilicifolius, Kurz. 

( Urticaceie). 
Barclaya (Motleyana, Ilk. f . ... 

Barleria prionitis, L. 

Barringtonia macrostachya, 

* * ail. * * • ... 

B. Scortechinii, King 
B. sumatrana, Miq. 
B. fusiformis, King 
B. spicata, Bl. 
Bassia Motleyana, Clarke 


1 '. SSL/. ••• ... ••« 

Bauhinia bidentata, Jack. 

B. integrifolia, Kox. 

B. Kin^^ii, Prain. ... 
B. Ilullettii, Prain. 
Benincasa cerifera, Sav. 

Bidens pilosa, B. 

( CoinpositiB), 
Biophy turn adiantoldes, AVt. . . . 

Bixa orellana, L. 

Blainvillea latifolia, Ad. C. 


B. A. Soc., No. 38, 1902. 

Buluh Bersumpitan. B. Te- 


Damar Hitam. 

Chengai. Chengal. Penak. 

Limau Lelang Antan. 

Daun Kalapa. 

Bunga Landak. 

Putat hutan. Putat Bukit 

Putat Gajah. 

Putat Darat. Putat Gajah. 

Putat Padi. 




Kang Katok (Selangor). Dau. 

Akar Dadaup (Pahang). 
Akar suloh. 
Akar tapa kudah antan. 
(Wax Gourd), Kundor. K. 

China. K Jawa, varieties. 
Rumput Juala. 

Payong Ali. 

Kusumba. Kunyit Jawa 

Rumput Babi. Katumbit 
Padang. Tutop Bumi 
Paya. Salamani. 




Blechnum orientale, L. 

Blumea balsamifera, De. C. 

B. lacera, De. U. 
Boehmeria nivea, Hk. f. 

( Urticacece). 
Bonnaya veronicfefolia, Spr. 

Boi-assus flabel lifer, L. 

Boschia Griffithii, Nees. 


Bouea macrophylla, Griff. 

(i4 nacardiacecB). 
B. microphylla, GrifF. ... 
Bragantia corymbosa, Griff. 


Brassia oleracea, L. 
( Crvcifercp), 
B. nigra, L. 

Breynia coronata, Ilk. f . 

( EtiphorbiaceceJ, 
B. reclinata, Ilk. f. 

B. rhamnoides, Miiell. ... 
Bridelia pustulate, Ilk. f. 

(Euph orhiacfiv), 
B. stipularis, Ilk. f. 
B. tomentosa, Bl. 

XJ. SpB. ... ... 

Browulowia lanceolate, Betith 
Brucea sumatrana. Wall. 

Paku Ikan. P. Ubil. P. Ular. 

Chapa. Chapu. Sembong 

Lumai Ilitem. 
Hami-Hami. Ramin. 

Kerak-Kerak. Janten Merah. 

Sampu Chachang. 
Lonter. Tab (Telubang). 

Durian-Durian. Dendurian. 

Durian Ilaji. Dada Kuan. 


Ruminiya. Rumia. 

Akar 8urai. A. Julong 

Bukit. Changi Ular. 

Chumbtii [Har. 
Kobis. (The cabbage). 

Sawi. Sesawi. Sayur. (Mus- 

Hujan Panas. Rumang lianas. 
Chuma Padang. (Kedah). 
llujan Panas. Peringit. Sum- 

Kenidei Huten. K. (jajah. 

Keuidei Babi. 

Kenidei. K. Janten. Nidei. 
Nidei. Kenidei. 
Durian I^aut. 
Cherek Janten. Embalau. K. 

Padang. E. Betina. Ham- 

pedu Bruang. Lada Pahit 


Jour. Straits Branch 



Brugueria carophylloides, Bl. 

B. gymnorhiza, Lara. 
B. parviflora, W. & A. 

D» HOa ••• ••■ «•• 

Bryophyllum calycinum, Saliab. 

Buchanania acuminata, Turcz. 
(-4 nacardiacete). 

• • • 

B. lucida, Turcz. 
Burmannia coelestis, Don. 

Byttneria Maingayi, Ilk. f. 

( Tiliacere), 

B. uncinata, Mast. ... 
(Jesalpinia pulcherrima, Rox. 

( Leguminosce), 

C. sappan, L. 
Coesulia axillaris, L. 

Cajanus indicua. L. 

Calamus castaneus, iirW'L 

C. aquatilis, Ridl. 
C Lobbianus, Becc. 
C. didymophyllus, Becc. 
C. Diepenhorstii, Afuell. 
C. insignis, Griff. 
C Javensis, Jil. 

C. ornatus, Griff. 
C oxleyanus, Griff. 

C. scipionum. Lour. 

R. A. Soc., No. 38, 1902. 

Bakau Putih. 



Bungkup. (Johor). 

Tumbu Daun. Sadingin. 

(Malacca) Karanchong 

( Pahang). 
Otak Tudang. Kutak Hu- 

dang. (Johor). Katawa 

Iludang. Temohong. Gu- 

Kelompang Kras. (Kedah). 
Humpot Sisik Naga. 

Akar Batu. A. Kachubong. 

Sugi Jantan. 
Chana (Favre). 


Chinkro, Kangkong kerbau. 

Kachang kayu. 

Atap Chuchur. Rotan Chu- 

* chur. 

Rotan ayer. 

Rotan Manana. 

Rotan Getah. R. Iludang. 

Rotan sago. R. chichi. 

Rotan Batu. 

Rotan Lilin. R. Sundek 

Rotan kumbang. R. Sega 

Badak. Rotan Pujare. 

Rotan Semambu (Malacca 

Cane). Rotan Rajah. 



Calaiithe rubens, Ridl. 

C. veratrifolia, Lindl. and 

other species. 
Callicarpa arborea, Rox. 

( Verhenacece), 
C. cana, L. 
C. lanata, Griff. . . 

C. longifolia, Jjam. 

Calophyllum inophyllum, L. 

C. macrocarpum, Hk. f. 
C. pulcherrimum, Wall. 

C. Wallichiana, PI. ... 
C. spectabile, Willd. ... 
Calotropis gigantea, Br. 

C. procera, Br. 
Campnospermum auriculata, 

Hk f 

C. oxyrrhachis, Engl. 
Canarium commune, L. 

C. Kadondon, Benn. ... 

C. laxum, Benn. 
C. nitidum, Benn. 

C. pilositm, Benn. 
V, rufum, Benn. 

C. secundum, Benn. ... 

Ilaliya Enggang (Lankawi). 

Ambong-ambong Putih. 

Kata kran. 
Tampang Besih Putih. 
Balik Angin Laut Chulak. 

Tuloh Putih. 
Tampang Besih. Tampoi. 

Besih. Tampo Besih. 
Bintangor Bukit, B. Bunga. 

Penaga. Pudih (Malacca). 
Bintangor Rimbah. 
Bintangor Batu. B. Besar. 

B. Bukit. 
Bintangor Merah. 
Bintangor Bunut 
Beduri. Kemengu. 




Kadongdong Krut. K. Mata 

Hari. Gigit Buntai. 
Dongdong. Kadongdong. 

K. Hutan. 
Kadongdong II u tan. 
Kadongdong Bulan. Kerat 

Telampok. K. Tulonjok. 

Sungol Ilutan. Sangol 

Damar Kijai. Kasumba. Ka- 


Jour, straits Branch, 



v^ • OLKr* •■• ••• •!• 

Cananga odorata, li. ... 

Canangium Scortechinii, King. 

Canavalia ensiformis var gla- 

uiaca* • • . ... 

( Leguminosa). 
C. obtusifolia, De C. ... 

Canna edulii?, L. 

C. indica, L. ... 
Cannabis sativa, fi. 

( UrticiWea), 
Cansjera Rheedii, \V. and A. 

Canthium confer turn, Korth. 

C. didymum, Rox. 
C. glabrum. Bl. 
C. horridum. Bl, 

C. oUganthum, Miq. ... 

\J» 9 LI. ... ... ... 

V^ . oLJ. ... •«. ... 

\J » 9L/* •>. ... ... 

Capsicum annuum, L. ... 

C. Hcolor, Jacq. 
C. frutescens, L. 

C. fastigiatum, Bl. 
Carapa moluccana, Lam. 

Carallia integerrima, Dec. 


Blau (Johor) Rota (Johor). 
Kanaiiga. Kenanga. 

Kasidang (Malacca). 

Kachang Parang. 

Kachang Rang-rang. Ka- 
chang hantu. 
Pisang Sebiak. 

Sebeh. (Favre). 
Ganja. Gunja. 

Bittot. Chemperai. Chim- 

Kamuning Jantan Ilutan. 

Mata Keli Jantan. 

Mungkoi. Sabusuh Betina. 
Bulang Gajah. B. Kechil. 

B. Hitam. Bulang Tikus. 
Akar Pelandok. 
Akar Kuku Baning. 
Akar Lempedu Borong. Ku- 

lurai. Surumat 
Gading. Surumat. 
Chabai. Lada Merah. 

Chabai selasah (Clifford). 
Chabai Achoug. C, Se- 

C. Rawit 

lioiig-bong. Merpoin. Jang- 
gut Kcli. Kusinga. 

K. A. Soc. No. its. 1U02. 



Cardiopteris lobata, Br. 

Cardiospermuni Ilalicacabum, L. 

Carex cryptostachys, Ilance. 

( Cifperm^ece), 
Carica papaya, L. 

( Papayacea)* 
Carissa Karandas, L. ... 

Carum Carui, L. 

( Umbelliferce). 
Caryota mitis, Lour. ... 

( Palmea). 
Casearia Lobbiana, Turcz. 

Cassia alata, L. 

C. augustifolia, Vahl.... 
C. fistula, L. ... 
C. javanica, L. 
C. nodosa, Uaiu. 

C. occidentalism L. 
U. Siamea, Lam. 

C. tomentosa, L. 
C. obtusifolia, L. 

Castanopsis Ilulletti, King. 

( Cvjmii/era). 
C. hystrix, De C. 
C javanica, Den. 
( ' nephelioides. 
Casuarina e(|uisetifolia, Forst. 

( edrcla febrifiiga, Bl. ... 


Gainbah Putih. (Pahang). 

Peria Bulau. Akar 

Kuiuput Ringgin. 


Betik. B. Belulang. B. Bubor. 


Jintan. (Carraway seed. Im- 

Bredin (Province VVellesley) 

Medang Kirisa. 

Daun Kurap. Glenggang. 

Sena. S. Maki. 

Biraksa. Bereksa. 


Busok-Busok. Sibusuk. Tu- 
rukop Bumi. 

Kachang Kota. 

Jua. Jual. Guah llitam 


Glenggang Kechil. G. Pa- 

Berangan Papan. 

Kata Bileh. Sebilek. 

Berangan Duri. B. Gajah. 


Ku. Kayu l\u. KuLuut. Am. 

Suiitang Putih. 

.)« i:i. ^^tiaits 1»ruiit-h 



Celastrus mouospenuus, • Roxb. 

Celosia crista ta, L. 

Centotheca lappacea, Beau. 

Cei*atolobu8 Kingiana, Becc. ... 

Cerbera lactam, Ilam. 

( Apoct/naceie). 
C. odollam, L. 

Cephaelis (iriftithii, Ilk. f. 

Ceriops Candolleana, Am. 

Chcetocarpus castanocarpus 

( Euphorbiaceie), 
Chailletia deflexifolia, Turcz. 

( Chailletiacecp), 
C. (iriffithii, Hk. f. ... 

\j • oLI* • • • • • • 

Chamoccladon angustifolium, 


C. (iriffithii, Hk. f. ... 

Champereia Griffithii, Uk. f. 
Cliasalia curviflora, Micj. 

r. c. var. angustifolia. 
Cheilaiithes tenuifolia, bw. 

(iunigun. Akar Serapub. 
Bay am Ekor Kuching. 
Huniput Silat Kain. 
Rotau Kipas. 

Babuta. Buta-Buta. Pong- 
Pong (Selangor). 

Babuta. Buta-Buta. Pom- 
pong (Pinang) Bintan. Bin- 

Cbempaka Bukit Pupulut 
Hutan. Sabiak Gajah. 

Tengab. (Bark uaed for tan- 

Bedi (Pinang). 

Akar Pah Kuda. A. Sarang 

i'unai. A. Tugor Pontianak. 
Kurupoh Bukit Kurutot. 

Akar Puleh Kambing. A. 

Puleh Angin. 

Angos (Kedah). 

Bakung Ayer Kaati (Juhor). 

Asam Tikus. Kumayang, 
Kelamoyiang Padi. 

Chemperai. Chimperai. 

Buah Bras, (lading Galok. 
Jarum Uitam. Gandarusa 
Jantan. Pecha Piring 
Hitam Kamiri. l*iu-Piu. 
J^echa Priok Putih. 

Sumpoh Sumut Tub«ng. 

Paku Kesam. l*adi. Paku 
Kesam Lumut. 

U. A. .Soi-., X<». 3«, VMtL 



Chilocarpus Maingayii, Hk. f.... 

Chonemorpba macrophylla. 

Chisocheton divergens, Bl. 

( Meliacece), 
C. petidulitlorus, Bl. ... 

\j% s$p. ... ... ••• ••• 

Chlorantbus ofiicinalis, Bl. 

Chrysophyllum Roxburghii, Don. 

Cibotium Barometz. ... 

Cicca acidissima. 

( Euphorbicu^ece), 
(Jinnamomum campbora, L. 

C. culit la wan, Nees. 
C. iners, Bl. ... 

0. mollissima, Bl 

C. nitidum, Bl. 

C. partbenoxylum, Miess. 

C. Zeylanicum, L. 
C. sp. (Pabang). 
Cistjampelos Pareira, L. 

( M aiispermitcete). 
Citrus acida, Kox. 


V. aurantiuui, L 

C. a. var. Bigardia (Pavre). ... 


Gegrip Merab. 

Garontong Tengab. 

Medang Kasungko. Sang- 

gol Lutong Uitam. 
Sambon Paya, Sumban Paya. 

Kayu Malukut. Poko Pulut- 

. Pulut 
Penawar Jambi. 


Kapur Tobori (Japan cam- 

Lawang. Kulit Lawang. 
Singga Betina. Kayu Ma- 

Pialu. (Jobor). Tegab. 

Tegob. (Favre). 
Cbinta. Medang Kemana. 

Kayu Gadis. Kulit Lawa. 

Mula Uitam. 
Kayu Manis. (Cinnamon). 
Mumpanang. Lumkang. Ga- 

sing-Gasing. Gegasing. 
(Common Lime). Limau Ke- 

dangsa. L. Kapas. L. Kas- 

turi L. Kerbau. L. Nipis. 

L. iVrut. L. Susu. 
(Orange) Limau manis. 

VV^angkang (Cbinese us). 
(Bitter Orange) Limau Gede. 



C. decuiuana, L. 

\f» U* Vnv* ••• ••• ••• 

C. medica. 

Clausena excavata, Burm. 

Clavaria sps. (FuDgis). 
Coetanthus hirsutulus, Hk. f. ... 


C. loevis, Ilk. f. 

C. nitidus, Hk. f 

\^'« OLI* *.• .•• ••* ••• 

Clerodendron deflexum, Wall.... 
( Verhtnavece)* 

C. disparifoliuui, Bl. ... 

C. fallax, L. 
C. fragrans, Vent. 
C. inerme, Gaertn. 
C. nutans, L. 

C. paniculatum, L. 
C. siphonanthus, Br. 
Ul. serratuni, Spreng. ... 
C. villossum, Bl. ... 

Clinugyne dichotoma, Salisb. ... 

(Pomelo) Limau Kedangsa. 

(Favre) L. A bong, L. 

Batawi : L. Besar (Favre). 
(Wild Pomelo) Limau Uantu. 

(I'abang, Malacca). 
(Citron) Limau Bali (Favre). 
C-benama (Pinang). Cherek 

Cbendawan Samangkok. 
Kurudas Bukit SimpobAyer. 

Jarak Pipit, Kurumak Hutan. 
Sabasab Batu. 
Cberit Hutan. Lidah Kerbau. 

L. Kerbau Betina. Sumpu 

Kuhao. Sembon^ Hutan 

Jantan. Picba Pnok Uitam. 

Sakacba Lima. 
<iuriam(S. Ujong). Lampang 

Badak. Lelampang Badak. 

Tudong Human. Sempian 

Petri. Sembang. Lulan- 

gring Budan. Seliguri. 

B. 13etina. 
Orawari Rungkup. 
Rabu Kumbang. 
Mali-mali Bukit. 



Gunja-gauja. Penatob. 
Lampin Budak. 
Chapah. Cbampening. Ka- 

sap. Tapak Kerbau. Picba 

Prick Babi. 
Bemban Ayer. 


K. A. S<K-.. Xo. 3t>, IWi 



C. grandis, Benth. 

Clitoria cajanifolia, Beuth. 

( Ltguminosie), 
C. ternatea, L. ... 

Cleome viscosa, L. 

Cnestis ramiliora, Griff. 


Cnesuione Javauica, Bl. 

( Enj)horbiac€(v). 
Cocos nucifera. 

Codaeum variegatum, Bl. 

( Kuphorbicuete), 
Ccelodiscus montanum, Muell, 

( Kuphorbiaregfk 
Ctelogyne Rochust^nii, DeVr. 

Cci'lobtegia Griffithii, Most. 

Coffea arabica. 

C. lil erica, Hiern. 
Coix lacbryma, L. 

( Graminece). 
Coleus Blumii, Benth. 

( LaOiotece), 
Colocasia antiquorum, Schott 

( A roidece), 
Cunibretum extensum, Kox. 

i\ suiidaicuni, Micj. ... 
C. trifuliatuni. Vent. ... 
Coiiimers<oiiia ecliinata, ror^t. 

( Tiliacea), 

Beinban Gajah. ToDgkat 

Beluntas Padi (Malacca). 

Rumput Sabusuk. R. Tuii. 
Bunga Biru. Kacliang Te- 

Kuteping. (Malacca). 

Akar Gasinj:-( basing. A. Pa- 
dang. Semilat Merah. S. 
Papan. S. Padang. Akar 

J el a tang Badak. 

Kalapa. Niyur. 

Puding. Adal-adal (Javanese) 

(ielam Bukit. 

Sakat Tulong Ular. 

Pungai. Punggai. Ila-Ua. 


Kopie. Kahwa. 

Jilei Batu. J. Pulut (the dark 

colored variety) 

Birah Keladi. Keladi Telor. 

K. China. K. Uudang. 
►Sarudang Betina. 

Akar (ieganibar. 

Akar Siing-^unjr. llarus. 

Durian Tupai. Chenara. 

.jour. Strait.s Brancli 




Conimelyna bengbalensi^, L. ... 

( Commt'itfmwe^e). 

C. nuditlora, L. 

Coiinaropsis munophylla, PI. ... 


Coiinarus ferrugiiieus, Jack. ... 

C. gibbosus, U'^all. 

C. grandis, Jack. 

C. semidecandrus, .Jack . 

Conocephalus am(CDus, King. ... 

( Urticacexe). 
C. Scortechinii, Ilk. f . 

C suaveolens, Bl 

0. subtrinervis, Miq. 

Coptosepalta liavescenis, Korth. 

C. griffitliii, Ilk. f. 

Corchorus acutangulus, Lam. 

( Tiiiacm), 
C. capsularis, L. 
Cordyline termiiialis, Kuiitli. 


Kuiuput aur. Kiikupo. 
Heliuibing Besi. B. Bulat. 

B. 11 II tan. B. Keris. B. 

Kra. B. Penjuru, B Pipit, 
Kupoi. Pupoi. 
Bunga Burutta. Akar Pulau. 

llantu. A. Sukelet. A. 

Merali. A. Sanderap. 
Akar Tulang Padang. Nauio. 
Akar Tulang l^adang. 
Akar Tukor. 
Ara Jankang. 

Akar I'mu (Jobor). 
Akar Tentawan. 
Landong Padi. Akar San- 
dang Padi. A. Sa«arain. 
Akar Sabusub. 

Akar Bunga Milor llutan. 

Situlang (Pabang) Sunipu 

Kumput Baya Boasa 

Sunarong Bctina. 

Andong. A. liijau. A. 
Merab. .lejuang (Singa- 
pore) Lenjuang Merab. 

Katunibar. (Coriander seed). 

Coriandrum sativum 

( rmbi'lli/rnr), 

Cory mborcbis v e r a t r i f o 11 a , 

Coscinium Blumeanum, Miers Vkar Mengkunyit. 


Lulumljab Paya. 

C. fenestratum, Coleb. 

K. A. s<»f.. No. :ii<. HM -J. 

Kujiit-Kugit Babi Tul. 
(Vaugban Stepbens). 



C. caudatus, Cieisl. 

C. Griffitbii, Ilk. f. 

Cosmos caudatus, II. B. K. 

( ComposiUe), 
Costus speciosus, L. 

Cratoxylon poly anthum, 

( flupericineee). 
C. arborescens, Bl. . 

C. formosum, Bentb. . 

(yriuum asiaticum, L. . 

Crojiius sativus, L. 

Crotolaria alata, Uamilt 

C, retusa, L. ... 
C. striata, De C. 

C verrucosa, L. 
Croton argyratus, Bl. .. 

C. oblongifoliiis, Kox. 
C. sublyratus, Kurz. .. 
C. Tigliuni, L. 

Ulan Rajah. 

Sitawa. Satawa. Tawa-Tawa 

Drum ( Penang) Me.npat- 

Mempat Hutan. Lunchui. 
Geronggang. Geronggong. 

Penaga Uitam (Jobor). 
Mempapit Mempa: llutan. 

Mempetis. Sepadas Bunga 

Bakung. Bawang Hutan. 

Bunga Tembaga Suasa. 

Landap. Silandap. Selau- 

dap (Favre). 
Kumkumab (Pollen of (J. 

sativus imported). Saffron. 
Kacbang Uantu Darat. 

Giring Landak. 
Giring-Giring. Guriug-Gu- 

ring. Rang-Rang. 
Gigeling. G. Jantan. 
Cbendrai Gajab. Cberit. 

Budak Mungke Senan- 

cbong. Sum mungke. 

Sumangso. Ilamba Rajab 

Ara Lumut. Akar Tuko 

Takal. Paub-Paub. Perin- 

gat Rating. 
Gulumbong Ilantu. Lidai 

A pi. Marai. Tumpang. 

Tumpang Bliong. Siangus. 

Kayu Meruan. 
Cbalang Paya. 
Balik Angin Bukit. 
Bua Cbengkian. 

.lour. StraitH Branth, 



Crmtaem macrocaipa. Kmg, 
C. religiosi var Xarvaia. 

\jm altMm ■■• ••■ ••• 

CrjpteroDU Griffithii. flk. f. 

C. pabesoens, Bl. 

0. panicaUte 

Cr/ptocarya ocBSUL, Bl 

C. ferrea, Bl 

C. Griffithiana, Wight. 

C. impressa, Miq 

^y* BU* ••• ••• •«• ••• 

Crjrptocarpus Griffithianum. 

Wight. ... 

Orjptocoryne cordata, <rriff. ... 

Ctenolophon parvifolius, Oliv.... 


Cucumis sativus, L 

Cucurbka pepo, L 


C. maxima, Duchesne. 
Cumpassia Malaccensis, Main- 

bl ^y * ••• ••• ••• 


C. parvifolia, Prain 

Cuminum Cyminum, L. 

( I ^mheUiferce) 

Kadat. Kelambai (MaliccaV 

Bulan Aver. 
Balan Betol. 
Sumpu Telinga Badak. 

Bekwoi. Babi Buab. 


Kaya Grisik. Medang Lasa. 

LAQgirtan Kwas. Mumpat 

Medangr Buava. M. Mantu. 
Rambahan Bukit Sigun. 
Simpoh Bukit Tubo Buah. 

Ray a Kunyit. Richie. Me- 
dang Xau. Menjuat 


Dring (Johor) I^iang 
Ati-Ati Pava. 

Relat Ilitaiu. Rumis. R. 

Bruang. Mata Relat Bang- 

kal. B. Paya. 
Tiraun China (Cucumber) ... 

(Pumpkin) Labu Ayer. L. 

Manis. L. Pringgi* varie- 

(Gourd) Labu. 


Sialang, Tualang. 

.lintan Putih. ((JuminstHMl). 

R. A<8«c., No. ,38, WYL 



Cupania Lesser t.iana, Camb. ... 

C. pallidula, Uiern. ... 
C pleuropteris, Hiern. 
0. pubescens, Radlk. ... 
Curculigo recurvatu, Dry. 

sumatrana, Rox. ... 

Curanga amara, Juss. 

( ScvophiilarinecE). 
Curcuma longa, L. 

C. Zedoaria, Roscoe. 

Cyathea Brunonis, Wall. 

Cyathula prostrata, Bl. 


Cycas Rumphii, Miq. ... 

Cyclea Arnotti, Miers. ... 

( Men ispeniia<.'f*(p), 
Cyathostema Scortechinii, King" 

(-^1 nonacecp). 
Cyclostemon longifolius, Bl. 

( FAtphorbiiiee(e). 
CynAiichium sp. 

Cynometra cauliflora, L. 

U. polyandra, Rox. 

Cyperus compressus, L. 

C. distans, Br. 

Ludal Bulan. Medang Serai. 
Perepat Bukit. Tasai (Ma- 

Kelilayan Putih. Nilau. 

Sempayan Ulur (Malacca). 

Sugi (Maingay). 

Lumbah Merah. 

Lumbah. L. Rimbah. Kalapa 
Puyuh. Linsubah(Pahang) 
Labang. Gelumah Susu. 

(Turmeric) Kunyit-Kunyit. 

Temu Kunyit. 
Temu Lawas. (White Turme- 
Paku Gajah Paya. P. Uitam. 

Pay a. P. Pahat. P. Selama. 
Angkop Merah. Bayam Rusa. 

Rumput Jarang-Jarang. 

Keluiut Merah. Senjarang. 
Bogah (P. W.) Paku Aji. 

P. Laut. Saba and Tiyung 

Akar Rempenang (Selangor) 

Trongkuman (Lankawi). 
Akar Mupisang. 

(ielugur Salah. 

Akar Rambut Cham be. 

Xam-Xam. Puki Anjing. 

Malangkan. Bulangkan. Ka- 

Rumput Tiga Sari. 

Rumput Wangi. 

Jour. Straits ]Srancli 



C. h&span, L. ... 

\j» in&if Li* ••• «•• •• 

U. pilosus, Rottb. 

C. procerus, Rottb. ... 

0. pumila, Vahl. 

C. ri^dulus. 

C. venustus, Br. 

Cypripedium barbatum, Lindl... 

Cyrtaodromea me^aphylla, 

( Gesneriacece). 
Cyrtosperma lasioides, Griff. . . 

Cyrtostachys lacca, Scheff. 

Dacrydium elatum, Wall. 

Daemoaorops calicarpus. Griff 


D. crinitus, Bl. 
D. Draco, L. ... 
D. pellicula tus, Mart. 

I), grandis, Mart. 

D. hystrix, Mart. 
I), leptopus, Mart. 
1). lon^ipes, Mart. 

D. micracanthua, Griff. 
D. propirnjuus, Becc. ... 

D. verticil laris, Mart. 
Dalbergia Junghuhnii, Benth. .. 

R. A. Soc., Xo. 38, i»n. 

Rumput Biblis Jantan. R. 

Rumput Suloh Belalang. 
Rumput Para- Para (Malacca* 
Rumput Munsiang. R. Nfan 

Rumput Saman. 
Rumput Chukor Kerbau. 
Bunga Kasut. 

Sumpu Munahan. Supujit 

Birah llutan. Keladi Pari. 

Pinang Rajah. 

Ru Bukit. 

Rotan Chuchur minyal^. 

R. Chin-Chin. 

Jerenang. Rotan Jerenang. 

Rotan Kerai. R. Kamunting. 

R. Chin-Chin. K. Gulang. 

R. Tunggal. 
R. Semambu. R. Sunang. R. 

Chrysa (Griftith). 
Rotan Buah. R. 8abut. 
R. Bakau, R. Muruseh. 
Rotan Machap. R. Sepah. R. 

Rotan Tahi Ayam. 
Rotan Bakau. H. Jerenang. 

R. Chin-Chin, R. (Julang. 
Saga Pay a. 



Daldinia vernicosa, Cesati. 

Dammara orientalis, Lam. 

Daphniphyllum laurinum, Bl... 

( Lauriiiece). 

Datura metel, L. and D. fas- 

tuosa, L. 
Decaspermum paniculatum, 



Dehaasia sp. 


x'» 9L#* ••• «•« ••• ••• 

L'm 9lJ* ••• ••• •• ••• 

Deliina sarmentosa, L 

Dendrocalamus flagelifer, Munro 

( Pa/mea). 
D. strictus, Xees. 
D. strictus, Ham. 
Dendrobium conostalix, Reich, f. 

I), crumenatum Sw. ... 
D. pumilum, Rox. 
Dentella repens, Forst. ... 

Derris elliptica, Benth... 

1). Maingayana, Ilk. f. 

0. thyrsiflora, Benth. 

D. uliginosa, Benth. ... 


Damar Minyak. 

Chicha. Jinjarong Jantan. 
Mempit Padang. Serapoh. 
Hupah. Ruas-Ruas Jantan. 

R achabong. K ach ubong. 

Kelintat Kring. K. Nyamok. 
Kelapit Nyamok. (Singa- 
pore) Empoyan Padang. 
Kelentat Padang. Kamu- 
ning Batu. Kelat Pay a. 
Salah Nama. 



Gajah. Gajus Hutan^ 

Ampalas Tikus. 

Buluh Betong Perih. 

Buluh Brang. 

Buluh Batu. B. Tampat. 

Rumput Rajah Sari. 

Anggrek Merpati. 
Sakat Kulumbai. 
Bunga Karang. 


Akar Tubah-Tubeh. A. Pah 

AkarTulang Bukit: A Ber- 

Akar Ketuil. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



Desmodium heterophyllum, De 

V^* • • • t ■ • 


D. latifolium, Wall. ... 

D. parvifolium, Bak 

D, polycarpum, De C. 

\» • 

D. umbel latum, De C. 
Dialum lauriuum, Baker 

D. Maiugayii, Baker . . 
D. platysepalum, Baker 
D. patens, Baker 

Dianella ensifolia, Red. 

Dichop»is gutta, Beiith. 


D. pustulata, Clarke ... 

mJ» op. • . • • * • ... 

D. obovata, Clarke ... 

Dictyophora campanulata, Xeei^. 

Didymocarpus, atrosanguiuea,. . . 

XXIUl. >•• ... .a. 


D. crinita, Jack. 

D. reptans, Jack. 

Dilleiiia indica, L. 


Omba-Omba (Singapore). 
Akar Sisik Niga. A. Telin- 
ga Tikus. 

Kamani Babi. Katah. Se- 

Akar Seliguri. 

Kachang Kayu Betina. Ka- 
lumbar. (Pahang). Rum- 
put Kerbau Drapah. Ka- 

Petal Belalang. 

KraDJi Papan. 

Keranji Burong. Mumpanjor. 
Keranji Terabaga. K. Papan. 
Keranji Tmbut. Sepan. 

Meroyan Bungke. SSatigit. 

Siak-Siak Jan tan. 
Taban. Teban. Getah Taban 

Merah. Getah Pergha. 

Geteh Taban Chaia. 
Simpor (Perak). 
Getah Taban Putih. Beliau 

Chendawan Telakong. 

Meroyan Nibut. 

Suml)ong Merah. Tummu. 

Tummu Kechil. (Jack is the 
authority for these two 
last names which are 

Simpoh. Simpuh. Chinipuh. 



Dioclea reHexa, Ilk. f. ... 

(^Lfyuuiiii 08(c), 
Dioscorea alata, Rox. ... 

( Dioscoreacea). 
D. daemonum, Rox. ... 
D. glabra, Rox. 

D. laurifolia, Wall. ... 

D. oppositifolia, Bl. ... 

1). pentaphylla, L. 

D. pyrifolht, Kortli. ... 

mJ» sD. ... .*. ... ••* 

Diospyros discolor, NVilld. 

( Ehcnavvce), 
D. argentea, (JritT, 
D. hirsuta. var. lucida, Wall... 

D. lucida, Iliern. 

D. oblonga, Wall. 

X/« oLJ* .*. ••• ••• ••• 

D. sp. uear embryopteris. 
Dipterocarpus crinitus, l)yer ... 

( DipUrocarpi'ic), 
D. Uasijeltii, Bl. 
D. Kerrii, King 
D. ' oblongifolius, Bl. ... 
D. pterygocalyx, {SchefT. 
Diplanthera bancana, SchefT. ... 

Dipla/iuin s o r z o g o n e n s c , 

A It ol« ... ... 

1). tomentosa. Ilk. 

Kachang Laut (Pahang). 
rbi Nasi. 

Gadong. Gadung. 

Janggut Kulonak. Akar 
Kakop. A. Mawas. A. 

Akar Kamahang. A. Surun- 

Akar Keminiyan Hantu. Akar 
K lana. 

rbi Pasir, U. Jabbet (Vau- 
ghan Stevens. (PChiabet). 

Akar Gulongo. A. Kemini- 
yan Paya. 

Akar Nana. 

l^uah ManteigH. Pisang kaki 

Bedil Lalat. Buluh-Buluh. 

Taring Pelandok. Seng- 
kawas Ilitara Mati. 

Koguel. Kayu Arang. Iiang- 


Sumoi. (IMnang.) 

Siangan Jantan. 

Mentubo. (Malacca.) 

Minyak Keruing. M. Kern- 
ing Buluh. Gonibang. 

Minyjik Keruing. 

Keruing Chaia. 

Nerruni. (Pahang.) Meran. 

Keruing Dadek. K. Buku. 


Paku Kijang. P. Uu^a. 

Paku Jiinit. 

.fiiur. Strait^ Branch 



Dipodium pictum, Hchb. fil. ... 

Diplospora sp. ... 


3J » 9L/a ... ..• ... 

Dischidia albida, Griff. 

D. collyris, Wall. 
1). KatfiesiaDa, Wall. 
Dissochaeta bracteata, Bl. 

( MeUistomacta ). 
D. celebica, Bl. 

D. punctulata, lik. f. 

Dolichandrone Rheedii, Seem, 

( Bi(jnoniace(e). 
Dolichos lab-lab, L. 

( Lef/Hfmnos(c), 
Dracaena breviHora, Kidl. 

D. congesta, Kidl. 
D. ternifolia, Kox. 
D. angustifolia, Wall. 
I). Maingayii, Baker. 
Dracontomelum mangiferum, Bl. 

(A naca rdiatne). 
Drepananthus cauliHoru^, Ilk. f. 

D. pruniferus, Ilk. f. 
Dryobalanopti camphora, Gaertn 

( Dipterocaiyeie). 
Drymoglossum piloselloideij. ... 

Duabanga sonneratioides, 11am. 

Durio oxlevanus, Mast. 

I>. testitudinarium. Becc. 

K, A. S<K-., No. :V6. llWi. 

Wa-Wa. (V. Stephens.) 


Chinduru. Sugai Petaling. 
Akar Sabernas. 

Petis (Johore). 
Akar Kul. A. Baiio. 
Akar Meroyan Siguk. 

Meroyan Jantan. M. Paya. 

Mumpoyan l^aya. 
Meroyan Busuk. Akar Sen- 


Kachang Jariji. K. Karkaras. 

K. Kunyit Karkaras. 
Puma ton. (Selangore). 

Juung-juang Bukit. 

Sanjuan Bukit^ 

Chamau. Cbemau. 

Chamau. Cbemau. 

Sakai. Sangkuang. Changku- 

Antoi Putib. 

Antoi itam. 
Kapur Barus. 

Sakat Ribu-ribu. 

Kudada. Berumbong Bukit. 

Durian Daun. Kuripal. 

Durian Tanah. D. Buroug. 



D. zibethinus, L. 
Dyera costulata, Ilk. f . 

D. Maingayii, Ilk. f. ... 
Dysoxylon acutangulutu, Kiug. 

D. angustifolium, King. 

1). cauliHoruin, Uiern, 

D. macrothyrsum, Miq. 

\J % oD. .•• ... ... ... 

Dysophylla auricularia, HI. 

Ebermaiera angustifulia, Anders. 


E. Griffithiana, Anders. 
E. setigera, Nees. 
Eclipta alba, L.... 

Elateriospermum Tapos, Mi([. ... 
Elajocarpiis Ilullettii, King. ... 

( Tiliot'ea;). 
E. iutegra, Wall. 

E. Jackianus, Wall. ... 
E. Mastersii, Ilk. f. ... 

E. obtusus, Bl. 

E. paniculatus, Wall. 

E. parvifulius, Wall. 


Jelutong. J. Pipit. Getuh Je- 

Same names as P. costulata. 
Pasak Lingga. 

Kamanjong. (Pahang). Do- 
sono. (Pahang). 

Balun Ilijau. Guatak. Kuleun. 

Kasip Hutan. Kombel. (Ma- 


Ekur Kuching. 

Kerak Rimbah. Kumoja 

Ambong Bukit. 
Sera wan Kubang. 
Kumput Ben. Kurumak 

Darumun Pipit. 

Medang or Mendong Pepi- 
lakan. M. Tandjonir. 

Jatek-Jatek. .lentek-Jentek. 

Chemanton Merab. Lempedu 
Burong. Medang Asam. M. 
Ijansor. M. Suggueb. 
Perah Paya. 

Medang Kawan. M. Paya. 
M. Tanah. 

Darumun Ilitam. Mendong 
Musang. Tingar Belukar. 

Jambu Kelawar. J. Kelat 
Lawar Putih. Medang Api. 
M. Pipit. Mendong Kela- 
war. Muusaga, Paroh. 

.ji»ur. Str<-iit>i ItrHiK-li 



£. pedunculatus, Wall. 

E. polystachjus, Wall. 

£. robustus, Rox. 

E. salicifolius, King. ... 

E. spp. 

E. stipularis, Bl. 

Ellipeia nervosa, Hk. f. 

Elephantopus scaber, L. 

Eleusine coracana, \j 

Embelia amentacea, C. B. C. ... 

E. coriacea var. 
E. Limpanii, Scheff. 

E. ribes, Burm. 
Emilia sonchif olia, De V. 

Endospermum Malaccense, M. 

Enhalus acoroides, ZoH. 

Entada scandens, L 

Epipremnum giganteum, 
Schott. ... ... 

Epiprinus nialaccensis. 

{Euphorbiacea ). 
E. Malayanus, Griff 

B. A. Hoc., No. f 8 1902. 

Darumun Padi. 

Darumun (Malacca). Daru- 
mun Babi. 

Barong. Kunkunan Jantan. 
Obah. Sito. Sopi. 

Darumun Padi. 

Darumun Juromong. Men- 

Darumun Pelandok. Me- 
dangTijo. Paroh. Ungank. 
Pulai Pipit. 


Tutop Bumi. 


Akar Malukut. 

Akar Sakarito (Pahang). 
Akar Dulang-Dulang. Akar 

Akar Sulu Karang. 
Katumbit Jantan. Setumbah 

Medang Klabu. Sendok-Sen- 


Deringu. Jeringu Laut. 
Akar Beluru. 


Bantun Hitam. 

Balong nijau. Kasumba. 
Chendra. Chendui. Munot. 



Eria pellipe^, Lindl. 

Erianthemum album, Nees. 

E. malaccense. C B. C. 

Erigeron linifolius, Willd. 

( Composittu). 
Eriocaulon sexangulare, \j, 

( Eriocaula), 
E. truncatum, Ham. 
Eriodendron anfractuosum. 

Erioglossum edule, Bl. 


Erismanthes obliqua, Wall. 

Erycibe angulata, King. 

E. malaccense, Wall. 
E. Princei, Wall. 

£i« 9LI. ... ... .*• ... 

Eryngium fcetidum, L. 

( UmheViferce), 
Erythrina spp. ... 


E. stricta, Rox. 

Erythroxylon burmanicum, 
Gri£F. ... ... 


Eugenia acumiiiatissima, Kurz. 

E. anisosepala, Duthie 

Angrek Gading Oajah. (Ma- 
Kumoja Hutan. 

Gurah Bukit Kamoyan. 
Melor Hutan. Pecha Priok 
Biru. Suluang Mudah. 
Tampan Putri. 

^ari Bulan (S. Ujong). 

Kumpai Bunang. Rumput 

Butang. R. Suasa. 
Rumput Duria. 
Kabok. Kapok. Kaboh. 

Kelat Jantan. K. Layu Hu- 
tan. Kulit Layu. Merta- 
jam. Rambutan Hutan. 

Kusep Kuludu. Murai Batu. 

Akar Tampang Ari. Rumput 

riar Ari. 
Akar Sakijang. 
Akar Jambol Siol. A. Ulan 

Jantan. Perut Kerbau. P. 

Kijang. Akar Sakijang. 
Sera wan. 

Dadap. Dedap. 


BeluntavS Bukit Chinta Mula. 

Medang Wangi. M. La- 

Kelat Api. K. Asam. K. Be- 

lian. K. Lapis. 
Kelat Putih Bukit. 

Jour. Strait** Brar.o'i 



E. aquea, Burm. 

E. brachiata, Rox. 

E. caryophylla, Wight. 

E. chloroleuca, Duthie 

E. conglomerata, Duthie. 

E. cymosa, Lam. 

E. densiflora, De C. ... 

E. filiformis, Wall. 

E. Goodenovii, King ... 

E. grandis, Wight ... 

E. grata, Wall. 

E. Griffithii, Duthie ... 

E. inophylla, Rox. ... 

E. jambolana, L. 

E. jambos, L. 

E. lepidocarpa, Wall. 

E. lineata, BL... 

E. macrocarpa, Rox. 


claviflora, Roxb. ... 


malaccensis, L. 


nitida, Duthie. 




pendens, Duthie .. 


pseudosubtillis, King 


punctulata, King. ... 


pustulata, Duthie.... 


pyrifolia, Wall. ... 

Jambu Ayer. Jambu Ayer 

Krean Lada 

Chinkeh. Chinkah. Chingke. 
Kelat Putih. K. jantan. 
Salembat. Sulimbat. 
Kelat Jantan. K. Penaga. 
Kelat Putih Bukit. Jambu 

Ayer Mawar Autan or 

Kelat Api. K. Belian. K. 

Lapis, (fising. Kelat Jam- 
bu Ayer. 
Kelat Putih 
Jambu Ayer Laut. Krean 

Batu (Penang). 
Gelam Tikus, (Penang). 
Kelat Bising. Medang Telor. 
Samak Paya. G'lam Tikua. 
Jambelan. Jivvat. Salam. 
Jambu Mawar. 
Samak Tebrau. S. Ular. 
Katcham ( Johor) Kelat 

Lapis. K. Merah. K. 

Putih. Kelapit Nyamok, 

Tupo Lalat 
Jambu Ayer Hutan. J. Bukit. 

Kelat Jambu. K. Bruang. 
Bangko. Sedong. 
Jambu Bol. J. Susu. 
Samak Bukit. 
Kelat Besar. Jelongong. 
Kelat Penaga, Kelat Kobo. 

Jambu chili. tFiwat padi. 
Gelam Tikus. (Singapore). 
Kelat Lapis. K. Putih. 

Samak Darat 

B. A. Soc, No. '.iS, 1»J2. 



E. polyantha 

£. spp. 

E subdecussata, Wall. 


valdevenosa, Duthie 
venulosa, Wall. ... 
zeylanica, L. 

Eugeissona triste, (iriff. 

Eulophia graminea, Lindl. 

Euphorbia atoto, Forst. 

E. pilulifera, L. 

E. neriifolia, L. 
E. thymifolia, L. 
Eurya acuminata, L. ... 
( Terustronneacere), 

Eurycles amboinensis. .. 

{A Dian/llideiE) 
Eurycoma latifolia, Jack. 


E. longifolia, Jack. ... 

Eusideroxylon Schwagerii. Tey- 

^'ii* ••• ... .*• ••• 
Euthemis leucocarpa, Jack. ... 

Relat Merah. 

Beti Paya. Biawak Rimbah 

Brae. (Johor). 
Kelat Belian. K. Kobu. Sa- 

mak Pulut Kelat Asam. 
Kelat Bunga. 

Kelat JambuAyer. K. Putra. 
Beti. Merkasih. Nasi-Naai. 

Kelat Xasi-Xasi. 

Kaling Lilin (Johor). 

Jeiutong Laut (Singapore). 

Ambin Jantan. Ara Tanah. 

Kulusom. Kurumak Susu. 

(Jelang Susu. 
Sudu-Sudu, Sesudu. 
Segan Padang. 
Betutu. Jirak. Bunga Kelan- 

tang. Malukut Jantan. 

Medang Malukut Jantan. 

Ranek Daun. Jirak. Ma- 

ribut. Pagar Anak (Pe- 

Daun Sapenoh. 

Bedaru Pahit. B. Putih. 
B. Merah. Penawar Pa- 
hit. Sempedu Pahit. 

Duak. Juak. Tongkat Ba- 
ginda (Penang) Lempedu 
Pahit. Bidara Pahit. 


Pelawan Beruk. Tambo. 

Jour. Straits Branch 



Evodia latifolia, De C. ... 

E. Roxburghiana, Bth. 

him ^I^* ••• ••• 

Fagroea auriculata. 

P. fastigiata, Bl. 

F. fragrans, Kox. 

F. M aingayii, Clarke . . . 

F. morindtefolia, Bl. ... 

F, racemosa, Jark. ... 

Ferula Xarthex. 

( Umhellijerce). 
Flbraurea chloroleuca, Miers. ... 

( }fen ispetinaceie ), 
Ficus acamptophylla, Miq. 

( Ufticac€(E), 
F. alba, Reinw. 

F. altissima, Bl. 
F. annulata, Bl. 

F. aurantiaca, Griff. ... 

F. apiocarpa, Miq. 

U. A. »oc», No. 38, 190S. 

. • • 
• • • 

• •• 

Leban Pelandok. L. Nasi. 
L. Jantan. Pauh-Pauh Be- 
tina. Serapoh Jantan. 

Kiandang. Meserah Jantan. 
Pauh-Pauh. Pauh-P a u h 
Paya. Kudomo. K a j u 
Asam. Stengah Burong. 
Tengah Burong. 

Sinintot ( Johor). 

Peler Musang. 

Malibera (Selangore) Mali- 
beiro. (Malacca). 

Tembusu. Tamusu. 


Dada Kura (Selangore). Lam- 
busu Paya. Mengkudu 

Lidah Rusa. Pakan Paya. 
Rumpo-Rumpo. Sapuli 
(Pahang) Serawas. S. Pa- 
ya. Suruas. Setebal. 
Tengok Biawak. 

(Asafoctida) Anggu. Inggu. 

Akar Kuuing. A. Kinching 

Ara Buruteh. 

Ara Perak. Chumantong. 
(S. Ujong). Kelumpung 
Burong. K, Ayer. K. Jan- 
tan. Supudih Jantan. 

Ara Juluteh. 

Ara Kumbangan. A. Kubang. 

Akar Pala-Pala. A. Tengok 
Biawak Hitam. 

Akar Ualua. 



F. Benjamina, L. 

F. Binnendjkii, King. 
F. chartacea, Wall. ... 

F. consociata, Bl. 

F. diversifolia, Bl. 

F. dubia, Wall. 

F. glabella, Bl. 

F. globosa, Bl. 

F. indica, L 

F. microstoma, Wall. 

F. Miquelii, King. 

F. pisifera, Wall. 

F. retuaa, L. ... 

F. ribes, Reinw. 

F. religiosa, L. 

F. rhododendrifolia 

F. Roxburghii, Wall. 

Ficus, sp 

F. subulata, Bl. 

F. urophylla, Wall. ... 

F. vasculosa, Wall. ... 

F. villosa, Bl 

F. xylophylla, Wall. ... 

Beriogin. Warengin. Wa- 

Ara Akar. 
Buah Sungei (Selangor). 

Kelumpang Mata Punai. 

Rami Hutan. 
Akar Piango Hutan. 

(Pahang). Getah Tahan 

Remba, (Malacca). 
Api Telinga Gajah. 
Ara Gajah. Ara Kuap. 
Ara Nasi. 
Ara Kelawak. A. Pay a. 

Pulo Bijoh. Tuloh Bijoh. 
Ara Tampo Pinang. A. Tan- 

Ara Kechil. 
Ara Batu. Kelumpung. K. 

(rajah. K. Bukit. Akar 

Ara Lidah Rimau. A. Subu- 

ruteh. A. Supude. A. 

Supude Paya. 
Ara Jejawi. 
Bodi. Budi. 
Dodol. Ara Jejawi. Jawi- 

fFawi. Jejawi. Membatii 

Kelebok (Selangore). 
Akar Susu Putri. 
Kelumpung Agas. Lupong 

Akar Buntat Tlar. Supudeh. 

Tampang Burong. 
Ara Akar Buloh. A. Sepadi. 
Ara Daun Lebar. 

.tour. Strait^ Branch 



Fimbristylis asperrima, Vahl. 

F. dipnylla, Rottb. ... 

F. globulosa, Benth. . . . 
F. miliacea, Benth. ... 
F. pauciflora, Benth ... 
Flagellaria indica, L. ... 

Flemingia congesta, Kox. 

Flacourtese cataphracta, Rox. 

Fleurya interrupta, Gaud. 

( Urticacea). 
Floscopa scandens, Liour, 

Forrestia Griffithii, Clarke. 

( CommelimtrerpJ. 

F. mollis, Hassk. 

F . 9L/U. ••. ... ... 

Freycinetia angustifolia, Bl. 

Fuirena glomerata, L, 


Gahnia javanica 

Galearia affinis, Bl. 


G. phlebocarpa, Br. ... 
G. subulata, Muell. ... 
Garcinia Andersonii, Ilk. f. 

( GnttifWce). 
G. atroviridis, Griff. ... 
G. dulcis, Kurz. 
G. eugeniaefolid, Wall. 
G. Uombroniana, Prain. 
G. Mangostana, L. ... 

B. A. Hoc.. No. 38, 1902. 

Rumput Bawang R. Pulut 

R. Siamet. 
Rumput Peroh. R. Purun 

Rumput Sandong. 
Rumput Tahi Kerbau. 
Rumput Girah. 
Rotan Ajer. R. binui. 

Seringan Jantan. 


Jelatang Ayam. 
Kangkong Ayer. 

Setawa Jantan. S. Ilutan. 

Sumpoh Landak. 
Tawaga, (Penang). 
Setawa. Satawa. 
Xanchong Besih (Penang). 

Rotan Musang. Akar Ular. 
Rumput Buku Buloh. R. 

Kelulut. R. Lidah Men- 

Serei bukit. 

Rambai Pontianak. 

Rambai Daun. Tbak. 
Penurun Lutong. (.Fohore). 
Kandis Gajah. 

Asam Gelugur. 


Tentulang Merah. 

Manggis Ilutan. 

Manggis. Mustah (Legeh). 



G. nigro-lineata, B1. ... 
G. Praineana, King. ... 
G. Spp. 


Gardenia carinata, Thw. 

G. Griffithii, Hk. f. ... 

G. fiorida L 

G. tentaculata, Hk. f. 

G. tubifera, Wall. 

• • • 


Gelonium bifarium, Rox. 

( Eupharliacea). 
G. multiflorum, A. Juss. 
Geophila reniformis, Don. 

(jigantochloa heterostachya, 

Munro. ... 

G. Kurzii, Gamble 

(j. latispicalata, Munro. 
G. Scortecbinii, Gamble. 

G. Wrayii, Gamble 

Gironniera nervosa, Bl. 

( Urticacea). 

G. parvifolia, PI 

G. subaequalis, PI 

Gleichenia linearis 

Globba s{^. 

Glochidion brunneum, Ilk. f. ... 


Kandis Tulang-Tulang. 
Chekow. Chupu. Cherapu. 
Geteh Hudang (Johore) Sirit 

Budak (Johore) Barus. 


Ghampaka Hutan. 

Bunga Susu. Bunga China. 

Kachubong Paya. Kapa- 

yung Ayer. 
Delima Hutan Jambu Batu 

Hutan. Koping Ayer 

(Selangor) Kapayang 

I^ampon Hitam. Limau- 

Limau. Ruas-Ruas. 
Punai Mengantok (Penang). 
Akar Pantat Beruk. Pegaga 

Ular. Pegaga Tikua. 

Buloh Tilan. 

Buluh Plang. 

Buluh Tilan Minyak. 

Buluh Raya. 

Buluh Plang. 

Ampas Tebu. Medang Am- 

pas Tebu. M. Hitam. M. 

Ampas Tebu. Medang Ampas 

Tebu. M. Kasap. Saga- 
Medang Bulanak. M. Bulapo. 
Bengkawang, Resam. Paku 

Haliya Hutan. Meroyan 

Kenidei Paya. Ranang. 

Ubah Merah. U. Paya. 

Jour. StraiU Branch. 



G. desmcM^arpum, Uk. f. 

G. hirsutum, Muell. ... 

G. insulare, Muell. ... 

G. leiostylum, Kurz. 

G. microbotrys, Ilk. f. 

G. nanouryntim, LLk. f. 

G. obscurum, Bl. 

G. sericeum, Ilk. f. 

G. superbum, Bail). .. 

Gluta elegans, Hook. f. 

( A naeardiacea). 
Glycosmis sapindoides, Liiidl. ... 


Guetum Brunonianum, Griff. 

G. edule, Bl. .. 

G. funiculare, Bl 

G. gnemon, L. 
G. ueglectum Bi. 

Gomphandra laiiceolata, King. 

G. pinangiana, Wall 

Gomphostemma ctiuitum, Willi. 

Gomphia Ilookeri, PI. ... 


Ubah Ilitam. 


Terasai Manis. 

Lunuranop. Ubab Kecliil. 

Ubah Paya. 

Semak Suai. 

Chermei Antan. 

llujan Panas puteh. Kenedei 
Bukit. Sindaroiig. 

Cf urumong Jantan. G. Betiua. 
Rosok Temagnu (Singa* 
pore) Timah Bangan. 

Kerbau Jalang (Selangor). 

Buiuntoh Burong. Cherit 

Moral Pulong. Simambu 

Uutan ( Lanka wi). 
Akar Dagun Putih. Ekor 

Balangkas. Pantat Ulat 

Blay Kechil. B. Merah. 
A. Dagun. A. Mautadu. A. 

Putat. A. Sebuseh Paya. 

A. Saburus. A. Tutubo. 
Buah Manino. (Pinangj 

Akar Jullah. A. PerutTem- 

bu. A. SacheritHitam. A. 

Seraput Jantan. Selampah 

Chemperai Batu. Laml»as 

Gurang Jantan. Kasturi 

Jantan. Mungilang A pi. 

Meruseh Ilitam. 
Lempedu Jawa. Lilan Ilitam. 
Munjuloug Bukit. 

Kasi (Johor) Tampoi Paya. 

R. A. Sue, No. :W. lix):i. 



G. Sumatra na, PI. 

Goniothalamus giganteus, Ilk. f. 

G. macrophyllus, ilk. f. 

G. lualayanus, Uk. f 

G. Prainanus, King 

vjr. oLJ. •*• ••• ••* ••• 

G. Tapis, Miq. 

Gouiocaryum longeracemosum, 

Gordonia excelsa, Bl. ... 

( Ternstroemiacea) 
Gossypium herbaceum, L, 


Gouania macrocarpa 

Gracilaria lichenoides, J. Ag. ... 

Grammatophyllum speciosum, ... 

( Oi'chidece) • 
Greenia Jackii, \V. & A. 


Grewia tibrocarpa. Mast. 

( TUiacea) 
G. glubulifera, Mast. ... 

G. laevigata, Vahl. 
G. Miqueliana, Kurt/. 

(r. paniculata, Hox. 
G. umbellata, L. 

Liba. Luis. Mata Ketam 
Hatu. M urmagong. Sibu- 
ru. Janggot Keli. Kelat 
Ampedu Jawa. 

Galang Hutan. 

Bongsoi. Sajur Wah. 



Kobak Bassu. 


Kuai Gajah. Sigam. Toioh 

Pagar Anak Jantan. Kelat 

Kapas. K. Taun. K. Iluma. 

K. Muri. K. Benggala. (Fa- 

vre's names for varieties). 


Bunga Bidadari. B. Putri. 

Lada Burong Besar. Landas 
Paya. Lundas Paya. Si- 
kam Bulan. 

Chendrai. C. Hutan. C. Kim- 
bab Damak. C. Asam. 

Damak-Damak Buluh. Da- 
mak Merah. Sabut-^'abut 

Sempelas Lidah Kuching. 

Chenderai PayA. Malabu 

('henderai. C. Ilutan. 

Chenderai. Akar Sekapu. A. 
Kapialu. »Sempe1as Lidah 
Kuching. (S. Tjong) 

Juur. StmitN Braocli 



Guilandina bonduc, li. 

Gyiunema acuminatum, Wall. ... 

(iymnopetalum cochincliinenst% 

Gyuocthodes coriacea, Miq. ... 

G. sublanceolata, Miq. 

Gynotroches axillaris. Mit}. ... 

Gyuura sarmentosa. Dec. 

( Composite) 
Ilaemaria discolor, Lindl. 

Ilaeteria obliqua, Bl. ... 

Uarmandia Kunstleri. King. ... 

Uedychium longicornutum, llk.f. 

Iledvotis auricularia. L. 

IT. capitellala, Wall 

11. conges ta, Br. 

11. glalra, Br. 

n. pinifolia. Wall. 
II. vestita, Br. 
ILelicia attenuata. Bl. 
( Proteact c). 

Tongkat AH. 
Bondok. Akar Kilichi 

Akar ISibueh Api. 

Sipam (Lankawi). 

Akar Lerapedu Tauali. Akar 

Akar Lampai llitani (Ma- 

Janggut Keli. Mata Keli 
Membuluh. M. Kechil. 

Akar Sabiak. 

Baldu Merah. Dauu Lau. 
Tumbah llutan. 
Mempudu Tanah. 

Ubat Chaching. 

Kenikah Batu. Kerukoh 

Anga Besi. Kemlnyan llantu. 

Akar Lidah Jin. Sampu 

Keladi. Sutnibut Keresek 

Pisang (Selangor). 
Lidah Jin, Sampu Puchut 

Runiput Chenkring. R. Ohin- 

kering. H. Sebueh Jantan. 

R. Sipitum (Pahang). R. 

Ruuiput Biring. 
LiuigugaU Tokong Balu. 
(lolang Pay a. (lurang Bukit. 

K. A. S«K-.. Ni». 3«. 1D«"2. 



H. excelsa, Bl. 

U. petiolaris, Benth. 

li. robusta, Wall 

llelicteres isora, L. 

lieliotropium iDdicum, L. 

Uemigraphis affinu;, Xees. 

II. confinis, Ander. 

liemigyrosa longifolia, Ueirn. 

Ilenslovia Lobbiana, A. D. C. 


Ueptupleurum heterophyllum, 

II. subulatum, Seem. 

II. venulosa, Seem 

Ilernandia sonora, L. ... 

( Laurinere). 
ILerpestes monniera, L. 

Ileriteria littoralis, L 

Ileynea trijuga, Kox 

Hibiscus abelmoschus, L. 

II. esculentus, L. 
II. floccosus, Mast 

IL macropliyllus, Kox. 
II. mutabilis, L. 

Mata Kaok. Medang Obu. 

Gong ( Johore). 

Medang Keladi. M. Laiang. 
Putat Paya. P. Tepi. 

Chabei Pintal. C. Tali (Singa- 
pore). Kayu Ulas. 

Kumput Olek. Seri Bumi. 

Langundi Pasir. 

Dilam. Nilam Jantan. Ruku 


Api-Api. Benalu. Bendalu- 
Bendalu. Beiielu. Akar Sa- 
tubal. A Sumpah-Ulat 
Telingan Kra. 

Akar Chabang Lima. 

Kayu Mentas. Kukau. Akar 

Pusat Budak. 
Sepuku. Teluta Jantan. 
Buah Keras Laut. 


Atun Laut. Bayur Laut. 
Dungun. Peler Kambing. 
Duak. Juak. 

Kapas Hantu. K. Hutan. 

Kachang Bendi. K. Lindir. 
Kapas Kapas (Malacca). 
Petutu. Cnchang (P. W.) 
Baru Laudak. 

Jour. Straits Bmiich. 



n. rosa-sinensis, L 

H. surattensb, L. 
H. tiliaceus, L. 

Hii^)ocratea Cumingi, Law». ... 

Hiptage sericea, Uk. f. 

Hodgsonia heteroclita, Ilk. f. 

Ilomalium propinquum, Clarke. 
Homalium foetidum, Benth. ... 

U. frutescens, King 

11. grandilioium. Benth. 
U. longifolium, Benth. 

11. GrifKthianum, Kur/. 
llomalomena coerulescens, 

Jungh. ... 

llomalomena ro!5trata, (irifT. ... 


U. veiutina, Uk. f 

Ilomalanthus populifoliu8, (Jray 

Uopoa globosa, Brandls. 

( Dipttrocai-pciv), 
U. GriftiUiiana, Dyer 
U. intermedia, King 

11. Mengarawan, Bl. 

lloya caudata, Ilk. f. ... 

R. A. 8oc., No. 'M, 1902. 

B unga Kaya. 

Asam Susor. 

Baru. Ambaru. Waru. Baru 
liaut Dedap Laut. 

Gambir Ayer. 

Akar Dedalu Bukit (Malac- 
ca). A. Kirai. A. Kulu- 
pus. A. Papina. Sarun* 
chi (Johore). 

Akar Papayong. 

Pantat Ulat Putih. 

Ayer Anjing. Mentsara Puteh 

Anjing Ayer, 

Kayu Batu. 

Panasan. Pauh Kijang Jan- 

Lagundi Laut (Kedah). 

Keladi Moyiang. Kemoyang. 


Keladi Moyang. Kemoyang. 

Kelamoyiang. Lunfbah Pa- 

Puah Bukit. 
Ludai Padi. Moya (S. 

Ujong). Mahang Jiakau 

Damar Mata K u c h i u g 

Meranti Puteh. 
Jangkang (Penang). Mer- 
anti (Johore). Merawan. 

M. Kunyit Mengarawan 
Merawan. M. Kuuyit. 

Akar Bupah. 

8 ♦ 


n. coronaria, Bl 

U. diversifolia, Bl 

Uullettia dumosa, King 

( Urticacea). 
Uunteria corymbosa, Rox. 

Uydnocarpus castaneus. Ilk. f. 


xA. • 9 LI* ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Uyduophy turn fo r m i c a r i u m, 

vClvlk. ... ... .*• •.• 

llydrocera triilora, W. & A. ... 

Uydrocotyle asiatica, L. 

( / ^mhellifera:), 
Uygrophila salicifolia, Nees. ... 

ilygrophora puDicea, Fr. 

Uyptis brevipes, Poir 

( LabiaUe), 
U. suaveolens, Poir. . . 

Iguanaur polymorpha, Becc. ... 

L . Sp* ... ... ... ... 

Ilex cymosa, Bl. 

I. macrophylla, Wall. 

lllicuiu auisatum, L. 

lliigera appeiidiculata, J51. 

Impaliens Grifiilhii, Ilk. f. 


Akar Setebal. 

Akar Sarapat Susudu Bukit. 

Sunto Bulat. 

Gadiog (Penang). 

Alai Batu. 

Akar Keranji. 
Kepala Berok. Padal Itek. 
Seuala Api Laut 

Inai Paya. Tampinah. 


Chukal (Malacca). Kurumak 

Rusa. Maman Babi. 
Chendawan Telinga Tiong. 

Sari Ingank. S. Uutan. S. 

Malbnr Uutan. Sapulut 

(Singapore). S e 1 a s i h 

Kelsusak. Sapidan. 


Muisirah Bukit M. Putili. 

Timah-Timah. Titimah. 
Medang Tulok (Pinang). 

Timah-Timah Bulan. T. 

(Aniseed). Adaij Manis. 


Inai Bukit. 

Jvur. straits Branch, 



Imperata cjlindrica, Beauv. 

L exaltata, Brngn. ... 
Indigofera tinctoria, L. 

Inocarpus edule, Forst 

lodes velutina, King ... 

Ipomoea angustifoHa, Jacq. 

( Convolvulavea). 
I. aquatica, Forst 
I. cymosa, Roem. 
I. digitata, L. 

L peltata, Miq. 

I. pes-caprse, Roth. ... 
I. uiiifiora, R. & S. ... 
I. quamoclit, L. 
Irvingia malayana, Hk. f. 

Iscbaiemum muticum, L. 

Ixonanthes icosandra, Jack. 

I. obovata, Hk. f. 

I. reticulata, Jack. ... 

Ixora amoena, Wal 1. . . . 

Ixora coccinea, Br. 
1. fulgens, Roxb. 

I. grandiilora, Zoll. 

I. nigricaiib, Br. 

K. A. Sue, No. .18, low. 


Lalang Jawa. 
Nila. Tarum. 


Akar China Bukit. A Sulu- 

Kangkong Pa»ir. Akar 

Akar Ulan. 
Kangkong Laut Akar 

Lana (Penang). 
Kangkong Bidrit. Clam 

Tapak Kuda. 

Lidah Patong. Ulam Putih. 
i3unga Jawa. 
Pauh Kijang. Merlang. 

Rumput Ekor Chari. R. 

Langgundi Btiuga. Buah Tui. 

Pagar Anak. P. A. Merah. 
P. A. Hitam. P. A. Be- 
tina. Sankau Merah. 

Jinjagong. Sakit Uudang 
(Malacca). Pagar Anak. 

Siantan Jantan. S. Hutan. 

Jarum-Jarum Merah. 

Kramat Uujan. Pechah 

6ampu Tiku8, Segadiug Jan- 
tan, Trubol. 




I. opaca, Br 

I. parviflora, Vahl. ... 

I. pendula, Jack. 

I. spp. cultivated forms 
Jackia omata, Wall. ... 

Jasminum bifarium, Wall. 


J. 6ri£Sthii, Clarke ... 

J. Sambac, Ait 

J. smilacifoliutu, (J riff. 

Jatropha curcas, L. 

Jussieua suffruticosa, L. 

Justicia gandarusa, L. 


tf • op. ... •.« ... 

Koempferia Galanga, L. 

Kayea ferruginea, Pierre 

( Outtiferce). 
K. grandis, King 
Kibara coriacea, Endl. 

Kibessa galeata, Cogn. 

K. simplex, Korth. ... 

Kopsia sp. 


Jambol Siol. Mumjilai Uu- 

Kelat Tandok. Kupayiang 

Ayer. Padijang. 
SaratoDg Padi ( Johore). Ta- 

bong Bunga. 
Bunga China. 

Kukulang Paya. Pakan. Uu- 

tan. P. Jantan. P. Betiua. 

Sumpoh. Pukan. 
Kumkumah Hutan. Akar 

Melor Uutan. 
Melati. Malati. Malor. Melor. 
Kenching Kambiug. Akar 

Lumut Sial Munahon. 
Jarak Blanda. 

Bujang Semalam. Lakom 
Ayer. Pujong Malam. 

Gandarusa. Gendarusa. Risi- 
Kisi (Selangore). 

Sibiak (Malacca). 

Chekur. Kenchur. 


Bunuai. Penaga Paya. 
Kutang tandok. Pakan Jan- 
tan. Setubah Paya. 
Lagis Uutan Pukua. 

Kelat Menaun. Mahubi. Mu- 
nahon. Menaun. Sial Me- 
naun. Sangkap Jantan. 
JSigumbong Paya. Srian- 
Putih. Naun. 


Jour, strait a Branch, 



Karrimia paniculata, Wall. ... 

K. pulcherrima 

Kjllingia brevifolia, Rottb. ... 

K/ moDocephala, Vahl. 
Labisia potboina, Lind. 

Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser. 

Lagerstroemia floribunda, Jack. 


L. Flos-Regina, Retz. 

L. hexaptera, Miq 

XJ« BD* ••• ... .•• 

aJ. ^c^ ••• ••• ... 

Lasia spinosa, Thw. 

Lansium domesticum, J a c 
var. Duku. 

Lantana Camara, L. 
( V€rbenac€(Bj. 

Laportea crenulata, Forst. 
( Urticacea:). 

Lasianthus adpressus, Hk. f. 

L. Jackianus, Hk. f. 

kj» 3U« ... ... ... 

Li* 9U. ... .*• ... 

Ljt SUO. ..• ... •.• 

L. Wallichii, Wight... 
L. Wigbtianus, Ilk. f . 


• •• 

Lawsonia alba, Lam. ... 

R. A. 8oc.. No. 38, 1902. 

Benak. Biko-Biko. Runak. 

Boko-Boko. Medung Gidap. 
Rumput Kanching fi^ju Hu- 

Rumput Tuki. 

Berangkas Hutan. Mata 
Plandok Rimbah. 

Labu Jantong. L. Ajer 
Putih. L. KendL 

Bongok. Bongor. Bongoh« 

Bongok Raja. Sebugo. 
Bongok Balong. Mapot 

Bongkok Malukut. 
Bongkok Susor. 
Gli-Qli. Bekil. 

Langsat Langsad. Lansat. 

Bunga Pagar. Tahi Ajam. 

Jelatang. Daun Gatal. Rum- 

Sebong Hutan. 



Meroyan Batu. 

Jarka. Lankam. 

Buah Chabang Baju. 

Buntat Bahong. Daun S«- 

Hina. HinaL Inal 



Lecananthus erubescens, Jack. 

Leea sequatica, L. 

L« gig&otea, Griff. ... 
Leea sambucina, Wiild. 

mj» sp. ... • . • 

Lentinus exilis 

Leonurus sibiricus, L. ... 

Lepidagathis hjalina, Nees* 

L. longifolia, Wight. 
Leptaspis urceolata, Br. 

Leptonjchia glabra, Willd. 

Leptospermum amboinense, 

Lettsomia Maingayi, Clarke 


L. peguense, Clarke .., 

L. mbicunda, Clarke 

Leucas zejlanica, Br 

Leuconotis eugenicefolia, De C. 

Leucopogon Malayanus, Jack. 

( Apocynacea), 
Leucostegia parvula, Wall. ... 

liicuala acutifida, Mart. 

( Palmes), 

Ambun Akar. Akar Dato 
Rajah (Johore). Akar 
Susor Paya (Malacca). 



Jarak Laut Jolok-Jolok. 

TuDDbo Daun Bukit 
Chendawang Batang. 

Tebing Aga, Seranting. 

Kuutul Rimbah. 

Peluroh. Serga. Seruntu. 
Tampo Kulang. Getah Pu- 
yuh. T. Gulang. Glang. 

BI. Gelam Bukit. 

Akar Butang Bunga. A. 

Kelupos. A. Sumulut. 

A. Sumuntat. Tentarong 

Akar Tapak Rusa. A. Tumi- 

ang. A. Ulan Bukit. 
Akar Saga Moleh. 

Akar Garah. A. Gegrip Sun- 


Paku Lumut Batu 

Palas Tikus. 

Jour. HtraUs Branch. 




L. glabra, Qriff. 
L. loogipes, Oriff. 
L. paladosa, Griff. 
L. pusilla, Becc. 
Limacia cuspidata, Hk. f. 

L. oblonga, Miers. ... 
L. triandra, Miers. ... 

Limnopbila conferta, Benth. ... 

Limnophila villosa, Benth. 

Lindera malaccensis, Hk. f. ... 

( Laurineai), 

Xj. tfp. ... ... .•• ... 

Lindsaja scandens, Hk. f. 

Linostoma pauciflora, Oriff. ... 


L. scandens, Griff 

Litsea amara, BI. 

L. lancifolia, Kox 

L. myristicsefolia, Wall. 

L. nitida, Rox. 

L. polyantha, Juss. ... 

L. sp. near panamonja, Hamm 

1j. sp. ... ••• .«. .. 

L. zeylanica, Nees. ... 
Livistona cochinchinensis, Mart 


L. Kingii, Hk. f 

Luvunga scandens, Ham. 

Lophatherum gracile, Beau v. ... 


R. A. Soc., X0..38, 1902. 

Palas Padl P. Gunong. 

Palas Batu. 


Gurcheng. Palas Rewang. 

Akar Minyak. 

Akar China. 

Akar Kunyit-Kunyit 

Bremi Hutan. 


Kerak Nasi Putih. Sabueh 

Batu. Sibueh Batu. 
Medang Paya. Serapu Putih. 

Medang Perauas. 
Paku Dudok Bukit 


Akar Kapang. 

Medang Buluko. M. Mo- 

Medang Kechawi. M. Tam- 

Medang Bunga. M. Kela- 
yer. M. Tai Ayam. 

Medang Kelor. 

Bangang. Medang Busuk. 

Medang Katuko. 

Bobokor (Selangor). 

Medang Saluang. 


Kepau (Selangor). 
Akar Keping (Johore). 

Rumput Jarang. R. Keru- 
but. R. Kelurat 



Lophiocarpus guyanensis, Rich 

Lophopetalum fimbriatum 



L. pallidum, Laws. ... 
Loranthus ampuUaceus, Rox. 

L. crassas, Hk. f. 
L. ferrugineus, Miq. ... 
L. formosus, Bl. 
L. grandifrons, King... 
L. pentandrus, L. 

Loranthus pentapetalus, Rox. 

Xj* oUO* • • • • • • 

Lowia longiflora, Scort. 

Luffa aegyptica, L. 

L. cyhndrica, Roem. ... 
Lumnitzera coccinea, Wight 
Lycopodium cemuum ... 

( Lycopodiacea). 
Lygodium dichotomum, 

L. pinnatifidum 

•• • 


L. scandens 

Maba buxifolia, Pers. ... 

Macaraoga HuUettii, King 

M. hypoleuca, Muell. 
M. Javanica, Muell. ... 

M. Lowii, King 

Kelipoh Padang. 

Krabu. Medang Asam. 


Dudalu. Menalu. Sanalu 
Api-Api Jantan. 

Benalu Api. 

Benalu ApL 

Gilan (Johore). 

Mendalu Besar. 

Lulor Api-Api. Sanalu ApL 

Sulor Api Jantan. 
Mendalu Api. 

Lobak Hutan. 

Petola Manis. 

Ketola Manis. 
Rumput Sarani. 

Akar Sidin. 

Akar Darai Paya. Ribu-Ribu 

Kayu Arang. 

Mahang Bulan. M. Serendit 

Mahang Putih. 
Mahang Bayan. M. Api. M. 
Lok. Selaru. Sugu-Sugu. 
Gireseh Padi. Rami Betina. 

Joar. Straits Branch, 



M. megalophylla, Muell. 

M. populifoliA, Muell. 

M. tanarius, Muell 

^Ju.* ^PP* *** *** *** 


Mallotus, Caput-Medusfe, Hk. f. 

M. cochinchinensis, Muell. ... 
M. floribundus, Muell. 
M. Oriffithianus, Hk. f. 

M. lancifolius, Hk. f. 

M. macrostachys, Muell. 

M. penangensis, Muell. 
M. Porterianus, Muell. 
M. repandus, Muell. ... 
M. subpeltatus, Muell. 
Mapania bancana, Miq. 
( C//peracea^). 

Chia Kubit. Kubin. Kuban. 

Sapedas. Bank. 
Balik Angin Putih. P u 1 a n . 

Inchong (Pinang). Kundo. 

Medang Jurnus. 

Balik Angin. 

Sekubing Ayer. 

Marpoh. Murpoh. Pulut- 

Pulut Bukit. Setampin 

Ludai Jantan. Medang 

Balik Runing. Duleh Merah. 

Pulut-Pulut Poko. 
Pulut-Pulut Hutan. 
Akar Chiarek Putih. 
Jarak Gajah. J. Hutan. 
Rumput Giring-Giring. \\, 

Supidang. R. Surat Be- 


M. humilis, Naves ... 

Siak-Siak Rimbah. 

M. hypolytroides, Clarke ... Pandan Biru. 

M. palustris, Benth Mengkuang. M. tudong. 


Mangifera coesia, Jack. ... Binjai. 

M. foetida, L. 

M. indica, L. ... 

M. kemanga, Bl 

Bachang. Machang. Amba- 
chang. Kambachang. Ma- 
chang Batu. 

Mampelam. [A m p e 1 a m • 


M. Maingayii, Hk. f. 


B. A. Soc., Na 38, 1902. 



• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

M. oblongifolium, Hk. f. 
M. odorata, Oriff. 

ill.* ^p* *** *** *** 
ju • sp* ••• ■•• ••• 

ixL* Sp« ••• ••• ••• 

Marasmiufl gordipes 

Mariscus albescens, Oaud. 

M. pennatus, Clarke ... 
M. umbellatus, Clarke 

Marlea ebenacea, Clarke 

M, nobilis, Clarke 
Marumia verrucosa, Miq. 
( hfelastoiiiacea), 

Marsdenia tinctoria, Br. 

( Asclepiadeop), 
ill* sp« • • • • • • 

Matthaaa latifolia, Perk. 
Medinilla Uasseltii, Bl. 


Melanochyla auriculata, Hk. f. 

( A naca rdiacea). 
M. angustifolia, Hk. f. ..; 
M. Maingaji, Hk. f. 
Mezzettia Hervejana, Oliv. ... 

Melaleuca leucadendron, L. 

Melastoma malabathricum, L. 


M. decemfida, Wall. ... 


Kuwini (Maingaj). 


Para (Johore). 

Bachang Hutan. 


Chindawan Rombut Ali. 

Rumput Bumbut. 

Rumput Sulengsin. R. Sarai. 
Jan^gut Baong. Runout 

Lidah Kerbau Putih. Lidafa- 

Lidah Kayu. Puchut Ku- 

Akar Kamuating (Johore). 

A. Salan Ilutan. A. Sen- 

Akar Tarum. 

Tarumbo (Pahang). 


Asam Lokan Putih. Lokan 

Putih. L. Jantan. Akar 

Nubal (S. Ujong), 

Rapat Bukit 
Chengal Batu Bukit. 


Gelam. Kayu Putih. 

Sendudok. Sendudu. Kedu- 
dok. Birurong Hitam (Clif- 
ford). Probably not Ma- 

Sendudok Putih. 

Jour, straits Branch. 



Melocbia corcfaorifolia, L. 

MelocUnus orieotalis, Bl. 

Melodorum fulgens, Hk. f. 

M. hypoglaucum, Hk. f. 
M. latifolium, Hk. f. 
M* manubriatum, Hk. f . 
M. pisocarpum, Hk. f . 
M. (nrismaticum, Hk. f. 
MelioBma nitida, HI. ... 

MelioBma, sp 

iUka sp* ... ... 

Melothria aflSnis, King. 
( C ucvrhitaceo'), 
M. marginata 

Xu* Bp» • . • • * • 

Memecylon acuminatum, Sm. 

M. caloneuron, Miq. ... 
M. coeruleum. Jack. 

M. edule, Rox. 

M. garcinioides. Bl. ... 

M. heteropleurum. Bl. 

M. Hulletti, King 

M. lievigatum, Bl. 

M. multiflorum King. 

M. mjrsinoides, Bl. ... 

M. oleeefolium, Bl. ... 

M. oligoneuron, Miq. 

M. dicnotomum, Clarke 

R. A. Soc., No38, 190S. 

Lumah Ketam. 

Getah Ujol. 

Akar liarat A. I^rek. A. 

Lerit A. Kep. 
Akar Larak Merah. 
Akar Pisang-Pisang Buldo. 
Akar Jankang. A. Kenching. 
Akar Jinteh. 

Akar Pisang-Pisang Bukit. 
Medang 8iri. 

Medang Berhulu. 


Akar Kundor Tikus. 

Timun Tikus. 

Akar Muntinum Pipit. 


Kayu kapas. Api-Api Bukit. 

Api-Api Uutan. Dalek Jam- 
bu. Pan tat Clat. (Ma- 
lacca). Sinonia. 

Dalek Ayer. Dulek Putih. 

Bangas. Jenitan. Liis. Ban- 
gas Merah. 

Jambu Baning. Kuku Ban- 

Jambu Kalada. 

Dalek Tembaga. 

Kuku Baning. 

Bala. Dalek Putih. Kuku 
Baning. Kayu Xipis Kulit. 

Dulek Putih. 

Sial Munahon. 

Dalek Ayer. Delima Burong. 
Bagas Putih. 



Xu.« SL/D* ••• ••• ct* 

Mezoneuron sumatranum, Wall. 

M. leptopoda, Oltv. ... 
Melanorrhea Curtisii, Oliv. 

M. Wallichii, Hk. f. 
Mesua ferrea, L. 


M. lepidota 

Michelia champaca, L. 

Microdesmis casearifolia, PI. 

Micromeium hirsutum, Oliv. 

Micromeium pubesceos, Bi. 

Micropora Curtisii, Hk. f. 

Microstemon velutinum, Engl. 

(A naoardiacea). 
Microstylis congesta, Lindl. ... 

Mikania scandens, Vahl. 

Millettia atropurpurea, Benth. 

M. eriantha, Benth. 

M. sericea, W. & A. 

Miquelia caudata, King. 

Mimosa pudica, L. 

( Legwninosa), 

Dalek. Delek. Delak. 
Akar Darah Blut A. Kele- 

chi Remba. 
Rengas. Merafa, Kluang. 

Rengas. R. Manau. 

Matopus (Penang) Penaga 
Kunyit P. Lilin. P. Pu- 
tih. P. Saga. Tapis. 

Jambu Dulek. 

Champaka. Chempaka. 

Buah Chatang. Kenidei Ba- 

Cbenana (Pahang). 

Cherek Putih. Kuman. Sa- 
ga Kayu. Titimah Betina 

Medang Kaki Liong. M. Sa- 
layun. M. Tuloh. M. 
Tandok (Pahang). 


Sigundo Hutan. 

Akar Ulam Tikus. A. Chu- 

roma. A. Lupang. 
Tulang Dang. Chicha. Gi- 

rah Paya. 
Akar Royah. A. Kuaya. A. 

Kuayah. A. Pera. 
Akar Nambu Jantan. A. 

Mumbol (Malacca). 

Samalu (Singapore). 

Jottr.;,SlraHf Branch , 



MimuiM>pb eleugi, L 

Mitxagjne speciot», Korth. ... 

Mitrephora macrophylla, Diiv. 

M. Maingayii, Uk. f. 
M. reticulata, Hk. f. 
Metroxylon Rumphii, Mart, and 

M. Sagus. 

Modecca singaporiana, Maiiit. 


Mue^a ramentacea, ADC. 

• * • • . • 

M. lodica* L. 
Mollugo stricta. L. 

Monochoria hastaefolia, I^. 

{Pontederiaceie ). 
Morinda citrifolia, L. ... 

M. rigida, Mh). 
M. sarmentosa, Bl. ... 
M. tinctoria. Rox. 

M. umbellata, L. 

Morinodica charantia, L. 

Moriuga pterygospt^rma. L. 

Mucuua pruriens, I)c C. 


K. A. !k>c., No. 38, 101 ri. 

Bunga TanjoDg. 



Maribut Daun Bc^r ( PtMiaiig ). 

Sagu. Reiubia. iiumbia. 

Akar (reiuiupcmg. A. Lu- 

pok. A. Lempedu (rajah. 

A. fjaut. A. Merapoli. 

Kulipunaug(S. Ujoiig). 
Akar Mumbolah. Bakaras. 

(Jegambir Jautan. Kaui- 

por. Selutang (Johore). 

lulaug Ilutan. Beiangkaii 

Kasih Ilulan. 
Rumput Belangkas. 

Cliachaiig Layer. 

Mengkudu Jan tan. 

Lumbu Jawa. 
Buku Bemban. 
Mengkudu. Mangkudu. 

Bangkudu. (Jhangkudii. 
Mengkudu Kecbil. Buah Bu- 

Peria Laut. 

Kamunggai. Kelor. Ka- 
t'liang Kelor. Kelu. 

Kacbang Karkaras Gatal 
Kacbang Babi. 



Murraya exotica, L. ... 

Musa maiaccensis, Kidl. 

Musa sapentium, L. 
Mussaenda glabra, Vabl. 

M. variabilis, Hems. ... 

M. villosa, Wall. 
Mussaendopsis Beccariana, Baill. 
Myrialepis Scortecbiuii, Hk. f. 

Mjrica naga, L. 

Myrsine capitellata, Wall. 

Myristica Colletiana, King 

(Myri8ticace<e ). 

M. crassa, King 

M. crassifolia, Uk. f 

M. Curtisii, King 

M. conferta, HI. 

M. clliptica, Wall 

M. Farquhariana, Wall. 

M. fragrans, L. 

M. geminata, King .. 

M. glaucesceus, Uk. f. 


globularia, King ... 
Griffithii, Hook. f. 
Uookeriana, Wall, 
intermedia, Bl. 


• • . 

• • • 

Mvristica Irva, (iaertn. 
M. Kuustleri, King ... 


Pisang Karok. 


Daun Petri (Favre), Balik 

Balik Adap Bukit Akar 

Bintang Merah. A. Bunga 

Bintang Kuniog. 
A dap- Adap. Balik Adap. 
liotan Gajab. R. Kirtong. 

Gelenchak. Kayteng. Ku- 


Kayu Jermal. Pendara Paya. 

Pala Bukit. 

Pala Jantan Paya. 

Pandarahan Bukit 

Penara Bukit 

Pala Hutan. Sunkit. 

Leieong Merah. Maralak. 


Enggank. Ingank. 
Cbindarah Laut. Pendarah 

Laut. Singga Putih. 
Kadanga Hutan Uitam. 
Ampas Tebu. 

Rengas Daun Besar. ^Vhtcho. 
Medang Paya. Pendara 

Lempoyan Paya. Lumpoyau 

Pala Bukit 

Jour. !5trait8 Bmncb, 



M. Lowiaua, King 
M. laurinum, Bl. 

M. Maingayi, Uk. f. ... 
M. missionis, Will. ... 

M. oblongifolia, King 
M. paludicola, King ... 
M. polyspherula, Uk. f. 

M. Ridleyaua, King ... 
M. Scortechinii, King 
M. superba, Uk. f. ... 

1X1.% sp. ••• ... ... 

Ju.* so. ••. ... .. 

M. 8p. Nr. polyspherula 
Mjrmecodia echiuata, Gaud. 

Myxopyrum nervosum, Bl. 

Nauclea, sp. 


Nelumbium speciosum, Willd. .. 

( yt/mpheacea ), 
Nenga XVendlandiana, Scheff 

Nepenthes gracilis, Kortb. .. 


A^ . 9U9. ... ... •. 

Xepbelium costatum, Hiern. .. 

\. eriopetala, Miq 

N. Litchii, Camb. 

N. luppaceum, L 

N. Mdingayi, Uiorn. 

N. malaieuse, (iriff. ... 

N. mutabile, Bi 

li. A. Soc., No. «J, 1UU2. 

Pala Uutan Bulu. 
Kamarahan. Kerantu. Te- 

uol. Mumpisang Bulu. 
Chenderahan. Penarahan. 
Chendarah Padi. Merbulu 

Kechil. Peudarab Padi. 
Pendara Uitani. 
tiankang Jay a. 
Jankang Bukit. Pandara. 

Piango Jantan. 
Penara Batu. 
Pendarah. Penarab. Mena- 


Penaga Lilin. (Malacca). 
Tebuang Blang. 
Perutak. Priok U a u t a. 

Akar Dudaro. A. Kulawi. 

Pulasan Uutan. Timbang 
Dayong. Mumpoyan. Mu- 
payian Kelimpayan. 

Saroja. Seroja. Seratei. 

Pinang Umu. 

Kancboug Kerab. Priok Ke- 

Priok Kerab. 
Kambutan Passeb. 

(rumpo. Sanggol Lubong. 

Licbi. Kelingking (Favre). 



Mata Kucliing. 




Neplirodium dissectum, Forst. 

Neprolepis exaltata, L. 

Nerium oleander, L. 

Neuropeltis racemosa, Wall. .. 

( Convolvulacea), 

• • • 

Nigella sativa, L. 

Nipa fruticans, L 

Nicolaia imperialis, Uorau. ... 

Norri»ia malaccensis, Ilk. f. ... 

Nyuiphea stellata, L. ... 

( Nympheacea ). 
Oberonia anceps, Lindl. 

0. stenophylla, Ridl. 
Ochlandra Kidleyi, Gamble 

Ochanostachys amentacea, Mast. 

Ochthocharis borneent^is, Miq. 


0. javanica, Bl. 

Ocymum basilicum, L 

Olax imbricata, Kox. .. 

Oldeulandia diffusa 

0. corymbosa, Ueyua 
Ouco^perma borrida ... 

V/. sp. ••* ... ... ... 

Paku Kilat. 
Paku Uban. 
Bunga Auis. B. Japun. 

Akar China Putib. Bunga 
Junkal. Akar Oran Meiih 

Jintan Ilitam (imported). 


Jaiigkot. Kakaras. Saro- 
pok. Serupab Bukit. 

Ati-Ati Paya. Kelipob. 
Teratei Kechil. 

Sakat Lidab Buaya (Malac- 

Nibong Palir (Johore). 

Bulub Kasap. 


Sakalan (Johore). 

Silokan (Singapore). 
Selasih Antan. 

Maribut (Kedab). 

Ruuiput Jingab. 

Tulo Belauka^. 

NiboDg Padif N. Linau 

Jour. iiHraiU Bnifich» 



0. tigillaria, Jack 

Ophiorrhiza, spe 


Orania macrocladus, Mart 

Oroxylon indicum, Vent. 

Orthoeiphon stamineus, Benth 

Ormosia venosa, Baker 

Osmelia Maingayi, King 


Ostodes macrophyila, Benth 
( Euph orbia cea). 

Oxymitra biglandulosa, SchefF. 

V '• sD* ••• ••• ••• ««, 

Oxytenanthera sinuata, Gamble 

i^achynocarpus Wallichii, King 

Pachyrrhizus angulatus. Rich 

Pfederia foetida, L. 

Pancratium Zeylanicum, L. 

Pandanus atrocarpus, Griff. 

P. fascicularis Lam. ... 

R. A. .Soc., No. 38, 1902. 

Xibong. Anibong. 
Changkoi Bahang. Kudu- 

raak. Sambu Bc^ak. Sum- 

puh Badak. 


Kumis Kuching. 


Chindarong Bukit. Bangas 
Merah. Medang Keman- 

Chendarah Hantu. Chungah 
Putih. Dada Ruan. Ju- 
long Jantan. J. Putih. 
Kasumbo Jantan. Kayn 
Katu. Kasumbo Jantan 
Laiantar (Malacca). Lang- 
kuang. Sumpuyan Ulnr. 

Akar Mupisang Hitam. 

Buluh Minyak. 

Damar Mata Kuching. Mer- 
batu Pasir. Petaling Ayer. 

Kachang Bengkuang. K. 

Akar Sekuntut. Dandang- 
king (Johore). 

Bramban Hutan. 


Mengkuang Laut. Pandan 
duri. P. laut. P. Darat 



P. Houlletiana, Carr 

P. inermis 

P. ovatus, Kurz. 

P. Isevis, Rumph. 

P. helicopus, Kurz. ... 

P. sp. near helicopus 

P. parvus, Ridl. 

P. sp. n. aff. ovatus 

Paogium edule, Reinwdt. 

Panicum auritum, Prest. 

P. colonum, L. 

P. indicum, L. 

P. italicum, L 

P. myosuroides, Br. ... 
P. myurus, 11. B. K. ... 
]. nodosum, L. 
P. radicans, L. 
Panicum sarmentosum, Rox. 

P. trigonum, Retz 

Paramignya longispina, Ilk. f. 

P. monophylla, Wight. 
Parameria glandulifera, Ilk. f. 


P. polyneura, Hk. f 

Parastemon urophyllum, De C. 

Parinarium Griffithianuni, PIk. f. 


Mengkuang Uutan. 

Pudak (Favre). 

Pandan Tikus. P. Beduri. 

Pandan Jelinkeh. 

Pandan Resau. P. Rasow. 

Pandan Telongkat (Selang- 

Pandan Kura. 
Silangsang. Sendayan Mas- 


Payung. Kapayung. 

Rumput Rumpai. Oumpai 

Rumput Kusa-Kusa. R Padi 

Rumput Bidis. R. Bonto 

Rumput Sekoyi. 
R. Kumani. 
R. Kumpai. 
R. Sarang Buaya. 
R. Telor Ikan. R. Upat 
Rumput Janggut AH. R. 

Tongkat Ali. R. Kulu- 

R. Rurubong Padl R. Mu- 

Limau Lelang. 

Akar Merlimau. 
Akar Serau. 

Akar Sedang. A. Serapat. 
Siagnos Betina. Malas. Re- 

lat Pasir. 
Merbatu Loyang. Cbana. 

Mujagon. Sauh Uutan. 

Sunko Rimau. 

J<iur. Straiis Brouch. 



P. costatum, Hk. f. ... 
P. nitidum, Hk. f. ... 

Parkia biglandulosa. W. & A. ... 

• {Leguminosa). 
P. Roxburghii, Don 

Passiflora foetida, L. ... 

Paspalum scrobiculatiim, L. 

Pavel ta humilLs, Uk. f. 

Pavetta indica, L. 

Payena costata, King: 

P. Leerii, Oliv. 

P. Maingayi. C. B. C. 
P. quadrangularis, L. 
Peliofuinthes albida, Hk. f. 

M • 8pp. •*• •*• ... 

Pellionia Duvauana \. E. Br. ... 
( I ^^rticacea), 

P. javanica, Wedd 

Peltophorum dasyrrachis, Kz» 


B. A. Soc., No. 38. 19U2. 

Poko Obi. Sukupa. 
Bangas Putih. Kelat Layu 

Hutan. Medang Kawan. 

Merbatu Kechil. M. Me- 

rah. M. Putih. Mumbatu. 

Marabatu. T u m b a t u . 


Petal. Beka. Boll. 
Kedawang. Kerayang. 
Gudawang. Kerayong 
(Selangor). Kurayong. 

Letop-Letop (Malacca). Ti. 
muD Dindang. T. Padang. 

Rumput Hijau. R. Julong- 
R. Liku. R. TnloSintadok. 

Jarum-J«rum Batu. 

Gading Hutan. Jarum. 

Jarum-Jarum. J. Paya. 

Je jarum. Men jarum. Pecha. 

Priok Putih. Serau Lipis. 

Niato. N. Tembaga. N' 

Balau. X. Putih. N. Hi- 

tam. Munglut. Perut 

Pelandok. Samaram. 
(ileiah Sundik. Sundek. 
Getah Percha Burong. 
Timun Hutan. 
J^inang Lumbah. Suludang 

Pinang, Tukus Tikus. 
Lumliah Bukit. 
Akar Siak Naga. 

Chambai Batu. 
Alai. Batai. 



Pellacalyx saccardianus, Scort. 

Pentace eximia, King 

( Tiliacea). 
P. triptera, Mast 

Pentacme malajana, King 

Pentaphragma begoniaefolia, 


( CampanuUtcea), 
Pentasacme caudata, \Vall. 

Pergularia minor, Andr. 


P. odoratissima, L 

Peristrophe acuminata, Nees. . . . 


P. montana, Nees 

Pericampylus incana, Miers. ... 

( Meni/tpermacete), 

Perotis latifolia 

Petunga sp. 

P. venulosa, Hk. f 

Phaseolus lunatus, L. ... 

P. mungo, L 

P. vulgaris, L. 

Phaeanthus nutans, Hk. f. ... 

Kayu Johore. Mumbuloh 
Himbah. Piango Jantan 
Medang Lu»i. 

Medang Serai Johore. Ka- 
bal Ayam. Sepa Putri 
S. Petri. 

Timah Batu. 

Balong Ayam Batu. 

Chermin Batu (Pahang). 

Bunga Tongkin. 

Malati Tongking. 
Rumput Lidah Jin. 


Gasing-Gasing. Gegasing. 

Jerkasing. Kelesu (Pe- 

Rumput Ekor Kuching. 

Tulang Betina. 

Mempas Jantan. Peluk Han- 

tu. Pulas Ilantu. Umpa- 

ongHantu. Gading Lambai. 
Kachang China (Favre). K. 

Kachang Chindai. K. Hijau. 

K. Kechil. Keddi: Ke- 

Kachang Bunche. K. Pen- 

Pisang-Pisang Bukit. P. P. 

Kechil. P. P. Paya. 

Jour. Strait! Branck , 



• • • 

• • • 

Phoebe multiflora, Bl. 

P. sp. 
P. sp. 
P. sp. 

Phyllanthus distichus, Muell. ... 

( Euphorbiacea), 

P. frondosus, Wall 

P. pectinatus, Hk. f 

P. pulcher, L. 

P. urinarius, L. 

Phyllagathis rotundifolia, HI. 

( Melastonuwea ). 
Philydrum lanuginosum, Br. ... 

Phyllochlamys spinosa, Bureau. 

( Urticacea). 

P. Wallichii, King 

Physalis minima, L 

Phragmitis |Roxburghii, Steud. 

( Oramwea), 
Phrynium hirtum, Kidl. 

Ph. Griffithii, Baker, and 
Ph. Malaccense, Ridl. 
P. Jagoranum, Koch. 
Physostelma Wallichii, Wight. 

Phytocrene palmata, Wall. ... 

Pimelandra Wallichii, A. De. ... 


Pimpinella anisum, L 

( Umbellifera), 
Pinaoga disticha, Bl 


II. A. Soc.. X»». 38, 19<»2. 

Medang Ketanah. M. Me- 
rah (Malacca). M. Pa- 

Medang Burong (Johore). 

Medang Kasiri. Kusirai. 

Silincha (Johore). 

Chermei. Chermela. Cha- 

Cherek Uantu. 

Laka-Laka. Malaka. 

Kanka Bona. 

Ambelan Buah. Ambin Buah 

Banau Ilutan. Bawal Uu- 

Kepas. Kipas. 


Gambadak (Kedah). 


Lerak Betina. 

Lerek. Lerit. 

Lerit Padi (Jfelangor). 

Akar Siak. 

Akar Pisang-Pisang Buloh. 

Layan. Medang Katanah. 

M. Merah (Malacca). M. 

Pasir. 1 ambang Sisir. 
Jintan Man is. 

Pinang Boring Padi. }\ 

Legung (Pahang). 



P. malayana, Scheff. ... 

P. polymorpha, Becc. 
P. Scortechinii, Becc. 
Piper caninum, L. 
P. chaba, Hunter 
P* cubeba, L. 

P. Betel, L. ... 

P. lonchitis, R. & Sch. 

P. longum, L. 

P. muricatum, Miq. ... 

P. nigrum, L. 

P. ribesioidea, Mu[ 

P. stylosum, Miq 

X . 9LF . ... .. ... 

Piptospatha Ridleyi, Ilk. f. 

CA voidea) 
Pistia sti-atoides, \u 

Pisum sativum, L 

Pithecolobium b u b a I i n u m , 



P. clypearia, Jack 

P. contortum, Mast 

P. fasciculatum, Benth. 

P. lobatum, Benth 

P. microcarpum, Bth. 

Pittosporum ferrugineum, 

Pinang Boring. P. Dam- 

Pinang Kaki Pelandok. 

Bayas Betina. 

Cbabai JEIutan. Akar Kalong. 
Lada Hantu. L. Anjing. 

Bakek. Lada China. 

K umukus (Smgapore). Lada 
Ekor. L. Beiekor. 

Sirih. S. Malay u. S. China. 

Lada Antan. 

Chabei. Kadok. 

Kadok. Kadanok. Kudak 
( Pinang). Keduk (Favre). 

Kerubut Paya. 

Lada Ilitam. 

Kalong Ular. K. Gajah. 
Lada Kiinba. 

Kadok Hutan. 

Akar Sangkap. 


Kambiang. Kiamban. Ki- 

yambang (Favre). 
Kachang Putih. 
(jiring Antan. 

Jering Munyet. 

Asam Jawa Antan. 

Jering Bali. Kachang Tupai, 

Saga (tajah. 
Jering Tupai. Petai Bela- 

lang. Kurudus. Kerudas. 

K. Ayam. K. Api. 

Chabe Hahtu ( Penang). Bu- 
nga Sapong. Giramong (Jo- 

.Jour. Str<iit<« Bnvoch, 



Plantago asiatica, L. 

PlectiJComia Griffithii, Ilk. f. . 

Pleopeltis angustata 


P. phymatodes, L 

Pluchea indica, L. 

Plumeria acutifolia, L. 

Plukenetia corniculata, Sm. . 

Plumbago rosea. L 

Poducarpus neglectus, Bl. 

Pogostemon lleyneanum, Hk 

f & T 

P. Patichouli, Pell. ... 
Pollia sorzogonensis, Eiidl. 

( Commelinaceie), 
Polianthes tuberosa, L. 

( A inarfjlHdea), 
Polyalthia Beccarii, King 

P. Jenkinsii, Bth. 
P. Scortecbinii, King 

X • opp. > • . • • • • 

p. Teysmanii, King ... 
Polygonum Haccidum, Meissn 

R. A. .Soc, No. 38, \w»'L 

bore). Kapiala Pajan (Ma- 
lacca). Lusai. Mediaing Ke- 
lelawak (Malacca). Suro- 
ras. Sereras (Malacca). 
Medang Pasir. TrangDok. 
Ekor Angiu. 

Kotan Daban. R. Tukus. 

Unak. Onak. Unar. 

Paku Wangi, 

Cbempaka Biru, Kembaja 


Cberaka (Singapore). Sitaka 
(Favre). Binasa (Favre). 
iSentada. Setada. 

Nilam Bukit. 


Tauipo Kalin. Tubo Keloi. 

Sundal Malam. 



Jankang ilutan. Kenanga 

Larak Merab. 
Kalina Paya. Kasum. 



P. peduncularis, VVall. 

Polyosma mutabile, Bl. 

Mr • bD* ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Poiyporus sacer, L 

Polystictus sanguineus 

P. :cerampelinus 
Pometia pinnata, Forst 

Pungauiia glabra, Vent. 

Popowia fcetida, Maing. 

P. nervifolia, Maing. 

Portulaca oleracea, L. 

P. quadritida, L. 
Pothos Curtisii, Hk. f. 


P. latifolia, Uk. f 

Poihomorphe subpeltata, Idiq. 

( Piperacea). 
Pouzolzia pentandra, Benn. . . . 

( Urttcacea). 
Pouzolzia indica, Gaud. 
Premna cordifolia, Rox. 

( Verbeuacea), 
P. coriacea, C. B. C. 
P. corymbosa, lioth. 

P. parasitica, BI 

Prismatomeris a 1 b i d i ti o r » , 


( Rubiacea). 
Psidiuui guava, \j 


Rumput Jangeut Rimau. Ru- 

mput Kowan. 
Tembosa Jantan. Poko Tu- 

Lara Batang (Pahang). 
Susu Rimau. 

Chendawan Boreng. 0. Me- 

Chendawan Telinga Kra. 

Kachang Kayu Laut. 

Pisang-Pisang Besar. 

Mumpisang Batu. Pasak 

Gelang Pasir. Segan Jantan 

Memaniran Putih (Favre). 

Lidah Buaya. 
Sigumbar Urat. 


Aring-Aring; Urang Urang. 
Ambong-Ambong Laut. Bu« 
as-Buas. Babuas. Bruas. 
Akar Mulor Padang. 
Akar Buss. 
Langsit. (Penang). 

Juuibu Biji. J. Belawas. Me- 
lukat (Johore). 

Jonr. Straits Branch, 



Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, 

PsydK^ria angulata, Korth. ... 

P. Jackii, Hook. 
P. Malayana, Jack. 

P. ovoidea, Wall 

P. polycarpa, Miq 

P. sarmeDtosa, B) 

P. stipulacea, Wall. 

A • SLJ. •• ... •.. 

X • Sp* ... ••• *•• 

X > Sp« ••• ••• ... 

Pternandra capitellata, Jack. .. 

( M eUtstomaceie), 
P. coerulescens, Jack. 

Pterisaiithes caudigera, Miq. 


P. heterantha, Miq 

Pterocarpus indica, Willd. 

( Ltguminosea). 
Pterospermum diversifoliuiu, J31. 

P. Jackianum, Wall. 
Ptychopyxis costata, Micj. 

( Etiphorbiacea), 
Punica granatum, L 

Pygeum acuminatum, Bl. 


R. A. .Soc., No. 38, 100?. 

Kacbaug Botol. K. Botor. 
Bo tor. 

Jiirum Jarum Betiiia. 
Penawar Billah. 

Ubat Halan. 

I^yam Badak. Tulang-Tula- 

Akar Ambelu. 

Bertis. Akar Chinta Mula. 
A. Nasi- Nasi. A. Sulong. 
Silam Kulu. 

A. Daldaru. A. Kambeli Pa- 

Julong-Julong Bukit 

Akar Gandarusa. 

Penoh-Penoh Uutan. Akar 

Akar Sabuseh Putih (Malac- 
ca). Sambarau Angin. 

Kulil Nipis (Penang). 

Ikuut Paya. Bunyut Paya. 

Kelat Biru. Manaon. bial 

Dalek. Delek. Delak. 
Akar Gamat 

Akar Sebunkak. 
Sena. Angsena. 

Bayur Jautan. 


Kaliah Toab. Mendarab. 

Buah Delima. 

Tampoi Dadab. 



P. lanceolatum, Ilk. f.. 

J * 9 LI* ••• •.* ••* 

Pyrenaria acuminata, Bl. 
( Ternatrcemiacea), 

Quercus encleisocarpa, Korth. 

Q. hystrix, Korth. 
C^. oidocarpa, Korth. 
Q. spicata, L. 

^^. olJo. • • • • • • 

Q. Kunstlerii, King 
C^uisqualis densiHora, Wall. 

Q. indica. L. .. 
Kafflesia Arnoldii, Bl. ... 

Randia anisopbylla, Jack. 


R. densiflora, Benth. ... 

R. fasciculata, De C. 

R. longiflora, Lam 

R. macrophylla, Bl. ... 

R. rugulosa, Thw 

Raphidophora Lobbii, Ilk. f. . 

R. minor, Ilk. f. 
Ratonia sp. 

Merapit (Malacca). 
Medang Chang Kauno. M. 

Chupona. M. Kelawar. . 
Chumpahong. Gelugur Oa- 

jah. Medang Gelugur. 

Samak Jautan. 
Berangan Babi llutan. 

Gugiring. Kampuning. 

Berangan Antan. 

Berangan Padi. Empeuiug. 

Berangan Babi. 
Kelempening. ( Lanka wi). 
Selimpas. ISumang. 

Akar Pontianak. A. Suloh 

Bungkal. Chempakah Putih 
Uutan. Jarum-Jarum Jan- 
tan. Medang Gajah. 
Mumpulu Rimbah. 

Burumbong Jantan. Gading 
Tulang. Geruseh. Gere- 
seh. G. Puteh. G. Jan- 
tan. Mata Ular. Merum- 
bong Jantan. Musirah 
Mata Kerbau. Perawas. 

Akar Bedarah Laut. A. Du- 
ri. A. Kukulang. 

Siantan Uutan. 

Kachubong Rimbah. Kuma- 
tan. Pecha Pingan. 

Akar Suburus. 

Akar Asam Tebiug Paya. 

Akar Kelamoyiang. 
Pantat Ulat Putih. 

Jour. :straiU Branch, 



Renanthera moschifera, Linal. 

Rhizophora conjugata, L. 


K. niucronata, Lam 

Rhodamnia trinervia, Bl. 


R. trinervia, var. montaua . 
Rhodomyrtus tometitosa, Bl. . 

Khynchosperma Wallichiaua 

Kunth. ... 
Kicinus commuuis, L. ... 

{ Euphorbtacea). 
Rosa centifolia, L. 

Roucheria Griffithiana, Bl. 

( Linea), 

Roureopsis pubinervis 

Rourea fulgeus. Wall. 

R. rugosa, Bl. 

Rubus glomeratus, Bl. 

R. moluccanus, L. 

lluellia repens, L. 

Ruta graveoleii8, L. 
Iivparia fasciculata. King 


R. A. ««c., Ni>. :«, l'.n»2. 

Bunga Kasturi. 


Empoyan. E. B.itu. Mung- 
koyan Pinang. Rusa-Babi 
(Johore). Sedouiang (Ma- 

Empoyan Bukit. 

Kamuuting. Kemunting. 

Bulnng Rumput. 

Bunga Mawar (The Rose). 

Bboi. Ipoh Akar Putih. 

Ipoh Putih. Akar Biji. 

(laram-Garam. Kait-kait 

Akar Kait Putih. Akar 

Akar Kachaug Betina. Akar 

Kaldee. A. Tukekel. 
Akar Asam. Asam Akar. 

Semilat Sembilat. Semi • 

lat Darah. S. Putih. 
Akar Kelintat Kra. Semilat- 

Semilat. Sembilat. 
Akar Balik Adap. A. Bulan 

Mudu. Akar Kupor. 
Tempoh Ragat. (Pahang). 

Tempu Ranak (Malacca). 
Dras Malam. Akar Kuru- 

Aruda (Rue). 
Liimos. Musukang Putih. 

Surunikup. Tajam Bulat. 



Saccharum arundinaceum, L. . 


S. ofiicinarum, L 

S. Ridleyi, Hk. f 

Salacia flavesdens, Kz. 

( Celaatrineai), 
S. •grandiilora, Kz 

O* ou* • • • ■ • • • 

Salix tetrasperina, Rox. 

2:^auropus albicans 

( Enphorbiacea ), 
Samadera indica, Gaertn. 

Sandoricum dasyueurum, Baill 

S. indicum. 
S. radiatum, King 
Salomonia cantoniensis, L. 

Santalum album, L. 

iSantiria apiculata, Benn. 

S. fasciculata, Benn. ... 
S. Griffithii, Engl. ... 
S. laevigata, BL 


S. multitiora, Benn. ... 
Sapium baccatum, Rox. 

S. indicum, L. 
Saprosma arboreum, Retz. 

( Rnbiacea), 

o. Sp. t. ... **• 

Saraca cauliilora Hak. ... 



Tebrau (Pahang). 

Katimbong (Kedah). Sedarig. 

Ampadal Ayam. Empedal 

Nasi Sejuk (Kedah). 
Dalu-Dalu. Jendalu. Dahu. 

ChekopManis. Chermela Hu- 

tan. Tarok Manis. 
Epoh. (Johore). 

Kechapi Hutan. 

Sentol. Setui. (Lankawi). 
Kechapi. Kulapi. 
Rumput Bua. 


Keranti Batu. 

Kadongdong Bulan Putih. 
Kempas Roman. 
Kerantei. Keratei. K. Me- 
do. do. 

Ludai. L. Pelandok. Rulus. 

Gurah. Guring. 
Chumpong. Kusimbo. Ma- 

rabuloh Paya. 
Daun Sekuntut. 
Gapb Kunyit. Talan Kunyit. 

Jour. .Straits Branch, 



S. triandra, Bak. 
Sarcanthus secundus, GriET. 

Sarcocephalus Jung^huhnii, Miq. 


S. subditus, Miq 

Sargassum sp. 

Scsevola Koenigii, Vahl. 

SchizsBa dichotoma 

Schoutenia Masters!, King 

Schizostachyum a c i c u I a r e , 


S. Blumii, Nees. 
S. chilianthum, Gamble 

S. Zollingerii, King 

Schima Noronhee, Reinw. 

( Tern8troeimace<p), 
Schizophyllum commune 

Scirpus grossus, Vahl. 

S. mucronatus, L. 
S. supinus, L. 
Scirpodendron costatum, Thw. 

Scindapsus hederacete, Schott. 

S. pictus, Hassk 

ij» 9L/* ••• ••• •«* •*. 

H. A. 8oc., No. S8. 19i)2. 

Gapis. Talan. 
Sakat Ular. 

Bongkah Ajer. Chermin 
Ayer. Lempedu Jawa. 
Melada (Pioang). Mem- 
pelu Tanah. Mungkal. 
Sebutah. Sebongkok Bu- 

Magal. Markel. Sakir Da- 
mak (Johore). Subutu. 


Ambong-Ambong. Ambun- 
Ambun. Buas-Buas Laut 
Paju Jarum. 

Banitan Merah. 

Buluh Padi. 

Buluh Juron. 

Akar Buluh. 

Buluh Tuloh. 

Medang Bekawi (Pinang). 

Chendawan Sesak. 

Mendarong. Menerong, Rum- 
put Murong. R. Musing. 
Rumput Kerch ut Kumbah. 
Rumput Perut Tikus. 

Akar Lubang Alah. 

Siri Chichewi. (P. Wellesley). 
Akar Kelumpayang. 



Scleroderma flavo-crocatum ... 

Scleria ory zoides, Presl. 


i^» 9LX9a ••• ••• ... ••• 

S. . sumatreDsis, Retz. 
Scolopia rhinanthera, Clos. 

( Bixinea), 
Scoparia dulcis, L. 

Scorodocarpus borneensis, Becc. 

Scyphiphora hydrophjllaeea, 

vraeriiii. ••• ••• *•• 

Sebastiana chamoelea, Muell. ... 

Selaginella atroviridis 

( Ltjcopodiacea), 
Selliguea Feei, Hk. 

Sesamum indicum, D. C. 

{Scroph ularinea ) . 
Sesbania grandifiora, Pers. 

Sesuvium portulacastrum, L. ... 

Setaria glauca, Beau v. 

Shorea acuminata, Dyer 

( Dipterocaipea), 
S. bracteolata, Dyer 

S. barbata, Brandis 

S. Curtisii, Dyer 

S. glauca, King 

S. macroptera, Dyer 

S. par\'iflora, Dyer 

Chendawan Tumbong Klapa. 

Rumput Liku Daun. 

Rumput Sendarian. 
Rumput Kumbar. 
Rukam Hutan. 

Buuga Baik Salam. Gha Pa- 
dang. Te Macao Dulis. 

Chingum (Johore). Sabasoh. 


Jambol Merak. 

Paku Gala Hantu Laut 

Bijan. Lenga. 


Oelang liaut. Sesepit (Sing- 
Rumput Julong-Julong. 

Meranti Paya. Rambeh Daun. 

Seraya Batu. (Maingny). 
Meranti Tai. 
Damar Laut Daun Besar. 
Kepong. K. Hutan. K. 

Meranti Daun Kechil. Mer- 

an ti K erap. Seraya Samak. 

Jour. Straits Branch. 


Ill * 

S. utilis, King 

V3» ou* ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Sida carpinifolia, L 


S. rhombifolia, L. 

Sideroxylon ferrugineum, Ilk. 

o« sp* ••• ••• «•• t** 

Sindora siamensis, Teys. 
( Leguminosa). 

tJ* siUt ••• ••• ••• ••• 

S. Wallichii, Benth. 
Sloetia sideroxylon, Teys. 
( Urticacea), 

Smilax calophylla, Wall. 

S. China, L. 

S. Helferii, A. de C. 

S. leucophylla, Bl 

S. megacarpa, D. C. 

S. myosotiflora, D. C. 
Solanum aculeatissimum, Jacq. 

S. nigrum, L. 

S. sarmentosum, Xees. 

S. torvum, Swartz 

S. tuberosum, L 

S. verbascifolium, L. 

B. A. Soc., No. 38, IflOe. 

Damar Laut No. Satu. 

Temah ( Lanka wi). 

Katurabar Hutan (Malacca). 
Kelulut Putih. Sada Turi. 
Telor Belangkas. 

Bunga Padang. Seliguri Pa- 
dang. Sendaguri. 

Tawak. Tuak-Tuak. 

Chinta Mula Putih. 

Saputi Minyak. 

Saputi Sindo. 

Tampinis. T. Merah T. Ke- 

rong. T. Putih T. Hi- 

tam are said to be slight 

varieties ? 
Itah Tembaga (Perak) Sada- 

Gadung China. Ubat Rajah. 

Ubi Rajah (Java). 
Akar Bana. Gadong Tikus. 

Kijil. (Selangor). Kutona 

Betina. Akietr Seminjo 

Kuranting Jan tan. 
Kluna. Akar Lampan Bu- 

kit. Rabano. 
Akar Ali. Itah Visi. 
Terong Asam Hutan. T. 

Blanda. T. Purat. 
Terong Meranti (Kedah). T. 

Terong Tikus. 
Terong Pipit. 
Ubi Benggala. Kentang. 
Terong Raya. T. Bulah. T. 

Pipit T.Rimban, Sukasap. 



Sonerila heterostemon, Xaud. . . . 

( Melastomacea), 
S. mol uccana, Jack. 

o« oEli ••• ••• ••• 

SoQneratia acida, L 


S. Griffithii, Kz. 

Sorgbum sacchariferum, L. ... 

Soya hispida, Benth 

Sphenodesma barbata, Schawr. 

S. pentandra, Jack 

S. tri flora, Wight 

Spathoglottis plicata 

Spatholobus ferrugineus, Benth. 

( Leguminosai), 
Spermacoce hispida, L. 

Sphaeranthus microcephalus, D.C. 
Spilanthes acmella, L. 

Spinifex squarrosa, Lab. 

Spondias mangifera, Willd. . . 

(A nacoi'diacea), 
Sporobolus diander, L. 

Stachjtarpheta indica, L. 

( Verbenacea), 
Stemona tuberosa 

( Roxburghiacea), 
Stenochasina convolutum, Griff. 


Ati-Ati Gajah. Ati-Ati. Hu- 

tan. Kerakap Ayer. 
Pouh (Jack). 
Bubulus (Malacca). Bulu 

Bedat. Bedata. Perupat. 

Betari. Batari. 

Kachang Japun. 

Agalumut. Akor Chabang 

Lima. Lilimbo. 
Akar Linton^ Rusa. A. Su- 

lang. A. Tanak Rimau. 
Akar Risa. A. Meruan. A. 


Akar Jangat. A. Sejatigat. 
A. Sekoet. 

Rumput Setarro. R. Stan- 
dang. R. iSusor. 

Gelumak Susu. 


Rumput Lari-Lari. 

Kadongdong. Kandong- 

dong. Dongdong. 
Rumput Tule Belalang. 

Selasih Dende. S. Hutan. 

Ubi Kumili Hutan. 

Pua Hitam. 

Joar. Strati* Brftach, 




i5« Bp0* • • • 

Stenochlnna palustris 

SterculU campanulata, Wall. 

S. Jaokiana, Wall. ••• 
S. loevis, Jack. 
S. macrophylla, Vent. 
S. parviflora, I^3x. ... 
S. rnbiginosa, Jack. .. 



S. scaphigera, Wall 

Stereum mtidulum 

Stereospermnm frimbiatuiu, D.C. 

S. glandulosum, Miq. 
S. hypostictum, Miq. 
Stephegyne speciosa, Miq. 
Streptocaulon Wallichii,W.&A. 

Striga lutea, Lour 

(Scrophularinea ) 
Strophanthus dichotomus, De. C. 

ianus, Wall 

Strychnos laurina, Wall. 

S. pubescens, Clarke 
S. Tieute, Bl. 

O* oD. ... ... ... 

Styrax benzoin, L. 

Susum antbelminticum, Bl. 


E. A. Soc., Na 38, 1902. 


Lamiding. Miding. M.Beti- 
na. Paku Mesin. P. Me- 
sah. P. Ramu. Sayur Paku. 

Kluet Kulunot. 

Bayur Retina. 

Chempaka Janggi. 


Kadampang, Rongga Jantan. 

Dudanak Hitam. Keluntingi 
Saburu. Sakelat. Unting- 
Unting Besar. ^,-* 

Kembang Samangko. 9i-' 
layer (Selangor). '. 

Ohendawan Karang. 

Cha-Cha. Lumpoyan. 

Bunga Pawang. 
Kutum (Pahang). 
Sarapapat. Akar Timah Ke- 


Akar Dudok Kijang. A. 

Bunga Hantu. 
Akar Semijo. 

Blay Besar. 

Blay Hitam. Ipoh Akar. 

Bedara Hutan. Akar Lada- 

Keminiyan. Kumian. Ka* 

minan. Kumeyan. 
Bakung Ayer. B. Pantal. 

B. Suasa. Bangkong. Lo- 




• •• 

• • • 

• • • 

Swintonia Sch wenkii, Teys. . . . 

( A itacardtacea )• 

S. spicifera, Teys 

Sjmplocos adenophylla, WalL 

S. fasciculatus, Zoll. 
S. ferrugineus, Rox. ... 
S. racemosa, Rox. 
S. rigida, Clarke 
S. rubiginosa, Wall. ... 

Synadenium sp. 

( Efiphorbiacea ). 
Syngramme alismtefolia, Hk. ... 

Tacca cristata, Jack. ... 

T. pinnatifida, L. 
Tabemsemontana cpronaria, Bl. 

T. corymbosa 

T. malaccensis 

• . • 

• * • 

T. pedunculare, Wall. 
Twniochlcena Griffithii, Ilk f. 

Tienites blechnoides, Swartz . . . 

Tatnarindus indicus, L. 

{ Leguittinosa), 
Tarrietia aimplicifolia. Mast. ... 

(Steven liftcfif). 

bak-Lobak. Lobak Jaotan. 
Balau Betina. 

Mupus (Pinang). 

Jejiih. LukotMerpadi Paya. 

GaDchil Kechil. 

Marililin. Mempatu. 

Laga Egan (Johor). 


Domun (Siagapore). 

Sesudu Hutan (Pinang). 

Paku Tunjok Sanget. 

Kelemoyiang Ayer (Selan- 
gor). Sabiak. Sebiak. 


Bunga Susu. Manda Kaki 
(Malacca). Susun Kelapa. 

Istong Parab. Restong. Jan- 
tang Badak. Jelutong Ba- 
dak. Saratong (Johore). 

Ourang. Laggundi Bulan. 
Lada-Lada Jantan. Lala- 
da. Lelada Padi. L. Hutan. 
Peracbet Pudmg Hutan. 
Penyoi (S. Ujong) Poko 

Sejarang. Sujarong. 

Boroml^ng (Akar). Akar 
China. Kacbang Purai. 

Paku Balu. B. Pijai. 

Asam Jawa. 

^[erbayu. Mumbaju Siku 
Keluang. Traling. 

Jour. Siraita Branch, 



• •• 

Tectona grandis, L. ... 

( Verbenncea), 
Terminalia catappa, L. 

T. phellocarpa, King 

T. subspathulata, King 
Tephrosia Hookeriana, W & A. 

Ternstramia pinangiana, Chois. 

( Teimstramiacea), 
X • co&iac6a ■.. ..• ••• 
Tetracera assa, L 

T. macrophylla, Hk. f. 
Tetractomia laurifolia, Bl. 

Teysmannia altif rons, Miq. 

Thamnopteris nidus-avis, L. ... 

Theallchinensis, L 

Thecostele maculosa, Kidl. 

Thespesia populnea, L. 

Thottea grandiflora, Rox. 

{A riatolochiacecp), 

Thrixspermum lilacinum, Kchb- 

Ul« ••• ... c(, 

Thunbergia alata, Rox. 

Thysanolena acarifera, Nees. . . . 


R. A Soc., No. 38, 1902. 



Pelawei (Selangor). Mauipa- 

lam Babi. 
Kachang Buloh. 

Tengah Ilutan. 


Mempelas. Ampalas. Am- 

Ampalas Oajah. A. Rimau. 
Kertak fludang. Medang 

Daun Pajong. (Pahang) 

Daun Segalor (Selangor). 

D. Selebar. Daun Sang 

(Kinta) C. C. 
Paku Langsuir (Selangor). 

Rumah Langsuir. Paku 

Te. Poko Cha (Pinang). 
Sakat Bilimbi. 


Grobo (Malacca). Kurubut. 
Kerubut Sambut. Sebu- 
rat. Saburut Suprut 

Akar Sesudu Paya. 

Akar Ulan. 

Buluh Tebrau. 

^H 'linomisciuni petiolare, Miers. . . . 

Akar Langkap. A. Lempo- ^^^^| 

^^^ {Meiiifjieniiacea). 

yang (S. Cjong). A. ^^H 

Mumbulu. ^^H 

^^H Timoiiius jambosella, Thw. ... 

Merombong (Malacca). Rio ^^^H 

^H {Rubia,:f<r). 

(.lohore). Tabah(S. I'jong) ^^^1 
Kurau (Penang). ^^M 

^^H Torenia asiatica, L 

Kulalawat ^^^H 

^^H (ScTophiilariiiea). 


^^M T. pedunculata, Benth. 

Kelawat. Rulang Hutao. ^^^H 

^^M T. polygonoides. Ilenth. 

Kerak Merah. Terutop Bata ^^^H 

^H Trema amboineriMt^, Bl. 

Mundarong. Narung Jan- ^^^H 

^^1 (frlicace^). 

tan. Narong Paya. ^^^H 

^^1 Trevesia sundaica. Mill. 

Kabu-Kabu. Kakabii. Ta- ^^H 

^^H {Arali(ice{e). 

pak Kusa. ^^^^| 

^^H Trichoranthea anguina, L. 

Ketola ^^^H 

^^M {CiKurhitaeta). 

^H T. cHebica. iMi.| 

Akar Tlga Chnbnn^ (Selang- ^^^H 

or). Timun Dpodaug Lnn- ^^^^| 


^H cordata. Box 

Akar Labu Ayer Uutan. ^^H 

Akar r>unto. A. Lokar. ^^^H 

^^H T. tricuspidata 

Akar Kab>minan (Penang). ^^H 

^H T. U'ullichiaiium, Cogn. 

Timlin Uajak. Akar Balixtur. ^^H 

^H T. W'awraii, Cogn 

Akar Tiga Chabang. ^^H 

^^H Tridax procuinbens, L. 

Bunipiit Kanching Baju. ^^^^| 

^H iCompoaiUt). 


^^1 Trichospermum Kurzii, King ... 

Kasumba BukiK ^^^| 

^H {Tilh<-e(e). 


^^H 'I'rigonella I'enugrcccuui 


^B TrigonochlamyB Oriflhhii, HIc. f. 

Babi Kurua. Damar Kijai. ^^H 

^H (fi»r«»vic<w>. 

Kiiai. Kasir. Kadong- ^^M 

dong Mata Uari. ^^H 

^^m flps. 

^^H Trigonostemon indicus 

Gadu Uajah. Pelandok Be- ^^H 

^^1 ( Eiiiihorbimta). 

sar. tielendap Bukit. ^^^H 


Mantua Pelandok .TanUn. ^^^H 

^^H Trigoniaatrum hypolpucum, 


^M, .- 

Maharajili (Jobore). MnU ^^M 

^K IPolssalnt). 

Pas-seh (Maiiigay). ^^H 

Bntnck, ^^H 



Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. 

{ Tiliacea), 
Tristania Maingayii, Duthie. 

T. Wightiana, Grifif. ... 
Tripbasia trifoliata, De. C. 

Turpinia pomifera, De C. 

Tumera ulmifolia 

Typhonium divaricatum, Decne. 

{A roidea), 
Tjlophora asthmatica, Wight. 

T. tenuis, Wall. 
T. Wallicbii, Hk. f. ... 
Uncaria ferrea, De C. ... 

U. gambir, Uunter ... 
U. lanosa,WaIl. 
U. ptecopoda, Miq. ... 
U. sclerophylla, Kox. 

L. * 8LILI. • « . • . • 

Unona dasmychala, Bl. 

U. discolor, Vabl. 

U. dumosa, Rox. 

IT. longiflora, Rox. ... 

Uraria crinita, Desv. ... 

Urceola bracbysepala, Hk. f. 

U. elastica, Rox. 
U. tucida, Benth. 
U. malaccensis, Ilk. f. 

U. A. .Soc., No. 3«, Wn, 


Pasir Lingga. 

Pelawan. Gbangal. 

Limau Keab. L. Kikit L. 

Merbong Jantan. 

Lidab Kucbing. 

Birab Kecbil. 


Akar Saput Tungal. 

Akar Subidai. 

Kait-Kait Bukit Kait-Kait 

Gambir. Gatta Gambir. 
Gegambir Paya. G. Hutan. 
Kait-Kait Darat (Malacca). 
Belalai Gajab. Akar Selim- 

bar (Favre). 
Cbenang Hutan (Malacca). 

Akar Darab. A. Kenang^ 

Akar Kencbong Johu. 
Jari Ayam. 
Ekor Kucbing. Seringan. 

Pua Acoraging (Jobor). 
Gegrip Putib. 

Gegrip Tembaga. 
Gegrip Merab. G. Nasi. 
Akar Sangkang Buaya. 
Serapat Jantan. 




U. torulosa, Uk. f 

Urena lobata, L. 

Urophyllum Blumeanum, Wight. 

U. Grifiithiauum, Wight. 
U. hirsutuQ), Wight. 

Utricularia ilexuosa, Vabl. 

Uvaria dulcis, Duual.... 

U. dumosa, llox. 

U. purpurea, BI 

Vaccinium inalacceuse, Wight. 

( Vacciniete). 
Vandellia Crustacea, Benth. 

( ScvophufaHneiB). 
Amanda gigantea, Lindl. 

Vanilla Griffithii, Reich. 

Vatica Curtisii, King. 

( Dipterocarpece), 
V. pallida. Dyer. 
Vernonia arborea, L. ... 


V. Chinensis, Less. ... 
V. Cinerea, Less. 

V. bcaudeus, De 0. . ... 

Akar Montek. A. Suapah. 
Poko Kelulut. Perpulut. 

Pepulut. Pulut-Pulut. 
Chemperai Dadis. 

Limputih Paya. 

Panchan (Malacca). 

Jinteh Putih. Mata Keli 

Lumut Ekor Kuning. 

Pisaug-Pisang llitam. / 

Pisang-Pisang Padi. P. P. 

Pisang-Pisang Jantan. P.- P. 

Kuming. P.-P. Tandok. 

Kerak Nasi. 

Kayu Low (Lankawi) Pisang 
Kling(Lanka\vi)Low Kayu. 

Akar Penubal. Telinah Ker- 
bau Bukit. 

Piuang Baik (Penang). 

Merambong Bukit Besar. 
Jaukang Paya. Mengaboug. 

Medang Gambong. Me- 

rombong Bukit 
Rukum Gajah. 
Bujong Samalam. Ekor Ku- 

da. Rumput Sapagi. 

Sembong Uutan. Rum- 

put Susor Daun. Tahi 

Babi. Tambak Bukit. Tarn- 

Akar Lumboh (Malacca). 

Join. HtraitH Bramli. 



* • 9p* • • • • • • 

Vitis adnata, Wall. 
V. ciunamomea, Wall. 

V, diffusa, Miq. 

V. elegans, Kurz. 

V. gracilis, Wall. 

V. glaberrima Wall. ..; 

V. lanceolaria, Kox. ... 

V. inacrostachys, Miq. 

V. mollissima, Wall. 

V. iiovemfolia, Wall. 

V. quadrangularis, Wall. 

V • ^)LJo■ • . ■ ... 

* • oLI. • • • • • • 

Vitex coriacea, Clarke 

( V'erbi'iKweie), 

V, pubescens, Vahl. ... 

* . oU. ... ... 

V. trifolia, L. 

V. vc'stiU, Wall. 

Viscum spp 

Viburnum sambucinuin, 

Vigna catiang, Endl. ... 


B. A. HiK'.-f No. 3d,lW2. 



Chawat Udi. Akar Hakan 

AkarJari Biawak. Keladek 

Ingan. Susuwat. 
Chiarek Merah. Lakom Laut. 

L. Jang-Jang. L. Umbon. 

Akar Mumpayang. 
Akar Plas (Johore). 
Keladek Tana. 
Akar Asam Riang. A. Riang- 

Akar Kangkong Gajah. 
Akar Charek-Charek. A. 

Lakom Gajab. Akar Sebun- 

kah. Peria Hutan. 
Lakom Terbau. 
Salab Laku. 
Lakom. xVti-Ati. 
Akar Koyah Asam. 
Jali Hatu. Medang Pupoi 

Leban. L. Uitam. L. Tandok. 
Leban Kunyit. 
Lagundi. Leguudi. Leng- 

gundi. Langg^di. Lang- 

Alban. Ualban. Bangus 

Jantan. Leban Bunga. 

L. Xasi-Nasi.. Nasi Rem- 

ba. Sepit Sipet 

Buas^-Buas Bukit 13uas-Bua8 

Kachang Merah. K. Perut 

Ayam. K. Puru Ayam. 

K. Towchew. K. Panjang. 



Ventilago leiocarpa, Benth. ... 

V. MaiDgayii, Laws. 

Voandzeia subterranea, Tbouars. 

Walsura multijuga, King 

Webera grandiflora, Hk. f. 

W, longifolia, Ilk. f. 

VV. mollis 

\V. stellata, Uk. f 

Wedelia biflora, De C. 

( Compositie). 
Wikstrtemia Candolleana, Meisu. 

( Thifineleacece). 
Willughbeia coriacea, Wall. . 


W. firma, Bi. 

Wornica meliosmoefolia, King. 

( Dilleniacea) 

W. oblonga, Wall 

W. pulcbella, Jack. 
Xanthium strumarium, L. 

( ComposiUe), 
XauthophylluDi afKne, Kortb. 

( Polygalea). 
X. Griflithii 
X. Kunstleri, King ... 

X. Maingayii, Ilk. f. 

X. obscurum, Benn 

X. palenibanicuni, Mi<j. 

X. rufum, Benn. 

Akar Hitam. A. Tukua. 

Kamayan Antan (Pahang). 

Kacbang Manilla. 

Laka-Laka Jantan. 

Julong-Julong Jautan. 

Kulu Babi. Sigauri. 
Injau Belukar. Kelabu. 
Kuruseb Putih. Suluro. 
Sarune. Saruney (Favre). 
Serenah Laut Sunai Laut 
Cbandan (Pahang). 

Getah Gaharu. G. Ujol. G. 

Menjawa (Malacca). Ujol. 

Puchong Kapor. 
Gegrip Uitam. G. Besi. 

Akar Sampat 
Simpob Jantan. S. Bukit S. 

Kambai Hutan. 
Simpob Paya. 
Buah Anjang. 

Chubon. Gading Jantan. Li 

mab Beruk Jantan. 
Dudoli Paya. 
Boborek. Limah Beruk Pu- 

tib. Minyak Beruk. 
Limab Beruk Betina. 
Buah Kapas. 
Minyak Beruk. 
Kapas Bulan. Krabu. Med- 

aug Katanaban. Minyak 

Beruk Jautan. 

Jour. Stmita BrAScli, 



X. VVrayii, King 
X. sps. 


• •• 

Xerospermnm Norohnianam, 
Bl. {Saptndaceig\ 

X. Wallichianum, King 

Ximenia americana, L. 

Xylopia elliptica, Maiogay 

X. ferruginea, Uk« f. 

X. magna, Maingay 
X. mala^ana, Maingay 
Xyris indica, L. 

Zaiacca affinis, Griff. ... 

Z. conferta, BI. 

Z. eduli^, B 

Z. niacr(X;^tachya, Griff. 
Z. Wallicbianum, Mart. 
Zantboxylum myriacanthum, 

Vv nl 1* ••• ••* 

Zea mays, L. ... 

Zingiber cassumunar . . . 

Z. Griflithii, Baker 
Z. oflicinalis, L. 
Z. spectabiiis, Grifif. ... 

Zizypbus calopbylla. Wall. ... 

Z. jujuba, Lam. 

Bt ^. .Soc., No. 38, 19a*i. 

Medang Surupo. 

Limab Beruk. Lamah. Lu- 

mab. Minyak Beruk. 
Rambutan Pachat. 

Balong Ayam. 
Bidara Laut. 


Jaukang. J. Paya. J. Beti- 

na. J. Merab. 
Kudago Hutan. 
Banit Kijang. 
Bagbao. Jeringu Padang. 

Salak Betul. 

Asam Kelubi. A. Paya. 


Salak Rungum. 
Kabu-Kabu Uutan. Membu- 



Bunglei, Lampayang. Lem- 

Boila Hitam. 
AUya. Haliya. 
Chadak (Selangor). Tupoi 

Da wai-Dawai. D e d a w i . 

Akar Jambu Relawar. 

Onak (Malacca). A. Pialu. 

A. Unak. 
Bedara China. 


Z. oenoplia, Mills Kuku Balam. K. Tupai. Ku- 

kulaug. • • 

Jour. .*:>truita BzftSclli 

DYEING. 123 

Silk and Cotton Dyeing by Malays. 

By W. W. Skeat. 


lu Kelantaii and Patani the material of which sarongs^ Lain 
lepaa, etc., are made is now almost invariably silk or cotton 
thread imported from Singapore, but in out-of-the-way inland 
districts a few Malays of the older generation still manufacture 
a coarse but durable thread of native vegetable fibre (home- 
spun). In the latter case the dyes most commonly used were 
blue (biru) and purple (umu) with occasionally some green (ijau 
or 3mpo) and a little yellow (kuning or tula). Red, though 
much admired, was not commonly used owing to the difficulty 
of making it fast. When silk is to be dyed, from four or ten 
katVs weight is now usually bought from peddlers or in the 
bazaar at from $4 to $4.50 per kati (l^Ibs). The following 
are the processes by which the re(]uired colours are obtained, 
both silk and cotton thread being similarly treated. I may 
add that the numbers correspond to a series of standard colours 
which were shown to mv informants when the information was 
obtained, but which it is unfortunately impossible to reproduce 

Hed: — (1) To dye a /.ati of silk red from ten to fifteen 
fruits of the Oifam gelut/or, * with two or three common 
tamarinds, and as much alum as will cover the nail of the 
fourth finger, are together put into a pan (blanga), and heated 
up to boiling-point (sapTi bergel§g4k).t The silk is plunged into 
the liquid* which is kept on the fire till the whole has been well 
boiled, when the pan is taken off and allowed to stand all night. 
Next morning the silk is kneaded to clean it (di-kichih, Selangor 
kinchah) taken out, and dried in the sun, and put out in the dew 

* a a ni II id atroriritfis. — //. X. I!. 

f I have <^ivcn e\uct Kcluntuii ami Patani proiiuiiciatioiis in' thin 
article as likely to Vie uf most interest to the reader, — H'. S. 

R. A. HiK., N«. im, 1UU2, 



for the night. 

Patani and Kelaiitan Malay 


letfaod of djeiiij; ^ilk red is called by I 
lalays "chilu mala" (or. in standard J 
Malay, " uhl-lup uialau.") 

Orange: — (2) To dye silk orange [which is called kuning I 
pinna mauik, or " ripe betel-nut yellow "], the silk may be dipped J 
into the already used red dye. Only a weak soluliun it- reijuired, I 
so that if the strength of the dye ip/iti) has been absorbed by I 
the first insralment of silk it does not really matter. Of course if I 
a new solution is brewed, care must be taken to see that it is not 
too strong, but the former method is generally favoured. Tlie 
silk is dipped into the liquid and stirred about, and then boiled 
a little, till it is as red as the p<iiiU-puUii tlower.* my inform- 
ant declared. On being taken out again, the dye is wrung 
out of it. when it is laid aside for the time l>eing. About a 
"chupik" of the fruits of the kasOmi hlin (kasHmba tUug) 
are then sijueened ('nu«i/0 into a dish f]iatv), t)ie husks b^nic 
Uirown away. 'I'd these are added alx>ut ten of the fruits of 
beliiiibing iiiaeain, which is also called " Kuih k'rih" in Kelantan 
and Patsni from its bein^ used for the express purpose of clean- 
ing K'ris blades (di-bachie k'rih). These being s<]ueezed into the 
pam, a [Huch or two of alum is added, (as a mordant), and the 
roisture is ready. The silk Ls dipped into this liquid and knead* 
ed in it for a few moments (sa-jSnih), after which it is boiled 
for a short while on the lire. \Vhen taken out. it is hung up 
upon a line in a shady place to dry (di-sidii di-t^doh).t ^hade 
is of importance, as if it is exposed to the sun the colour will 
fade. It is however exposed to the dew (di-percmbongl every 
night for three nights consecutively. J 

Dark orange is obtained from chips of the heart of the I 
jackfruit {ming{-ti) tree, with the usual mordant (alum and \ 
aaam gtliigor). 

i'tltoiv : — (3) and all tlie colours now to be mentioned are 
now usually obtained from aniline dye-stuffs imported from 
Singapore. In the absence of such dyes however they are still 
obtained as follows. 

t In ijoliknjjur Malay — Ijimlnl. 

U|>iuk.-//. ,V. /.'. 



To dye silk yelloic, turmeric or curcuma is pounded 
in a small specially -made mortar and wrung or squeezed by liand 
(di-p^rih) to get the juice out of it. Tamarinds, asaui gC'lu^or, 
and alum are added in the same proportion as before, and the 
silk bMled in the mixture and hung up to dry, as in the 
" malau " procesa. This dye Iiowever like all othi-r shades of 
yellow must be exposed to the action of the sun, as without 
this the required tint cannot be obtained. 

For geliow grem (4) the treatment commences with the same 
process as for yellow, but n mixture is added which is made 
from the root and heart of the " poko" kSdrie." About a kati 
(1^ lbs) of this wood is taken, chopped up small (di-chichfe) and 
heated to boiling: point. It is then allowed to stand and cool a 
little, when the clearer liquor at the top (siring) is spooned off 
(leaving the thicker staff, called dodo' at the bottom), and 
added to the decoction of turmeric before referred to. The rest 
of the process is the same as before. The same colour is also 
given by young shoots of the Kambutan {^XephfliiDn bippai-tum) 
tree, alum and asam g^lugor being added. 

For Or«n(.i)alargerproportionof the " kedraiig" mixture 
is applied. For Blue Orefn (6) the procesa is twice repeated. 
Far Blue (7) a decoctjon of indigo leaves takes the place of 
the turmeric. The process is otherwise the same but repeated 
two or three times till the right tint is obtained. 

The following are the more important kinds of indigo 
known in Kelantan and Patani. 

1. tarung kechi' (^ taruin kechil) 
a, tarung gelreng* (= t. gelanggang) 

3, tarung Sire (= t. Siam) 

4. tarung fikii or tarung ut«e.* (^ t, akar or t. eitan). 
For Indigfi (8) the leaves are gathered and thrown into a 

big earthenware jar called " t^payre " (St. Mai. ti^mpayan) to- 
gether with the bark of the young shoots or young f ruitr^jMkea of 
the coconut-palm (kfilt'priti'nyS), one fruit-s[»ke on an average 
going to each tepaycS. A lump of lime " as thick as a man's 
arm " (bi-sa length) is added, and the silk steeped in the decoc- 
tion till it become,s of the reiiuiaite tint. 

• Mnmlfuia tinttoi-ia (!)-//■ A'. R. 
R. A.'8ae.. No. 38, ItMS. 



For Vi'olft (!)) commence with the light ted dyp (mfllil), afljl 
before, but then steep the silk in fermented cocmnut milk (nyl 
ayi 'dih jadi ragi) keeping the silk in it only juHt lon^ enough'! 
to turn it of the re<[uiBite tinge, an if not watched, and allowed | 
to ivmain Uio long, it will turn a rusty black. 

Pii>1>le {10) nxAy be obtained either from an infusion of ' 
tengar l»rk or by combination of the " mala" (light red) dyeing 
process with indigo ; Dark purple from the serii kayu (Sel. 
teiitimlani)), a tree with Rmall red edible fruits, with alum and 
asam gi-lugor as uaual. Mliiie (U) ia obtained by steeping the J 
silk in a decoction of (burnt) durian skin. Light black or | 
Blick {yi) IS obtained from an infusion of tengar bark or by J 
repeated steepings in indigo ; or by burying in the soil of the I 
gurah tree,* yarn already dyed yellow-green (4) or dark pur- 
ple (10). Dark blif-k (13) by atill further repeated dyeing with 
indigo or fermented coconut milk; Greij {\i. l.>) by dipping iu 
indigo; Brown (Ifi, 17) by dyeing witli "mundu"f bark, alum . 
and tamarinds being added as required ; Brown (IS) by dyeing J 
with '■ mundu " bark onl-i ; and Brown { 19) by adding indigo to 1 
the above. 

I may add that the most generally favourite colour is red ' 
after which come yellow and a kind of delicate rose-colour 
(or madder), which is called kijinbang pttang in Selangor 
(kemtb pi'-til^ in Kelantan and Patani). Darker and soberer tbts 
are in ^-ogue for the older folks, and the sarong -patterns worn 
by the women have smaller checks and are more tasteful than j 
those worn by the men. 

In Raman (an inland province of Paiani), both Blue and i 
Black dyes are obtained from either the wild or cultivated J 
variety of indigo (tarung utti' or tarung kftpon) the yam beinjf T 
steeped in an infusion coloured by the young shoots until the I 
re(|uisite tint is obtained. The black is therefore merely thb'l 
deepest shade of blue obtainable. Red is obtained from Brazil- ] 
wood or sepaiiff mixed with an eijual proportion of chips of Ihs I 

* The yarn after dyeing ia hitneil in eoU taken from iindemeatb I 
tlie rftimh tree, wbose leaves are ftnid to turn tiie soil iimlemeAth it ■ 
lilai'k. The "^nrah" treti is ]irolni1)ly " Kxi'O'cnrift ai'allnrhn.'' | 

DYEING. 127 

'* kMrang " tree. The heart of the tree (tSrah) is taken and 
steeped in water until the infusion becomes of a sufficentij deep 
red colour. Green is obtained by taking the old leaves of 
the Indigo and mixing them with the juice of young cocoanut- 
fruit pounded small {at/er mutubang* di'twuboh). 

Yellowf is obtained from equal proportions of turmeric 
(kunyit) and lime (kapor) which are mixed and allowed to 
ferment (di-rapai jctdt ragi). 

Purple is made by dipping red-dyed yarn in indigo. 

Before concluding I may perhaps here add for the sake 
of comparison a few general notes on typical dyeing processes 
on the west coast (Selangor). 

In Selangor mangrove bark (kulit bakau) is used as a 
black dye, whilst from hi tioiu kunyit or timu hinchi and timu 
pttuh (especially from the first of these three) yellow dye is 
obtained. The yellow dye obtained from these latter prepara- 
tions is darkened by the addition of lime (kapor) and asam 

Red dye is obtained from Sepang and k&umba k'ling: 
green from bunga t^lang (the creeper, not the bamboo) ; black 
from the fruit of the ki^udok (Melastoma) and from the fruit 
of the tumu, the latter giving the best results. 

* In Raman called gflmse (^gumbang). 

t Probably the exact colour obtained would depend npon the 
len^h of the immersion. It might be expected that such a mixture 
an <leHcribe4l would pnxluce, when its full strength waH brought out, a 
Hort of burnt o<'hre. 

R. A. Hoc., No. 38, 1902. * 9 



Malay Tiger-beetles. 

By H. N. Ridley. 

The tiger beetles (Cicindelidae) are among the most 
attractive and conspicuous of our smaller beetles on account 
both of their bright colours, and their rapid movements in the 
full sun, in the hottest time of the day. They are exclusively 
carnivorous, chasing their prey consisting of smaller insects and 
usually flying very briskly, and usually require the use of the 
net to capture them. The Malay species may be divided into 
two groups, the jungle-tiger beetles and the road-tiger beetles. 
The former include species of the genera Tricondyla and Colltfris, 

Tricondyla aptera, Oliv., is the only species of this genus 
I have seen in the peninsula, and it Is by no means common. I 
obtained a single specimen in the Botanic Gardens in Singapore, 
and there is also a specimen from Penang in the British Museum. 
It seems to be abundant in New (ruinea and occurs also in 
Amboina, Aru Islands and Solomon Islands. It is our largest 
species, about } inch long, and is also remarkable for being 
quite wingless, a narrow, elongate, deep blue beetle with slender 
antennas, prominent eyes, and long red legs. I found it running 
about on the ground with the workers of the common large ant 
known as Semut Rajah, (Campotwtus gigas). This ant makes 
nests in the l>ases of hollow trees, and the workers are commonly 
to be seen scampering about on paths, especially in the early 
morning and late evening, in search of food. The Tricondyla 
af^ars to mimick the ant, for though when the two insects are 
compared the resemblance is less strikinir, the general form, long 
legs, and method of running about cause the beetle to so much 
resemble the ant that I very n^^arly let it escape mistaking it for 
the ant. 

Of the genus Colhjris we have three species here and 
probably more will be found, as the species very closely 
resemble one another. They are much smaller than the 
Tncomlifla but of very much the same shape, though they have 

K. A. Soc., Xo. :]», 10i>2. 

11 ♦ 



wings, slpnder lorig-leggeJ beetles, blue or violet, which an 
ofttiu to be seen Hying and scampering over leave.s on bushM ' 
in the bright aunny spots of the jungle. The commonest species 
ia C. ituleiui, Chand., which I have collected in Singapore. 
Selangor, Penang and elsewhere. C. Jiliformis, Chand.. is a mure 
!jlender species, bright violet blue with red legs. C. npiralit, 
Chand., is rather larger, very dark in colour, almost black, witb'| 
red legs and a reddish patch at the apex of the elytrs. It ii 
common in the Botanic (jardens. 

Therates hvmfiatu has broader elytra and more resembles 
a road tiger-beetle. It is blue with tawny shoulders and red 
legs, 1 have collected it in Singapore. 

Of the road tiger-beetles with broad elytra, which dart 
about on sandy roads, taking short Highly, then running a little 
on their long legs and off again, we have two genera, Cu-indela 
and Heptailoiita. The lirst geuns seems to be very widely 
distribuled, abundant in Europe and North America as well as 
in the tropics. The larvw of the temperate climate species are 
soft bodied with large heads and powerful jaws. They lire in 
holes in the ground from the entrance of which they look out 
for passing insects on which to prey. The larvie of our speciM ' 
doubtless resemble those of colder rlitnates, but they have nafj 
yet been investigated. 

The commonest species is CiriniUlu uurulrnta^ Pabr., whi'dt. J 
is very abundant on sandy roads in Singapore, Perak, Penang,.^ 
Province W'ellesley and elsewhere. It is abundant on the wMt*! 
Hill in Penang at an altitude of SOiiii feet. The upper surface >1 
is of a dark blue grisen with six golden spots on the elytra. The f 
abdomen beneath is coppery red. It has very powerful black \ 
curved jaw.s, but cannot bite though the skin. A Itogether it ia J 
a very beautiful beetle. 

('. fiiliginosa, I)ej., is smaller and rather lesH conuDon, 
though by no meuns rare. The elytra hitve a dark brown key 
pattern on a cream ground. I have met with it in Singapore, 
Penang, Province W'ellesley and Perak, and it will probably be 
found all over the peninsula as well. 

Neptaiioiilri nmlit, Fabr., ha.'* the same form and hab 
the two Cicindelas, but i.'' a plain dark blue-green beetle without I 
any spoti. It is widely distributed, occurring in Fenang, " 



Selangor and Perak and is also found in Bombay, Java and 

I identified theso beetles by the collections in the Natural 
History Museum. There are probably other species to )3e found 
in the peninsula, especially in our hill regions, and as they are 
conspicuous and easy to catch there ought to be no difficulty 
in getting a complete set of the species of the peninsula. 

R. A. Soc, No. 38, IWi. 


A List of the Reptiles of Borneo— Ad- 
denda et Corrigenda.* 

p. Al.^^Brookeia laileyi^ Bartlett. 

This species must now be known as Orlitia lovneeu' 
ifis, Gray. 0. borneensis was most incompletely de- 
scribed in 1873. from a very young mounted specimen, 
collected by Bleeker at Sintong, Dutch Borneo. Boul- 
enger subseciuently relegated the species to tlie genus 
Bellia, since the very immature s|)ecimens showed no 
characters on which to base a sound generic diagnosis. 
Adult specimens of this same species were later (1805 
and 1897) described by Bartlett and Boulenger as 
lirookeia hailet/i and Liemt/s inornata respectively. 
A skull of this tortoise in the Zoological Institute, 
Munich, • was described by Baur in 1895 as Adtlochelys 
crasm and referred to the super-family Cheltfdvoidea^ 
chieHy characteristic of the Xew World, and its habi- 
tat guessed at as Costa Kica ! Finally Schenkei in 
1901 suggested that Brookeiabaileyi and Bellia borneen- 
sis were conspeciHc, and pointing out the differences 
Ijetween this species and a typical Beilia, revived 
(jlray*s Genus Orlitia. I had already pointed out to 
* Mr. Boulenger the identity of his Lieiays inornata with 
Brookeia baileyi^ and recently Was able to obtain, 
through the kindness of Mr. Bailey, of the Sarawak 
service, a young specimen of this oft-described tor- 
toise : Mr. Boulenger has compared this with the typ^ 
of Orlitia borneensis, itself a young specimen, and in a 
letter he informs me that the two are identical. The 
head and eiitoplastron alone shew that the species is not 
a Bdlin, but must occupy a genus by itself, for which the 
name Orlititi has already been provided. 

• See tliiM Journal Xu. 35, pp. 43-68, 1901. 


The species also occurs in Sumatra. 
The following is a list of the literature relating to the 
species : — 

Orlitia bonieeims^ Gray, A. M. N. H. (4) xi, p. 157, 1873. 

Bellia borneetisis, Boulenger, Cat. Chelonians, Brit. 
Mus., p. 100,(1889). 

I/ardella baileyi^ Bartlett, Sarawak (Jazette, Vol. xxv, p. 
83, 1895, and Zoolog. Note Book of Sarawak, 
No. 1, p. 60, 1895. 

Brookeia batletji. Bartlett, Sarawak Gazette, Vol. xxvii, p. 
113, 1896, and Zool. N. B. of Sarawak, No. 2, p. 81, 

Adelochelya crassa, Baur, Anat. Anz., xii, 1896, p 314. 

Liemys inovnata^ Boulenger, A. M. N. 11. (5), Vol. 19, p. 
868-469, 1897. 

Liemijs inenaUi, Siebenrock, Sitzb. Ak. Wien., cvi, 1, 
1897, p. 248. 

Orlitia {Bellia) borneensis^ Shenckel, Verh. Nat. Ges. 
Basel, xiii, 1901, p. 196. 

P. 47. — Bellia borneensis^ Gray. Omit (see above). 

P. 50. — Tdrentola delalaiidii^ D. & B. 

This species should not be included in the Borneaii 
fauna. Its habitat is West Africa and Madeira. 

P. 54. — Ljigoitoma whiteheadiy Mocq. 

This is conspecific with L, bowriiif/ii, (liinth. 

P. 58. — Add Mt. Saribau, Samarahan K. as another localit}' for 
Opisthotvopis ^^/)ic'a,Mocq.,and //ydrafdabes periops, (jilnth. 
P. 58. — Xylophia albonuchalisy Gilnth. 

This species, which was included by Glinther in the 
genus Geophis^ has been referred by Boulenger (Zool. 
Record, 1898) to Agrophis, next to Idiopholis (see p. 61). 
P. 61 — After Afjrophis albonuchalis^ (Jlinth, add : — 

Agrophis sarararensis^ Shelford. Shelford A. M. N. H. 
(7), Vol. viii, p. 516, 1901. S. M. 

Kuching, (Shelford). 

Type and only known sjx»cimen in the Sarawak 

•luur. Strait« nraiii-li. 


After Idiopholis collaris, Moc*]. add : — 

Idiopholis everettiy Shelford, I.e. p. 517, 1901. 

Sjiwa, N. Borneo (A. Everett) cf. The unique 
speciuieu is preserved in the British Museum. 

P. 62. — For Calamaria prakii resA Calwmria prakkii, 

P. 63. — For Ptrraca read Ftrracca. 

II. ^heljord. 

K. A. S«»c., No, :;8, IfXJi. 

UULES. 137 




I.— Name and Objects. 

1. — The name of tlu» Society shall be ** THE STRAITS 
AsiATir SoriETY." 

2. — The objects of the Society shall \x* — 

a. The investigation of subjects connected with the 

Straits of Malacca and the neighbouriig Coun- 

b. The publication of papers in a Journal. 

c. The formation of a Library of books Ix^ariig on 

the objects of the Society. 

II . —Membership . 

.3. — Menilx»rs shall l)e classed as Ordinary and Honorary. 

4. — Ordinary MeniU»rs shall pay an annual subscription of 
$5, payable in advant.-e on the 1st January of each year. Mem- 
bers shall be allowed to compound for life membership of the 
Society on payment of ?;5(). 

5. — llonorary Meml)ers shall pay no sub^ieription. 

6. — On or about the 30th June of every year, the llonor- 
ary Treasurer shall prepare a list of those Members whose sub- 
scriptions for the current year remain unpaid, and such persons 
sliall Ix* deemed to have n?signed their Membership. But the 
oix»ration of this rule, in any particular cas(». may ha suspended 
by u vote of th(» Council of the Society. No member shall 
receive a copy of the rJournal or other publications of the 
Society uutil his suljscription for the current ye«r has been 

138 KULKS. 

7. — Candidates for admissiou as Meiube^rs shall be propos- 
ed by one and seconded by another member of the Society, and 
if agreed to by a majority of the Council shall be deemed to be 
duly elected. 

8. — Honorary Members must be proposed for election by 
the Council at a g-eneral meeting of the Society. 

III.— Oflcers. 

9. — The Orticers of the Society shall be : — 
A President; 
Two Vice-J^residents, one of whom shall lie selected 

from amongst the members resident in Peuaug ; 
An Uonorary Secretary and Librarian ; 
An Honorary Treasurer ; and 
Five Councillors. 
These Olhcers shall hold oftice until their successors are 

10. — Vacancies in the above offices shall be tilled for the 
current year by a vote of the remaining Officers. 

IV.— Council. 

11. — The Council of the Society shall l>e composed of the 
Officers fur the current year, and its duties shall be: — 

a. To administer the affairs, property and trusts 
of the Society. 

A. To elect ordinary members and recommend Hon- 
orary members for election by the Society. 

r. To decide on the eligibilit}- of papers to be 
before general meetings. 

//. To select papers for publication in the Journal, 
and to supervise the printing and distribution of 
the said Journal. 

f. To select and purchase books for the Library. 

/, To accept or decline donations on behalf of the 

g» To pres«?nt to the Annual Meetiig at the expira- 
tion of their term of office a Keport of the 
proceedings and condition of the Society. 

KULES. 139 

12. — The Council shall meet for the transaction of busi- 
ness once a month, or oftener if necessary. At Council meet- 
ings three Officers shall constitute a quorum. 

13. — The Council shall have authority, subject to con- 
firmation by a general meeting, to make and enforce such 
by-laws and regulations for the proper conduct of the 
Society's affairs as may, from time to time, be expedient. 

V. — Meetings. 

14. — The Annual (Jeneral Meeting shall l»e held in January 
of each ye&r. 

15. — General Meetings shall Ik» held, when practicable, 
once in every month, and oftener if expedient, at such hour as 
the Council may appoint. 

IG. — At (Ordinary (General Meetings of the Society seven 
and at the Annual General Meeting eleven members shall form 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

17. — At all Meetings, the Chairman shall, in case of an 
tM|uality of votes, l)e entitled to a casting vote in addition to 
his own. 

18. — At the Annual (ieneral Meeting, the (Council shall pre- 
sent a Report for the preceding j-ear, and the Treasurer shall 
render an account of th(» financial condition of the Society. 
Officers for the current year shall also be chosen. 

VJ. — The work of Ordinary (ieneral Meetings shall be the 
transaction of routine business, the reading of papers approv- 
ed by the Council, and the discussion of topics connecti»d with 
the general objects of the Society. 

20. — Notice of the subjects intended to l)e introduced for 
discussion by any member of the Society should be handed in to 
the Secretary before the Meeting. 

Visitors may \x* adniittt^d to the Meetings of the Society, 
but no one who is not a member shall l)e allowed to address 
the Meeting, except by invitation or {XTniission of the Chair- 

VI.— Publications of the Society. 

21. — A .lournal shall U» published, when practicable, every 
six months, under the sui)ervision of the Council. It shall com- 

140 KULES. 

prise a selection of the papers read before the Society, the 
Report of the Council and Treasurer, and such oUier matter as 
the Council may deem it expedient to publish. 

22. — Ever}^ member of the Society shall be entitled to one 
copy of the Journal, deliverable at the place of publication. 
The Council shall have power to present copies to other Socie- 
ties and to distinguished individuals, and the remaining copies 
shall bi^ sold at such prices as the Council shall, from time to 
timo, direct. 

i ^ 2o. — Twenty-four copies of each paper published in the 
Journal shall Ije placed at the di9()osal of the Author. 

21. — The Council shall have power to sanction the pub- 
lication, in a separate form, of papers or documents laid before 
the Societ3\ if in tlieir opinion practicable and expedient. 

VII.— Popular Lectures. 

27). — Occasional Popular IiC»ctures upon literary or scienti- 
fic subjects may Ik.» delivered, under the sanction of the Council, 
on evenings other than those ap|x>inted for General Meetings 
of ihe Society. 

VIII.— Amendments. 

•JG. — Amendments to these Rules must be proposed in 
writing Uj the Council, who shall, aft<T notice given, lay them 
l)efore a General MtH*ting of the Society. A CommitU*e of 
Resident Members shall thereupon be appointed, in conjunction 
with the Council, to reix>rt on the proposed Amendments to the 
(leneral Met^ting next ensuing, when a decision may betaken, 
providcKi that any anu^ndment to the Rules which is to be pro- 
|)osed by such Committee to the (ieneral Meeting shall be 
stated in the notice sunnnoning the meeting. 




I No. 39 1 


June. IQ03 

Agenls of the Society 

Lnndoni KttlA^ PAl^t, TRKKCll, TutiUKER & Co. 

[No. 39] 


of the 

Straits Branch 

of the 

Royal Asiatic Society 

JUNE 1903 




Table of Contents. 

Council for 1903 ... ... ... ... ... ▼ 

Proceedings of the Annual General Meeting ... ... vi 

Annual Report of the Council ... ... ••• viii 

Treasurer's Cash Account for 1902 ... ... ... iz 

Notes on a Trip to Ounong Benom in Pahang, bj 

W, D. Bavnes ... ... ... ••• 1 

Notes on the Formation of Words in Malay and Cognate 

Languages, by H, L, E, Luering ... ... 19 

The Sakai and Semang Languages in the Malay Peninsula 
and their relation to the Mon-Khmer Languages, by 
P. W. Schmidt J reviewed by W. D, Barnes ... 38 

The Comparative Philology of the Sakai and Semang 
Dialects of the Malay Peninsula — A Review, by 
C, 0, Btagden ... ... ... ••• 47 

The Contents of a Dyak Medicine Chest, by Bishop Hose 65 
New Malay Orchids, by H, N, Ridley ... ... 71 

Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Hymenoptera 
taken by Mr. Robert Shelford at Sarawak, Borneo, by 
P, Cameron ... ... ... ... ... 89 

On a Collection of Coins from Malacca, by R. Hanitsch ... 183 

Short Notes ... ... ... ... ... 208 






The Right Rev. Bishop Hose, President. 

Hon. W. R. CoLLYEK, Vice-President for Singapore, 

Hon. C. W. KynnekslEY, Vice-President for Ptnang 

H. N. Ridley, Ilonorart/ Secretary, 

Dk. HanITSCH, Honorary Treasurer. 

H. Eschke, Esq., 

A. Knight, Esq., 

VV. G. St. Clair, Esq., )- Councillors 

A. W. 0*SULL1VAN, Esq., 

Ven. Archdeacon Dunkerley J 


of the 

Annual General fleeting 

The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held on 
January, 23rd 1903. 

There were present : — Right Reverend Bishop IIose, 
Hon'ble W. R. Collyer, Dr. LIanitsch, A. Knight, H. 
EsCHKK, A. D. Machado, Yen. Archdeacon Dunkerley,. 
W. G. St. Clair, J. A. Roberts, Esq., Dr. Galloway, H. NS 

The minutes of the last Annual General meeting were read 
and confirmed. 

The Annual Report of the Council and the Treasurer's report 
were laid on the table and their adoption moved by W. G. 
St. Clair seconded by Dr. Galloway, subject to the audit- 
ing of the Accounts which was undertaken by Mr. Knight, 
as proposed by the Ven. Archdeacon Dunkerley and seconded 
by H. Eschke. 

The Secretary read the draft of a letter of congratulation 
to the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society which was 
adopted unanimously by the meeting. 


The Council for the ensuing year was then elected, viz.: 

President : Rififht Reverend BlSHOP HoSE. 

Vice President for Singapore : Hon. W. R. COLLYEB. 

Vice President for Penang : Hon. C. W. KynnerSLEY. 

Hon. Secretary: H. N. RIDLEY. 

Hon, Treasurer: Dr. Hanitsch. 

Councillors: W. G. St. CLAIR, Esq., A. W. O'SULLIVAK, Esq. 
Ven. Archdeacon Dankerley. 

The President then proposed a vote of thanks to , the 
Secretary apd Treasurer which was carried unanimously. 

Annual Report for 1902. 

The Council are gratified to report that the financial condi- 
tion of the Society continues to be very satisfactory. 

The following new members have been elected since the 
last Annual (reneral Meeting: — 

Rev. E. Gomes. 

Mr. H. Walter Bourke. 

Mr. H. Marriott. 

Dr. Gimlette. 

Mr. E. C. H. Wolff. 

Mr. C. Curtis. 

Mr. H. E. Byrne. 
Mr. J. W. Simmons. 
Mr. G. Laws. 
Mr. F. J. Skertchley. 
Mr. W. D. Grandjean. 
Mr. D. Beattie. 

Dr. Galloway. 

Two numbers of the Journal, Nos. 37 and 38, were published 
during the year. The supply of material for publication, how- 
ever, was as observed in the last Annual Report, still scanty, and 
it is hoped that members who have any opportunity of sending 
in notes or observations on the subjects in which the Society 
is interested will do so. 

The Council regret to have to record the death of a mem- 
ber, Mr. J. P. Joaquim, F. R g. s. 

A number of books, papers and journals were added to the 
library. The Librarian is re-arranging the library and hopes to 
have a catalogue of it ready shortly. 

The Treasurer's account is appended. 



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Notes on a trip to Qunong Benom 

in Pahang. 

By W. D. Barnes. 

Gunong Benom is the name usually given to the ^^ massif '* 
which lies in Ulu Pahang in the centre of the triangle the 
western side of which is formed by the Pahang Trunk Koad 
running from Tranura through Tras and Raub to Kuala Lipis, 
the Eastern by the Jelai and Pahang rivers running from 
Kwala liipis to Kwala Semantan, and the southern by the 
Tranum-Bentong road and the Bentong and Semantan rivers 
which latter river joins the Pahang at Kwala Semantan. The 
name Benom is used by the Malays on the Pahang river but 
seems unknown at Kaub. The mountain is a very conspicuous 
object from the Raub Rest House. Its height has been fixed 
trigonometrically by observations from the Perak and Selangor 
borders at about 6800 feet. 

In July 1900 an experienced mandore Che Musa was sent 
from Perak by Mr. Young, the present head of the F. M. S. 
Trigonometrical Survey to erect trigonometrical beacons at this 
and other points in Pahang. Difficulties having arisen I, in the 
middle of August undertook the work on Benom. Che Musa 
was then in Raub having reached what he took to be the top of 
the mountain and done some clearing there. He had returned 
for supplies but was unable to get any men to go back with 
him. \Vith the assistance of Mr. Mason the Asst. District 
Officer at Raub I managed to collect 17 men on a promise of 
wages at 70 cents a day and food. The food I had the least 
hesitation in promising as I knew by experience that a Malay 
who goes into the jungle on board-wages invariably runs out 
of stores and has to return for more at the precise moment 
when work is most pressing and disagreeable. With these 
men Che Musa went back. On the 29th of August he met me 
again at Raub and reported that he had built a camp two days 

R. A. Soc., No. 89, 1903. 


Riarcb towards the Mi>uiitaiii and had oarried to ithalf.of I 
trigonoDiotrical beacon and eight tins of rice. I had had ft 
the rice soldered down in clean kerosine tins. The platr 
answered udniinibly. Each rice-coolie made a frame work like 
that of a knapsack on which to lash the tins and fitted it with 
straps of bark through which to pa^ his arms and carried in this 
way five and a half gantangs of rice (roughly the contents of 
a tin) rode comfortably, no tame waa wasted in packing and 
opening bundles, and most important of all — the rice kept 
perfectly without any of the usual trouble in preserving it from 

I was now ready to start and on arranging for my parM 
found that the beacon (it was made of iron) needed a total o 
22 men to cirry it; more men were of course needed to carp^ 
rice for the beacon -carriers : I was very anxious to take sutficient 
food to last the whole party until the station had been cleared 
luid the beacon Used, I engaged therefore 32 coolies, all were 
Malays and but one or two were foreign Malays — Kelantan 
and 'I'ringganu men. As they assured me that the mountain 
WHS infestwi with peculiarly vicious ' hantu' I engaged a 

• pawang ' one Wan Putih. He was recommended to me as a 

piwerful exorcint who feared no 'hantu' whatever. In i 
he was I was told perhaps a little too rough iu the way h 
dealt with them. The ' pawang ' wbem Che Musa had takes 
with him had provetl a hopeless failure. My fi^e boatmen a' 
went with me as well as a Malay boy and a Chinese cook. C 
Musa completed a party of 42. 

We left Hauh on the 31st and stopped the night at Wm 
Putih's house in I'ln 'iali. This though only two or thre 
hours' walk from Raub was the last kampoug on the way to th 
Gunong and tji it the other half of the beacon had prevjouslji 
been brought. The afternoon was spent in getting packs, etc.j!^ 
all i-eady for an early start the next morning. I passed the 
night under a -waterproof sheet ; most of the men were accoiu- 
n>odated by Wan Putih whose house was. if anything, even 
filthier than the usual Malay house. 

Next morning one man was sick with fever and had to be 
left liehind. Two others were engaged in his place and the 
whole party with half a trigonometrical beacon, a theodolite. 



a loa4 of botanical drying paper, ray kit and bedding, rice and 
salt fish for the men and Hour and fowla for me started off in 
good time. The first lialf of the day's march was easy, the 
rest up Bukit Numbih and dowa the other side was hard work 
for men carrying t'ery inconveniently shaped pieces of an^le 
iron. We camped on a tributary of the Klui which is a tribu- 
tary of the Dotig. The camp was at an etei'ation of about 
1800 feet. Next day (.'he Musa with one man went back to 
Kaub for more rice and food store:^ with instructions to hire 
men to bring them to Wan Putili's. The rest of us went on to 
the camp which Che Musa had pieviously made. Here we found 
a good ' pondok ' and the 8 tins of rice and half the beacon. 
This camp was on another tributary of the Klui and also about 
18110 feet high. The march was a short one. The day after 
I sent back 1!) men tu Wan Putih's to bring on the additional 
stores for which Che Musa had gone together with the balance 
of tie beacon tools and with the rest of the men I went on tn 
the foot of the Guuong. crossing Bukit Palas on the way. We 
stopped for the night at a point a little orer 3100 feet high and 
as this was (so Vhe Musa had told me) the last place on the 
way up where water could be got and as the weather was dis- 
tinctly unsettled (it had rained every day since we started) I 
set the men to work to build a good shelter. 

On the third day ten men went back to the previous camp 
to bring on rice, whilst Iwent to Che Musa's clearing at the 
presumed top of the Ounong. To nty surprise I found it to Iw 
only about 5000 feet high instead of C800 as it should have 
been. As however the clearing was small and faced Kaub 
it was impossible to make out the exact position. Next day 1 
went up again with all the coolies left and started clearing and 
building a camp, and on the 7th it became obvious that the hill 
which Che Musa had thought to to the Gunong itself was really 
a subordinate one three miles away and separated from it by 
at least five deep valleys. After some consideration I decided 
to Rk the beacon where 1 was. Looking for the true Gunong 
with a party of 40 men to feed was obviously out of the 
iiuestion and as the hill on which I was commanded a view 
of a large number of the main range trigonometrical stations 
and also much of the Gali and Dong Valleys inmible from the 


highest point I decided that a beacon on it vould tit all 
give some return for the espease incurred. 

On the 8th Che Musa reached the top and by the 1 Itb nearly ' 
all the beacon bad arrived enabling me to send ten of my p^rty 
back to Hauh there to be paid off. Nearly all of them were 
sick with fev-er or otherwise nselesa for clearing and filling and 
and I waa rery glad to have fewer men to feed. On the 1-ttb 
the beacon was erected and on the 15th finally placed in posi- 
tion. By this time food was running short for all hands, and 
the coolies had got very tired of their job. Three bad left 
witJiout permission thereby forfeiting the greater part of th^ 
pay and on the afternoon of the 16tli all the rest struck works 
The average foreign Malay who comes to llaub to look for 
work is not a pleasant person with whom to deal, and if he hail, 
from Trmgganu as did most of my men did, his respect for a 
contract is very precisely measured by the ability of the 
other party to improve it. Luckily I was a Government officer 
and although my powers were not perhaps quite so extensive 
as I represented them to be. I succeeded in sufficiently impress- 
ing the men b<^ induce them to go to work again late the next 
muruing, I must own that I to some extent sympathtaed 
with them. Their work was pretty hard and their food had 
ci)me down to rice and salt only. Fish sufficient for twice 
their number they had finished entirely. (My sympathies were 
sharpened by the fact that my own diet had fallen to bread and 
condensed milk.) When on the 18th the salt also gave out I 
found that I ran n risk of being left alone with my boatmen 
and a goi>d deal more kit than they could carry. On the 20th 
therefore 1 started down although two very large trees up 
which a ladder had been contrived still stood on the side to- 
wards the Gunong. These are only noticeable from the Raub 
Rest House, whither late on the afternoon of the 21st I arrived,^,, 
the return journey being done in two days. 

During the whole time between the 7th and the 20th t 
coolies were felling I was taking a round of theodolite angl«i 
and sketching the outlines of the hills in sight. The seeing was* 
rarely good especially towards the north-west and south and 
trignometrical stations more than 2h miles away could not have 
been pitched up without the aid of the powerful telescope which 


I had fortunately borrowed from the Selaogor Survey Uftice. 
In clear weather the view was very line. The hill sloped steep- 
ly on all sides except towards the Gunong and seemed to rise 
out of a level plain. On the north in the dim distance above 
the spurs of the 'mossiT were (.iunung Tahan and another notice- 
able peak since identified at Suiting. On the west the main 
range ran from Perak down to Jelebu with foot hills below it, 
and a narrow plain leading from Kaub southward to the Benton^ 
and Seuiautan cut up with tung ridges of hills separating the 
various streams. At the foot of tlie (junong were the white 
limestone cliffs of Uunong Serdam with the liali plain beyond 
and Raub with the iron-roofed mine buildings sharply picked 
out and the cable-track showing like a long angled trencb. I 
managed twice to get bearings of Tahau ana to sketch the 
range of which it forms part The beacon which I erected 
stands on the highest of these small peaks of about eigual height 
and the clearing round it measures i^uite live acres, 

The weatlier wa^ fair only. There was a good deal of rain 
and on more than one day I never got a single Bisht. 'i'he sun 
when it shone was very hot and 1 found that working the theo- 
dolite under it meant considerable loss of cuticle from the nose 
and face. At 8 p.m. the temperature was aljout G'.i' and at 6 
a.m. 62°. The Malays complained a good deal of the cold 
although I had provided every man with a blanket. Many of 
them suffered from chapped lips. My Chinese cook in a blue 
serge Norfolk suit worn o\'er all his other clothes looked a 
i|uaint sight. He never complained however and baked most 
excellent bread in an empty kerosine tin. A great diHiculty 
was water supply. Every day a water party of five men had 
to be sent to the last camp nearly 200U feet down and as the 
climb was steep and the men out of sight that water party did 
very little or no other work. Bathing was of course out of the 
quesdon and washing had freijuently to be foregone. 

The 'pawang' was a great uuisance. Naturally he did uo 
work himself and I suppose eciually naturally he was of no use 
at all when the men went on strike. He was one of the must 
self-righteous natives whom I ever met and though quite iUiter- 
nte fully eijualled many a Koran-ijuuting haji in conceit. As a 
■ pawang ' he did little except to ' Jampi ' a man who woa bitten 


ou ibt; foot by a auakf on tht bill-top. This poor fellow'a _ 
ijwelled up badly and us he was an oldish man and got high " 
fever I began to be nervous about him. However either the 
cbarmij or my remedies brought him round and in a few days 
he could walk again. Uctasionally the 'pa wang' thought tit to 
give us a taste of his i[uality and usually at inconvenient timei ^ 
At tiie camp at the foot of the Uunong we heard every nigtri 
a continuous shrill yelping as of basketa of puj^es deserted b 
their mothers. It was, I think, made by birds though the &Ia< 
lays ciiuld give uie no name for them. When 1 asked the 'pft- 
waiig ' he looked mysterious and suggested that the subject 
should be ctjanged. One uight this yelping was very persistent 
several ' riang-riang ' were screeching in the trees, a wind hav- 
ing sprung up the jungle seemed full of noises. I fell asleep 
but was awakened near miduigbt by a loud harangue from the 
' pawang ' to the ■' hantu " of the (junoug. lie began mildly by 
asking why they made such a disturbance ; had they forgotten 
the propitiatory service he had paid before the first tree was 
felled? Was it fair to go back on him like this? i-'or a while 
the noise died down and I heard the men expressing their sense 
of tile ' pawang'a ' power over the spirits. Soon after however it 
began again and the pawaug aft«r more unavailing discourse 
lust bis temper and scolded tlie Imntn in \'ery unmeasured 
language indeed. 'I'lib frightened the men and they kept up a 
chorus of •■Biar-lah," "Jangan-lah," "Nanti dia marah" unUI 
finally tlie pawang was reluctantly pacified and left the bantu 

Then they all began to tell gbout stories. One I remember 
about liukit ilitam wbicb is full of getah-taban but on which no 
getah hantu dare collect owing to the tigers which guard the 
mountain. One man said tliat his uncle (a particularly brave 
mau) started once with a large party and as a proteclJon kept 
a ring of fire round the camp at night. Before morning how- 
ever a tiger sprang through the fiames and carried off the leader. 
This supei'stjtioti about liukit Ilitatn seems only geueral. I 
have heard it both sides of the main ridge. The couiuiouiMt 
story a>)out high mountains seems to be that they are inbabitcd 
by ■ beroh ' {maeacim nemestnuaa) who increase lu size and fero- 
city ihc higher Ibe adventurous traveller mounts until at last 


they become as Uxy aa buffaloes. At ihU poiut Cbe tiaveller 
always returns believing that they would be as large as ele- 
phants further on. On <funong Rajn bj'-the-by there are chili 
plants sufficiently gigantic to ullow these big 'brok' to perch 
on their branches. 

The Malay belief m 'hantu' in of course universal but h 
noticeable that it is always possible to find some one whether 
a pawang or otherwise who will have them for a consideration. 
X charming old Chinese tbauke at Helat in Kuantan tella a stor.v 
uf how be offered &h to some Malays to fell a large chingah 
tree which overhung his kongsi. They refused and said tliat 
it was a "datob." Subseiiuently they offered to fell it for $10. 
The thaute's indij^nant reply was that be would have nothing 
to do with men who would cut down their grandfather for 
ten dollars. Why for fifteen you would cut down your father and 
mother as well ! He got over tlte difliculty by the aid of a large 
auger half a tin of kerosine and a lighted matcfa. After describ- 
ing how in a day or two the tree fell its heart completely burnt 
out, he always ends by saying very scornfully "Mana hantu ? " 
As a rule however a ChiQaman believe.^ in propitiating the local 
unseen powers and even this sceptical tliauke was seriously 
considering whether he could not change bis luck by engaging 
a pawaug to pay the belated sacrifice of a buffalo to tlie genius 
loci of his mine. A Chinaman is perhaps somewhat of a fatalist 
but he believe^i in insurance all the same. 

Another susperstition which I overheard concerned a cure 
for skin disease. The pawang was complaining that it was 
difficult to arrange the marriage of a girl who lived near bis 
house ns the poor thing was covered with " kurap." My head- 
boatman who bad noticed the girl, displayed great interest (be 
was I tliink conteinplating matrimony ii bonne march^ ) and 
stated that he knew an infallible cure for "kurap." It con- 
sisted in an ointment of sulphur and kerosine oil applied in some 
mysterious manner and it was an essential part of the cure that 
no linng soul should see the patient for seven days after the 

Aa regards the fauna of the bill, over the very tup of the 
ridge, i.e., 5000 feet high ran a beast-track audou almost die high- 
est pouat was a 'iiiantity of rhinoceiW dung. One mgbt whilst 



wu Hero uu the top an elephant vaiae along this trauk but v 
turned back by tbe fallen trees. It is easy tu undenitand thad 
aburigines walk for ehuk-e along the ridges and hills in ordera 
to avoid the denae undergrowth in the valleys but why beestai 
whose weight is eulculated in tons should volontorily carry" 
that weight up liillti of realty c('ii!<iilerable steepness in not so 
obvious. Do they go along the ridge in order to avoid lb« 
sideUing ground of the slopes luueh of whicli would give an 
iusetJUier foot hold ? In the present case ihe ttuck seemed tu 
run towards the (iunong itaelf nearly 20UU feet higher. On 
the lower ground we saw many trucks of sladnng and elephaut 
and heard elephants more than onee. Animal life seemed 
scarce on the hill top. A snake — mutilated beyond recogni- 
tion before I saw it — was found, also a wood louse and a scor- 
[»on. Small bees (lebdh) however abounded as on all hill-clear- 
ings and crawled persistently over one's face and hands. Flies 
tx> appeared very quickly and in large numbers. They were in 
colour a dark metallic blue and in sine between a housefly and 
a blue-bottle. They laid masses of loti^ish white eggs on 
blanketti not actually exposed to bright sunlight. There were 
also a few white woolly- looking Hies of about the same size. 
None of these insects lived apparently on the spot. They all 
seemed to appenr after the clearing was begun. Whence tiey 
came I cannot say. I also saw a few butterHies, 

With the aid of a supply of botanical drying paper lent by 
Mr. Kidley, the Director of the lloUnical Gardens, Singapore, I 
made a Urge and, I think, fairly complete collection of all trees, 
shrubs and plantt* which were at the time in fruit or flower. 
Mr. Hidley infnrms me that the collection reached him in good 
order and he has made out the appended catalogue raisonn^ 
of it. It is in fact as nn introduction to this catalogue that these 
notes have been written. From the nature of the moss upon 
the hill I should imagine that Benom is much drier than the hill 
tops on the main range. The commonest trees were"pagar 
anak " bintai'gor, kclat, rengas manak, mempassi, membuuftit and 
paliiwun. st least those were the names of them given to me by 
tJii' I'uolies. 'I he " rengas uianak " was not I was told poisonous. 
My I'hiiieae cook however broke out with a bad eruption on his anil lace |irolmlily cuused by '■ rengas " nap and on the uight 


before we started down uiie of tlie roolies was very badly stung 
on the body — bo badly indeed Ibat be ^ot bigb fever and could 
carry ootbing and Almost had to be i-arried himself. I saw biin 
about a week later and the eruption was still visible on his chest. 
Either therefore rengas proper existed oil the hill or else 'Tengas 
manak " is not harmless. 

The Palawan trees were a great nuisance. The wood waa 
so hard that the bliong's in the hands of the less expert 
coolies were badly gapped and I was obliged to order that one 
exceptionally good man should tackle them all. The tree 
seemed to me exactly like the palawan so common on river 

On the very top of the hill there was a good deal of 
" chandan " which Mr. Ridley has idcntilied in a paper recently 
published in the Journal. 

Throughout the whole trip I saw no getah, taban, chinga, 
raerbau, petaling, or other viiluable timber. On the lowest slopes 
of the hill there were however many fine " seraia " trees. The 
whole of the specimens identified by Mr. Ridley were collected 
on the top of the hill at a height of almost exactly bOOfi feet. 

The Benom " massif " consists of granite and I noticed 
that the sedimentary roiks were left behind very soon after 
leaving the low ground along the foot of the main range; they 
are found much higher up and in some places places higher than 
lOOOfeetabovesealevel. Benom is an isolated granite intrusion 
without visible igneous connection with the main-range. In the 
long plain running southward from Kaub the ridges which 
divide the Klan Hilut and Bentong are from their appearance of 
sedimentary rock. One of them Gunong Kaca which overlooks 
Bentong township is of course conglomerate. This conglomer- 
ate is seen also at Jeram Kapur below Bentong. The pebbles 
in it are as far as I could see, not of igneous rocks but of 
quartzite and silicihed slatfi. Its strike is a few points Went 
of North and East of South and its dip (apparently) very steep. 
Similar conglomerates occur in the L'lu Jelai. The metamorphic 
limestone cliffs off f^erd&iu at the foot of Benom seem identical 
in composition with those at Uukit Uhintamani on tlie lientung 
river and indeed with all the other limestones scattered, mostly 
in isolated cliffs throughout the Peninsula. Id the Jelai river 


this limestone bas recently been sbowa to reacb tu a depth of 
over 900 feet below the present surface. The heigbt at which 
the old sediuientary rocks remain on the east side of the main 
range as compared with the west is very noticeable when cross- 
ing the range by the fahaug Trunk Koad. Further I have 
walked %long the foot of the range the whole way from Tramuii 
southward to the Triang (a tributary of the Pahang which rises 
ill Jelebu) and have not only seen no granite but have found the 
peobleM in the streams to be mostly of aedimeutary rarely of 
igueous rocks. The rocka over which 1 passed were all sedi- 
mentaries. The bed rock of the Bentong alluvial Hat where the 
mines are worked is uniformly not a bed of china clay as is 
usual on the western side of the Peninsula but a denuded sur- 
face of siBtes on edge. 

I was unable to ascertain the name of the hill oti which thi- 
Ijeacon is placed. It is certainly not Bukit Falas as I passed 
over Bukit Palas on my way to it. It may possibly be Kluaiig 
Terbang. At places however like Itaub where no iiatjve oeeuLS 
to go into the more inaccessible jungle, local names are very 

If another attempt is made to tix a station on Benom I 
would strongly advise that another route be chosen. At Raub 
labour is very expensive and natives with any idea of local to- 
pography are nonexistent. Sakais there are none, Personally 
if I were to try again I should liegin by making eni|uiries as to 
routes up tlie Dong or by the Kraii, a tributary of the Jelai on 
the ot]ier aide of the ■ massif.' 

List of Plants Collected. 

Itliciiiiii evfiiiuiii, King. Also occurs in Malacca, Selangor and 

P->lijynla rriitiiosa, Juss. var. This is the same plant as that 
collected by Wray on Ouuong Bubu (No. 3H13) and 
distributed under this name by King and is probably the 
var niiivitia of Miquel. It is very unlike the ordinary 
form of the Pcnang and Perak hills, having a long termi- 
nal spike of Howers and not short axillury ones. 


Garcinia, sp. In young fruit, branches grey corky, leaves lan- 
ceolate acuminate coriaceous 2 inches long and one and 
a half broad, petiole half an inch long axillary or supra- 
axillary few-flowered petals small, stigma discoid groov- 
ed. I have never seen this plant from elsewhere. 

Calophyllum sp. Of this genus there are two species represented ; 
one is perhaps a form of C retusum the other has oblong 
blunt leaves. None of the specimens have tlowers or 
fruits, but all have the curious bud-galls common to 
other species of the genus. 

A nneslea cntmpes, Hook. A big tree ; specimens with very large 
fruit ; occurs on Mt. Ophir. 

Adinandra nuicnlosa, Anders. A variety with smaller leaves 
than usual and glabrous fruit quite ripe. 

Ternstroeniia Scorttchiuit\ King. Also occurs in Perak. 
Gordonia imbricata, King. A rare plant once collected by Scor- 
techini, in Perak. 

Terfistrcetntacen, a very striking plant apparently belonging to the 
same order but in fruit only was obtained by Mr. Barnes. 
It is a tree or shrub with dark colored branches, and 
coriaceous ovate lanceolate leaves with blunt points 1 inch 
to 1 J long 2^ to I inch wide with numerous close nerves 
and reticulations on the under surface. The upper sur- 
face is smooth dark green the under surface yellow 
when dry and the young leaves are red. The racemes 
are axillary about one inch long with about ten flowers. 
The fruit is a capsule on a very short pedicel. With a 
small rounded bract The sepals are orbicular imbricate 
4 in number, coriaceous with a scarious margin fringed 
with white hairs, and with three elevated ribs in the 
centre about ^ inch long. The capule ^ inch long split- 
ting into 4 acute lobes on one of which persists the fairly 
stout style with an obscurely lobed stigma. There is a 
persistent column in the centre. The seeds are linear 
curved not winged two in each cell. 

The flowers have not been obtained, and consequent- 
ly it is diflicult to refer this with any certainty to 

R. A. S<H-., No. 3D, 19«W 


any genua. If as it appears it belongs to tlit order 
Ternatrcemiaceje, it seems most nearly allied to PmU- 
ap/it/la.!: of Chiaa. 

Puc/tynoo irp'in .St'ipfiiiiun, King. Leaves elliptic shortly 
acuminate bluot base slightly acumiDate 6 inches long 3 
wide smooth with C pairs of nerves depressed above 
dark brown above, beneath grey witi promineol nerves, 
and reticulatious, petiole stout ^ inch long rugose, 
- Panicles crowded compact ahurt red scurfy. Bracts lan- 
ceolate scurfy ^ inch long. Flowers crowded less than j 
inch long red scurfy, calyx and lobes lanceolate obtuse. 
Petals linear oblong scurfy. Stameussfaort ovate apiculate. 
Fruit solitary globose on a stout thickened pedicel, a little 
over i inch long, brown rugose, calyx lobea shorter than 
the wliole fruit projecting as short triangular proceaaes. 
This tree was ouly known from a specimen collected 
by Scortechini, in fruit. It is very satisfactory to have 
also the Howers. 

Etaeocarpus riAiialua, Koxb. 

Baukinia ornl/iiUa, Bak. Flowers red. 

Bucklaadia populneii, R. lir. InHower. The leaves in the spe- 
cimens are not tricuspid but ovate with three prominent 
nerves and coriaceous. The petioles and nerves on the 
hack hairy or glabrescent, buds ferruginous hairy, the 
bracts are narrow aa in Miquet'a Hgure, in the Flora of 

Weinmanma BUmti, Planch. In Hower and frultoccurs on all 
the higher hills. Mt. Ophir, Perak. 

Caiallia muUiJliira, Mltj. From description ,1 take this plant 
to be Miiiuel'a species collected unce In Java by Har- 
field, the exact locality unknown. 

Hhodamiiia trinerviu Bl. 

Tiiatauia mtryuriiau, GriS. Very characteristic of our higher 


hills. The wood according to Mr. Barnes is exceedingly 
hard and broke the edges of the axes in felling. 

Eugenia sp. Leaves very narrow lanceolate with a very long 
narrow point blunt, coriaceous dotted above, pale beneath 
one inch long, \ inch wide fruit in short axillary and 
terminal racemes ^ inch long, small tessellate ^ inch 

E. 8uhdecu88ata^ Wall. 

Anerincleistua macranthvs^ King. 

Medinilla Clarket\ King. 

Begonia Herveyana, King. Rhizome stout often rather long 
creeping. Leaves when young pink adult dark green, 
petiole over a foot long, blade ovate acute hardly in 
equilateral base rounded 6 inches long and 5 wide 
glabrous. Scape six inches long, lengthening in fruit, 
male flowers numerous about half an inch across, white 
outer sepals ovate rounded, inner ones narrower, 
stamens numerous anthers elliptic blunt not apiculate. 
Fruit fleshy 3- winged, one wing much larger than the 
other curved obtuse thick J inch long, the others much 
shorter, deluscing along the base of the wing. 

Besides this locality, it has been met with in Pulau 
Tinggi (Feilding) in Jeram Xyalas (Malacca) by Derry 
(No. 11 30) and in Bukit Sulu (Negri Sembilan). It is 
called fissant su.tu by the Malays. 

Argostenwui pin i/olium, Bemi. 

A. hirtum, Ridl. also occurs on Mt. Ophir. 

Lkicenaa sp. Evidently near L, pentacvie of Stapf from 
Kinabalu. resembling it in the white bark of the stem 
and almost nerveless leaves but the peduncle of the 
head is longer and the bracts at the base are not con- 
nate in a cupule as in that species. The only species 
recorded from the peninsula is L, .Iforinda^ Jack, which is 
common in Singapore. This species is evidently undes- 

B. A. Soc, No. 8), looa. 


cribed but as Sir George King is at present at work on 
the Eubiacea &nd probably has already seen it, I do not 
give it a name. 

Tinionius Tamhosella^ Tha. 

Cephaelis cuneata var. debilis. A more slender plant than the 
usual form with smaller narrow lanceolate acuminate 
leaves 3 to 4 inches long and one inch wide or less, petiole 
^ to 1 inch long. In fruit this seems to be a weak 
form of this species of which the common form often 
occurs high upon our hills. 

Lasianthus sp. With lanceolate acuminate leaves strongly 
reticulate beneath nerves, petioles, and twigs hairy. 

Ardisia villosa, Roxb. 

A, oxi/phylla, Wall. A variety with smaller oblong to ob- 
lanceolate leaves. 

Linociera lancifolia, nsp. Branches pale, leaves opposite lanceo- 
late acuminate, base cuneate 2 to 3 inches long ^ to 1 in . 
wide smooth, thinly coriaceous nerves inconspicuous on 
the upper surface, midrib elevated beneath, nerves alter- 
nate ten on the lower surface. Panicles small an inch 
long with a pair of broad oblong bracts ^ inch long at 
the base. Flowers ^ inch long umbellate on the ends 
of the branches, pedicels ^ inch long, calyx lobes short 
ovate puberulous, corolla tube very short lobes linear 
obtuse from a broad base keeled glabrous. Stamens 2 
short broad. Style thick shorter than stamens. Drupe 
cylindric acute. 

Alyxia pumila^ Hook fil. A form with larger leaves and fruits 
than usual. Calyx lobes puberulous. 

Dischidia coccinea, Griff. 

Hoya sp. near H. parasitica^ but with much smaller thinner 
flowers. I have it also trom Gunong Hijau in Perak. 

Vaccinium hancanum^ Miq. A variety with small leaves and 

Jour. Straits Branch 



1'. Tei/stmiiin', Mjij. var. wiih brandies and petioles and base in 
midrib beneath covered witli blailc hairs. Aocording 1" 
the description the typical form is glabrous. I have 
obtained it also on Maxwell's Hill, Perak, where it was; 
e|Mphj-tic and had pink flowers. 

Mododeiidroii Malaii'iiium. Jack. 

Diph/coina weeohtn, Slapf, var. This differs only from the plant 
described from Kinabalu in the leaves being ovate lan- 
ceolate and rather larger as mach as 4 inches long by 
two wide, instead of obovate. The form of the leaves 
however seems rather \urialile. 1 have also met with it 
on Bukit Kutu and Bukit llitam in Selangor. D. imcro- 
phijtla of Beccari a native of Borneo is as far as descrip- 
tion goes similar except in the leaves which more resem- 
ble thow of the Peninsula plant. 

D. lani^/olia, nup. Hhrub with rather slender branches with 
whitish baik uf^r part ^etulose, leaves coriaceous lan- 
ceolate U.-< nvate lanceolate acuminate, base narrowed Uj 
the petiole shining green alrave. Midrib and tno side 
nerves depressed visible, beneath paler dotted midrib only 
visible raised, IJ inch long J to J inch wide. Flowers 
solitary axillary on slender pedicels nearly half an inch 
long with red setulose bristles. Bracts 2 short ovate 
pubescent. I'alyx campanulate narrowed at the base 
lobe« ovate acute will) red hairs, ^ inch long. Corolla 
longer gUbrous. Stamens with long points opening by 
two pores yellow. Style rather long slender. 

D. comobrina, Becc. A specimen collected by Mr, Barnes 
resembles the description of this Bornean plant. 

Qatrliifi-n Kofniaii, \\'ight. 

AttchijnanthMg HUdebyanMi, Hook fil. Also occurs in Perak. 

At sp., possibly a variety of this but with ovate acute lesives, 
and a bigger plant than I have seen of the species. The 
specimen is in fruit, 

Didi/mocarpiis near idbomnrginntui, Hemsl., but with leaves 
narrower at the base, in very young bud only. 

a. K. Stoe., No. S». tens. 


Clerodendroii dufierum. Wall. It is not usual to gi?t this com- 
mon low country plant at such an elevation. 

Nepenthei aangiiinea, lAad\. 

N. gracilig, Korth. 

/Atsea sp. A narrow leaved species near lain-i/olia but glabrous ; 
in fruit, 

Micropora Curtiait, Hook lil. 

WUgtiamia candolleana, Meian. The ChandaD of Pahang. This 
species is not recorded for our flora in the Flora of Brit- 
ish India, but occurs on Ounon^ Hijau, Kedab Peak, and 
also at Kauipoaa in Kelantan. It is a shrub or small 
tree about 6 to 10 feet tall with smaller flowers than 
those of W. indica. 

Loranlhtu eveniun, Bl. This beautiful red flowered mistletos , 
occurs also in Singapore and in Perak. 

L. tetrngoiiMi, Bl. New to the Peninsula. | 

Iien»lowia buxi/oli'i, Bl. Not rare on our hills. 

ff. sp., near Lohbiana. Leaves ovate orbicular 2 inches long by 
one wide tapering into the petiole which is f inch long, 
nerves 6ve faintly visible on the under surface. Fruits 
two or three together axillary on pedicels half an inch 
long, oblong light brown ^ an inch long, crowned by 
live short connivent calyx teeth; obscurely five groov- 
ed. This is remarlcable for the large size and shape of 
the fruit. I have not seen it elsewhere. 

Balanophoi-a muUibrachiata, Jungh. Also occurs on Mount 

Fieus diversifoUa, Bl. A form with elliptic oblong leaves and 
small pedicel led figs. 

F. J'utva, Reinwaldt. 

Qutrcug Jtatea, Miq. 

Podocai-pus cupressmw, Bl. 

Jour. StmiU Bmnrb 


Burmannia longifoliaf Becc. 

Dendrobium ainttatum^ Lindl. 

/)• bifarium, Lindl. 

D. Kelsalli] Ridl. 

/)• macropodum. Hook fil. 

D. hymenopterum, Hook fil. 

D. comutumy Hook fil. A rare plant with good sized pink 

flowers originally collected by Wray in Perak. 

Bulbaphyllum capitatumy Lindl. 
B. caienarium^ Ridl. 

B. montigenumj Ridl. Also on Kinabalu. 
Eria vestita, Lindl. 

E, aridostachya^ Rchb. fil. 
E, bidetiSy Ridl. 

E. longifolia^ Hook fil. 

E, Scorlechinti, Hook fil. 

Ceraiostylta clathrata, Hook fil. 

Dendrochilum angiutifottttm, RidL nsp. Occurs also on Bukit 
Hitam, Selangor. 

Z>. sp. in fruit only. 

Coelogyne iomentosa^ Lindl. 

C, sulphurea, Rchbf. 

C, carnea, Hook fil. This plant occurs in Perak also there is a 
figure of it in the Icones Plantarum which however re- 
presents the petals as fine as and very much broader 
than they actually are, so that the plant is nearly un- 
recognizable. I have however a specimen from Scor- 
techini*s collection distributed as typical C. carnea and 
a good pencil drawing by Scortechini showing the very 
narrow petals and labelled C. carnea by Hooker. The 
fiowers are neither fleshy nor flesh-colored as the name 
would imply but rather thin textured even for a ccbIo* 
gyne and brown and yellow. 

B. A. Soe., Ko. 90, lOOS. 

2 ♦ 


Pholidota gibbosa, De Vr. This Javanese plant has not previous- 
ly been recorded for the peninsula. It seems to be very 
closely allied to P. carnea^ chiefly differing in the 
broad three-nerved petals. 

Calanthe auffusttfolia, Liiidl. This pretty white Calanthe grows 
on all our high hills. 

Saceolabium higibhvm^ Hook fil. 

Cortfsanthes picta^ Bl. 

Smilax calophijlla^ Wall. 


Humata pedata, Sm. 
Lindsay a scandens, Hook. 
Hymenophyllum Neesii^ Hook. 
Hymenophyllum polyanthos, Sw. 
Polypodiumcncullaium^ Nees. 
Pleopeltts Wrayi^ Baker. 
Elaphoglosstim latifolium^ Sw. 
Vittaria fatcata, Kze. 

Also an Alsophila without fruit. 
SelctgineUa chrysorhua, Spring ? 

The two typical hill Mosses Pogonattnn maaophylhnn and 
Hypnodendron arborescens also occurred in the collection. 

H. N. RidUy. 

Jour. HtraitA Branch 

Notes on the Formation of Words in 
Malay and Cognate Languages. 

H. L. v.. LUERiNn. PH. D. (Strassburg). 

I'nlike the great majority of the better known Oriental 
languages the vernaculars of the Malayan family have not yet 
revealed the history of their growth and development. The 
Semitir*, Persian, Indian and Chinese language.^ have not only 
preserved very early monuments of literature, which uerve as in- 
fallible guides to the student, but we can follow their growth from 
step to st*p, froroantii}uity to the present day, without missing, 
aa it were, a single foot-print in all the long journey. In this 
search for light on the origin and the roobj of the language 
numerous sister- tongues have liberally added their testimony. 
Arabic literature and living speech step in where Hebrew tradi- 
tion leaves a breach, and both supplement, and are supplement- 
ed by, each other and the Semitic varieties of cuneiform and 
other inscriptions. So it is al^^o with Sanskrit, ancient Persian 
and the language of the Zendavesta. I remember very well 
the time, when owing to the lack of a Persian or Zend Diction- 
ary I had to prepare my leis.son.i in the Aveata and in the inscrip- 
tions of Bisutun with the help of a Sanskrit Dictionary. This will, 
at least, show the great benefit philr logically derived from a 
comparison of cognate languages, even where the modes of writ- 
ing and the alphabets are radically different. 

In Chinese philology we have not only a literature going 
back — indirectly if not directly — to great anti-:|uity, but we 
have aho a record of the ancient sounds and signs used at an 
early dale. These together with the comparison of numerous 
idioms and dialects, enable us to assign what at first appears as 
a motley of heterogeneou.s languages to their legitimate mother. 

In the Malayan family of languages we have no ancient 
monuments of literature, but we have n large variety of tongues, 
which may all be pressed into service Uj shed their scant 
light upon the history of the language. I call their contribut- 



ion 3caat because the historic element h almost entirely want- I 
ing. We have as yet no dnta as to the time oF divisioa of thd ■ 
various branches of this family, though some writers have I 
settled this question to their satisfaction by intuition, without, I 
however, convincing the careful en(|uirer. Severtheleaa the I 
comparison of Malayan languages will lead us a considerable I 
distance towards the solution of the problem of the proto-l 
ma I ay an language. Nor will this task be a very difficult one J 
after the necessary materials for such a work have ouce be^i^ 

In the present paper we will attempt to study, in some ofM 
its phases, a more difficult subject, not the origiual form oF 1 
words but the formtition of words { Wortbildung ). We will | 
find not a little agreement in the manner of these formations ii 
widely differentiated languages of this family, and this agree-l 
ment must necessarily point back to a common source. Such a I 
study, to be on a strictly scientific ba^^is, should start from one I 
of the more unchanged and original languages of the branch, 
preferably from the Batak ( Batta ) or one or the other of the ] 
Filipino vernaculars, and not from the highly disintegrated and ' 
corrupted Malay of the present day." I have, however, will- 
ingly incurred.the difficulty and undergone the inconvenieDce 
of making Malay the foundation of my remarks, because Malay 
"is a language better known to my readers and consequently of 
greater interest to them. 

The simplest formation of words of a new meaning in 
Malay is by 


Herein and in the use of " classifiers " or numeral co-efBci- 1 
ents tlie Malay family of languages is related both to tlie ! 
Chinese ( Mongolian ) and the Papuan languages, Let us en- , 

* This mast not be andcrfltootl as in aiij' Meime diaparaging ta ' 1 
tlie UBefulneax and ioiportaDi-^e of the language. Malay lias bonghfe * 
its popnlarity as a meilium of Hoeech ovor eo vast a territory at tha 
■ame price at wbiub English baH acquired its world-wide iway : 
tirammaticai SnesBe and lint^isticallj interesting foritiB have b«en 
lost in equal proportion us the language has affected larger oiralea of 


deavour to classify the varieties of the meanings designated by 
simple reduplications. 

1, Specialization and differentiation. 

I believe that I place myself in opposition to every gram- 
marian, who has written on Malay, by denying that redupli- 
cation is one of the modes of expressing the plural. I will not 
make any superfluous quotations, but in half a dozen grammars 
which lie before me, I find it stated that this is one of the plu- 
ral formations, though in almost every case, the srad gram- 
marians find it impossible to state why the word should be re- 
duplicated, as already the single word implies the plural, and why 
even the reduplication should be joined together with the ad- 
jective J^ segala which is universally accepted as indicating 

the plural. A few careful grammarians have noted the fact 
that only few words can form plurals by means of a reduplica- 
tion. This observation should have led them to a correct 
understanding of the meaning of such alleged plurals. The 

universal paradigma of this "plural" in grammars is f— \ raja- 
raja. It is well known that 'pj raja alone can mean " kings ; " 

now if raja-raja should be used to avoid ambiguity, or to dis- 
tinguish it from a possible singular " king," why should in al- 
most every case J^ segala be added : Ttt^j J^ segala raja- 
raja^ where the translation " all the kings " or " all kings " is 
quite out of the question ? 

In accordance with other Malayan languages, including 
the Malagasy, I explain the reduplication as intended to special- 
ize the sense of the word. A careful study of Malay liter- 
ature, aside of any other language, might have led to a correct 
understanding of the expression. Take for example the ever- 
recurring phrase in Malay court novels : 

a A. Soc., No. 39, 1903. 


di-hiitiiip nle/i tegal'i r-ija-ri'ja (tail tiienti-i, hulolaluiig serM 6t'(/«» i 
auiiit sei-aliim (Isma Yaliui. passim). Not once in this freijiient i 
phrase anolher of ihe nouns occurring in il, which axe all plu- 
rals, is found in leduplicatinn, such as mentri-uientri. hnlubalang- 
hulubalang'. biduanda-biduanda, while raja is always reduplicat- 
ed. The heading of this paragraph will supply the explauatiou i 
of the difference. White the other nouns denote certain offices d 
or ranks, the meoibers of which are equals among themselved, f 
all being ministers or officers of the body-guard, or pages, the j 
title "raja" includes all princes of royal bliwd (usually below 
the rank of tengku and engku ), inclusive of that large doss of 
attendants at court, who by some however dtstaut blood rela- 
tion with the ruling prince are thereby differentia t«d from out- 
siders. It cannot be denied that there is the greatest variation 
in rank included under this title, and this the Malay writer and 
speaker expresses by the reduplication. \\'e may translate thti 
phrase therefore : '-{The prince) waited upon by the variuua 
classes of llajas, aud the ministers, officers of tlie bxly-guard ■ 
and the pages together." 

If there should be yet a reluctance in giving up the long 1 
accepted view of seeing in these reduplications proper plurals 
in our sense of the word, I would refer the reader to those of 
the Malay classics, which, like the ftustanu's salatiu*, the 
Taju's salatin, and of more modern works, the Taman Permats, 
are largely made up of Arabic quotations with their Malay 
translations. It is a very easy task to compare these transla- 
tions with the Arabic originals, and it will be seen, that in every 
case where the Arabic plural is at all expressed in Malay, it is 

dane by J^ stgala. Passages like these are of great interest 
to the student of the language, because they are the uuly 

• Tlia Bustanc 
Malay workH, eapovinUy a 
iuatra,in 1041 (ItHOuf tb 

1 iDterentinK uf all 
itaated. It was written in Atheh, Sn- 
luatra, in 1041 (ItHOuf the Muliamiuedan era) by Nuru'ddin ibu Ali 
ibii Hananji ibu MubainiiiaJ al Haniidi (tbe author U very careful in 
giviug so much of bin pediKree) under tho patronai^e of Sultan 
lakandar II. IJT the seven vnliiiiieH the lirHt two bave l>een pablisbed 
by K. ■!. WllkinBon ill IS99 and 1900. I poaneHH n Mti uupy of the 
Mveutb vuliime. The work i1eiter\'eB the carcfiil Ntudy iif all mmewhat 
advanced students of Che Innpiage. 


authentic commentaries, giving us the exact meaning of the 
idiom of the writer, supposing however that he fully under- 
stood the Arabic of his quotation, which is highly probable in 
the majority of cases. 

The ** specialization " expressed by reduplication leads us 
to another closely connected meaning, which I do not hesitate to 
place under the same heading. To start from the same expres- 
sion Tr^j raja-raja, we have found that it cannot be translated 

*' kings," but that the meaning of raja has been specialized as 
meaning something not exactly a king, but only similar to one. 
This is a kind of specialization very frequent in Malayan lan- 
guages. Of the large number of examples I can only quote a 
small portion, which will, however, fully suffice to explain the 

Y<sH lauffit'Unnjii, a sky yet not a sky : a baldachin ; 
1'*V- buat-btutt, to do, yet not to do : to pretend ; 

r^j ttlar-ular^ a snake, yet not a snake: a streamer, 
pennon : 

TjC' (ii/aiii'fu/atit, a hen, yet not hen : a waterfowl ; 

rfjjV jarnmjartnitj a needle, yet not a needle, the needle 
of a balance. 

In the same way f^Jy putih-putih means whitish, not 

white, Tjj^ hiru'biru bluish, not blue, T^U maaak-masak 
to play at cooking, not to cook, f z;\ anak-anak a doll, not 
a child. r J\ apt apt, the mistletoe, which causes trees in- 

fested by it to have the appearance as if burnt by fire (api). 
Here it is also worthy of note that in order to express " ilaming " 

anger or wrath the reduplication Tj\/'. *«''"/>«-«P« is used, 

R. A. Hoc., No. :». !«»». 


while the proper word when speaking of natural flames would 
be ^V^ berapi. 

To this class belong expressions such as 

i^VJ parang, long knife, T^VJ parang -parang, a fish 

resembling it ^\i pari, rayfish, TiSj^ part-pun, a ring of 

rotan resembling in shape that of the ray. 

Many words are now found in reduplications only, which 
may possibly belong to the same class, though we have no 

means at hand to prove it. Such words are r^y^ katiak-katiak, 
fJuM sida-stda B,nd many others, while in many cases references 
to other languages help us to place the words under this group. 
Such a word is Y^ laki-laki, manhood, courage, male, brave, 

which cames from laki, strong, great (so in Tagalog, in Mala- 
gasy : lehfi). In Malay the single word signifies the ** stronger," 
but not the *' better " half, the husband. 

I now append a short list of reduplications from cognate 
languages, which will show that in this respect the greatest 
similarity exists. 

Reduplications expressing similarity not identity are in 


lahy, husband, lehilahy, man, male ; 

vahy, wife, vehivahy, woman, female ; 

Bala, wrong, salasala, doubtful ; 

fotsy, white, Jotsyjbtsy, whitish; 


lahi, husband, lahilahi, male, man ; 

bom, daughter, borulorn^ female, woaan ; 

Jour. »strait« firancli 


Tagalog : 
puti^ white, puti-puti, semen, sperma ; 

I refrain from further illustrating^ the use of these redupli- 
cations by examples, as this would encroach too much upon the 
space at my disposal. 

2. Emphasis aiid repetition. The second meaning expres- 
sed by reduplication is emphasis and repetition. This is so 
common in almost all languages that it is not necessary to go 
into many details, especially as no radical change of meaning 
is effected by such [reduplication. I select the following ex- 
amples : 

r^^/»5»^ habis'habis, completely finished; 

Tw^^U harap'harap^ to hope fervently; 

r^y. hulat'lulat (also in Tagalog) all, most sincere ; 

Tf* iauia-litma^ for ever so long ; 

r^^ * Iain-lain, (also in Tagalog) altogether different; 
ToM\ endafi-enda/i, very hesiutiful; 

r<4 tambah'tamhah, to add repeatedly; 

r\5^ dua-dua, by two and twos, etc., etc. 

It may suffice to say here that this sort of reduplication is 
found in Tagalog, Batak, Malagasy and every other Malayan 

Reduplications, which are combined with secondary 
changes of form do not interest us here, where we are treat- 
ing merely of the reduplication of primitive words. 

With regard to partial reduplication, such as 

^^ lehki beside f^ laki-laki, 

^Jii pepavii beside ^^j^ pam-paru, 

B. A. Soc., No. 39, 1903. 


Tji^ tetampan beside f^ tampan-tampan, 

Cr^ J€Jamban beside Tr^ jainban-jantban^ 

IJf^ jejenanrj beside Tiis^ jenang-jenang 

0yA» bebvam beside Tr^. bram-iriwi, 

no special mention need be made, but that they are found in 
various Malay languages, (cf . Tagalog lalaki, male) and that they 
all belong to the tirst group of reduplications, those that express 
specialization and differentiation. 

II. Ancient Vocative Forms. 

It may sound very much out of place to speak, in a lan- 
guage like Malay, which has neither declension nor conjugation, 
of a vocative case. Nor do I wish to imply, by the use of the 
expression, that the language has ever had a declension. Such 
a supposition appears to me altogether at variance with the gen- 
ius of the Malay language. But there is no doubt, that in 
several of the languages of this family we find a peculiar change 
of form in words used in the address of persons, which 
may well be designated as vocatives, and this has been repeated- 
ly done by careful grammarians. It cannot be denied that a 
considerable number of these expressions, to be presently men- 
tioned, have already lost their distinctly vocative character in 
Malay, while some forms are losing their character more and 
more. It may be said that, with one or two exceptions, the 
forms mentiooad here, having yet a distinctive vocative mean- 
ing, belong to the language of the past and »re preserved 
almost exclusively in court language or in the poetic style. 

Uere is a list of the commoner of these expressions : 
i) ' anang, oh child I from anuk ; i» 

^ Ji ailing, oh younger brother I from aiick ; 
i^V bapang, oh father I from bap<i ; 

Jour. StraitM Branch 


5'^^•* cmbong, eldest child ! from emtok ; 

^x\ {ndvu(/, mother I from itidok; 

i^^ achany^ boy I messenger ! 

I add to these vocative forms words like the following : 
i ' abang, elder brother ; fci» inant/, nurse (see examples from 

Batak below); ^O dayang^ maid; i^ ang^ %h hang^ as pro- 
nouns of the second person : j^y» aidoug^ eldest son ; and with 
some diffidence I add the ancient names of divinities: h 

yang and k^ sang. All these words have distinct vocative 

forms, though they may have lost the vocative meaning, for it is 
easily seen, how these words, constantly used in the vocative, 
finally had to do duty for other cases also. 

We have forms corresponding exactly to these in Batak, 
and here in fullest every day use. I mention only the following: 

amd)fg, from dtna^ father! 

indng^ from i//a, mother! (see t/m//«/ in Malay): 

ompting, from amjm, grandfather ! 

hahdng, from /fd/«/, elder brother or sister! (see Malay 

^u kalak) ; 

itong^ from iVo, elder brother ! etc. 

The only expression denoting close relationship in Batak, 
which has no vocatJA e form in use is awjgi, younger brother, 
though even this word becomes angging^ when used in intercourse 
with younger friends, not brothers, just as itofig (from ito) and 
ibotong is used as an address to elder friends. 

In Malagasy all foras ending in ng have been changed, 
and this is the reason, I believe, why we have no formal voca- 
tives. The case of address is expressed as in modern Malay, 
by particles of exclamation. 

B. A. Soc., No. 39, \W^ 


In Tagalog, and this opinion is strengthened by the same 
tendency mentioned above of Malay, the vocative has gradually 
gained ascendancy over the other cases, so that all nouns and 
adjectives and pronouns add to their vocalic ending (also tQ 
final n) the ending of the old vocative. So we have through- 
out the language. 

inang, mother, from ina ; 

amang^ father, from ama ; 

panginooiigy master, lord, from pangtnoon. In order, 
therefore to distinguish the proper vocative it is necessary to 
add the particle of exclamation oy or ay, which corresponds to 

the Malay c^ hei or hai. 

III. Ancient Adjective Forms. 

Lexicographers, rather than grammarians, have noted the 
existence in Malay of some hitherto unexplained parallel forms, 
such as : 

^ nudang beside ^ alang ; 

Ar-V« masing beside fr»' asing ; 

^^ masam beside /«' asain ; 

O^^ masin beside O^^ asin (cf. Tagalog ma-asin), 

sji\^ malap beside ^\ alap 

An opinion regarding these forms, that they may be intro- 
ductions from the Javanese, is disproved on closer investigation. 

By comparison with other Malayan languages, however, 
we learn beyond doubt, that we possess in these and a few 
other expressions highly interesting adjective forms. The need, 
in Malay, of a special form for adjectives must have certainly 
been felt, especially as the common forms used by us in that sen^e 
are indistinguishable from nouns. Though custom has given, 
to mention but one example, to besar the meaning of the ad- 
jective ** great, large," it must not be forgotten that in very 
many uses of the word it is a distinct noun. Take the follow- 
ing sentences : 

Jour. 8tFaH8 Branch 



hHlubalaiii/ itii ie-lfnga/i tiijiih kaii besar-niin. 

Leiabah ilii ilna bata Ulxir-itya. 

Sungai itu dmt piiloh batu panjnng-ni/n. 

Bukit itu »e-rtbu tati tinggi-tiija. 

Anak itu se-puloh tahun ^omor-ayit. 

In these aentencea we have besar (size), Irbar (breadth), 
patijang (leagtb), and tinggi (height) abaolutely parallel with 
the Arabic noun 'omor (age). The subibaotive use of these 
"adjectives" is certainly the more orijiaal, and even now the 
more idiomatic. 

The ancient adjectives were formed from these '■ roots " 
by prefixing the syllable ma-. Such forms are in constant use 
in Tagalog, the languages of Borneo, Batik and Malagasy, as 
we will ahctw by numerous examples, which might be increased 
almost ail libitum. They must have been used to a much larger 
extent even in historical Malay, and we should expect to find 
some remnants of this use in geographical names, where anti- 
quities are much more likely to remain unchanged. It would 
be worth the labour of a student to make careful lists of Malay 
geographical names, laying stress upon peculiar expressions, 
and seeing that modern corruptions (in the mouth of Tamils, 
Chinese and foreign Mulays) be eliminated. I will mention 
but one name belonging to this group. In the Province Wel- 
lesley we find the name of a hill and an adjacent town, usunlly 
spelled Bukit Mertajam. The latter word is a corruption of 
matajam, which means " sharp, pointed," Batak ma-tajom, and 
the name "pointed hill" is quite in accordance with the 
character of the elevation.* 

In Batik a careful distinction is maintained in the use of 
the simple root and that of the adjectival form with the prefix. 

The latter is only used as a predicate, never as a qualifying 
adjective. The sentence " Afa-timbo Imi/u on " means : this tree 
' : high, while the expression ■' this high tree " is rendered by 
liai/u nn timho on," i. e. this tree which possesses height, which 
I high, this high tree. Ot^er words belonging to this class are ; 
• It is posBilile Ihut the very word Malaya poniea under this ni- 
bric. No previoiiH explanation ot tlie term hhs fonnil general at^cepta- 
tion. The Tugalo^ " lumliiyo " meins " far, itiHtant, atr&n^, Rtrang- 
er," uertainly a very suitable nppelUCion for the roving BtrangWB 
tbnt settled m Ibe archipelsgo. 


fwirara, from rara^ red ( Malay ?/^• werah): 
malemba^ from lembay faint, ( Malay ^J^ leinbeh): 

mamora^ from uiora^ rich ( Malay • jy» murah); 
mnpitung^ from pitung^ blind. 

In Malagasy we have forms like : 

maladtf, quick, manitra^ fragrant, vialaza^ clever, renowned, 
malama, slippery, smooth, m^ileniy^ soft, tender (Malay 
J^ leinah), maloto^ tilthy, dirty, niarim^ just, righteous, 

mahitsy^ straight, masma, holy, viainty, black (Malay^^ 
hitam, Dusun meitam^ Tag. maitim ). 

In Tagalog we find : 

ma-ititn, from itini^ black, Malay J^ hitam; 

ma-lalim, from lalim^ deep, Malay /O dalam; 

ma^laniboty from latftbot, soft, kind, Malay S^ iembot; 

ma'lapaiid), from lapai^d), hungry, Malay ^W /(iprir ; 

ma-laki, from ^/H, strong, great, Malay ^^S lal:i\ 

ma'hina, from /<t/;ri, weak, mean, Malay wi ^ni/y ; 

mn-Mas, from /ai{-<i^, swift, strong, Malay ^^^ lcko8\ 

ma-sakit, from ^ail-fV, sick, painful, Malay oL» «(i/f7; 

ma-puti^ from pw/i, white, MaUy <}^ putih. 

The Dusun language of Borneo presents among others these 
examples : See Journal R. A. S., Straits Branch, vol. 30, 1897, 
p. 1. sqq. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


me-iUim, black; 

nie-sttwij dark ; 

m-iad, alike ( from icul^ form); '"" : 

m-alus, soft, from halusi 

m-onsom, sour, from ousom^ cf. Malay mnsam, 

I think that these lists of words will leave the reader 
satisGed that we have here in Malay a few forms of great anti- 
quity, which go back upon a time when the Malayan languages 
were not yet divided up into their present divisions, and it is only 
with the help of the cognate languages of the family that we 
can gramma ticfilly explain them. 

IV. Ancient Verbal Forms. 

In the formation of verbs, where the modern Malay has 
effected the greatest change and simplification, we find never- 
theless numerous traces of antiquity, of which the Malay has 
almost or altogether forgotten the original connection. 

1. Let me first refer the reader to pairs of words like the 

j^ getar^ to tremble, j^ gemetar. to tremble vehemently : 

v3*-/ gertaky to spur on? ij^j^ gemertak^ to frighten with wea- 

rr g^tiong, to roll up,^^ gemuloug^ rolled up and twisted; 

^ gilang, to glisten, f^ gemilang, very glistening ; 

— ilS gilnp^ to glisten, —iij^ gemilap, very glistening ; 

^J^gelatok^ to tremble, jJ^^ gemeUttok, to tremble violently ; 

^X^ g^^ffP^U to tremble,oyi^ gemelegut, to tremble violently; 

Ojy turun, to descend, O^^ temnrun^ farther descent ; 

^J //•«»<;, light^ y}i> f^maiYiw^, half-light, glooming; . 

R. A. Soc., No. 39, 1903. 


j'y tabor, to scatter, >.« temabor, to scatter everywhere ; 

fjfT' c^^^^^^'h steep, fjy^ chemuram, declivity ; 

oy lukut and iS^ lemukut, to pound pirched grain ; 

^^ cherlang and j^j^ chemerlang, to glitter, glisten ; 

ojjjK guroh and ©jj^ gemuroh, thunder, rolling noise ; 

fO^ tandavg anii gOci ««/?wfwian^, outfit, get-up ; 

^t laii and ti^ temali, twisted cordage ; 

and perhaps the following : 

^3^ tebok und jyl tetnbok, perforated; 

4J ^f5a^ and <S, tambaf, tied up ; 

f'PJi ^(^nggong, to bear c. X^ temenggojig, dignitary. 


In many cases the similar sense of the two words will in- 
vite an association between them, but this does not provide us 
with a grammatical explanation of the second form. 

We have here forms of a conjugation, which in Batak 
Grammar has been designated as the Fourth, in Tagalog as the 
First Conjugation. It is formed by infixing into the verbal 
stem, after the initial consonant the syllable -um- (or« which 
does not concern us here, if the root commences with a vowel 
or labial letter, by prefixing the syllable um-). In the first 
case, -um- is called an infix, in the latter a prefix. Here are a 
few of the many examples which might be adduced : 

Malay : Batak : Tagalog : 

o^ym surat, 8ulaty sumulaty to write 

Jour, straits Branch 


ojj^ sumty surut, sttmuntt, to with- 
draw, to bend back. 

<*j\ ubah, vba^ unwba, ubo, umubo, to change. 

It will be seen that but for the fact that in Malay the 
vowel sign of the conjugation has weakened, being depressed 
from u to Q or 3, the above mentioned Malay forms fully cor- 
respond to the Batak and Tagalog forms. Such a slight chan^ 
is nothing improbable, yet we need not indulge in conjectures 
in the face of even so slight a change, for we find most of the 
original forms preserved in Malay dialects, e. g. gilaiig-fjiimi' 
^"^> ffiUtp-gumikip, gelatok^gumelatok^ tvron'twiwron, churam- 
chufiwramy ltd ut'lwHukut, guroh'gumuroh^ etc. 

Even in the classes of verbs, which are conjugated accord- 
ing to this paradigma, the closest agreement exists. They are 
mostly verbs denoting visible motion, trembling, (See Malay : 
g€metaf\ genielatok^ gemelegut^ etc.), and verbs, to whom this 
conjugation gives the power of "intensiva" (compare Malay 
getnetar, geinertak, gemilang, gemilapj gemelatnky gemeUgvt, temahov^ 

2. We will now notice another class of verbal formations 
which also appear to be a remnant of a now obsolete conjugation. 
The examples given below do not exhaust the large stock pre- 
served in the language, but are merely chosen to illustrate the 
existence of the conjugation, while many other words doubtlessly 
belong to this class, though their radicals have been lost to the 
Malay vocabulary. 

j^ iekan, to press with the ^j^ /^/^^a;?, to lean on the out- 
hand, stretched and stiffened 


wi>3 tekap^ to press softly with .Jl^ telekap, to brush away 
the hand, with the hand ; 

4>J^ tintfkah, character, ^J^ telvigkah^ to be of ,di^^r- 

ent character, to, col- 

R. A. 9oc., No. «»,'l9i«. 


v3^>* tapak, and ,3*^ telapak, foot-print ; 

Jy> tepokj to pat, Jy^ telepok, to tap softly, as 

in applying specks of 
gold and silver flocks 
upon paper or cloth ; 

vjufi tempap, and _\\^ telempap^ to lay the 

hand flatly on, to 
measure by hand's 
breadths ; 

^y>- chupar, and J^ chelupar, to babble in- 

cessantly ; 

py V- saput, to cover with clouds, o^^ selaput, to cover densely 
etc., or closely; 

»tf* sempang^ to go off side- »U- selempang, to jump side- 
wards, ways ; 

^ic* sampai, to hang clothes^ ji- selampai, to wear over both 

shoulders, like a shawl ; 

^^i^ sandang, to tie sideways, J'-Xd- aelendang, to wear side- 
ways over one shoulder ; 

y^y^ sudang^ and ^*^>^ seltidang] to decorate 

with flowers in a 
peculiar manner; 

^3Ju- ^idiib, and ^3^4- «€i«rfi* to examine close- 

sisih, and <-4- ««^«*«^» ^ quarrel, dispute ; 

.^gosok, and ^^ gelosok, to rub; 

Jour. 9tniti Branch 


^^^ gen$boHgy and f^^^ geUmhong^ to bubble up; 

^^S^gegak^ to make an indis-^jlSJS ^^/«^alr, a bubbling noise. 

tinct noise, 
^ gegar, and y^ gelegar, to vibrate ; 

J^ gtiar^ to tremble, J^ geletar, to tremble violently ; 

^yS getek, to be forward, as an ^3^ geletek to feel sensual 

impudent woman, desire, to suffer of nym- 


Xr 9"^'"*» ^^ ^^OP' ^P' ^^®° ^3r g^lugor^ a wild mango, 
unripe, ' which falls in large 

numbers, when unripe ; 

5-^ kefiibong, to be swollen, f^^*^ kelenibong^ to be swollen, 

blown up; 

«>aJ kangkang, to stand open, ^^ kelangkang, to stretch out 

the legs, wide open in 
indecent posture; 

,jJy knpas^ and yj^^ kelupw, to peel off. 

The enumeration of such examples might be continued much 
longer, but I will add Jbut a few words, which appear to belong 
to this class, though the primitive forms are not now extant in 
Malay : 

<mJS gelisah, to be restless; 

A^ gelecheh, to slip, to glide'; 

j^ geltnwhor, to slide down, to glide; 

yi^ geftpavj to glide out, as a knife ; 

a. A. SOC., No. 39, 1903. 


jiyS kdupak, to open up, as the developing banana bud 

( cf. kupak) ; 

i;^ telubong, to cover ; 
Sj\— seloiiuiar, to turn upside down ; 
_pj^ selengkai; to be anxious ; 


etoagkaiig, to be counterfeit ; 
etc., etc., 

All these forms indicate conjugatlonal changes of~the pri- 
mitive words, with which most are coupled in the enumeratiou 
above. ' It is a conjugation which corresponds to the Tenth 
conjugation of Batak Grammar, and is formed by the inltx -al - 
and another verbal infix or prefix. While there exist in Batak 
four different classes of these vertts, according to the difference , 
of the infix or prefix combined with the characteristic of the 
conjugation -al-, the Malay seems to have preserved none but 
forms which combine the commonest of all verbal prefisea, me-, 
men-, meng- mem- or meny- with the infix -al-. I know of no 
nimilur formations in Malagasy and Tagalog, though they might 
possibly be found after a more careful search, perhaps in a 
slightly varied form, in one or the other of the Philippine lan- 
guages. I will, however, for comparison, subjoin one or two 
examples from Batak : 

iiiangh-al-aputi, to do hastily (from /wput) ; 

mand-al-eU», to be open (as country without jungle) ; 

iiiand-iil-iitus, tmiii-nl-iitnn, to glide swiftly along (as a 
boat under sail). 

it. Before closing my remarks on the ancient forms of 
conjugation in Malay, it is necessary at least to mention the 
most common of all verbal changes, the one which in Malay 
has superseded all the rest-. I refer to the one marked 
by the prefix ; me-, men-, meng-, mem- or meny-, all of which 
are really the same, modified slightly by combination with the 
initial consouants or vowels of the verbs. This conjugation is 


found in all Malayan languages, as the following examples will 
show. By selecting Tagalog, Batak, and Malagasy verbs, 
which are also found in Malay, it becomes unnecessary to se- 
lect a separate list of Malay examples. 

Tagaiog : 

mang-aral (aral) to teach, preach, Malay meiigajar; 
man-ubus {tnbun) to redeem, Malay m^ne^u^ ; 
mam-uti (putt) to whiten, Malay memutih; 
nian-ulat (sulat) to write, Malay menyurat, 

Batak : 

uiang^handang (handang), to fence, Malay viengandang (Jean* 

mang^embang {heiubang\ to spread out, Malay mengetnbang 

mmi'urat (sural), to write, Malay menyurat (surat); 

mam-unu (bunu% to kill, Malay metnbunoh (bunoh); 

man-obua (tob%u\ to redeem, Malay menebus (tebus). 

Malagasy : 

man^enona (tenona), to weave, Malay menenun (tenun); 

man-ampana (sampana\ to separate, Malay menyempang (ssm* 

man-dalo (lalo), to pass by, maluy nielalu (lalu); 

man-doa (loa), to spit, malay meludah (ludah); 

main-eno (feno\ to fill, malay inemenoh (penoh); 

tofim-otsy (fotsy\ to whiten, malay memutih iputih); 

mam-ono (ro/)o), to kill, malay membunoh (bunoh); 

mau'trakira (kit aktra)^ to finger, to count, Malay n^ngira'ira, 

The writer of these fragmentary notes on Malay Gram- 
mar trusts that his readers will excuse the many imperfections 
of this article. Though the subject treated in these pages has 
occupied the interest of the writer for a lonsiderable time, the 
actual writing was done under great inconveniences, in the 
spare moments of a very busy period, and without the advan- 
tage of a large library close at hand. He should, however, feel 
well repaid for having undertaken the task, if by bis attempt 
others would be encouraged in taking up this inviting subject 

R. A. Soc., No. 39. 19US. 

The Sakoi and Semang Languages in ] 
the Malay Peninsula and their rela- 
tion to the Mon-Khmer 

By F. \V. Schmidt, s. v. n. 
Revie'wed by \V. D. Bahnes. 

Ill the third and foutlh numbers of tbe eiu^hlh pait of the 1 
sixth series of the Bijdragei] tot Taal-Land-en Volbenkunde j 
van Nederlandsche- Indie, published in 1901, is a paper bj i 
P. W. Schmidt, s.v.D., written in German with the title "Dir ] 
Spracben der Sake! uiid Semang auf Malacca und ihr Ver- 
hiiltniss zu den Mon-Khmer-Sprachen." The following abstract I 
of it will I think, have great interest for readers of the Journal. 

The author begins his introduction as follows : — 

" 'More important than these coonectious with tbe An- 
" iiainite language are the undeniable relntions of our mono- 
"eyllabicKhasi-Mon-Khmer root-stock with the Kohl lanicua(;e 
"with that of Nsncowrj- and with the dialects of the abori- 
" gines of the Malay Peninsula. We should not however be justi- 
" fied in deducing therefrom an ancestral connection with these 
" partly polysyllabic languages.' So wrote E, Kuhn towards the 
"end "f lis 'Articles on the languages of Further India' Beit- 
" rtlge zur Sprachenkunde Uinterindiens. Sitit^sb : d. k, bayer, »c. 
"d. w. phil-hist. I.L I89U I. p. 219 f.f.) Thus be leavea open the 
"question whether there exists between the Kbasi- Mon-Khmer 
"group and the Kho! languages, that of N'ancowry and the 
" dialects of the aborigiuea of the Malay Peninsula, an intimBte 
>' actual relationship, or whether the evident identities are due 
" merely to external influences. 

"Some years later — 18J4 — E. (sic.) Utto Blngden in the 
"Journal of the Straits Branch 27 pages 21-56, without appar* 
■■ pntly knowing anything of Kiihn's work put Forward a more 



" complete couipariaoD of the Vocabulary uf the dialects 
"of the Peninaula aborigines with that of the Mon-Khmer 
" (Anam) languages. But as his title " Early Indo-Chinese in- 
"fluences in the Malay Peninsula, as illustrated by some of 
"the Dialects of the Aboriginal Tribes" shows, Bla^den also 
"did not go so fur as to conclude that the identities to wlncb 
"he drew attention arose from any intimate connection betweea 
" the two groups of languages. He says. ' But even to assume 
" that the aboriginal dialects are cognate languages which should 
" be classified in ihe Mon-Annam family would be going further 
" than our evidence juatilies us in doing.' Neither Blagden nor 
" Kuhn had esamiaed the whole material which is available on 
" the subject of these aboriginal dialects. It is my purpose to 
"collate this full material and to endeavour by its aid to remove 
" the present uncertainty concerning these dialects and to settle 
" their genealogical relation beyond doubt. For this purpose 
■■ it is first necessary to settle the relationships of these dialects 
" to one another, a task which in itself demands much labour 
" since no comprehensive woik has been done on the subject. 
"The first half of my paper will comprise this comparison, and 
" the comparison of the aboriginal dialects with tfae Mon- 
" Khmer languages will occupy the second half." 

Uis first pan the author begins with a list of publications in 
which words, vocabularies, ete. from the aboriginal dialects have 
been given. Thi:^ list is I presume the coaipletest yet published 
and 1 give a full abstract of iL Journal of the S. B. R. A. S. 
Vol. I, p. 38: V,p.l20; VII, p. 94 ; VIII. p. it ; XXIV, p. 13; 
XXVI. p. 41: XXVII, p. 27; XXX, p. 13. 

(I). T. J. Xewbold" Political and Statistical Account of the 
British Settlements in the Straits of Alalacca." London, 1899, 
Vol. II, pp: 363-434. 

(■2). The Mdd uf Urulf Vaughan Stevens. VeritffentI : 
d. K. Museums f. Volkerk. zu Berlin : Bd 2 nnd 3. 

(3). Marsden's Miscellaneous Essays;— A bhort List of 
' Jakoon ' words from Kaflles of ' Jooroo ' ^maiig (J. Anderson 
given as collector) and of 'Quedsh' Scmang. 

(4). Roberts' Embassy te tfae Eastern Coasts of Cochin 
China, Siam, Muscat: — 'Jooroo' Semang — A list of words (Mr. 
Maingay given as collector) and 'Quedah' ISemang (McLunes 



—apparently the same lists as those given 
Asiatigue 1^ pp. 241-213 (Se- 

given as collector) :- 
by Marsdeii. 

(j). Klaprotb, Joi 

(6.) Meiitera-Glosaen (Mantra ) by Borie, Tijdscrift voof 
Ind-Taal- Land-en Volkenkiiude 10 pp: 439, &o. 

(7). Crawford. History of Indian Archipelago, Edinburgh 
1820. Xrs. 12: ('Quedah' Semang — apparently tiiesnmelist as 
given by Marsden and Roberts). 

(8). Sftkaya S. Kerbou &,c. by L. de Morgan " Bulletin de 
la Soci^ttS Normande de U^ographie, Rouen 7. 18»5. p. 434 
&c. al80 printed in L. de Morgan E.\ploration dans la presqu'ili' 
Malaise, Paris 1886. 

(9). J. Low, Sakai in Perak. Journal of the Indian Arohi- 
pelago. Old Series IV. p 430. 

(10). Touilin. A list of Sainaug worda, "Kxtracl from the 
Malacca Observer from an article on Tomlin's Misaion-Tra\-els 
(Hoyal Library, Berlin). 

<U). Mikloucho-Maclay, Tijdschrift voor Ind.-Taal-hand- 
eu Volkenkunde 23 reprinted in Vol. I of J. S. B. K. A, S.* 

The next ten papers contain a critical examination of this 
material. The author points out that several of the old listu 
are wholly or partly copies of one another and laments the In- 
Unite itiriety in the methods adopted by the different collectors 
in the spelling of words Kiven, 'Ulifford alone' he saya (to 
some extent BUgdeu and Hewitt) makes a praisewortny 
•attempt to give a determinate value to the vowels used." 

The author himself employs throughout the system of Pr. 
Mllller except that he uses g instead of dz. 

The next 75 pages contain a vocabulary compiled from 
the various lists, etc., detailed above. This vocabulary contains 

■ Here anil claon'herc the author aliio cguotes the followintf 

Alii: (iriinnudel. Venttt'entliulmngati au». d. k.iMuseuiii fdr Vol- 

•lorkuuduin Berlin (1804). 

Bel : 3 Teil 2. p. 145. (Bibliography and GloBsary.) 

It. Martlu. Die Ur einwohner Uer Malnj'iHuhen Haltiiiael. Soiiiler 

.Abdr. aiiit. d. Corresp.— Blalt der deiitwili Antlirop. Geselticbaft, 

1899. N'rs. 10 p. tt. 


1249 routs arranged BlphabetU-all_v. The author expltiiiis that il 
i^ possible tliat in some cases further enquiry or rather fuller 
nititerial for en<juiry timy show that some of bis ruoti may 
re<]uire correction, but eonteiida that for his purpose the 
a rraugement adopted ia the most useful nue. All hypothetical 
root-forms are enclosed in brackets. All Malay loan-words are 

Nest follow the only available ■ t«xl8 ' viz ; — thui^e given 
by gkeatin Berisi by Clifford in Seii-oi and by de Morgan in 
8akai of S. Kerbou and S. Haya, and \a '30inan.' The trausla- 
tions are given in each case. 

The next thirty pages contain a discussion of the * Gram- 

The fourth subsection of the lirst part ia headed 'The re- 
" lation of the dialects to one another." The author begins 
as follows: — "The questions as to the relation of these 
" languages to one another aud to their correct grouping are 
" the more important since the raceti who speak tlieui have oo 
" ethnological unity. The SaKai although sharply distinguished 
"from Mongolian races have a more Mongoloid character than 
" have the Seuiang. The Seuiaug on the other hand belong 
"as even B. II. Meyer's very critical i-xamiuatiou shows. 
" to the Negrit<jes. Uur examination has therefore a further 
"meaning in that if aids io answering the ijuestion whether 
'■ these Semang- Negri toes have a language of their own." In the 
next nine pages the author examines in detail the similarities 
and differences in the vocabularies of the various dialects and 
concludes that, as fur as the present state of our knowledge 
allows us to judge, the Sakai and Semang languages are one. 
He then poiu>s out the two marked groups into which this 
one language falls. In the one group come the words, etc, 
collected from 'Quedah-Semang' iSemang of Tjoh. Steven's 
Semang, Semang of Tlu Selania, Mi konho- Mac lay's Ulu Kelan- 
tan and Ulu Petaui, Toinlin's Semang ' Jooroo-Seniang," in the 
otherwords,etc.,collect«lfromBersisi, Paiou, Liu Indau, Sakeiof 
Sungei Raya, Clifford's Sen-oi, Sakai of J. Kerbun, Soniang of de 
Morgan, Clifford's Tembe. Perak Semang and Chanderiang :iiBkai. 

The author now points out that it is not safe to believe 
that collectors of vocabularies who have called certain races 



SakaiH or Semangs have in all wises correctly described them. I 
He therefore teats these statements by the locality, physical pe- I 
culiaritie^, etc., of the tribes in question. He points out that i 
Semaaga do not eiiat in the southern part of the peninsula and I 
quotes It, Martin who gives as their country northern Perak, Ke- 1 
dah. Rahman, Rangan. and Kelantau, a description with which 
Stevens agrees. Ue further notes that the ^mnng use or hare 
used the bow, and that there ia no record of the Sakais having 
done so. He concludes that the Seinangs in his first group are 
correctly described but that de Morgan's 'Siiinan' and the 'Perak J 
Semangs,' and 'Kenning Semangs' mentioned in Qftb volume of I 
the J. S, B. R. A. S. may ^'ery possibly have been Sakais otM 
at all events mised races. The Sakai who form hia second ' 
group fall linguistically into two sub-classes the divisions be- 
tween whii^h seem to be coiiHrmed geographically by UlifFord'e 
line from Blanja on the Perak River to the Bidor Mountains 
aud thence to Kuala .\ngin in Kelantan to the north of which ■ 
line Clifford found his Tem-be to the south hia Sen-oi. He| 
concludes therefore thwt the Seinang i.nd Sakai form two differJ 
ent branches of one language and that the iSakai branch showfl| 
two sub-branches. 

The second part is headed ' comparison of the Sakai andl 
Semang languages" and opens with a list of books consulted bym 
the author in his study of the latter, Then follows a lint al% 
those Mon-Khmer words and roots which are found to be aiml--fl 
lar to words and roots in Sakai and :^emarig. The author's 1 
commenUs un this are as follows : — "The above agreements seemS'^ 
" tu me lo be amply sufficient both in number and kind to nega- ' 
" live the suggestion of 'A mere external borrowing.' As to the 
" their number out uf the 124U forms contained in the vocabulary 
>■ there are about £40 such agreements. That is In itself a notable 
"result but it gains in meaning when two things are borne ia 
"Diind: — First that most undoubtedly a part at least of the 
" materials for the Sakai and Semaiig languages are recorded 
" with a wrong or uncertain meaning thus rendering it difficult 
" or even impossible to find their correct equivalents in Mon- 
" Khmer, and seoondly that another part, — more specially that 
"collected by de Morgan and Stevens, is of such a nature 
" (names of implements aud individual parts of them, of Individ- 



" ukI plants, etc.,) that ia any case correspondiug expressions 
" for tiiem could faardly be expected. Pinally it must be pointed 
" out tbat in these prefix- languages it is most difficult to find 
"corresponding' words in dictionaries which are arranged a1- 
" phabetically according to the initial letters of the words, and 
"tbat our vocabularies of a part at least of the Mon-Khmer 
■■ languages are by no means complete." 

The words showing similarity are next arranged in groups as 
follows: — N'ouns: 18 such as tiud, 'thunder, Night, Kain, Stone, 
Fire, etc. ; 8 such as Tree, Flower. Kice ; 21 such *s Louse, Fly, 
Egir, Dog, tClephant, [{hin<^>c£ros, etc.; Itt such as Man, Stranger, 
Wife, Aunt. Nephew, etc.; 33 such as Blood, Hair, Mouth. Neck, 
Belly, Elbow, etc. ; and ISsucbas Olothmg, Arrow. Knife. St4ck. 
etc.; Verbs: 61 including togo,give,sleep. fasten. see, sit, turn bick, 
cry, call, speak, drink, etc. ; and 33 .\djec lives and Adverbs: such as 
many, white, with, bad, 8weet,C()ld, etc. The author continues: — 
" The cumprelieiisi ve manner in which all kinds of i;orrespondences 
" are represented and more especially in which the names for 
" almost all parts of the human body show agreement and Hnally 
" the large immber of indentitip^ iu verbs and adjectives leave, 
" in so far a.s an examination of the grammatical relations of the 
" two groups of languages offers no obstacle, one conclusion 
"only, viz: — that there existij an inward and intimate condition 
•■ between the ."iakal and Seniang languages and those of the Mon- 

The author next points out that there is a small number of 
words occurring in many Sakai and Semang dialects for which no 
corresponding words can Ije found in Mon-Khmer. but he asserts 
tbat the existence of thette can not disturb the conclusion drawn 
from the total result more especially as further search in the 
more out-of-the way dialects of Mon-Khmer may yet reveal them, 
lie then continues: — ".^s against these however great stress must 
" be laid on the part that for those pardcubr words which con- 
" stitute the difference between :jemang and Sakai no parallels 
■' can be found. If therefore we can rely upon our knowledge 
" of the Mon-Khmer vocabulary it is very remaricable that it is 
" theae words and these (so to speak) alone which fnil us. 
■• When further we bear in mind that the words in question are 
" such as are in constant use in every day life it seems mostim- 


" pi'obable tbat their parallels will be found In these Mon-Khmer 
" languages of which we have at pre.M^ut any kuowledge and it 
■' may be regarded as \ery doubtful indettd if any entirely new 
'• branch of Siese languages will be discovered which will supply 
" thedelicienciea. It fieeus therefore very probable that we have 
■' in these words a remnant of the former Semang-Kegrito-lang- 
"uage. If that is really the case then further and moreexbaus- 
,"tive research will certwnly reveal still more material of the 
" same kind. May this be a keen incentive to those who are in 
'• a position to make such researches to commence tbem without 
■■ delay before the mpidiy advancing disappearance of these races 
" render further proof ever impossible I Perhaps we may be able to 
" oppose some positive facts to that wave of theories which has 
'■ burst over these poor SegritoesI" 

The next eighteen pages ate occupied wiih a ck 
parisou of the "Urammatik" of the two groups. The following I 
conclusions are drawn : — 

<i) The sounds are lu essentials the same. 

(ii) 'I'he word -formation follows the same laws. 

(iii) The personal pronoun shows ati much identity as c 
be expected. 

(iv) Pronouns and adverl>s are in esseiitals deiuousira- J 
tively the same. 

(v) 'I'he syntactical relations of nouns, adjectives and 1 
verbs are the same. 

(vi) The numeral is the sauiu inform and construction. 
The author continues: — "Against these resemblances and 1 
■■ identities no important diverkrencies are as yet opposed. When 1 
" we consider them iu conjunction with the wide spread identities I 
" in the vocabulary we are justified iu concluding that the Sakai I 
" and Semanf; languages are intimately related with the Mon- 
" Khmer languages and must be regarded as a member of that 
" family. In the case of the Sakai languages this conclusion c 
" be pushed further. When we consider the physical resemb- I 
"lances between the Sakai and the Mou-Kbnier peoples we are ] 
'' justified in saying that the language now spoken by the Salnl j 
" was the origiual ^abai language." 

The author then gives the following four physical charac- 
teristics of the Mon-Khmer people: — 

JuuT. itnils Bnincli 


(i) Dolicho-cephalic skulls. 

(ii) Darkish skins. 

(iii) Eyes horizontal not oblique. 

(iv) Hair wavy not straight and not woolly; and he 
quotes k. Martin and Logan as proving that the Sakai have the 
same peculiarities. 

He continues: — '* It is otherwise with the Semang. Their 
^* darker colour, and woolly hair separate them anthropologically 
^^both from the Sakai and from the Mon-Khmer people. The 
'^ fact thnt they speak what is essentially the same language can 
^^ only be explained on the assumption that they have abandoned 
^^ their own and adopted a foreign one. As is the case with the 
"Negritoes of the Philippines the original Ne^riti language seems 
*^ to have been lost although indeed in the case of the Semin^ a 
'*' number of words appear to exist as a new want of it. 

The paper here ends. It covers 180 octavo pages and is 
obviously the out<;ome of most careful and labourious work. It 
is much too important not to be noticed in the Society's Journal 
and in default of a review by a competent hand my abstract 
may, I trust, suffice to direct the attention of members to it 

R. A, Soc, No. 30, 19a^ 

The Comparative Philology of the Sakai 

and Semang Dialects of the Malay 

Peninsula— A Review. 

By C. 0. Blagpen. 

There has recently appeared in the Bijdragen tot de Tool- 
Land'Cn Volkenkunde van Nederktndsch- Indie a monograph * 
of some length on the Sakai and Semang dialects, which maj 
fairly claim to be the most comprehensive piece of work yet 
done in this connection and is therefore deserving of the 
attention of the readers of this Journal. It is the more interes- 
ting as being the first occasion for many years that a scholar of 
some standing in Europe has been attracted to the study of these 
dialects, and it will serve as a landmark for future collection 
and research in relation to his rather neglected subject. 

Never before have these dialects been submitted to the 
systematic comparison to which Professor Schmidt subjects 
them in his paper. It has been his purpose to collate all the 
existing published materials and to see whether any sound 
inferences could be drawn from such a comparison. He has 
actually omitted very little, and that little is not of the first 
importance. The sources from which he draws are carefully 
enumerated : they include, besides the previous numbers ^ of 
this Journal the works of Newbold % Roberts, ** De Morgan • 
and Vaughan Stevens ^ as well as the vocabularies published 
by Klaproth*^ Tomlin,** Low, • Borie^ and Maclay,*" so that they 
comprise practically everything of permanent value that had 

a. Die Sprachen der Sakei nnd Semang auf Malacca nnd ihr Ver- 
h&Itnis zn den Mon-Khraer Sprachen, von P. W, Schmidt, S. V. D., 
Bijdragen, etc., ( '8 Gravenhage, 1901 ) No. 52, ( 6e Volgr., Deel 8) 
pp. 399*583. 

6. No8. 5, p. 129 et aeq ; 8, p. 112 et seq ; 9, d. 167 et seq; 24, p. 
13 et seq; 27, p. 22 et seq ; 29, p. 13 ft seq ; See also Nos. 1 p. 41 et seq ; 
3, p. 1 13 et seq ; 33, p. 247 et seq. 

R. A. Soc , No. 89, 1903 . 


appeared in print about these dialectic wlien the author's paper I 
was written ', The addition of the relatively few words gii'ea ' 
by Lias '" and the vocabularies of Castelnaii " and Errington de 
la Croix ". as well as those published in the Selangor Journal ", 
would have made the collection as nearly complete as could 
have been wished. 

i: T. J. Newbold, Political aod Statistical Account of the 
Britinh Rettleinentf- in the Straltn of Malucen, | London, 1839 ) Vol. 
H, pp. 369-434. 

(/. Edm. Roberts, Eiiibasny to the Eaatern Coarts of Cochin- 
thina, Siani, etc. ( New York. 1837 ) pp. 113-415. 

t. L. De Morgan, in Biilletiu de la Soci^ti Normande de Gto- ] 
Kraphie, ( Kouen, 188S), Vol. 7. p. 434 etseg ; reprinted b» Eiploratioi 
lie la presqiitle inaUise, (faria, 18B6), LiiiKiii*tili>B. 

/. H. V. Sterens, (ed. GiUnwedel) Materialien zur Kenntnin J 
der Wilden StUnime anf cler Halbiiieel Malaka, in \'errtiirent]ioliangen 1 
aiiB ilem Kttniglichen Mn^euiti fur Vol kerk nude (Berlin. 1892. 18941 
P9p. Ft, II, p. 1*5 e( K7. 

(7. Klaproth in .Joamal Aaiatique No. 12, pp. 2413 (Paris, 1888), I 

A. Tomlln, " A lift of Samaii}; Words " from the ■■ Malacca Ob- j 
iwrver," no date given. This appears, however, to be a mere reprint I 
uf the list Kiven by BegUie in Tlie Malayan Peninsula, (Vepery Mis- 
sion PrsBB, 1834) pp. 14-18. 

(. Low in Joamal of the ludian Archipelago, Vol. IV', p, 431. 

y. H. Boris, Notice tinr las Mantra*, in Tijdschrift voor Ind. 
Taal-Land-en Vulkenknnde Vol. 10, p. 439 H srg. (Batavia, 1861) 
(tranBlat«d in Indo-CbineM Esnaya, 2na SerieN. Vof. I.| 

k. Miklncho-Maclay in Tijdschrift loor Ind. Taal-Und-en 
Volkenkunde, Vol. 23 p. 303 rt fcq. p. 309 «t leq. (Batavia, 1876). A 
part of these last bIho appeared in tbia Jonrniil (No. I), hnt tbe liati 
there given are less complete and are distigured by aereral mitprinti*. 

I. Bee also J. Crawfurd HiMory of the Indian Archipelago Vol. 
II, p. 126 tt aeq., (Edinburgh, 1820). Malay Grammar Vol. I. p. 
clxvi, clxxi-ii (London. 1862). W. Maraden. Miscellaneona Es-iays, 
(London, 1834), pp. 87, 113. J. Anderson, Political and Commer- 
cial Considerationa relative to the Malayan Peninsula (Prince of 
Wnles Island, 1824) p. xliv d fq. 

111. Bran de St. Pol Lias, Piirak et les Orangs-Raki^ya (Pariii, 
1883) pp. 2VO-273. f 

II. P. de Castelnau, M*nioire sur les Mantras, Rente de Philo- \ 
logie et d'Ethnographie (Paris, 187ft), Vol. 11, pp. 142-3. I 

(I, Errington "te la I'roix, LosSakaies dc Pirak, Revue d'Ethno<J 
grapliie (Paris, 1862) Vol. I, pp. 317-341. 

p. 8elangor Journal (1895) Vol. Ill p. 223 ctatq: S40f( Hqi\ 
(1897 (Vol. V p. 32S ft ftq ; 361 et atq; 378 et trq ; S93 tt »tq. 


The author's merits, however, do not lie in the mere com- 
pilation of materials : he analyses his sources with the utmost 
ingenuity, showing how in some cases two authorities have 
borrowed from one source, which is sometimes a written, some- 
times an unwritten one, and how the several vocabularies are 
related inter se*^. Here it might have been worth while to go 
even more deeply into the bibliography of the subject, and to 
show, for instance, that Klaproth's list is an unacknowledged 
copy from the one that appears in Crawfurd's History of the 
Indian Archipelago, eked out however with some additions from 
elsewhere, and to mention that Roberts merely copies, a^ he 
himself admits, from Anderson. In dealing with Newbold'j^ 
somewhat irritating " Benua" list, the author rightly points out 
that it is a heterogeneous mixture of BSsisi with words from 
some Sdmang dialect cognate to the one given by Tomlin (and 
Begbie); but his want of first-hand acquaintance with the 
spoken dialects of Malacca has prevented him from recognizing 
in it a third element, viz : Jakun, which is represented by a 
good many words collected for Newbold by Munshi 'Abdullah, 
as related by the latter in his well-known Autobiography. It is 
worth noticing too, though the author does not mention it, that 
the older sources (i. e., prior to 1875) practically all deal either 
with the Sdmang dialects of the North of the Peninsula (collect- 
ed from Penang) or the dialects of the south (collected from 
Malacca). The latter barely take iu the Southern fringe of 
the Sakai group, the purer forms of which, situated as they are 
in the centre of the Peninsula, remained quite unknown (except 
for the short notice by Colonel Low) until the introduction of 
the Residential system opened the Native States to European 


q. I may, perhaps, be {lermitted, in this connection, to confirm 
author's inference, drawn purely from internal evidence, that I 
did not copy the U^hihi words I j^ave in a former paper from my friend 
Mr. W. W . Skeat, or rirr vcma. Mine were collected in Malacca, his 
in.Selan^or. I venture to think it is rather a tribute to our accuracy 
that they exhibit ao few r^erioun ditH.'^repancies. 

/-. Hearing these limitations in view and allowing for their oc- 
casional errors, the old lists are still very valuable and well worth 
studying, especially for the S^mang dialects. 

R; A. Soc., No. 30, 1908. 


After discussing the sources, Professor Schmidt gives a 
comparative vocabulary of words of all the aboriginal dialects 
represented in them, reduced as far as possible to a uniform 
system of spelling and arranged according to the apparent re- 
lationships of the individual words. This has been very well 
done and must have been a difficult and troublesome task, but it 
is needless to say that such an arrangement (the only one possible 
for comparative study) is necessarily, in the present imperfect 
state of our knowledge of the subject, to some extent tentative 
and provisional. In many cases the author's assumption of an 
underlying affinity seems somewhat unconvincing. It is difficult, 
for instance, to believe that log"" is the same word as jihu : true 
they both mean **tree" or "wood" (though I believe /o^" = "tree," 
Mai. pohon and .;//«/ = "wood" Mai. kayu), and there are, it 
must be admitted, forms in existence which seem to be almost 
intermediate between them, e. g., deloh^^ jelop^ j^hup and the like, 
but the evidence of identity does not seem to be quite con- 
clusive, the more so as, apparently, the two variant forms appear 
on occasions together in one dialect." 

Sometimes, too, in his natural desire to arrive at identifica- 
tions, the author is inclined to take liberties with his authorities : 
e. g., he will have it that (je, "to eat" (in Semang) is to be pro- 
nounced 7V, so as to bring it into line with the other and more 
common word for "to eat," viz : cha (Sakai), chi (Seman). But 
the g in ge is hard, and the word appears to be (juite distinct 
from cha and chi. 

In compiling his comparative vocabulary, the author has 
designedly omitted words of Malayan origin.* This is some- 
what regrettable as the forms assumed by these words in the 
aboripTinal dialects throw an interesting light on their phonology. 
Moreover the omission seems to involve the assumption that all 
such words are of comparatively modern importation from Ma lay, 
whereas in fact there are in these dialects words of undoubted 
Malayan affinity which cannot possibly have come into them in 
that way. Certainly such words as toot "knee", mh "dog" awe 

s. See Dr. Liiering's Uln Kainpar Sakai in No. 35 of this 

t. The proceHs Iiah not been quite completely carried oat, some 
50 \vord8 heinff left in, besideH those noticed by the author. 

Jour. Straits Branch 


"i-attan," siaJt ''salt" nianuk *'fowl," kehus "dead," hitum 
"black," point back to a Malayan dialect other than Malay, and 
the presence of such words, relatively few though they are, in- 
evitably throws some doubt on the origin of others whose 
source, by reason of their being common to Malay and other 
Malayan languages, is necessarily a subject of uncertainty. 

The omission of these words obscures one important ele^ 
ment in the constitution of the aboriginal dialects which must 
not be left out of sight in any speculation as to their origin and 

It is difficult to account for their presence in the aboriginal 
dialects of the Peninsula except on the assumption that they re- 
present relics of Malayan dialects locally evolved there and 
distinct from Malay itself, which is a Sumatran language not 
originally native to the Peninsula ; and in that case their intro- 
duction must, it would seem, be of very ancient date, going 
back to the days when Malay had not yet become the language 
of the Peninsula ; or to put the same thing in another way, 
some of these aboriginal dialects are, at any rate in part, derived 
from an independent Malayan origin going back to a remote 
antiquity. While, therefore, there can be no doubt as to the 
importance of the well-known Mon-Annam element in the 
aboriginal dialects, this very archaic Malayan element is equally 
deserving of recognition. 

These points are not without importance, for the author's 
argument for the Mon-Annam origin of these dialects depends 
to some extent upon the percentage of Mon-Annam words 
which can be discovered in them : if therefore the aggregate 
number of words examined is unduly reduced, either by arbi- 
trary exclusion or by doubtful identifications, it is plain that 
this percentage will be overstated. As the figures stand, the 
author reduces his \vords to about 1250 and of these he pro- 
fesses to identify about 240, say 'li) per cent, as Mon-^Annam. 
The comparison is made at a later stage, and it is rather antici- 
pating matters to mention it here, but it is the main thesis of 
the article. 

Most of the identifications seem to be quite unassailable 
and even if they only account for something less than 20 per 
cent of the vocabulary, that is still a considerable achievement. 

R. A. 8oc., No. 39. 1903 


But a good many are at least doubtful, and one great ele- 
ment of uncertainty remains which it is at present impo«sible 
to eliminate, viz : the question whether the so-called Mon- 
Annam languages themselves constitute a true family or are 
not rather a very mixed formation, embodying various elements 
of unknown origin. 

The point is shortly this : so long as one is dealing with 
Peguan or Cambojan, about which, as they are written langu- 
ages, a considerable amount is known, one is on relatively safe 
ground and can fairly refer words, that are attested by their 
appearance in these two languages, to the Mon-Annam group. 
Hut when it comes to words that reappear only in such dialects 
HS Lemet, Cat, 8edang and the like, of which merely a few 
short vocabularies exist, while little or nothing is known of 
their structure, the genuine Mon-Annam character of such 
words is at least doubtful. The frequent comparisons with 
Cham which the author makes also illustrate this point : for 
Cham is, in part at least, a Malayan language. Such a word as 
cheong ''heUy'' in S6mang, if it be really identical with the 
('ham tian, cannot be referred to a Mon-Annam origin, for tian 
is unquestionably Malayan, occurring as it does in several 
island languages of the Archipelago. 

I he fact is that one is dealing here with very mixed mate- 
rials, and even the greatest care will not prevent an occasional 

After settinja: out the comparative vocabulary and the too few 
sentences which huve been recorded, the author proceeds to give 
what is really the first attempt at a comparative grammar of these 
dialects. As a first attempt it can only be characterized as 

He begins by discussing the sounds, both vowels and con- 
sonants: and here it is worth while laying stress upon his well- 
grounded complaint that collectors almost uniformly omit to give 
a key to their systems of orthography. If they would only be 
good enough to explain precisely how they intend words to be 
pronounced, the work of the comparative student would be 
much farilitiited. The discussion of the phonology of these 
dialects 1 rings out several interesting points. The nasal con- 
sonants are noticed; the nasal vowels, however, which are 

Jonr StmitJi Branch 


equally well-marked, are uot observed by the author, that in not 
his fault: it may be explained that they some whit resemble the 
French u sounds, but are not unfrequently followed by an 
ordinary consonatit. The pronunciation of the palatal letters 
(chyj, sh) seems to require further elucidation, as it is not quite 
clear whether they are identical with the corresponding English 
sounds or somewhat softer. There is a question whether all the 
so-called diphthongs are really diphthongs or merely two vowels 
in juxtaposition, each retaining its separate force. A few letters 
seem to be doubtful: e. g., z and /in Newbold's list, where the 
former represents a rough (probably palatal) r and the latter 
jj:enerally a p; but both z and /'appear, though rarely, in SSmang, 
and r in a few Sakai words. On these points perhaps future 
collectors may throw more light. 

Reduplication and repetition as modes of word formation are 
next noticed, and then follows a most valuable section on pre- 
fixes and infixes. Their existence as formative elements in these 
dialects has been pointed out before," though never worked out 
as completely as is done here. There can be no two opinions as 
to its importance, especially in relation to the closely similar 
formation of the Mon- Annam and the Malayan families of speech. 
It may however be as well to express a doubt as to the soundness 
of the author's view that a prefix can be assumed whenever a 
word appears in two slightly varying forms differentiated by 
their initial syllables, or by the absence in one case of an 
initial syllable which appears in the other. In the first place, the 
mutability of sounds in these dialects is something quite remark- 
able, but this need not imply that the syllable which changes is 
a prefix, that is to say a merely formal accretion and no part of 
the essence of the word : for the same mutability shows itself in 
the final consonants,"" which must surely be part of the root. 
Secondly, where there are two forms, a longer and a shorter, it 
is by no means certain that the shorter is always the original 
one: it may be only an abbreviation, the result of rapid speech 
and phonetic decay. Some allowance, too, must be made for 
the defective observation and spelling of some collectors. 

//. e. g., by Mr. W. W. Skeat in Salaugor Journal, Vol. V, p. 328. 
(\ The author given in<ttan'^e't of the interchange of k, -t and -p. 

K. A. 8i)C., No. 39, i««. 


Still, after 
of error, there 
existence t>f pre6: 

Mixa a 


.llowonce for thes 
a, large number of words in which the j 
quite certain. Their ueaning is morel 
difficult to arrive at. but some, e. g., A'«- in Bfisiai mid ma- in I 
S6maiig are undoubtedly verbul, and there are others which srel 
apparently adjectival and pronominal or dpmunstrative. Onel 
very curious verbal preli<( found in a dialect of Ibe Northern',! 
Sakai giuup (but by the collector, I'e Morgan, called SStnangtV 
appears t^ vatv its Hnal consonant to suit the fiiwl consonant of" 
the principal root: e.g. i-i/n-liip "to go", nrbliip "to enter," 
ail-poi- "to open." Thia would seem to be io reality a couitHoa- 
tion of a prefix and a brolien down repetition of tbe root word. 

The author after comparing in succession the pronouns, 
personal, pimse.sMive, demonstrative aud int«rroj!Btive, proceeds 
to deal with the syntax of the substantive. It is worth noting 
that, ao far as appears, the same system of syntax runs through 
all these dialectJ^. The nominative (subject) precedes tha. 
predicate; the genitive, adjective and demonstrative proiiouni 
follows the verb which governs it Apparently there is noj 
foundation, at any rate in the materials here analysed, for lh«fl 
theory that in S6inang Ihe ideology is different. 

Nest the numerals are compered: here there is a cle« 
classification into groups, and as the numerals raise certain pointa 
of some difficulty and considerable inteiest it seems desirable to^ 
give specimens of the various types which occur, They • 
follows: — 

(none J 


( Tlmbe ) 
(leh ( nei ) 


For l/iiee in Semang the furwK pal. 
e given. 




given in the atwve table are well attested, and it is noticeable 
how tittle agreement there is between the Sakai on the one hand 
and the Sdmang and Hesisi respectively on the other. It is true 
that oiif appears to be the same in gronps I and II and possibly 
this is due to the fact that 1 1 is u mixed group of Salcai with a tinge 
of Isdinang in it, as is evidenced by other words common to these 
two groups. liut the author's attempt to derive the forms of 
groups I, II and III from the purely Mon-Annam forms of group 
IV is more or less conjectural, and even if it is correct it leaves 
one with the curious result that the pure Sakai is (as regards 
the numerals) further removed from the regular Mon-Annani 
type than the mixed B&iisi and its neighbours. This group IV 
consists of a string of outlying dialects scattered along I he 
border line between the pure Sakai and the Jakun, in a tract of 
country which extends from Ulu TSmbSling and Kuaiitan 
(Paliang) to the Jasin district of Malacca and from Kuala 
Langat (SSlaugor) to Tlu Indau (Johor). In thii^ group 
alone " do the numerals extend beyond four, and that fact as 
well as their singularly good stat-e of preservation (in these very 
mixed dialects) seems to me to indicate that these Mon-Annam 
numerals were not native to the aborigimil dialectal of the 
Peninsula but were imposed from without, and that they either 
have nothing whatever to do with the Sakai numerals (from 
which they certainly cannot be derived) or that they have 
filtered through into Sakai in degenerate furms. It seems very 
unlikely that the pure Sakai fiist imposed its numerals (in a 
primitive form) on the Jakuns who speak Hftsisi etc., and then 
proceeded to corrupt tlieui while the BCsisi preserved them 

So far as this evidence goes, it appears to me to tell against 
the conclusion whicli the author ultimately arrives at, viz ; that 
all the aboriginal dialects ot the Peninsula are branches of the 
Mon-Annam stock. 

It will be seen, too. that it Is a uiistAke to regard the various 
dialects as corruptions, i» different degrees, of one single type 

»'. Some rather dubioiiH lislK uf nomerali buyuiid "four" art- 
•^nven by iwo or three ant horitim*. hut allilifTRrinrrr itr and are iin>pocl- 
eti on that jjroimil, 

R, A. (!.«.■,, Nip. », 1*K 


of Sakai, represented in its purest form by the Seuoi dialect. 
This erroneous view has perhaps tended to discourage the 
collection of the other dialects, which has been stigmatized as 
useless except for the purpose of studying the progressive decay 
of the language. It is evident, however, that Scnoi, though no 
doubt on the whole the purest type of its own class of Sakai, 
cannot be called upon to explain all the other dialects, some of 
which appear to be in some respects nearer to the ancient 

I need say nothing of the author's further comparison with 
the numerals of two Borneo dialects given in Mr. Ling Roth's 
work on Sarawak, as Mr. Ray (in "Man" 1902, No. 42) has shown 
that one of these so-called Borneo dialects is really a Sakai 
dialect of Perak collected by the late Mr. Brooke Low, while 
the resemlilance of the other is very slight and clearly 

After pointing out that a fair number of words (some 50 or 
so, and all or nearly all of them of Mon-Annam origin) run 
through almost all the dialects, the author next proceeds to 
analyse the lists where they differ, with a view to discovering 
the relationship of the various dialects inter se and establishing 
a classification of them into groups. Considering the paucitv of 
the materials for many of the dialects, this is really a brilliant 
piece of work, to which justice could be done only by going into 
details for which there is no space in this notice. The upshot of 
it is that the dialects of the l^eninsula, so far as they are here re- 
presented, fall into the following groups : — 
L S(^raang. 

(i) A relatively pure Semang (and Pangan) group, curi- 
ously homogeneous though covering a large tract of 
country and extending from Northern RSdah to 
southern Kelantan ; 
(ii) Another Semang group, less pure than the preceding, 
represented by (a) the "Jooroo" (Juru) Semang of 
the authorities, (b) the dialect given by Begbie (and 
Tomlin) and (c) certain words in Newbold's "Benua" 
list : apparently to be regarded as **low country" Se- 
mang as opposed to the purer dialects of the interior 

.Jour. .Straits Branch 


II. Sakai. 

(iii) The Tdiube' (or northern) Sakai group; 

(iv) The Senoi (or central) Sakai group and the southern 
dialects, such as Besisi. 

Substantially this classification, so far as it goes, would 
seem to be entirely justified by the existing materials. It will 
be observed that the main line of division (that between groups 
I and II) corresponds pretty closely with the difference in race 
between the Negritos (S^mangs) and the Sakais, while the sub- 
division of group II into sub-groups iii and iv coincides with Mr. 
Clifford's distinction between T^mbe' and S^noi and agrees with 
Dr. Luering's statement (which is borne out by a comparison of 
their vocabularies) that the Ulu Kampar Sakais, who belong to 
sub-group iv, cannot understand the dialect of the Kinta Sakais, 
who fall into sub-group iiL So far at least as the Western half 
of the Peninsula is concerned, this classification will probably 
stand the test of further enquiry : in Pahang there appear to be 
dialects of a mixed character which partake of some of 
the characteristics of several of these sub-groups and 
have peculiarities of their own as well. Of these the author 
had no knowledge, as they have not as yet appeared in 

It is probable that sub-group iv should be further sub- 
divided into — 

(a) Central Sakai, including S6uoi, the Southern Perak 
dialects and some of the S^langor dialects, down to and 
including the dialect of the Orang Tanjong of Ulu 
Lan^at,'' and 

(b) BSsisi and a straggling grou{^^of allied dialects in 
Southern S^langor, the N^gri S^mbilan, Malacca, and 
part of Pahang. 

This last sub-division runs along the borderland between 
Sakais and Jakuns : to the south and south-east of it come the 
more Malayan Jakun dialects of Johor and the neigbbouriny: 
territories, and it is to be observed that the BMsi group, itself, 
though remarkable for the purity with which it has preserved 
the Mon-Aunam numerals, contains a considerable Malayan ele- 

r. ^>elangor Jonrnal (1895) Vol III pp. 244, 245. 

R. A. Hoc,, No. », 1908. 


ment. Similarly one of the chief differeuces between the S6noi 
and the T^nibe' groups is that the latter has more in common 
with Semang than the former. The purest Semang appears to 
be spoken in Central and Northern KSdah and the adjoining 
States of Raman and Ligeh, and the purest^ Sakai in South- 
eastern Perak, between Sungei Ray a and Ulu Slim, and in the 
adjoining valleys of Ulu Pahang. Between these centres there 
is a debatable country in which are to be found more or less 
mixed tribes speaking mixed dialects partly Semang, partly 

The author's classification appears to be defective in one 
point, namely in ignorinof the Jakun group of the South of the 
Peninsula : this group, whatever its orijrin, is now hopelessly 
broken down and almost swamped with Malay, but it is of some 
interest and apparently originally quite distinct from Sakai. 

Here we have, however, the first attempt at a systematic 
grouping of these dialects, and for this the author deserves 
every credit He also brings out a most important fact, viz : 
that, underlying the common Mon-Annam element which 
apparently runs through practically all these dialects, though in 
varying strength, and the comparative uniformity of which has 
led some former writers into the erroneous Pan-Negrito theory,' 
there is in the Semang dialects an alien element, neither Mon- 
Annam nor Malayan, which may reasonably be assumed to be 
the remnant of the original speech of the Negritos. 

It is a mistake to assert that there are but few words com- 
mon to Sakai and Semang : the contrary is the case, such words 
being fairly numerous. But, apart from these, there is a body 
of words apparently peculiar to SSmang and not derived from 
Sakai or any other known language. It is in these words that 
the original affinities of the Semang dialects will have to be 
sought (if indeed it is any longer possible to detect them) and 
not in the words which ^^mang has in common with Sakai and 

.//. I mean pure with reference to Sdman<^ an<l Sakai intermixture 
only, leaving Malay influence out of the question. 

r. Hy this I mean the notion (of Maclay and othcrw) that the 
whole of tlie alwriginew are of Negrito origin and that the differences 
amongHt them depend merely, on the percentage of crossing with 

Jour. stmitH Branch 


the Mon-Anuam languages of Indo-Cbiua. The author is fully 
justified ill claiming to have established on purely linguistic 
grounds the existence of a distinct Seiuang group of dialects, 
spoken by and more or less co-extensive with the Negrito tribes 
of the North of the Peninsula. 

It is true that the border lines of language and physique 
do not quite coincide : there are mixed Sakai-SSmang tribes in 
Northern Ferak who speak substantially Sakai dialects, while in 
Southern K^lantan and Trfingganu there are tribes, described as 
having the tiakai physical characteristics, whose dialects never-? 
theless must be classified as SSmang. But the great point 
gained is that there is now proved to be a SSmang group of 
dialects originally distinct from Sakai and retaining a consider- 
able number of words for which no analogues have yet been 
found elsewhere. Instances of such words are (1) Kito\ *' day/' 
(2)Kawuu, "bird," (3) mo^o, ''Q^%,'' (i) ekoh, '*snake," (5) eA-, 
"dog", (6) ifHs, nyus, "tooth", (7) chas^ "hand," which are in no 
way connected with tlie corresponding Sakai words {\) jish^ (2) 
Mm (or chep\ (3) tap^ (4) tajn^ (5) c7<o, (G) lemun, (7) tik^ (or tih). 
With the possible exception of No. 6, none of the above 
Semang words appear to be Mon-Annam ; while, of the Sakai, 
Nos 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 certainly are. 

The next section of the paper is occupied with a careful 
analysis of the mode of formation of the Mon-Annam languages. 
It is shown that the sounds correspond pretty closely with those 
of our aboriginal dialects; but the greatest stress is laid on the 
system of prefixes and infixes. In this place it is hardly prac- 
ticable to do more than illustrate this point by an example or two, 
drawn from the author's specimens. Thus in Cambojan, from a 
vfovdi pek'^ "to fall to pieces; to split up; division," are derived 
the following: — 

pnek " part " 

pdntpi'k " to divide " 

putimek " piece " 

preiiek " piece " 

prapek ** division " 

R. A. Soc., No. :». l»« 


where the persisteuce of the root ( here shown in italics ) is 
clearly seen in spite of the apparatus of prefixes or infixes added 
to it. Another similar case is: — 

kat - to cut off " 

khnat ** measure " 

kumudt " piece " 

thkat " pain " 

tdmkat " pain, suffering.'' 

Analogous, though less elaborate, formations occur in several of 
the other Mon-Aunam languages, and this system, it must be 
admitted bears a strong resemblance to the mode of formation 
of the aboriginal dialects of the Peninsula. 

It must, however, be borne in mind that it also finds 
parallels in the Malayan family, some members of which (e. g. 
the Philippine languages ) have carried it to an even higher stage 
of complicated development. In fact the relation between the 
Malayan and Mon-Annam families in this particular are very 
puzzling : there is so much similarity in their structure and so 
little, relatively speaking, in their material or lexicographical 
elements. I suppose it may be regarded as certain that these 
two families of speech formerly bordered on one another in 
Southern Indo-China ( and possibly in the Peninsula too ) and, it 
would seem that while they were in contact the one group in 
some way exercised a profound influence on the other, probably 
in the way, mainly, of the Mon-Annam group absorbing Malayan 
elenents, both material and for.nal. This makes it doubly 
difficult, in the case of the aboriginal dialects of the Peninsula 
which must have been evolved somewhere near the border line 
of these two families, to decide to which, if either, of them they 
originally belonged, seeing that the mode of formation in both is 
so very similar. In the apparent absence of suffixes and in some 
other respects, however, it must be admitted that the aboriginal 
dialects offer more analogy to the Mon-Annam than to the 
Malayan family. 

After analysing these formal elements, the author runs 
through the various parts of speech in the Mon-Annam languages 

Juur. StraitM Branch 


and compares them with the corresponding ones in the aborigi- 
nal dialect>s, so far as the materials admit of such comparison. 
The upshot of the matter is that, in his view, on grounds of 
phonology, structure, and similarity of pronouns, demonstrative 
adverbs and numerals, as well as the number of other words 
already alluded to, the Sakai and S^mang dialects are to be 
considered as essentially related to the Mon-Annam family. 
Further the author holds that, on anthropological grounds, the 
Sakais are to be considered as genuine members of the Mon« 
An nam group of races, and therefore that their dialects are not 
an acquired form of speech but represent their own original 

This latter point is, unfortunately, very slightly handled. 
The author rests it upou (1) the dolichocephalic character (2) 
the dark complexion (3) the non- Mongoloid eyes and (4) the 
wavy hair of these tribes, characteristics which may be par- 
alleled in certain of the Mon-Annam races. 

This matter is, however, involved in great obscurity : for 
some of these characteristics appear to be absent in some of 
the Mon-Annam races. The Peguans and Cambojans appear to 
be decidedly Mongoloid in type, though with a difiference : • 
and the authors view requires us to believe that this is due to 
Grossing w^ith a Mongoloid strain which has obliterated their 
genuine original characteristics, while these have Leen retained 
in relative purity by some of the wilder tribes. The thing is 
possible. One knows that in Indo-China there has been an 
enormous amount of crossing of races, and it is conceivable 
that a slight strain of the strong Mongoloid type (which, as 
one sees in Straits Eurasians, is very persistent even when 
present in small percentages) might have modified the physical 
characteristics of the civilized members of the Mon-Annam 
st<X!k (after the wild tribes had parted off from it) v/ithout 
seriously affecting their languages. 

In the case of the Negritos the matter is not susceptible 
of the same explanation, and the author's view is that the S^ 

a. I am asaured by a Peguan that he can distinguish his own 
people from the Hurmese by their more oval faces and more prominent 
(almost European) nones ; and that wavy hair occurs, though rarely, 
amongst them. 

U. A. Soc, No. S9, 1903. 


inangs hav'e substantially given up their own languages and 
now speak dialects imposed upon them by a Mbn-Annam race, 
that is presumably by their neighbours the Sakais, although 
they have preserved a good many genuine old S^mang words. 
The collection and analysis of new materials will show 
whether these conclusions are tenable. Personally I still in- 
cline rather to the view, suggested in a former number of thi^ 
.Journal, that most of the Mon-Annam words in these dialects 
have been imposed from without by the influence of a Mon- 
Annam race of higher civilization ; and I think that the curious- 
ly pure form of the numerals in the otherwise mixed group of 
dialects to which B^sisi belongs supports this yiew. It would 
not however be inconsistent with this idea to hold that the 
Sakai dialects are also of Mon-Annam origin, though much 
more distantly related to the parent stem : and that would per- 
haps account for the divergence of the Sakai numerals from 
the normal type. In that case we should have two waves of 
Mon-Annam influence in the Peninsula, as well as two of Ma- 
layan, and the analysis of the dialects would be somewhat as 
follows : — 

I. Common elements running through practically all the 
dialects — 

(1) Malay; 

(2) Mon-Annam of the purer type: 

(3) Malayan, other than Malay. 

II. Separate original elements. 

(4) In S^mang : the original language of the Negri- 

tos, whatever that may have been (possibly akin 

to Andamanese?) 

(;')) in Sakai : a rude Mon-Annam form of speech (?) 

(0) in Jakun : Malayan ( ? ) and if so, identical with 

(3) above (?). 

It is evident from what has been said that though some 

progress has been made in the study of these dialects, much 

remains to l>e done ; and as the author's main purpose, as stated 

by himself, is to encourage further research, it is to be hoped that 

collectors will be stimulated by his valuable paper, and will 

take the matter seriously in hand. Above all it is absolutely 

necessary to obtain a large number of genuine sentences, as 

Jour, straits Branch 


actually spoken by the aborigines: mere lists of words have 
their value, but the only chance of getting an insight into the 
grammar of a language lies in the collection and analysis of 
sentences, and that is now the most urgent desideratum in con- 
nection with these dialects. Such work can only be done pro- 
perly by men on the spot and thoroughly conversant with local 
circumstances, and the task should be undertitken at once, 
before the imminent extinction of these dialects makes it for 
ever impossible. In view of the high value, from a scientific 
point of view, of such researches (which is attested by the in- 
terest taken in them by a scholar of European reputation like 
the author of the paper I have attempted to review) I venture 
to express the hope that the Governments of the Straits Set- 
tlements and the Native States will follow the good example, in 
these matters, of the Indian Government and will give some 
assistance, or at least encouragement, towards a systematic 
linguistic survey of the Peninsula on the lines of the Linguistic 
Survey of India. 

R. A Hoc., No 39, 190:{ 


The Contents of a Dyak Medicine 


By Bishop Hose. 

A few days ago I was in the upper part of the Saribas river, 
the home of the race once celebrated throughoat Malaya for 
daring deeds of piracy. My companion was the Rev. William 
Howell, the joint author with Mr. D. J. S. Bailey of 'A Diction* 
ary of the Sea- Dyak Language,' and an authority on all subjects 
connected with the religious and other customs of that people. 
We had ascended the Padih, an affluent of the main river, to the 
village of Kundong, where we were going to spend the night 
in the Dyak house, of which Brok is the tuai, or head-man. The 
house is of moderate length, about twenty doors ; and as usual 
the apartments of the tuai are near the middle of the building. 
There we were hospitably installed on the ruai, or undivided 
hall, (sometimes described asa verandah), which extends through- 
out the whole length of a Sea- Dyak house, and occupies about 
half of its area. The good mats were brought down from the 
nadau^ or loft, and spread for us ; the rare luxury of a chair 
was provided for me and there we talked, and taught, and an- 
swered questions, and dispensed medicines, while the inhabitants 
of the other rooms gathered round us, as well as the occupants 
of our host's private quarters. There also we ate, and there 
we slept when the kindly people would at last consent to our 
going to bed. 

The majority of the ^rooms,' i. e. separate tenements, in 
this house are inhabited by Christians of long standing, but there 
are a few who have not yet come in. Amongst them is a Mcaiang^ 
or Doctor of Magic, named Dasu, who has a large practice in the 
neighbourhood. I was anxious to interview him in order to 
get some information that I wanted for the purpose of compar- 
ing the original spiritual beliefs of the Borneans with those 
that underlie the Mohammedanism of the Malays of the Peninsuln. 
I was also desirous of ascertaining how far the methods of the 

R. A. Soc., Xo. 39, 190a. 


Hyak Maimiig, when undertaking to cure disease^i, resemblec 
those of the Paieanq aud Bomor, his MaUy confreres. 

At our invitation Dr. Dasu came out uf his room readily 
enough, and sat down with u» to chat and smoke a cigarette, 
lie talked freely aud intelligently about such matters of gener- 
al inteie^t as happened to be broached, especially the latd 
expedition against the turbulent people of the Ulu Ai, and the 
terrible epidemic of cholera which wa.'i just passing awny. But 
as soon as we be^an to give the conversation a professional 
turn, and speak of the practice of medicine by the native doo-, 
tora of the Saribss, he put on a look of impenetrable reserve 
and could hardly be persuaded to speak at all. There ia reaso 
to believe that this was chieHy owing to tlie presence of Howell."!! 
He has succeeded in winuintr the confidence and affectionate 
regard of Dyaks to an unusual degree, but he is unpopular among 
the.I/iiud'i.^s. Ilisteachinghasled people totbink for themselves, 
and wherever he goe,s the business and the gains of the village 
doctor shew a tendency to decrease. Moreover several of tbe 
fraternity have submitted to his influence, abandoned their 
tricks, and taken to honest farming. It is known too thatsome 
of these liave surrendered their whole stock of charms to my _ 
friend, and have also made dangerous revelations, whereby tbc 
profession has been much discredited. 

So Dr. I>asu was only with great difficulty induced to imparj 
til us his knowledge. He told me after more confidential re-' 
lations hiid grown up between us, that he suspected me of so 
intention, by some means or other, to get possession of hia preci- 
ouaiiiaferi'a f;i«(/i('a,andsodeprivehim of hismeansof living. Uow< 
ever his fears wern removed by repeated assurances that it waB 
information only that I wanted, and that I was consulting him 
just because 1 preferred to get it direct from a professor of , 
repute, mther than trust to reports received from whit© men. 
At length we persuaded him to be gently catechised. I got 
some precise answers to my (juestions respecting certain ardcles 
of Ilyak lielief which had been variously defined by different 
investigators, and about which my ideas had been a good deal 
confused. But those matters are not the subject of this note, i 
It is the concluding incident of the rather prolonged interview 
that I propose to desci ibe. 



We had tallci>d to one another so pleasantly and frankly 
that I thought I might aak Dasii as a great faror to show me 
his Lapoii'j, or Medicine Chest, and the charms of power which 
it contained. It was quite evident that this aroused his suspicions 
again, and he retired within himself as before. But the prin- 
cipjil people of the house, who were sitting by ua, urged him to 
consent, and, as old acquaintances of mine, assured him of my 
good faith. So he was at last persuaded, and went to his own 
room to fetch the treasure. 

As I have said, the good mats of the household, as is 
when it is intended to show respect to a visitor, had been taken 
down for our accommodation from the place where they are 
stored. But we now saw that the most valued of them all had 
been held in reserve. This, which was made of fine and ve 
Hexilile rotaiU, the latest triumph of the skill and industry of o 
courteous hostess Ipah, Brok'a wife, was now handed down ai 
spread in front of us for the reception of the great man and the 
mysterious implements of his profession. Aft«r some consider- 
able delay, probably intended to excite our curiosity the more, 
he appeared and sat down on the mat prepared for him ; a 
subdued murmur of applause and satisfaction greeting him as h<* 
took his seat. 

A Manang's Lupong, or case for holding his charms, may 
be almost anything. Sometimes it is a box, sometimes a basket, 
sometimes a bag In this instance it was an open-mouthed 
basket made of thin shavings of bamboo, hung round the neck 
of the owner by a strip ol bark. 

Before beginning the exhibition Dasu made a little formal 
speech, in which with much show of humility, he spoke in 
depreciation of his own powers and knowledge, and of lis 
Collection of remedial charms, as compared with those of other 
members of the profession elsewhere. These remarks were of 
course received with complimentary expressions of dissent from 
the audience: and then at last the contents of the basket were 
displayed before us. They were tied up together iti a cloth 
bag, the most highly prized being further enclosed in special 
receptacles of their own, such as a second cloth covering, a little 
bamboo box with a lid, or a match-box. Thfy were 
ceremoniously brought out and placed side by side on the mat 
II, A, Sop,, No, », leoa 


of honour. I was then invited to handle and examine them, and 
the name and use of each were told me without any fresh 
indication of unwillingness. This is a list of them. 

i. Batu bintanff, or Star-stone ; a small transparent stone 
rounded by the action of water till it was almost spherical, with 
a rather rough surface. The Manang looked upon it as his 
badge of authority, and told the following story of the way he 
became possessed of it. Many years ago, in the interval be- 
tween harvest and the next seed-time, he was working as a cooly 
in Upper Sarawak. There he had a dream in which he was 
visited by the being whom he looks upon as bis guardian-spirit. 
As in nil cases when this spiiit has had any communication to 
make to him, it appeared in the form of a tortoise. It told him 
that he must forthwith put himself under instruction in order to 
be qualified for the office of a Maaang : and that if he neglected 
this command all the spirits would be an^rry, and death or 
madness would be the penalty. When he awoke he found the 
Batu hintang by his side, and had no doubt it was the gift of 
the spirit. Accordingly he did as he was bidden without loss of 
time. He acquired the professional knowledge and the stock in 
trade which were necessary, and was at last duly initiated ¥nth 
all the proper rites and ceremonies. 

ii. Batu kmt ihan sembilnu^ or The petrified section of the 
Sembilan fish. This was a curious object which I could not 
quite make out. It was oblong in shape, about two inches long, 
one inch broad, and half an inch thick in the middle, but getting 
suddenly thinner towards the two edges till it became not more 
than -^^ of an inch. The thick part was hollow, having a large 
oval-shaped perforation going through it. It resembled a sec- 
tion from the middle of a large winged seed, but heavy for its 
size, and feeling like stone. I could not of course test this by 
cutting or scrapin^r. When used it is soaked for a time in 
water ; the water is then given to the sick man to drink, or is 
rubbed gently upon the part of hi-* body which is affected. 

iii. Batu liutar, or Thunder-bolt : a small dark-coloured 
stone, about an inch and a half long, and a quarter of an inch 
thick at the base, tapering to a sixteenth of an inch at the point ; 
curved and rather like a very small rhinoceros horn, and highly 
polished. It was probably the same kind of stone as that of 

Jour, straits Branck 


which the stone implements found in the Malay Peninsula are 
made, which are also called Batu lintar. It is pressed firmly 
against the body wherever pain is felt. 

iv. Batu nttar, another name for Thunder-bolt : a minute 
four-side crystal, half an inch long and about two lines thick. 
A charm to be used only in extreme cases. It is dipped in water 
and then shaken over the patient. If he starts when the drops 
of water fall upon his body he will recover, otherwise he will 

v. Biitu kvang jiranau, or Petrified root-stock of jtranau 
(a Zingiberad ?). They told us this is the Dyak name of a kind of 
wild ginsrer. The word is curiously near to Jeranf/au or Je- 
riugu^ which Ridley says is Acorus calamus : ^'a plant much used 
by native medicine-men," (Wilkinson, Malay-English Diction- 
ary.) The thing so called was possibly part of the back-bone oi 
some animal, bent double and the two ends tied together, each 
vertebra brown and shining iifter long use. A charm for dysen- 
tery and indigestion, and also for consumption. It is dipped in 
oil, and rubbed on the patient's body in a downward direction. 

vi. Batti ilauy or Sparkling stone, also called Batu kr<M, or 
the hard stoue. A six-sided crystal, two inches long and three 
quarters of an inch thick. One end appeared to have been for- 
merly stuck into some sort of handle, as it was covered with tnalav, 
or lac. This is the indispensable sight-stone to be looked into 
for a view of that which is future, or distant, or otherwise in- 
visible to ordinary eyes. It is specially used by Manatigs, for 
discovering where the soul of the sick man, wandering away from 
the body, is concealing itself ; or for detecting ihe particular 
demon who is causing the illness. 

There were also, jumbled up together at the bottom of the 
bag, a number of tusks of wild boar, pebbles, and other rubbish, 
but these were pronounced to be vtai vgapa^ things of no import- 
ance. One article that we hoped to iind was absent Dasu said 
he should be glad indeed to have it, but it had never come in his 
way. It is the Batu burung endati^ or Pelican stone. He ex- 
plained to us that this is a stone which has the magical power of 
securing the presence and cooperation of a spirit who dwells in 
the form of the endan^ (pelicanus malaccensis). When the 
Manang is seeking to enter Sef*ai/an, the Spirit world, in search 

K. A. Soc., No. 39, 1903. 


of the errant soul of a sick man, this demon can ensure to him a 
swift and unimpeded passage thither and back again. 

While Da^u was telling us the story of his vision of the 
Tortoise spirit who gave him the Batu Bintang I watched his 
face carefully for any sign that he believed, or did not believe 
his account. I could not be sure : but I am inclined to think he 
did not. He seemed relieved when we had finished our ex- 
amination of his possessions, and he could pack them all up and 
carry them off to the security of his own dwelling. 

Several similar collections of charms have at different times 
been given to me, obtained from Manangs who have become 
Christians but it was particularly interesting to me to have a set 
actually in use exhibited and explained by their owner, and 1 
have thought that a description of them might possibly have some 
interest for other Members of the Society. 

J«.iii. straits Bmnch 

New Malay Orchids. 

By II. N. Ridley. 

The following Dew orchids mostly from the peninsula have 
been obtained since the publication of the Orchids of the Malay 
Peninsula in the Journal of the Linnean Society Vol. XXXII, 
p. 213. 

In working up the group for the Flora of the Malay Pen- 
insula I find we have as at present known 530 species belonging 
to 87 genera, and doubtless there are many more to be dis- 
covered especially in the northern districts, and on the hills of the 
east of the Peninsula. I have added a few descriptions of iiew 
species also from Sumatra, the orchid flora of which is really 
very little known, though the more showy kinds have been 
exported thence for many years. 

LipaiHs atrosanguinea^ n. sp. Stem stout sheathed 4 inches long 
tall, leaves ovate lanceolate acute crisped 8 inches long by 
three inches wide or less, scape stout over a foot tall. 
Raceme lax many flowered. Bracts very small ovate 
lanceolate, ovary and pedicel 1 inch long twisted, and 
the ovary with sinuate ribs. Flowers as large as those of 
L, veuosa entirely deep red purple. Sepals linear obtuse 
revolute. Petals much narrower. Lip orbicular 
oblong ^ inch long subacute denticulate with two short 
semicircular lamellse at the base. Column arched with 
narrow wings. 

Perak on the Gap on the Thaiping hills at 4000 feet 
elevation, (Curtis and Derry.) 

Allied to L, venosa, Ridl., but with a broader lip and 
deep purple flower. A really beautiful plant. 

L. vittata, n. sp. Pseudobulbs conic crowded short 1 inch 
long. Leaf lanceolate acute 5 inches long | inch wide. 
Scape 6 inches long. Flowers numerous ^ inch across. 
Sepals lanceolate, petals linear all white. Lip entire. 

K. A. J-Joc , No. 89, 1903. 


obloDg obtuse white with a central crimson bar. No 
calli. Ovary and pedicel ^ inch long. Column straight, 
broadened at the base. 

Sumatra, Indragiri (Curtis). Flowered in Penang 

A pretty little plant of the CoriifoHae section, somewhat 
resembling L. lacerata Ridh, inhabit, but the lip is quite 
entire, and very differently colored. 

Plaiycliim odorata^ n. sp. Pseudobulbs cylindric tapering 2^ 
to 3 inches long leaf lanceolate subacute petiolate blade 9 
inches long | inches wide, petiole 2 inches long slender. 
Raceme nodding graceful one foot long, lower 
half nude slender. Flowers greenish white sweet- 
scented ^ inch long numerous bracts lanceolate, acumi- 
nate longer than the shorter ovary. Sepals and petals 
lanceolate acCtminate acute. Lip entire tongue-shaped 
obtuse minutely pubescent keels 2 nearly the whole 
length of the lip. Column rather short with broad 
wings, arms free from a little below the stigma as long 
as the hood linear apex soothed, hood of columns large 
toothed anther with a short broad beak. 
Perak (Curtis, No. 2854). 

Dendrobium vindicafum, n. sp. Stem rather slender tlexuous 
over a foot long. Leaves lanceolate acute 2^ inches 
lo"gi i i"ch wide sheaths ^ inch long. Flowers borne 
on leafless stems numerous in very short racemes of 2 or 3 
flowers, peduncles ^ inch long, bracts very small ovate 
sheathing, pedicels | inch long. Flowers ^ inch long 
light green. Sepals lanceolate acute, laterals broader, 
mentum very short blunt. Petals broader oblong lanceo- 
late. Lip entire lanceolate acute column short with erect 

Perak. at [poh (C. Goldbam.) 

This seems as nearly allied to Z). miicrostachi/um^ 
Lindl., as to any other species. 

/>. Ctilicopis, « sp. Steins slender over a foot long internodes 
^ to 1 inch long. Leaves lanceolate acuminate acute, 

.Tonr. StraitA Branch 


3 inches long ^ inch wide. Flowers three or four on a 
ahoTt peduncle ^ inch long, pedicels with ovary } inch 
long, flowers an inch across, sepals ovate obtuse, laterals 
narrower subacute, mentum as long cylindric subacute. 
Petals bioader elliptic obtuse, all white tinted with 
rose, lip entire broadly oblong truncate apex bilobed, 
lobes short rounded, with 4 raised veins in the centre 
two thick in the centre and two thinner outside all white 
with a rosy spot on the tip. Column short and thick 
enlarged at the stigma arms erect both like crimson. 
Anther ovate pink large. 

Lankawi Islands, (Curtis). 

This belongs to the Pedilonum section and is allied to 
Z>. hynienopterum^ Hook. fil. which grows in Kedah. The 
flowers though few and rather fugacious, are very pretty 
the deep crimson of the tip of the column, contrasting 
well with the rosy white of the rest of the flower. 

D. tenuicaule, n. sp. Stems very slender weak, a foot long. 
Leaves inrrow linear lanceolate acuminate 3 inches long 
^ inch wide, sheaths one inch long. Flower solitary large, 
pedicel and ovary slender ^ inch long. Upper sepal 
ovate acute, mentum very long cylindric apex de- 
curved acute ^ inch long. Petals oroadly ovate all 
pink darkest at the tips. Whole flower | inch across. 
Lip claw very long narrow lateral lobes broad up 
curved, mid lobe short ovate apex bifid, edge crisped, 
white with a central pink line. Column shore with 
a very long foot, arms toothlike erect. Anther margin 

Lankawi, Ayer Hangat (Curtis). 

D. bijidwn, n. sp. Plant with the habit of D. flabellu/n, stems a 
foot or more long slender, pseudobulbs oblanceolate 
flattened 1^ inch long, 2 inches apart. Leaf broadly 
lanceolate ovate obtuse 5 inches long 2 inches wide. 
Bracts lanceolate acute red. Flowers I or 2 open at a 
time, ovary and pedicel | inch long. Sepals and petaU 
linear oblong acute recurved yellow with red spots, 
petals a little smaller, mentum acute. Lip longer than 

K, A. Hoc., No. JW». 190:l 


the sepals, claw narrow linear edges and ridges crenu- 
late, apex with two narrow cuneate truncate labels 
half as long as the claw, white yellowish at the tip 
column stout conic, as long as the foot Anther oblong- 
truncate in front. 

Lanka wi Islands (Curtis). 

One of the Desmotrivhum section resembling D, flabel- 
Inm but remarkable for the terminal lobe of the lip formed 
of two narrow cuneate truncate lobes. 

Bnlbophyllum vartabile, n. sp. Rhizome stout woody, pseudobulbs 
curved 3 inches long. Leaf elliptic ovate acute 6 inches 
long, 2 to 3 inches wide, thin by coriaceous, petiole 
an inch long. Scape from near the pseudobulb stout, 
red with several sheaths at the base and three or four 
lanceolate red spotted ones scattered on it. Bracts large 
lanceolate acute spotted red half as long as the ovary. 
Flowers 1 or 2 large show 3 inches across. Upper 
sepal lanceolate acute, laterals falcate. Petals lanceolate 
nearly as long all yellow with red dots. Lip tongue- 
shaped recurved with a broader base, short, apex blunt 
yellow with red spots. Column short, foot twice as 
long, apex free, arms short rounded. 

B, Reifiwardtii, Hook. til. Fl. Brit. Ind. V. p. 754 (not B. Rein- 
tcardtii^ Rchb. fil. Sarcopodium Reinwardtii, Lindl.) 

Thaiping Hills on trees find rocks; collected by Mr. 
Curtis and myself; and at Gunong Batu Putih, by 
VVray, 1122. 

There are two colour forms of this, one as described 
above, the other has the sepals and petals crimson, with red 
spots at the base ; lip dark crimson, column yellow with 
crimson spots. Both forms are very beautiful and at- 
tractive plants, but like so many of these large Bulbo- 
phylla very troublesome to grow. 

B, pustulatuju, n. sp. Stem stout crinite, pseudobulbs crowded 
oblong conic half an inch long. Leaf elliptic lanceolate 
acute four inches long by one inch wide, petiole J inch 
long. Flower solitary an inch across, pedicel slender ^ an 

Juur. Straits Branch 


inch long. Upper sepal lanceolate acute, laterals much 
broader ovate obtuse. Petals lanceolate acute nearly as 
large as the uppe** sepal. All yellow with red stripes. 
Lip fleshy ovate cordate obtuse dark maroon colored | 
inch long with 2 raised lobes at the base, and a mass 
of papillaB on the disc. Column short with a long foot, 
the apex free, arms triangular oblong obtuse. Climbing 
on trees on the lower slopes of the Mount Ophir 

B. tenenwi, n. sp. Rhizome slender filiform pseudobulbs ovoid 
^ inch long about ^ inch apart. Leaf oval half an inch 
long not petiolate. Scape slender red 2 inches tall with 
a few bracts at the base. Flowers 8 at the top of the 
stem ^ inch long, shortly pedicelled. Upper sepal lan- 
ceolate acuminate, laterals much longer slightly gibbous 
at base, purple bases green. Petals ovate.elliptic much 
shorter green. Lip small recurved acute purple. 
Column thick curved green foot as long purple, arms 
long linear curved acute. 

Lankawi Islands (Curtis). 

Very small few-flowered species allied to B. hirtulum^ Ridl. 

B, cincinnatum, n. sp. Very small plant pseudobulb very small. 
Leaf elliptic obtuse closely nerved, 4 inches long 2 inches 
wide, scape very slender 2 inches long. Flowers ^ 
inch long, 2 on the apex of the scape. Bracts ovate 
very short ovary and pedicel ^ inch long. Sepals lanceo- 
late subacute nearly equal brown, hairy. Petals brown 
linear oblong falcate hairy. Lip obtuse with long 
white hairs. Column short foot as long, arms short. 
Perak, Batu Tujoh (Curtis). 

This is another of the small species with a few small 
flowers on the end of a slender scape. The curious white 
curly hairs on the lip are perhaps its most striking charac- 

B. brevipes, n. sp. Rhizome woody, pseudobulbs ^ to | an inch 
apart cylindric conic curved. ^ inch long. Leaf ellip- 
tic shortly petioled one inch long ^ to ^ inch wide, 

K. A. Soi*., Xo. 39, 1ft W 


apex subacute coriaceous; raceme very short about 
6 flowered ^ inch long. Flowers pale yellow. Bracts lan- 
ceolate much longer than the ovary. Sepals subequal lan- 
ceolate acuminate § inch long. Petals about ^ of the 
length elliptic blunt. Lip shorter curved thick fleshy 
deeply grooved base clawed, with two strongly raised 
ridges or wings from the base. Column short and thick 
with a short foot, arms erect narrow acuminate. 

Ferak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley), Scortechini drawing 
176. Allied to B, Gamb/ei\ Hook, fll., but with a much 
shorter peduncle. 

B, ochranthin)u n. sp. Pseudobulbs densely crowded oblong conic 
^ inch long. Leaf linear- lanceolate acute base nar- 
rowed 1^ inch long, ^ inch wide. Scape nearly as long 
flowers 5 or 6 crowded in' a head about \ inch long. 
Bracts lanceolate shorter than the ovary ; upper sepal 
narrow linear-lanceolate acuminate, laterals one quarter 
longer, all white with yellowish tips. Petals less than 
half as long as the upper serial lanceolate obtuse white. 
Lip small tongue shaped acute recurved yellow. 
Column thick foot shorter. «rms narrow linear acute 

Perak, Thaiping Hills, at 3000 to 4000 feet elevation 

B. (Cirrfiopttultnit) Cni tigit, n,»p. Khiome slender creeping, with 
ovoid conic pseudobulbs | inch long, ^ an inch apart. 
Leaf elliptic oblong obtuse thick 1 to 1 j inch long, half 
an inch wide, very shortly petioled. Scape slender 2 to 
3 inches long with a lanceolate-pointed sheath in the 
middle. Flowers about 5 crowded at the top. Bracts 
lanceolate acuminate. Upper sepal triangular lanceolate 
laterals quite free, linear flat narrow | inch long yellow. 
Petals falcate lanceolate glabrous, brown. Lip small 
tongue-shaped fleshy curved. Column broad arms tri- 
angular short. 

Dindings. In Mangrove swamps (Curtis). 

B, peridtnst^ n. sp. Pseudobulb conic ^ inch long. Leaf elliptic 
narrowed at the base 2 to 3 inches long* ^ inch wide, 

.lour. straitK Braiuli 


(!oriaceous, scape 3 to 4 inches long fairly stout ; flowers 
crowded numerous glabrous; bracts lanceolate acurninate. 
Upper sepal ovate acute, laterals § inch long connate for 
half their length, tips acuminate. Petals nearly as large 
as the upper sepal, ovate lanceolate acute. Lip tongue- 
shaped channeled above, but little curved ; column 
arms triangular obtuse erect broad. 

Perak, on the Waterloo Estate near Kwala Kangsa. 
(Sir Graeme Elphinstone). 

Dendrochilum angustifolium, n. sp. Rhizome long woody terete, 
pseudobulbs 1 to l^inch apart or closer, subcylindric ^ to 
j inch long. Leaf narrowly linear lanceolate 2 inches 
long, ^inch wide blunt; mucronulate, narrow at the base, 
scapes solitary or several together on a stout short ped- 
uncle from the base of the pseudobulbs with numerous 
basal sheaths 3 to 4 inches long. Flowers numerous 
greenish white ^ inch long. Bracts ovate subacute half 
the length of the ovary, rachis scabrid. Sepals linear 
lanceolate. Petals narrower. Lip narrow lanceolate 
to obtuse with 2 thick ridges at the base and a 
lower one between them. Column short upper margin 
hooded minutely toothed, arms linear from near the base. 
Capsule half-an-inch long subglabose ovoid three-angled. 

Selangor, Hukit Ilitam, (Kelsall). 

Pahang, K'luang Terbang, (Barnes). 

D. ellipticwn, n. sp. Rhizome long woody branched yellow, 
pseudobulbs conic- cylindric curved | inch long. Leaf 
thinly coriaceous elliptic oblanceolate obtuse 8 inches 
long by one inch wide. Scapes 3 incites long with 
lari^e sheaths at the base; bracts ovate acute nearly as 
long as the short ovary. Flowers ^ inch long rather 
fleshy. Sepals lanceolate acute, apex thickened terete. 
Petals similar but narrower. Lip pandurate obtuse 
pustular, basal ridges obscure forming a pustular mass. 
Column rather long, hood with three teeth, arms from 
about half-way up the column, linear longer than broad. 

Singapore, Sumbawang, (Ridley 6536). 

A curious little species on account of its pustular lip. 

R. A. Soc., No. 89. 1903, 


It is interesting as being the only low country species, the 
rest being all mountain plants. 

Krta penduluy n. sp. Stems terete 2 or 3 feet long ^ inch through 
leafy. Leaves narrowly linear lanceolate acuminate 4 
inches long ^ inch wide sheaths dilate upwards j to 1 
inch long. Racemes lateral hardly ^ inch long with 
several lanceolate acute red brown bracts half an inch 
long. Flower solitary nearly an inch across white. 
Pedicel and ovary ^ inch long red. Upper sepal ob- 
long obtuse laterals broadly ovate refiexed, mentum 
short very broad and blunt. Petals oblong rounded as 
broad or broader than the upper sepal. Lip shortly 
clawed broad obovate rounded, side lobes indistinct, 
midlobe longer broad keels 2 curved plates on the disc. 
Column stem foot long. 

Selangor at the Kwala Lumpur Caves (Kelsall). 

Perak (Scortechini, drawing). 

Borneo ir^arawak. 

Eria {Trichofosia) cristata n. sp. Stem a foot tall, leaves lanceo- 
late acuminate oblique 3 inches long ^ inch wide, coria- 
ceous almost glabrous above hairy beneath sheaths 
glabrescent when old, very hairy when young, half an 
inch long. Racemes short ^ inch long very hairy, 
lowest bract cup-shaped; upper ones ovate lanceolate 
acute ^ inch long much longer than the ovary ; flowers 
2 to 3 half an inch long. Sepals lanceolate acute 
covered with red hair, mentum as long blunt; petals 
linear obtuse much narrower, lip with a very long claw 
pubescent at the base spathulate tip rounded retuse, 
glabrous except for the ends of the three raised veins 
which are covered with short clubbed hairs ; column 
lyase pubescent. 

Penang, and Lankawi Island at Terutau, (Curtis 169G). 

K, rotuiidifoliii^ n. sp. Stems slender forming a matted 
mass. Leaves in small tufts on short stems ^ inch lon^, 
Heshy thick obovate blunt hairy ^ inch long. Flowers 
\ inch long on a very short pedicel solitary with 2 

Jour. Straits Branch 


cupular bracts with a short point, upper one long^er than 
the ovary; upper sepal oblong ovate, laterals much 
broader, mentum rather large rounded. Petals oblong 
obtuse; all greenish yellow, billows on the outer serf ace. 
Lip oblong obtuse, tip broader three-lobed ; side lobes 
small, midlobe rounded, all denticulate greenish yellow 
with a central raised bar ocreous, and some purple spots 
on each side, column short foot long olive green ; anther 
orange conic one-celled, apex with a short blunt point, 
front edge emarginate. Pollinia 8 subequal. 

Penang, above the Waterfall (Curtis). 

A very curious plant forming large masses of small tu- 
fled leaves something like those of Dischidia mummularia. 
It is allied to E, da.\ntphifl'a^ Par., a native of India, and 
A\ microphtjlla^ Bl. of Java. From the former it differs 
in its shorter rounded leaves, much shorter peduncle 
and longer mentum. The lip is broader at the tip and 3- 
lobed, and is differently colored. The anther is also 
quite different in shape having a kind of blunt conic 
boss on the top. 

Ceratostylis piincticulatu, n. sp. Stems slender weak curved to 3 
4 inches long but little branched, sheaths short ampli- 
ate, mucronulate, minutely punctate. Leaves narrowly 
elliptic lanceolate blunt, petiolate 2 inches long ^ inch 
wide. Flowers in pairs on short slender pedicels with 
minute bracts. Sepals lanceolate acute. Lip spathulate 
with an acute thickened tip. 

Perak, Thaiping Hills at 5000 feet elevation. 

Cidanthe mutahilis^ n. sp. Habit of C. veratrifolicu Leaves broad 
ovate lanceolate acuminate 12 inches long 4 inches wide. 
Scapes stout 20 inches tall sometimes branched, raceme 
about inches lono^-many flowered, firacts persistent 
oblong obtuse J inch. Pedicels slender | inch long. 
* Upper sepal broadly lanceolate ovate laterals lanceolate 
acute ^ inch long. Petals narrow linear. All white. 
Lip claw very short with 3 large lanceolate papillae and 
a number of small ones, terminal lobe broad ^ inch 
across reniform bilobed at the apex, white with claw and 

R. A. hoc.. No. 3», 1903. 


base of luidlobe yellow, at first, becoming ocreous 
orange after one or two days and fading red orange. 
Spur very slender an inch long obtuse decurved. 
Column thickened round the stigma, anther shortly 
bluntly beaked. 

Sumatra, Deli, imported with C Vi'ralrifolia and culti- 
vated in the Botanic Gardens, Penang. Fl. September. 

This plant Mr. Curtis says is indistinguishable from C. 
veratnfolia in leaves and habit. The fiower is however 
quite different. The broad kidney-shaped bilobed lip, 
colour changing from white tinted with lemon yellow 
at the base to dull dark orange red is very striking. 
The branched scape a most unusual character in Calan- 
the is not apparently rare, as it has been produced in 
two out of three plants culti^ ated by him. 

C, alho'futea, n. sp. A large plant with broally lanceolate acute 
leaves 2 J feet tall, 4 inches wide with strong ribs petiole 
stouts inches tall, scape over \^ feet long, stout. 
Bracts caducous, flowers about half an inch across, pedi- 
cel and ovary ^ inch long. Sepals and petals short broad 
ovate acute white. Lip 3 lobed white with yellow base, 
lol»es very short falcate acute, midlobe obovate rounded 
reniform broad, bilobed, calli 2shi)rt seiuiovate ridges at 
the base, spur shorter than the peJicel thick blunt club- 
bed curved. 

Perak (Scortechini), Bujong Malacca (Ridley), Larut 
Hills (Derry). 

C aurantiaca^ n. sp. Rhizome fairly stout, leaves narrow lance- 
olate acuminate 12 inches long | inch wide, petiole 3 
inches long. Scape slender a foot tall with a large 
lanceolate sheath towards the base. Bracts caducous. 
Flowers ^ inch across orange. Pedicel and ovary slender 
\ inch long. Sepals ovate apiculate \ inch long. Petals 
much broader. Lip narrow, side lobes subtriangular 
ovate, midlobe narrow linear oblong obtuse red. Keels 
2 short semiovdte, spur slender sigmoid blunt. Rostellum 
loni^ beaked. 

Perak, Bujong Malacca (Ridley). 

.Jour. Straits Branch 


C, mtcrorf fossa, n sp. Pseudobulb short; Leaves distichous lan- 
ceolate acutniaate 6 inches long, 2 inches wide. Scape 
stout a foot tall, with a large swollen sheath. Bracts 
lanceolate acuminate pale caducous. Flowers small 
ovary and pedicel I inch parts distinct. Sepils ovate 
acuminate | inch long orange. Petils sborter orbicular 
ovate rounded. Lip shorter very small scarlet, oblong 
Sf^athulate base broad narrowed in the middle; apex de- 
flexed with two elevated ridges at base, spur as long as 
ovary thick scrotiform, rostellum and anther not beaked. 
Sumatra, East Coast, (native collector) near C. Scor- 
techinii, but with a differently formed and colored lip. 
It has quite the appearance of C. cnrculigoides at a little 
distance. It was sent with other orchids from the East 
Coast of Sumatra by a native and flowered in the Botanic 
Gardens, Singapore. 

Coplogyne deusi flora, n. sp. Pseudobulbs long cylindric-conic 
narrow 4 inches long. Leaves lanceolate acuminate 15 
inches long 1| inch wide, petiole 2 inches long. Scape 
pendulous 8 inches long dense flowers numerous smaller 
than in C. D>u/ana, rachis and ovaries not nigrohirsute. 
Bracts red brown oblong truncate half an inch long and 
as wide; sepals lanceolate acute; petals narrower J 
inch long brownish. Lip, side -lobes short acute, apices 
narrow, outside white, inside brown with white streaks; 
midlobe orbicular, shortly apiculate, edge white, centre 
red brown with a large yellow central papillose mass; 
keels on the disc between the lobes crested. Column 
hood retuse anther white. 

Selangor, on Bukit Hitam, (Kelsall) 

C, pallens, n. sp. Rhizome stout, pseudobulbs subcylindric 2 to 
3 inches long wrinkled. Leaves 2 elliptic or oblanceolate 
3 to 6 inches long 1 to 1 .J inch wide petiole L inch long. 
Scape from the top of the pseudobulb, base nude with I 
persistent bract. Raceme 6 inches long flexuous. 
Flowers 2 inches across. Sepals lanceolate acute pale 
green. Petals linear filiform. Lip white lateral lobes 

B. A. Soc., No. 39, 1903. 


long with subacute long pubsscent tip3, base saccate 
midlobe as long, with 2 long sinuous brown keels. 
Column hood three lobed central lobe long undulate. 
Anther conic not beaked. 

Perak,Thaiping Hills (Curtis). Bujong Malacca (Ridley). 

This is closely allied to C ancepsy Ilook fil. Ic. PI. 2109 
but the scape is terete not compressed and the petals are 
much narrower. 

Saccolabiuin Machadonis, n. sp. Stems curved slender 12 inches 
long, fjeaves terete recurved 3 inches long ^ inch 
thick apex pungent. Racemes 2 inches long. Flowers 
scattered | inch long; sepals linear oblong obtuse. 
Petals narrower all recurved olive yellow. Lip pale 
violet, side lobes erect oblon:^ truncate, iitidlobe much 
longer flat hastate triangular acuminate obtuse spur 
short curved blunt olive-yellow, upper callus in mouth 
rounded hemispheric with an anchor-shaped process on 
the top, lower edge of callus truncate pubescent, lower 
callus conic ending in a lamina running to the back of 
the spur. Column short stout sigmoid olive yellow. 
Anther flattened 1 celled hemispheric, poUinia sub- 
globose on a broad elongate candicle tapering upwards 
to the point and fixed to the saddle-shaped disc. Rostel- 
lum lobes broad deflexed parallel oblong. 
Johor. On Gunong Banang, Batu Pahat. 
This species is allied to 5. halophilum, Ridl.,but differs 
in the violet hastate lip and the remarkable callus in 
the mouth of the spur. It is named after Mr. A. D. 
Machado with whom I collected the plant which 
flowered in the Botanic Oardens. 

S, rugosulum, nsp. Stem stout 6 inches long. Leaves linear nar- 
rowed at the base, apex bilobed mucronate 5 inches long ^ 
inch wide, sheaths .} inch long deeply transversely 
wrinkled. Racemes short ^ inch long stout with a few 
cup shaped sheaths at the lase. Flowers ^ inch across, 
on pedicels J inch long yellow-spotted with red. Sepals 
ovate coriaceous. Petals thinner pallid. Lip boat- 
shaped, side lobes very short oblong, midlobe fleshy 

Jour, straits Brtuich 


ovate grooved ending in a long slender horn bifid at 
the tip, spur very short conic blunt. Column large arms 
Kedah, on Kedah Peak. 

5. (Cleiaostoma) hortensey n. sp. Stem stout 1 to 2 inches long 
or more. Leaves lorate, coriaceous blunt unequally bi- 
lobed 4 to 6 inches long | inch wide. {Scape erect tal- 
ler than the leaves, base nude apex racemed or more 
usually with a few branches. Bracts small ovate. 
Flowers ^ inch across. Sepals oblong obtuse, laterals 
broader. Petals narrower yellow with red edges Lip 
yellow, side lobes small erect with two subacute points, 
mid lobe broader ovate acute, spur scrotiform very broad 
red, callus in the mouth of the tube a thin lamina bifid at 
the apex. Column short and broad. Anther broad 
abruptly truncate beaked ; pollinia elliptic, caudicle linear 
very narrow disc ovoid, rostellum entire. Capsu e ellip- 
tic oblong an inch long. 

Singapore Jurong; Johor, Tana Runto, Malacca, 
Sungei Rambai (Derry) Perak (Scortechini's drawings 
No. 53); Penang, Tanjong Bunga (Curtis 1834). This 
little plant generally occurs in orchid trees, and I 
cannot think how it has escaped being described for so 
long. It grows also in Bornej. Its flowers resemble 
those of S. lattfolium, Ridl. CUisosfoma lati/olium and 
Cfuscum, Lindl., but it has a much smaller stem than that 
plant and the panicle is much smaller. 

S. arachnimthe^ n. sp. Stem tall climbing, leaves oblong obtuse 4 
inches long IJ inch wide sheaths J inch long. Panicle 
2.} feet long with a long nude peduncle purple, branches 
3 or 4 inches long spreading. Flowers scattered J inch 
across, pedicels longer slender. Bracts small ovate. 
Sepals and petals spreading spathulate obtuse, lateral 
sepals falcate white with purple spots at base. Lip 
fleshy side lobes indistinct forming a wall round the 
entrance of the spur, mid lobe ovate broad short, spur 
broad saccate rounded large, all white, callus in the 
mouth oblong notched. Column short and broad, rostel- 

E. A. Soc, No. 89, 1903. 


lum shr)rt. A'lther thin depressed hemisperic. Pollinia 2 

globose, caudicle brjadly linear, disc hilf as long oblong. 

Perak and Kedih collectei by Mr. Curtis from whom 

1 have received sp3cimen3 ani a colored drawing. The 
habit of this plant is t'lat of a Renanthera but the flowers 
rather are those of a 5 wcolabiam of the section cldaos- 

S. patlnatum^ n. sp. Ste:n very short hardly an inch long. Leaves 

2 to 3 very coriaceous oblong obtuse broadly bilobed 
7 inches long by 2 inches wide. Raceme very short 
rachis stout, flowers about 6 J inch across. Sepals obo- 
vate spathulate blunt. Petals narrower yellow with red 
spots. Lip saccate rounded, no distinct side lobes, ter- 
minal lobe ovate triangular entire glabrous blunt all 
white with violet spots. Column very short and broad 
at the base pink, no arms, anther obtuse conic in front 
triangular bifid. Pollinia oblong globose half split, 
candicle linear, disc oblong hastate. Rostellum bifid. 
Capsule elliptic narrowed at base 2 inches long. 

Pahang, Kota Glanggi (Ridley). 

Distrib., Borneo. 

This is probably the S. Calceolare, collected in Perak 
by CixTter in Fl. Brit. Ind., as it much resembles that 
species when dry. It difters from >S. Calceolare in the 
entire smooth lip. 

5. ^f^/o<^urus, n. sp. Stems short 1 to 2 inches long crowded to- 
gether and forming a dense mat with copious roots. 
Leaves lanceolate falcate subacute 3 inches long ^ inch 
wide, sheaths ^ inch long. Scapes slender 3 inches long 
scabred at the base, racemes thickened 1 inch long, bracts 
ovate very numerous blunt. Flowers minute. Sepals lan- 
ceolate oblong falcate. Petals narrower, lip side lobes 
oblong erect, midlobe ovate lanceolate shorter, spur 
pendulous as long as the ovary. Column short and broad. 
Capsule cylindric J inch long, pedicel ^ inch long. 
Pahano: at Kwala Tern bi ling. 
A very curious plant, with the habit, foliage and ra- 

.lour. Straits Branch 


cemes of a Dendrocolla, but the verv minute flowers have 
the structure of a Saccolabium. 

Ascovhilus teres, n. sp. Stem 6 inches or more tall slender. 
Leaves terete acute 4^ inches long ^ inch thick, sheaths 
I inch long ribbed and transversely wrinkled. Raceme 
slender 4 inches long. Flowers few scattered i inch 
across. Bracts very small ovate, ovary and pedicel | 
inch long. Upper sepal oblanceolate hooded; laterals 
oblong ovate oblique much larger. Petals broadly 
spathulate oblijjue shorter. Lip side lobes erect lan- 
ceate falcate, midlobe hastate, basal lobes rounded apex 
subacute spur half the length curved obtuse. Column 
as long as its foot nearly as long as the petals, arms 
short and broad. 

Johor, Bukit Banang, Batu Pahat, (Ridley). 

The habit of this is just that of a Luisia or one of 
the Saccolabiunis and not at all like the rest of this genus. . 

.1 mi nuti flora, n. sp. Stem very short, leaves linear lanceolate 
falcate acute, 3 inches long, ^ inch wide or less, sheaths 
very short. Scape very slender an inch long pubescent ; 
raceme very short. Bracts cucullate ovate. Flowers ^ 
inch across. Upper sepal lorate oblong laterals lanceo- 
late, all keeled, yellow with red spots. Petals obcune- 
ate yellow with a red spot at the base. Lip side lobes 
large oblong truncate, midlobe very short truncate 
entire spur short blunt rather thick saccate scrotiform 
obtuse. Column tall curved slender foot hardly as long. 
Anther long beaked. 

Pahang, Kwala Tembiling. 

Sarcochilus vtrescens, n. sp. Stem very short; Leaves lanceolate 
subacute 1 J inch long \ inch wide or less. Raceme an 
inch long. Bracts ovate, flowers an inch across. 
Sepals ovate acute. Petals narrower lanceolate. All 
light green. Lip very short white, side lobes short 
rounded, midlobe represented by an orangfe callus, spur 
short broad conic, column short and thick, foot as long 
curved. Anther orange beak triangular. 

K. A. Soc, No. 39, 19U3. 


Perak at Tapah. Collected by Mr. Aeria, flowered 
in the Botanic (iardens in Penang. 

PudodiiUis densifvUa, Stems over a foot long covered with close- 
set distichous leaves oblong obtuse, bases broad, an inch 
long \ inch broad, sheaths \ inch long. Racemes 2 terminal 
an inch long densely flowered to the base, rachis stout, 
bracts ovate reflexed. Flowers J inch long, white. 
Sepals ovate obtuse u.entum rather long. Petals ovate 
but little smaller. Lip ovate acute fleshy, an irregular 
fleshy callus in the middle with a thickened ridge run- 
liintr to the tip. Column short. Kostellum long deeply 
biHd acuininate. Anther lariceolate subacute. 

]'ahan}<, Tahan River, (No. 2870). 

This plant has the inflorescence of one of the P. pen- 
ilu 'us section, and indeed has been referred to that species^ 
but the tiowers are ({uite different and the callus on the 
lip is rather that of I\ cuniutus, 

Ztiuj-ine rupesfrts, n. sp. Whole plant G to 8 inche^s tall slender, 
leaves few lanceolate narrow blunt J to f inch long ^ inch 
wide, scape slender pubescent. Flowers 2 terminal ^ 
inch lon^ white. Sepals ovate hniry, petals adnate to 
the upper sepal. Lip base saccate with 2 linear subulate 
processes inside, limb clawed with a terete minutely 
toothed claw hlade bifid lobes oblong, truncate. Column 
short rostellum lobes linear blunt incurved. Capsule-s 
erect ^ inch long. 

Penang on rocks at the top of Government Hill on the 
way to Richmond pool, (Curtis 2823). A very slender 
little white-iiowered thing remarkable for the long narrow 
claw of the lip which thus more resembles that of an 

Cioodffera hitceolata, n sp. Stem slender D inches tall. Leaves 
lanceolate acuminate \\ xvch long nearly J inch wide. 
Scape *^\ inches long pubescent few fiowered. Bracts 
lanceolate accinninate jj inch long woolly pubescent. 
Laterals oblique acuminate woolly pubescent reddish. 
Petals adnate to upper sepal thin glabrous reddish. 

Jour. Struits Bronch 


Lip base saccate adnate to the column by the edges 
glabrous within with a raised central keel and a tuft 
of digitate processes on each side. Apex of lip acuminate 
subulate column short. Anther very long acuminate. 
Poilinia ^ inch long clubbed with a pair of caudicles. 
Caudicles connate about half way down. Rostellum long 
shortly bitid, lobes acute, stigma large with thin walls. 

Selangor at the Gap on the Pahang track, (Curtis). A 
single specimen only was fouud. The plant is allied to 
O, t'ubens, BL, G. cordata^ Hook. fil. 

Hetoeria parvtfolia, n. sp. A slender plant of exactly the habit of 
Zeuxine clamUstina Bl. Stem 2 inches long, leaves small 
lanceolate accute nearly sessile 1 inch long \ inch wide, 
sheaths \ inch long ampliate, scape slender pubescent 
5 or 6 inches tall with several rather long distant 
acuminate sheaths, liaceme 2 inches long. Flowers 
very small J inch long appressed to the stem. Bracts 
narrow lanceolate acuminate nearly as long as the 
ovary, upper sepal adnate to petals ovate acuminate 
pubescent, laterals lanceolate acute. Lip base saccate 
• with minute cylindric processes inside ; apex lanceolate 
acute, sides at tip involute forming a tube not longer 
than the sepals. Column short dilated above. Rostel- 
lum arms nearly as long linear truncate. Anther with 
a long narrow beak. 

Penang, Government Hill. I collected this plant at 
the same time as Mr. Curtis and myself got Zeuxine ru- 

It. A. 5m)C.. No. o», llOJ 

Descriptions of New Genera and Species 

of Hymenoptera taken by Mr. Robert 

Shelford at Sarawak, Borneo. 

By P. Cameron. 

This paper is a continuation of one describing the new 
genera and species contained in the Sarawak Museum and those 
captured by Mr. JShelford at Sarawak, published in the Journal 
of this Society, No. 37, January 11)02. 


Xiphijdria erythropus^ sp. nov. 

Black, the scape of the antennie and the legs dark red. the 
wings dark fuscous- violaceous, the nervures and stigma black, 
the head and thorax closely rugosely punctured, the greater 
part of the vertex and the upper half of the front broadly ; 
in the middle smooth and shinning, ^ . 

Length IG mm. 

Hab. Matang, 3600 feet. 

Front coarsely rugosely punctured, the punctures running 
into reticulations in parts; its centre is furrowed ; the furrow is 
punctured on either side, the punctured baud becoming wider 
towards the apex. On the smooth part of the vertex, at the 
apex, is a deep transverse furrow ; behind, in the centre, is a 
narrower, shallower longitudinal furrow. Face irregularly 
longitudinally striated ; the clypeus is piceous ; its apex is broad- 
ly roundly incised. Mandibles opaque, sparsely punctured ; 
their teeth are smooth and shining, large and broadly rounded. 
Thorax coarsely rugosely punctured : the pleurje more coarsely 
than the mesonoti m and more or le^s reticulated ; the propleune 
smooths and with the central depression bearing some stout 
keels. The central lobe of the mescnotum has a deep furrow in 
the centre which is stoutly transversely striated ; on the apex in 
the centre are 4 longitudinal keels. The fore tarsi and the 

U. A. 8oc., No. 39 , 1003. 


apical joints of the posterior are black. Except on the inner 
sides and apices of the lobes the median segment is closely 
punctured ; the basal 4 segments are broadly furrowed across 
the base : these furrows are closely longitudinally striated. 

Xiphifdiia melanopus^ sp. nov. 

Black ; the wings fuscous violaceous : the head rugose, 
the vertex smooth, the thorax coarsely rugosely punctured and 
reticulated throughout ; the lateral and central furrows on the 
mesonotum wide, closely transversely striated, the lateral 
curved and becoming wider towards the apex, 9 • 

Length 17 mm. 

Hab. Matang. 

Mandibles at the base closely punctured and thickly cover- 
ed with white hair. Middle lobe of mesonotum coarsely ir- 
regularly reticulated ; the lateral lobes on the inner side less 
strongly and more irregularly reticulated, on the outer almost 
smooth ; the furrows become gradually wider towards the 
apex. Scutellum rugosely, coarsely punctured, except at the 
apex, which is smooth and shining ; it is longitudinally fur- 
rowed down the centre. Abdomen as in .Y. erythropus. 

Apart from the difference in colour this species may be 
known from en/thropus by the much wider, broader at the apex, 
more rounded and closely striated middle lobe of the mesono- 
tum, by the front having a large deep round depression and 
by the thorax being more strongly punctured, 


Monophadnus trichtocerus^ sp. nov. 

Black, shining; the clypeus, labrum, the apex of the 
femora, and the tibia.', the upper edge of the pronotum and the 
tegulse whitish-yellow; abdomen testaceous, darker towards 
the apex ; the wings from the transverse basal uervure fuscous- 
violaceous, the stigma and nervures black, 9 • 

Length 9 mm. 

llab. Matang. 

AntennnD short stout ; the basal joint testaceous, the 
apical joint rufous beneath ; they are ^thickly covered with 

Jour. Htraits Branch 


stiff black hair. Centre of vertex bordered by wide and deep 
furrows, in front by a narrow oblique one ; the front is deeply 
depressed, narrowly above, widely below. Apex of clypeus 
transverse. Ijabrum large, rounded in front. Mandibles pale 
yellow, rufous at the apex. The apical segments of the ab- 
domen are narrowly edged with black at the apex ; they are 
darker coloured than the basal and have a faint but distinct, 
violaceous tint. Legs covered with white hair ; the apex of 
the hinder tibise black. 

Sflandna iridipeitnis, sp. nov. 

Dark blue, the labrum, the coxa^, trochanters and the base 
of the tibiae broadly white ; the front wings fuscous, with a 
violaceous tint and highly iridescent ; the stigma and nervures 
black ; the hinder wings clear hyaline, 9 and <J . 

Length 9 mm. 

Uab. Kuching. 

Antennai thickly covered with stiff black hair. Front and 
vertex closely and distinctly punctured, the vertex not raised ; 
the lateral furrows shallow, indistinct ; on the centre of the 
front is a large wide fovea almost transverse in front, rounded 
behind, and having a smaller round fovea on either side. 
Clypeus closely and distinctly punctured. Labrum smooth. 
Base of mandibles closely punctured. Legs thickly covered 
with white hair ; the claws bifid. The 1st transverse cubital 
nervure is widely interrupted in the middle. 


Mesocynips^ gen. nov. 

Abdomen sessile, large, ovate, its ipiddle as wide as the 
thorax, its basal 4 segments of equal width, the apical 2 longer. 
Anteni a* stout, 13- jointed ; they are placed near the top of the 
head. Eyes ovate, widely separated from the base of the 
mandibles, the malar space being longer than their length. 
Clj'peus depressed, separated from the face, obliquely narrowed 
towards the apex, which is transverse. Mandibles stout, broad, 
bidentate, the teeth broadly rounded. Vertex stoutly, longi- 

K, A. Soc., No. 30, lUOa. 


tudinally keeled; the front being also bordered below by a 
stout keel. The apex of the pronotum is sharply keeled; 
this keel is continued down the middle of the propleurse ob- 
liquely, their apex being also keeled. Mesonotum and scutel- 
lum stoutly transversely striated. Scuteliar fovea large, 
deep and stoutly keeled in the middle. The metanotum is 
bordered laterally by a stout keel and outside this, on the 
pleura, is a stout curved, irregular keel. Radial cellule short, 
the radius curved not reachintr half way to the apex ; the 
areolet is small, elongate, narrow, closed below by a thick 
pseudo-nervure ; the cubitus reaches to the apex of the wing, 
it really issues from the radius, for a transverse cubital nervure 
can hardly be said to exist. The costal, median and submedian 
cellules are all distinct; the externo-median nervure is distinct, 
the discoidal nervure is distinct and reaches close to the apex 
of the wing, it is interstitial with the externo-median ner- 

The ovipositor is long and issues from the base of the 
abdomen, is straight and its sheaths are curved and project; 
the hypopygium is short and does not reach to the apex of the 
abdomen. Legs stout, pilose ; the front calcaria are curved, 
the basal joint of all the tarsi is much the longer ; the middle 
3 are small ; the apical large, but not (juite so long as the 
basal one ; the claws are large, curved, simple. 

This new genus will form a new subfamily of Cynxpidce, It 
has the form of Ci/uips but differs from that in the abdominal 
segments being of almost equal length, and in the straight, not 
curved, ovipositor. The subfamily llaliiiue may be known from 
it by the long, cultriform abdomen, which has, as in our sub- 
family, the segments about et^ual in length. It has the alar 
nervures better developed than in the other subfamilies and in 
that respect resembles Mesonjtjips, whose systematic position is 
probably between the Ibaliince and the Cynipince, 

A/esorynips insiynis^ sp. nov. 

Ferruginous-yellow% the yellow tint more noticeable on 
the sides ; the liagellum of the antenna? inf uscated, paler towards 
the apex ; the mesonotum and the basal half of the scutellum 

Jour. BtraitH Branch 


strongly, sharply transversely striated ; the wini^s dark smoky- 
fuscous ; the base to the transverse basal nervure and above to 
the base of the stigma bright yellow: the apical nervures fus- 
cous-black ; the basal bright yellow, 9 . 

Length 10 mm. 

Hab. Kuching. 

Head shining, sparsely punctured ; the middle of the face 
raised and more closely and distinctly punctured ; the face, 
front, vertex and occiput covered, but not thickly, with longish 
pale fuscous and white hairs. Apex of the mandibles broadly, 
deep black. Thorax Smooth and are shining ; the pro-and 
meso-sparsely, the meta thorax thickly covered with long pale 
hair. Centre of metanotum smooth ; the sides somewhat sha- 
greened. Abdomen shining; the back and apical segments cov- 
ered with long pale fuscous hairs; the penultimate segments 
punctured ; the la^t much more strongly and deeply punctured. 
Femora sparsely, the tibiie and tarsi thickly covered with pale 
hairs; the claws blackish. 

This species is probably identical with "(7//«i/?5" insignis. 
Smith, described, Proc. Linn. Soc. 1857, p. 117, from Sarawak. 
It is in no sense a Cfjuips in the modern meaning, and belongs to 
the parasitic branch of the family. To prevent the making of 
a synonym I have used Smith's name in case an examination of 
Smith's type would prove it to be identical with the species I 
have described. 

LeucoRpis ert/throgastra, sp. nov. 

Black, the ventral surface and apex of abdomen rufous 
mixed with yellow; a large broad mark on the inner orbits 
rounded at the top and bottom and roundly curved inwardly on 
the iimer side, a larjre somewhat heartshaped mark- narrow above 
incised below-below the antennae, a smaller, somewhat similar 
mark below it, a line, dilated at the sides, on the base of the 
pronotum, a slightly broader one, not reaching to the edges, on 
its apex, 2 oblicjue irregularly oval marks on the centre of the 
mesonotum, a longish, broad line on its sides, slightly incised on 
the innerside, the sides of the scutellum from near the base and 

U. A. Soc, No. 39, 1903. 



its apex more broadly, a large curved line on the post acutellam, 
a large mark on the mesopleurie narrowed and rounded below, 
its top at the base and apex — the apex more widely- — obliquely 
narrowed, the greater part of the Iwse of the metapleurse— the 
mark straight at the base, the apes rounded and its top part 
wider than the lower, a large curved — its top rounded— oblique 
mark on either side of the 1st abdominal segment, a broad traus- 
verse line on the 2nd, a targe curved one on the 3rd, which is 
dilated roundly backwards at tiie side and is then continued 
along the lower edges to the base of the segment. 2 small obliqua 
marks on the top of the 4th, yellow; the remaining segments 
and the ventral surface rufous, mixed slightly with yellow. Lega 
yellow, the fore-femor& broadly above, the middle broadly, ' 
irregularly at the base, a large curved mark on the outerside ] 
of the hinder-narrow at the top becoming gradually wider to- 1 
wards the bottom-the lower edge and the teeth, the hinder ] 
tibite broadly below on the inner and outer sides and their \ 
calcaria, deep black. Wings almost hyaline, the fore pair 
infuscated broadly In front, the nervures black. 

Length 1 1 mm. 9 

Hab. Kuching, 

Except the front, the entire head and body is strongly and 
closely punctured; ihe face and clypeus are more closely and 
finely punctured than the rest; the front above the antennae is 
smooth and shining; the sciitellar depressions are strongly, 
distinctly, but not very closely, striated ; the lower part of the 1 
pro- andme9opleuriedepressedandsmoothandshining,thiaparton ( 
the mesopleurie being obscurely linely striated around the edges. 
There are 7 teetli on the hinder femora : the basal one is short, I 
blunt and indistinct; the 2nd is not much longer, but more 
distinct and bruader; the middle 3 are very much larger, longer i 
and more widely separated; the 6tb is distinctly shorter than the \ 
5th : and the 7th is shorter and less distinct thau the 6th. The \ 
hinder torsi ai-e rufous: the 4 anterior dark yellow; the binder' 
coxw are rufous on the under side at the apex and have there b I 
yellow mark. The ovipositor reaches to the apex of thescutellum, 
Megneolm apicijKonia. sp. nov. 

Black, the tarsi dark rufo-testaceous ; the basal half of the \ 


win^s to the ulaa sai)ky-fu3CDUS, th3 \x\a\ fuscous, the cubitus 
black, the apex of the wings milky-white; the hinder fenora 
with 7 teeth; the ovipositor stout, two-thirds of the length of 
the body, 9 • 

Length to the commencement of the ovipositor 10 mm. ; the 
ovipositor nearly 4 mm. 

Hab. Kuchinjf. 

Head and thorax coarsely, closely rugosely puncture 1 ; the 
front is stoutly keeled down the middle and is stoutly trans- 
versely striated on eithei* side of the keel; the face is sparsely 
covered with gliste.iing white hair. The upper part of the 
propleurae is smooth and is depressed at the base, the lower is 
irregularly striated. The basal third of the mesopleursB is 
depressed and is irregularly, widely striated. The base of the 
pronotum is obliquely depressed and is irregularly transversely 
striated. The apex of the scutellum broadly projects in the 
middle and is there roundly incised. Median segment coarsely 
reticulated ; at the base on the sides is a large area roundly 
narrowed at the apex; between them are 3 aread of which the 
central is the larger, and it is widened at the apex ; on the sides 
of the segment is a large projection, wide at the base, roundly 
narrowed towards the apex ; the apex of the segment triangu- 
larly projects. The basal three teeth on the base of the femora 
are short, broad and bluntly rounded ; the others are more 
distinct; the apical two are closer to each other than the pair in 
front of them and are less prominent. 

Megacolus rufiventris^ «p. nov. 

Black; the abdomen bright rufous; the tarsi, four front 
knees and the apices of the 4 front tibise ruf o-testaceous ; the 
hinder femora with 6 irregularly separated not very prominent 
teeth; the wings hyaline, with a faint fulvous tinge; the 
nervures dark fuscous; the ovipositor black, very stout, as 
long as the abdomen, 9 . 

Length 9 ; ovipositor 4 mm. 

Hab. K uching. 

Head and thorax coarsely rugosely punctured; the pro- 
and mesopleur»3 closely reticulated; there is a smooth band at 

R. A. Soc, No. 39, 1903. 


the base of the latter which has on the upper part, 7 keels (the 
lower 3 separated from the upper) and below are 3 more widely 
separated lonofitiidinal keels. Front stoutly keeled down the 
centre and cl^soly transversely striated. Pronotum transversely 
striated at the base; on its apex is a smooth narrow band. The 
projectiiisr apex of the scutellum is prominent and ends in two 
rounded lobes. Metanotiim coarsely irregularly reticulated; its 
sides near the base, project into a stout, sharply pointed tooth 
and thi»re is a shorter one near the middle. On the apex of the 
basal third of the hinder femora is a short tooth somewhat 
triang-ular in shape, followed by an indistinct one at some dis- 
tance; following this, and separated by a less distance, is a 
sharper, longer ; more distinct one, at about the same distance 
from this is a stouter one, immediately behind this a short blunt 
indistinct tubercle- like one, followed on the apex by 2 stout 
keels of which the hinder is somewhat the larger. Tegulfe 
rufous. The head, thorax and legs are covered mth a silvery pile. 

Closely allied to Megacolus is the following new Indian 

Mf'fjachalcis, gen. no v. 

Antenna* place i over the base of the clypeus, ll-jointed, 
the 2nd joint cup shaped, the ord much longer and narrower 
than it. Scutellum large, roundly convex, its apex transverse. 
The sides of the metanotum project at the base above and 
have a stout tooth in the middle. The base of the mesoster- 
num has a stout tooth in the centre; the for ecox«B have a 
rounded leaf-like expansion on the apex above. Hind femora 
retrularly toothed. lUsal abdominal segment longer than all 
the others united ; spiracles on the :kd large; the last large, 
elongate and forming a sheath for the ovipositor, which is stout 
and twice the length of the abdomen. 

The occiput is mari^ined, more sharply above than on the 
sides. liase of metanotum areulited. Five segments are on 
the abdomcMi hs seen from the side, but only four from above. 
Sheaths of ovip )sit()r stout, brofil, puljescent and round on the 
apex. Hinder roxjv» nearly as long as the femora. Pronotum 
large, roundly produced in the middle at the base. 

Jour, straits Branch 


Comes nearest to Megwjolft^, Kirby, which differd from it in 
havinif the anteanaB 12 -jointed and in the scutellum ending in 
a raised, bilobate plate behind. Ihe 1st abdominal segment is, 
ill Megacolus, half the length of the remainder. 

Afegachalcis fttmipennisy sp. nov. 

Black ; the 4 front tarsi and the hinder tibiae piceous, the 
hinder tibiae ferrugineous; the wings smoky, the nervures deep 
black ; hinder femora with 10 teeth of nearly equal size, 9 • 

Length 12; terebra 10 mm. 

Uab. Khasia (coll. Kothney). 

Scape of antennas, head, median segment and sides of ab- 
domen thickly covered with silvery pubescence; the tarsi on 
the underside are thickly covered with stiff pubescence and 
bear, on the apices of the joints, stiff spines. Sides of the head 
in front coarsely rugosely punctured, the punctures running 
into reticulations; the vertex closely punctured; the outer 
orbits bear shallow, scattered punctures. Apex of clypeus 
roundly, but not deeply, incised ; the part between the antennae 
taised, transverse below. Pro- and mesonotum rugosely punc- 
rured, the punctures running into reticulations. The scutel- 
lum is more widely reticulated; it is flat above; at its base, 
laterally, the mesonotum forms two larre rounded masses, op- 
posite the tegulae. The base of the median segment is fiat, 
smooth ; on the middle are five stout, longitudinal keels ; the 
outer side is deeply foveate. The apex of the segment h'is on 
the top a large, deep, fovea, rounded behind, transverse below ; 
below this are 2 or 3 irregular reticulations ; the sides project 
largely and have, shortly beyond the middle, a large, some- triangular tooth. Propleurae irregularly reticulated ite- 
hind ; the apex below and the lower part depressed, the meso- 
pleurae deeply and widely depressed, smooth, obscurely and 
tineiy striated in the middle. Metapleune regularly reticulated. 
Abdomen smooth nnd shining at the base, the 2nd segment 
broadly in the middle and the others entirely and more strongly 

Epistema loiigicollis, sp. nov. 

Purple mixed with green and blue; the fiagellum of the 

B. A. Soc , Na 89, 1903. 



antennn; black, tlie -1 anterior trochanters, femora, tJUiB an^j 
tarsi, the hinder trochanters, base of femora, apex of tibiie bdiII 
base of tArai narrowl;, rufous; the Qavellnm of the antemm'a 
black, the acape for the greater part green ; the wings hyaline,! 
the nervures and stigma dark fuscous. 9 ■ 

Length 12 mm.; ovipositor 2 mm. 

Ilab. E aching. 

The clypeus and the basal half of the mandibles are dart! 

rufous, the Utter covered with longiah hair. Face and fronft] 
for the greater part golden; the face covered with curved 
atriro, which are 6uer and closer on the inner half of the inaUr 
space, the latter being clearly separated from the outer part, 
which is minutely and finely striated. The front is rugose 
between and alxive the anteniue ; this central part is wedge- 
sfaaped and bounded by the- wide antennal furrows ; the part 
between this and the scape is blue and Guely transversely Striat- 
ed. Proriotum broadly depressed in the centre ; the sides 
broadly rounded and linely and closely transversely striated; 
the pleurte are finely and closely covered with curved aCrisa. 
The middle lube of the mesonotum irregularly transversely 
striuted; its base is dark blue; behind this is a green band; 
the rest is dark purple, except for a green band at the teguira; 
the apex of the middle lobe is transversely striated, except ruuad 
the edges ; in the centre are two curved, deep furrows. Eicutel- 
lum somewhat strongly and closely longitudinally striated; it 
is dark purple, with a blue band on the ^m. Median segment 
greei] ; the centre purple ; this purple part is narrow at the 
base and becomes gradually and roundly wider towards the 
apex ; it bears 4 or 5 stout, irregularly curved keels ; the parts 
bounding this are stoutly striated and are raised above the 
sides, whijh are finely and closely rugose. Mesopleura 
for the greater part green, finely, closely and irregularly 
striated: the lower port is clearly separated off and is 
closely irregularly reticuUied, except at the base which is rais- 
ed and finely and closely punctured. The base of the meta- 
pleurie is almost smooth aliove ; below covered with tine curved 
strise; above is a deep, distinct curved crenulated furrow, 
Abdomen durk purple the biual five segments, above and below. 
with narrow, longish rounded green lines on the outer edges. 

jKnr HtmlMBni 



The fore coatw are fur the gi-enU-t port purple ; Ihe fore letucim 
have a large green mark on the top ; the apices of the 4 front 
femora are pater than the rest of them : the 4 hinder tarsi are 
dark testaceous. 

E. imperiads, Sm., from Sarawak may be koown from this 
by the ovipoaitor being two-thirds of the length of the abdo- 
men and by the legs being black. In our species the anterior 
ocellus is Urger than the two posterior and is placed in front 
tif them about double the distance these are separated from 
each other ; the ocellar re>(ion is an elongated oval and is clearly 
separated from the eyes ; the vert«x behind them is depressed. 
The protborax is long, two-thirds of the length of the meso- 
thorax ; the head is almost double ita width ; the metathoras is 
fully half the length of the scutellum; the incision on the apei 
of Uie 3rd dorsal segment is better marked than it is on the 
basjil two. 

Evnnia iiialnijaiia, sp. nov. 

Black; the palp white; the wings hyaline iridescent, the 
nervures and stigma black ; the mandibles with a testaceous 
band behiud the teeth ; the face with s small raised point in 
the centre. J . 

Length 11 mm. 

Hab. Kuching. 

Face, clypeus and mandibles thickly covered with white 
pubescence, smooth and shining. Front irregularly striated ; the 
strife more or less intersecting and forming narrow elongated, 
irregular reticulations; in the centre is a moderately stout long- 
itudinal keel. Hinder ocelli separated from each other by not 
quite half the distance they are from the eyes. Malar space 
closely and Gnely striat«d, the striie ol-liquely curved. The 
central lobe of the mesonotum bears shallow, irregular punc* 
tures; the scutellum is lessdistlnctly and more finely punctured; 
metauotu-n closely rtfliculated ; in the centre the reticulations 
are closer, longer and narrower ; laterally larger and rounder. 
At the apex the propleurte bear some shallow elongated fovetie ; 
near the bottom the meso- bear a broad, somewhat oblique band 
of punctures ; the meta- closely and almost uniformly reticulated. 

R. A. Sac.. Na. W. l«oa. 


The metasternal keel is sharply raised ; the fork is stout, short 
and broad, the sides straii^ht, the apex bluntly rounded. The 
2nd transverse cubital nervure is obsolete ; the cubitus distinct ; 
the lower part of the apical abscissa is rounded : the upper 
straight and oblique. The petiole above between the middle 
and apex, is irrejTular'y longitu lin illy striated; the sides more 
stoutly obliquely striated. Tibiae and tarsi thickly covered with 
short stiff black pubescence and more sparsely with short black 
spiues ; the calcaria are black ; the front tibiae and base of tarsi 
are pale testaceous in front. 

Evania violaceipemns, sp. no v. 

Black ; the scape and the basal joints of the fla^^ellum 
beneath, the mandiuleS, except the teeth and the 4 anterior 
femora and tibiae in front, pale testaceous ; the posterior tarsi 
except the apical joint, white; the-wings uniformly dark viola- 
ceous ; the nervures and stigma black. 9 • 

Length 11-12 mm. 

Hab. Kuching. 

Face and civ pens opaque, alutaceous : the apex of the cly- 
peus rounded; the malar space alutaceous; they are all thickly 
covered with silvery pubescence. Front longitudinally striated 
throughout; the striae all distinctly separated; the central is 
the stouter. The hinder ocelli are separated from the eyes by 
almost double the distance they are from each other. The 
middle lobe of the mesonotum is indistinctly, irregularly reticu- 
lated. The part at the sides of the scutellum behind is stoutly, 
obliquely striated. The metanotum is closely, rather strongly, 
irregularly punctured, except at the apex which is smooth. 
Propleurae almost entirely smooth ; tlie meso- smooth, indistinctly 
punctuied below, above with a raised, slightly oblique, band of 
stout striae; the meta- are stoutly, regularly reticulated. The 
tibiae are thickly covered with stiff black hair and sparsely with 
black spines. The apical abscissa of the radius is roundly, 
broadly curved inwardly ; the first recurrent nervure is receiv- 
ed distinctly beyond the transverse cubital; the 2nd trans- 
verse cubital nervure is obsolete. The sternal keel is stout; 
the metasternal process is stout, the forks diverge outwardly. 

Jour. Straits Brairh 


are stout, roundly curved and bluntly pointed at the apex. 
Petiole smooth above ; its apical half laterally stoutly, obliquely 

Foenatopus Juscinervis, sp. nov. 

Black : the head dark red ; the vertex blackish; the basal 
joints of the antennae pale rufous; the wings clear hyaline; the 
nerviires and stigma pale fuscous; the abdominal petiole twice 
the length of the following joints united; the prothorax twice 
the length of the mesothorax, ^ . 

Length 13 mm. 

I lab. Kuchinor. 

The scape of the antennae is not much longer than the 2nd 
joint, which is slightly more than one half the length of the Srd; 
the 4th is as long as the 2nd and 3rd united. The apical three 
frontal tubercles are stout, narrowed, but not sharply, above; 
the hinder pair are smaller and more rounded. Face closely 
rugosely punctured ; its sides finely and closely transversely 
striated. Vertex clos ly, distinctly tratisversely striated and 
indistinctly furrowed down the middle, the furrow not breaking 
the strise. Ihe inner orbits are distinctly margined; the outer 
are pnle yellowish. Prothorax closely and rather strongly 
aciculated, except at the apex which is testaceous in colour; 
there is a curved, not very stout keel on Ihe apex ; a stout keel 
runs between the tegulse; the middle of the mesonotum is deeply 
depressed, the depression with some transverse strice, and it is 
rounded at the base and apex. The base of the metanotum is 
widely depressed ; in the centre are 2 stout straight keels ; out- 
side these is a thinner one ; outside these a stouter oblique one 
and the edges are also keeled. Ihe rest of the segment is 
stoutly reticulated, except the lower part of the metapleurse, 
which is smooth, except for 4 stout, slightly oblique keels. 
Mesopleurae sparsely punctured at the base and apex. Petiole 
very long and slender, closely striated ; the sides, except on the 
apical fourth, furrowed ; the sides of the 2nd and 8rd segments 
aie testaceous. The alar stigma is long, nearly as long as the 
radial nervure ; it is pale in the centre, pobted at the apex from 

R. A. Soc., No. 39, 190S. 



where the radius leaves it ; the radius bas the basal abscissa 
oblique and curved; the apic«l is straight and is about one 
fourth longer than it. The i anterior co.xffi. trochanters, titnse 
and tarsi are testaceous: the bnsal half of the hioder femora is 
coarsely rugosely striated ; there ia a blunt, broad, not promin- 
ent, tooth behind the middle of the binder feraoia ; a stout one 
beyond the middle, a smaller one nearer the apex and 3 short 
teeth between these which are fuscous below. 


s Ctfilon 

\. sp. nov. 

[Hlack, a pule spot below the eyes : the 4 front legs piceous; 
the wings clear hyaline; the nervures and stigma black; the | 
petiole aa long as the rest of the abdomen united; the hinder ] 
femora with 2 teeth: the ovipositor broadly white at the 
apes. V . 

I*eng:th 28 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon. (Yerbury). 

Antennte black; the Sod joint of the Hagellum is distinctly i 
shorter than the Srd, which is slightly shorter than the 4th. 1 
Vertex uloaely covered with stout, cur\-ed strite, which are i 
stouter and more regularly curved before than behind; the 3 
front teeth are stout and of nearly ei^nal size, the hinder are 
almost obsolete. Face irregularly transversely rugftse; above 
the punctures run into curved striie. The narrowed basal pert 
of the pronotum is closely, stoutly, transversely striated, but 
only sparsely at the extreme base; at the end of this is an ] 
impunctate space. theapex haa a band of lar^e deep punctures 
in the middle; the sides have some scattered, deep punctures. 
Scutellum impunctate. The depression at the base of the I 
metanotum bears stout longiludmal keels: the part behind this . 
is covered with round clearly (separated punctures ; the apex is 1 
irregularly, transversely reticulated. Propleiirre covered with 
stout, oblique striie; the meso- almost impunctate; the meta- 
Bmnoth, below with stout curved strim, which form almost 
reticulations. Petiole closely striated. There iire 2 large, 
widely separated teeth on the hinder femora, the binder beine 
slightly the larger; there ia a short, broad, bluntly rounded i 
tooth, immediately behind the posterior large one : and this ia | 
followed by a much smaller one. 


The wings have a steel-coloured iridescence ; all the ner- 
vures are complete ; the basal abscissa of the radius is distinct- 
ly shorter thnn the apical ; it is straight, not curved, and is 
slightly angled near the base. The ovipositor and abdomen 
appear to be stouter than usual ; the former is as long as the 

In Schletterer's arrangement (Berl. Ent. Zeits. xxxiii, 117) 
this species would come near S, hcetnatipoda, Mont.] 


Iphiaulax^ Foerster. 

i. — Wings fuscow, the head, more or less of the thorax, and the 
fore legs, red. 

Iphiaulax Shelfordi, sp. nov. 

Black, shining, the head, pro- and mesothorax, the front legs 
and the middle coxsb, trochanters and femora, red : the 1st, 2nd 
and basal half of the 3rd abdominal segments strongly longitudi- 
nally striated ; the wings fuscous, the under side of the stigma, 
the upper half of the 1st cubital and the base of the radial cellule 
to the end of the stigma, orange-yellow. 9 . 

Length 15 mm.; terebra 95 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, February. 

Antennae black, shorter than the body ; the scape 3 times 
longer than broad, of equal width throughout ; the 3rd about 
one-third longer than the fourth. Front of vertex smooth and 
shining, their sides sparsely haired. Face strongly punctured, 
except in the centre above the clypeus, where it is depressed. 
Clypeus smooth, bare, except at the apex, twice broader than 
high, its sides above broadly rounded. Mandibles rufous, 
black at the apex, the middle closely and finely striated. 
Metanotum covered with black hair; its apical slope rather 
strongly longitudinally striated. The raised apical part of the 
petiole v? depressed and smooth in the middle; the sides 
are stoutly, irregularly striated; the apical half of the 
lateral depression is stoutly transversely striated. The 2nd seg- 
ment is closely, strongly longitudinally striated except on the 

K. A. Soc. No. W. 190$ 



basal iBteral depressions and in the centre Bt the apes ; the basal 
urea is finely and closely' loifiitudinally striated ; it is twice I 
longer thim its greatest n idlh and becuiiies pradnally narrowed 
towards the base and apex, the apital part being wlmost twite 
the length ur ihe bsgnl. Hadiul cellule lim^ and nBrri>w:tbe 
2nd cubital 18, on the lower side, nearly S times the length of 
the first and is distinctly longer than the 3rd. There is a an all i 
fiilvoue cloud on the base of the fore wing (in the apical side. The I 
ovipositor has the sheath thickly haired at the kase and has a 
broad white band near the apex. 

The legs are only shortly and sparsely haired; the ptirap- , 
sidal furrows are deep; the scutellar depression is shallow and 
irregularly striated ; the hypopygiuni is large and projects be- 
yond the cerci and is brownish in colour. 

Comes near to /. j'»*i;/ni>, Sm. sec. Szepligeti Term^sz. Fuze- 
tek. sxiv, 372, bul that species is larger (20 mm.) and has the ] 
ovipositor shorter compared with the body; has the 3rd and J 
4th seguieiits striated, the 3rd antennnl joint hardly longer ] 
thai) the Jth, the scape oiily twice longer than broad, etc. 

IpliiiiuUij- Kadiii'gitiisU, sp, iiuv. 

Length 12 mat.; terehra 45 mm. 

Hab. Euching, February. 

Agrees in colouration with /. tihrlfoidi but is smaller, more i 
slenderly built and has the ovipositor shorter compared with 1 
the body, Ihe radial cellule is not fulvous on the basal part, the 
apex of the jietiole is not distinctly transverKely striated; 
central apical part is more strongly and distinctly longitudinally J 
striated ; the area on the I ese of the 2nd segment is Dot so j 
distinctly defined and is coi tinned as a keel to near the apex of I 
the sepnient, there being no keel en Shfifoidi ; there are or 
two lateral obli()ne keels bordering and limiting ihe basal half 1 
of the segment ; and the apical two-lhirds of the ovipositor are 1 

fcape of antennEe cylindrical, not hollowed, becoming gra- 
dually wider towards the apex; its length about twice of the I 
width at the apes. Face, except immediately over the centre of 1 
the rlyppui', closely and coarsely puncltired and covered with T 


stiff black hairs ; the clypeus smooth, except on the apex, where 
there is band of black hair ; above it is broadly rounded and 
has a distinct margin. Mandibles black at the apex; the base 
bare, the middle covered with long hair. Metanotum thickly 
covered with long black hair; on the apex in the middle are 
some irregular striae. On the apex of the petiole are 3 irregu- 
lar longitudinal keels, with one or two small ones ; the 2nd 
segment is strongly striated ; the striie are mostly oblique and 
curved; the central keel is bordered by short round ones; the 
basal half of the 3rd segment is strongly, longitudinally straits 
ed ; the remaining segments smooth. The fore legs are rufou- 
like the thorax ; the middle femora and base of tibiae of a darker 
rufous colour. The stigma is rufous below; there is an obscure 
fulvous cloud in the 1st cubital cellule ; the 2nd cubital cell- 
ule is shortly, but distinctly longer than the 3rd. 

fphiaulax reticulatiig, sp. nov. 

Black, head, pro- and me^othorax and the anterior legs 
rufous ; the scape below and a line on the middle femora dark 
rufous ; the wings dark fuscous; the basal 4 abdominal segments 
closely longitudinally striated ; the basal plate on the 2nd seg- 
ment large, its length the width of the base, smooth ; the apex 
obscurely finely striated ; the keel extends to the apex ; the 
raised part on either side of it is coarsely reticulated : the sides 
of the apex are more closely reticulated ; at the base and middle 
coarsely obliquely striated. 9 • 

Length 18; terebra 21 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, February. 

Scape of antennae long, as long as the 4 following joints 
united ; the 3rd joint is not much longer than the 4th. Head 
smooth and shining, the face coveredwith black hair; the clypeus 
shagreened, projecting, rounded behind. Front not depressed, 
a deep furrow with wide oblique sides above. Mandibles rufous, 
their teeth black. Middle lobe of mesonotum distinctly 
raised and separated from the lateral ; its base bluntly round- 
ed. There is an elongated fovea on the apex of the 
metanotum, bounded by a V-shaped keel below. Tibiae and 
tarsi covered with moderately long hair. The raised part of the 

R. A. Soc, No. U9, IWK:. 



petiole has a keel id the centre : it is raided and rounded at the 
base and does not extend to the apex ; the apical half, on either 
side of it, 13 irreguUrly reticulated; second segment stoutly 
irregularly reticulated : the depression is stoutly, closely oblique- 
ly striated ; the raised outer apical part is closely rugose 
and with some stritu. The 3rd and 4th segments are close, uni- 
formly longitudinally striated. Wings, except for a UHrrow 
oblique cloud at the base and one below the 1st cubital cellule, 
dark fuscous, with a. alight violaceous tinge ; the 2Dd cubital 
cellule above is slightly longer, below a little shorter than 
the 3rd. 

Ip/ilatiUu: patrovi, sp. nov. 

Black : the scape of antennee, head, thorax and forelegs 
ferruginous, the middle femora piceous ; the wings f uscoua ; the 
2nd 3rd and 4th abdominal aegmenta closely longitudinally 
striated; the 2ud segment reticulated in the middle, the keel 
broad, extending to the apex ; the dilated basal part broad at 
the base, becoming gradually narrowed to near the middle of 
the segment: its base smooth, the rest closely covered with 
twisted longitudinal strife. Sheath of ovipositor densely pilose, 
broad; the apical third white; it is twice the length of the 
body. 9. 

Length 13 mtn. 

Scape of antennu long, of equal width, longer than the 2Dd 
and 3rd joints united ; the 3rd joint shortly, but distinctly, long- 
er than the 4th. Face closely and distinctly punctured, except in 
the middle, which is raised and smooth. Clypeus punctured 
below : it becomes obliquely narrowed towards the top which 
is transverse and is not dilated like the lower part. The ocellar 
region and the middle of the front depressed ; the vertex sparse- 
ly covered with long hair. The raised part of the petiole is 
smooth and depressed at the base and has a shallow furrow in 
the middle ; the apex has a keel down the middle and bears some 
stout, mostly transverse, keels. The lateral depression OD the 
base of the 2nd segment is large, irregularly striated in the 
middle, narrowed at the base and with a large fovea at the base 
and on either side at the apex ; the base uf the 3rd segment is 
smooth laterally at the base and depressed there especially at 





tfae sides ; the middle of the segment is depressed and atriat«d. 
1'he 4tfa segment bas a lctru;e, smooth depression on the base at 
the sides. The leg^s are covered with black hair, which is long- 
est on the pnatcrior pair. Tlie ?iid cubital cellule is slightly 
shorter thdD the 3rd. 

This species Is closely related to the species 1 have, with 
some doubt identified as B. Juveatut, Sm, This agrees with it in 
colouration, but is larger and more stoutly buiit (16 mm.) : the 
2nd cubital cellule on the top is equal in length to the 3rd; the 
apex of the petiole is not stoutly, irregularly transversely 
striated; the lateral depressions on the 2nd, 3rd and +th segments 
are larger and deeper, the keel on the 2nd segment is more dis- 
tinctly defined and the longitudinal striatjon on the abdomen 
is stronger. 

Iphiaulax laareotit, sp. nov, 

Black, the head, pro- and mesothorax and the lower half ot' 
the metapleurre ferruginous ; the anterior legs, the middle coxfe, 
trochanters and femora rufous, the middle tibiie dark rufous ; 
the wiiigg dark fu8couf>, the stigma and nervurus black ; the 1st 
and 2nd abdominal segments, the greater part of the 3rd and 
the 4tb and 5th broadly in the middle longitudinally rugose; 
the furrows on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th segments are crenulated ; 
the keel on the 2nd segment estends to the apex ; the plate is 
longish and is stoutly longitudinally striated. 5- 

Length 15 mm. 

Uab. Lingga. 

Face thickly covered with longhair; ita centre bare, smooth 
and shining; it* lower sides have a yellowish tint. Front deeply 
escavated laterally ; the binder ocelli each bordered by a deep 
curved furrow behind. Clypeus transverse in the middleHtove, 
its sides rounded. Metanotum ihickly covered with black hair. 
The petiole is more roundly convex than usual; the sides of the 
2Dd segment are not depressed at the base ; the 3rd to 6th seg- 
meut have a large roundish fovea en the sides near the middle, 
the fovefe becoming successively smaller. There is a faint 
curved cloud in the 1st cubital cellule at the base and a clearer, 
smaller pyriform one tielow the lower part of the lat transverse 
cubital nervure; the 2nd abscissa of Ihe radius Is slightly, but 
distinctly, longer than the 3rd. 



Ip/iiaul'ix Wall-Kti, sp. nov, 

Btack, the bend, scape of antennFo, thorax and 4 front l^ga, 
ferru^ini-ius ; ibe winjrs uniformly dark fuscous, tti? face with 2 
deep short furrows in the centre immediately below the anten- 
heb; the peiiole with a nairow longitudinal keel down the 
centre, almost entirely smooth ; the ind and the basal half of 
the 3rd segment closely longitudinally striated ; the keel is broad , 
at the bnse, becomes gradually narrowed to the middle, is close- 
ly longitudinally striated and extends to the apex of the seg- | 
ment. The suturiforra articulation is deep, closely longitudinally ' 
striated and with both lateral branches deep, narrow, straight, 
oblique and striated. Sheaths i f the ovipositor broad and thick- 
ly covered with lon^ish black hair. 9 ■ 

Length 15 mm,: terebra 18 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, 

Antennti^ originating from prominent, almost biartioulate, J 
tubercles; ihe scape longer tfaau the 2nd and 3rd joinb> united; 
the 3rd and 4th joints are equal in length. Front hardly exca- 
vated ; there is a narrow keel between the antenna; ; the raised | 
part, separating thefurrows below iheantennie. becomes gradu- 
ally narrowed above. Face in the centre smooth, the sides punc- 
tured sparsely and pilose. Clypeus depressed; the t«p trans- 1 
verae, the aides romded. There is a short stout keel between | 
the scutellum and post acutelhini. Petiole with an irregular ' 
band of line striiu iefore the middle. The depressions on the 
base of the 2nd segment are narrow, deep, oblique. The furrow 
on the 3rd segment is smooth. The hinder tibia- are deeply 
grooved on the outer side from near the bise to near the apex. 

The 2nd abscissa of the radius Is as long as the third; the 
apex of the middle tibite and their tarsi are blackish ; the meta- 
notum is broadly blackish ; the bypopygium does not extend 1 
beyond the apex of the dorsal segment ; the 2nd segment ia I 
square and ia longer than the 3rd. 1 

This is a broader and stouter insect than any of the other 
species here described. 

lylii'iuUi^. sijleiia, sp, nov. 

Black, the head, pro- and mesothorax and the front coxea, ] 
trochanters, femora and tihiip, rufous: the wmgs dark fuscous; I 


the apex of the petiole with a stout keel down the centre and 2 
or 3 oblique lateral ones ; the area on the 2nd segment extends 
to the middle, becomes gradually narrowed, has raised sides 
and is irregularly striated; the part bordering it irregularly, 
stoutly reticulate! ; the 2nd, 3rd and basal half of the 4th closely, 
longitudinally striated ; the ovipositor thickly pilose, the apical 
fourth white. ? . 

Length 11 mm.; terebra 14 ram. 

Hab. Kuching, February. 

Scape of antennsB about 3 times longer than broad ; the 3rd 
joint about one fourth longer than the 4th and about twice the 
length of the 2nd. Face raised in the centre, flat, impunctate, 
transverse below, rounded above ; the cheeks distinctly punc- 
tured. Clypeus raised, narrowed above ; its apex as long as its 
length from the top to the bottom. Palpi blackish. Front not 
deeply depressed, the depression not including the ocelli. Scu- 
tellar depression narrow, closely crenulated, the central part of 
the 2nd segment is stoutly, transversely irregularly reticulated 
on the inner side ; the outer and the apical parts longitudinally 
striated ; the base laterally is smooth, shining and is not depress- 
ed ; the outer sides are depressed and stoutly obliquely striated. 
The two transverse furrows are deep and closely striated ; the 
outer furrow on the 2nd segment is long, wide, distinct and 
closely striated ; that on the third is more curved and striated 
like the rest of the segment ; the basal part is smooth ; the 
curved furrow on the 4th is smaller, narrow, striated, the basal 
part being also striated. The 4th segment is closely striated 
to near the apex. 

This species is not unlike /. patrons, but that has the scape 
red ; the raised central part of the 2nd segment has its sides 
curved inwardly and is narrower at the apex, the lateral fove« 
are not distinctly bordered behind by furrows and the median 
segment is black. 

ii. — Head, more or less of the thorax and fore legs red, the wings 
fuscous, yellow at the base, 

Iphinulax sadyates, sp. no v. 

Black, the head, thorax and 4 anterior legs ferruginous ; the 
anterior wings yellowish, suffused with fuscous, the posterior 

R. A. Soc., No. 39, 1903. 


yellow, with the apical third and the lower two-thirds fuscous ;V 
the basal three segmeota of the abdomea coarsely longitudinally 1 
striftted ; the basal half of the four in tbe ceotre more liiiely, and 
the base of the 5th still more finely, striated ; the 4ih and 5th 
seg;menta with a crenukted curved furrow at the base, the plate 
OQ the base of the second segment is small, smooth and shiuing ; 
a narrow, indistinct keel leads from it to the centre. There is a 
cloud on the lower side of the lat cubital cellule, which is con- 
tinued downwards along the recurrent nervure on the upper 
half and along the cubital nervure; the 2nd abscissa of the | 
radius is longer than the Srd. 5 - 

Length IG mm. 

Hab. tiantubong, 2500 feet. 

Antennie longer than the body ; the face thickly covered 
with long hair ; the clypeus rounded above. The petiole is 
stoutly keeled in the middle ; the striffi on the si les are stout, 
irregularly curved and more or less broken. The sides are de- 

L preyed and irregularly striated ; the striu along the keel run into 
reticulations. The suturiform articulation and the keel on tlie 
third segment are stoutly longitudinally striated; that on the 
4tb is less strongly ; there are no apical transverse furrows. 
The scape of the antennie is rufous above; it is slightly 
more tJian twice longer than wide; the 3rd and 4^ joints are 
equal in length. 

Iphiaalax imripennit, sp. nov. 

Pale yellow, the back of the abdomen, the vertex, the 
middle of the front broadly, a mark, rounded on the top, in the 
centre of the face, the sides of the mesonotum and a large mark 
in its centre at the base, an irregular mark on the base of the 
metanotum, the mesosternum, a curved mark, narrowed behind, 
on the centre of the mesopleurn, two marks on the prosternum 
and the hinder legs, black. Wings with the basal half, the Ist 
cubital cellule and a narrow curved spot, dilated below, under- 
neath it, yellowish-hyaline; the rest of the wing dark fuscous, 
the hinder wings yellowish hyaline to beyond the middle, the 
apex dark fuscous, the band on the lower side extending to near 
the middle ; the basal half of the stigma is orange -yellow. ^ . 



Length 13 mm.; terebra 4 mm. 

Hab. Matong, aUOO feet. 

Antennm longer than the body, black ; the 2rd joint hardly' 
longer than the 4ch and twice the length of the 2nd ; the scape 
almut S times longer than wide and thickly pilose. Uead and 
thoras smooth and shining. The top of the petiole stoutly, ir- 
regularly and not very closely longitudinally striated ; its sides 
below piilo orange yellow ; the centre of the 2nd segment b 
stoutly irregularly longitudinally striated ; the 9 uturif or m arti- 
culation 19 crenulated in the middle ; the apical segments are 
narrowly banded with white on the apes. 

The ventral surface is marked l«t«rally with black spots; 
the abdomen b about twice the length of the thorax; the 2nd 
abscissa of the radius is shorter, but not much, than the 3rd, 

fphiaitliLc poiliim, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax ferruginous, the ocellar region black, the 
metanotum inf uscated ; the 4 front legs rufous-yellow; the 
wings to the stjgma yellowish hyaline, the rest fuscous, the 
base of the stigma yellow ; the hinder wings yellowish to the 
middle below, above beyond the middle; the greater part of 
the 2nd abdominal segment coarsely longitudinally striated; 
the 3rd less strongly and distinctly to near the apex ; the plate 
on the 2ud segment large, triangular, its heel slightly shorter 
than it; the part surrounding it depressed. 9 , 

Length !) mm ; terebra 7 mm, 

Hab, Kuching. 

Ant«nnfe black ; the scape triangularly projecting on the 
apex below; the 3rd joint, shortly but distinctly, longer than 
the 4th, front anJ vertex smooth and shining ; the face closely 
rugosely punctured; the clypeua depressed, almost smooth, 
rounled above, transverse below. The petiole behind the baaal 
slope is irregularly punctured ; iieiir the apex it is much more 
strongly and distinctly punctured : the band is prolonged in the 
mid<Jle and does not reach to the apex, which is smooth. The 
second segment is smooth in the middle at the apex ; the suturi- 
form articulation is crenulated; the furrows on the 3rd and 4th 
segments are also crenulated. but not strongly. The recurrent 

R. A. Soc. No. BS, I9W, 


nervure is not quite interstitial, being received shortly behind 
the transverse cubital. 

Iphiaulax hafcesuSf sp. nov. 

Ferruginous, the abdomen, antennse except at the base, 
and the hinder legs, black ; the fore wings to the transverse 
basal nervure, the 1st cubital cellule and an oblique spot on the 
upper edge of the 2nd cellule, yellowish-hyaline ; the petiole 
keeled in the centre ; the 2nd and 3rd cubital cellules closely 
longitudinally striated, the basal plate on the 2nd segment 
elongat^ed, the sides and centre keeled ; the keel extends to the 
apex of the segment. Face sparsely punctured ; there is a 
square depression below the antennae. Parapsidal furrows dis- 
tinct. Petiole broad, as lono^ as the 2nd segment : its lateral keels 
indistinct at the base. The keel bordering the lateral depres- 
sion on the 2nd segment is narrow, straight and oblique ; the 
part bordering it on the outerside is closely obliquely striated, 
the apical segments are narrowly lined with pale yellow. Legs 
moderately pilose; the middle tarsi infuscated. 

Length 16 mm.; terebra 17-18 mm. 

Uab. Kuching. 

Antennae shorter than the body; the basal two joints ob- 
scure rufous : the 3rd and 4th joints are about equal in length ; 
the 2nd abscissa of the radius is slightly shorter than the 3rd ; 
the transverse median nervure is not quite interstitial, being 
received in the discoidal cellule, but almost touchinsf the trans- 
verse basal ; and therefore differs from the typical Braconina 
in which it is completely interstitial. In other respects the 
species is a typical fphiaulax. 

iii. — Head, thorax and fore legs red \ the wings yellow at the 
base, hyaline at the apex, 

Iphiaulax crassitai'sis, sp. nov. 

Head, thorax, anterior legs, the greater part of the middle 
emora and tibiae and the scape of the antennae, ferruginous ; the 
as«l half of the fore wings yellowish hyaline, the apical clear 
yaline, the hinder wings fuscous, hyaline at the apex ; abdomen 
short, ovate, broader than the thorax, closely, but not very dis- 
inctly or strongly longitudinally striated. 9 . 

Jour. StraiU Bnuich 




Length 8 mm.; terebra r> mm. 

Hab. Kucbing:. 

.Scape of antennw fully three times longer than wide ; its 
apes below aharply projectiog ; the 3rd joint is distinctly longer 
than the Ith. Face punctured; the clypeus convex ; ita l»ae 
rounded ; Ita apex below obliquely depressed ; the labrum is dis- 
tinctly seen below it, and is rounded at the apex. Vertex deeply 
depressed and with a deep furrow in tbe middle. Temples oblique- 
ly narrowed. The petjole rises straight from tbe base and forms 
an angle with the second segment; its base, in the centre, is 
rufous, its apex closely, rugosely longitudinally striated. The 
plate on the second segment is Hmootb and shining; it is large, 
its length slightly longer than tbe width at the base ; it becomes 
gradually narrowed towards the apex wiih the aides curved at 
the apex ; there is no keel issuing from it; tbe lateral furrows 
are straight, wide, moderately deep and oblique. Suturiform 
articulation crenulated; its apical lateral furrows wide, shallow ; 
there is an indistinct furrow on the apex of the segment ; and 
a more distinct, crenulated one on the apex of the 3rd. 4th 
and 5th segments; the a[Mcal segments are clearly separated at 
the edges. Legs stouter than usual, the hinder pair having the 
titnee and tarsi distinctly thickened ; they are thickly pilose ; the 
pile on the front of the middle tibite li rufous : the basal joint of 
the hinder tarsi is thickened. The 2nd abscissa of the radiuM is 
slightly shorter than the apical ; the 2ad transverse cutntal 
ner\'ure is faint ; the stigma is shorter and Iwoader than usual. 

iv. Entirely liilrons, the wings fuscous, gellow "I th< bnsr. 
Iphiaulur iiintangensis, sp. nov. 

Lut«ou8, the head and mesonotum paler ; the back of the 
abdomen suffused with black ; the wings fuscous, the base to 
the transverse basal nervuro, and a cloud in tbe tst cubital 
cellule yellowish-hyaline ; a small hyaline spot below the bottom 
of the 1st transverse cutntal nervure ; the stigma black, nar- 
rowly yellow at the base ; the keel on the 2Dd se^'ment is not 
much dilated at the base, becomes gradually narrowt^l and ex- 
tends to the apex. 9 . 

Uab. Matang, 2800 feet. 


ADtennffi longer than the body, entirely black, the acapt 
somewhat more than twice longer than broad, not dilated ; t 
8rd and 4th joints equal in lengUi. Clypeus rounded on the top, 
narrow. Front not much depressed, furrowed in the centre. 
The 3 lobes of the meaonotum are largely fuscous. The raised 
central part of the petiole is not much longer than broad ; is 
rugosely punctured on the top, its lateral slopes amnuth, brown- 
ish and bearing 3 keels in the centre ; the lateral furrows are 
wide and dtep: the sides alx)ve are furrowed and striated. 
The Sod segment on either side of the keel is widely reticulated ; 
the aides at the base are depressed and bear curved stout stria-. 
The suturiforni articulation ia wide and striatal : the furrow on 
the base of the ;trd ini smooth ; on the 4th closely crenulated,^ 
the apical 2 se^meute are amooth. 


tnhtarm, sp. nov. 

Luteous, the head more yellowish in tint, the 3rd and 
following segments black, their apices pale yellow ; the apes of 
the hinder tibiiu and of the joints of the hinder tarsi, black ; the 
winga fuacoua from the transverse basal nervure, behind it_ 
yellow ; the basal half of the hinder winga yellow ; the stigD 
black, with a small yellow spot on the base; the ante 
black. $. 

Length U-12; terebra i) mm. 

Hab. Kuching. 

Scape of antenna.' about 4 times longer than broad : the 3 
joint slightly, but distinctly, longer than the 4th. Face and ctj^_ 
peus rugose ; the face broadly raised in the centre and with it 
depression near the apex, wliere it has au oblique slope ; the 
top of the clypeus is transverae, its sides rounded. Centre of 
petiole coarsely, longitudinally punctured; the aidea on the 
inner tide at the apex, transversely striated. The 2nd segment 
is closely rugosely punctured; in the centre longitudinally 
striat«id ; in length the plate ia about twice the length of the 
width at the baae ; it becomes gradually narrowed, and a narrow 
keel runs from it to beyond the middle of the segment ; the 
part bordering the sides of the plate ia depressed and is stoutly 
transversely striated. The suturiform articulation and the fnr- 
.Iniir StniM BtmiqJ 



rows on the 3rd and 1th segments are crenulated. The 2ad ab- 
9cisaa of the radius is distinctly shorter than the 3rd, 

The raised central part of the 2nd abdominal segment is 
large and has straight sides, it being therefore of equal width ; 
the lateral furrows are closely striated ; and are wide at the 
base. The abdomen is slightly longer than the head and thorax 
united : it is wider than the latter and is ovate in form, 
fphianla-r Airpiiiiis, sp, nov. 

Luteous. the antenna black, yellow at the base ; the wings 

yellowish-hyaline to the transverse basal nervure, the rest dark 

fuscous, with the otigma black ; the plate on the base of the 2nd 

abdominal segmeuf not clearly defined, not narrowed towards 

apes and rugosely pnnctured. 2 . 

Length 9 mm. terebra 3 mm. 

Hab. Kuching. 

Ant«nna> longer than the body, the scape rufous, black on 
the middle above, about twice longer than wide ; the 3rd aad 
4th joints are equal in length. Face closely rugose, keeled below 
the antennte : the clypeus rounded on the top. Median segment 
thickly covered with white hair. The central part of the petiole 
is rugosely punctured ; it becomes narrowed towards the apex 
which is rounded. Second segment stoutly Irregularly striated 
to near the apex ; the striae are more or less twisted ; the sides 
are broadly depressed and are finely striated. Suturiform arti- 
culatiou wide, deep and crenulated : the 4th and 5th segments 
have distinct crcnulat^i furrows on the l»se; there are also 
transverse furrows on the a^Mces of the 3rd, 4th and 5th seg- 
ments. The ahealhs of the ovipositor are black and covered 
with black haii'. The :^nd abacisst of the radius Is perceptibly 
shorter than the 3rd ; the 2nd abscissa of the cubitus is slightly 
shorter than the 3rd. 

Ipliiaula^ ameiti-it, sp. nor. 
Lut«ous, a broad curved black mark across the ocellar re- 
gion extending to the eyes, the basal 4 dorsal s«^gment« of the 
abdomen more or less black : the wings yellowish-hyaline to 
the transverse basal nervure and on the hind wings to npar the 
middle, the rest fu.scous-black ; the basal third of t^e stigma yeU 



low; there is a cloud in the 1st cubital cellule which extends fi 
near the top. at the base, ta the lower apical corner and abo' 
extends alon^ the top to the apex ; the plate on the base of the 
2nd segment extends to the centre and becomes gradually nar- 
rowed, the basal live segments of the abdomen are closely Iod- 
gitudinally atriated; the abdomen ovate, not longer than tlii 
thorax and wider than it. 9 • 

Length 11 mm., terebra 8 mm. 

Hab. Kuching, 

Antennre longer than the body, black, theflagellum brown- 
ish beneaih towards the apes; the 3rd and 4th joint